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RFC 2746 - RSVP Operation Over IP Tunnels


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Network Working Group                                          A. Terzis
Request for Comments: 2746                                          UCLA
Category: Standards Track                                    J. Krawczyk
                                               ArrowPoint Communications
                                                           J. Wroclawski
                                                                 MIT LCS
                                                                L. Zhang
                                                                    UCLA
                                                            January 2000

                     RSVP Operation Over IP Tunnels

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes an approach for providing RSVP protocol
   services over IP tunnels. We briefly describe the problem, the
   characteristics of possible solutions, and the design goals of our
   approach. We then present the details of an implementation which
   meets our design goals.

1.  Introduction

   IP-in-IP "tunnels" have become a widespread mechanism to transport
   datagrams in the Internet. Typically, a tunnel is used to route
   packets through portions of the network which do not directly
   implement the desired service (e.g. IPv6), or to augment and modify
   the behavior of the deployed routing architecture (e.g. multicast
   routing, mobile IP, Virtual Private Net).

   Many IP-in-IP tunneling protocols exist today.  [IP4INIP4] details a
   method of tunneling using an additional IPv4 header.  [MINENC]
   describes a way to reduce the size of the "inner" IP header used in
   [IP4INIP4] when the original datagram is not fragmented.  The generic
   tunneling method in [IPV6GEN] can be used to tunnel either IPv4 or
   IPv6 packets within IPv6.  [RFC1933] describes how to tunnel IPv6

   datagrams through IPv4 networks.  [RFC1701] describes a generic
   routing encapsulation, while [RFC1702] applies this encapsulation to
   IPv4.  Finally, [ESP] describes a mechanism that can be used to
   tunnel an encrypted IP datagram.

   From the perspective of traditional best-effort IP packet delivery, a
   tunnel behaves as any other link. Packets enter one end of the
   tunnel, and are delivered to the other end unless resource overload
   or error causes them to be lost.

   The RSVP setup protocol [RFC2205] is one component of a framework
   designed to extend IP to support multiple, controlled classes of
   service over a wide variety of link-level technologies. To deploy
   this technology with maximum flexibility, it is desirable for tunnels
   to act as RSVP-controllable links within the network.

   A tunnel, and in fact any sort of link, may participate in an RSVP-
   aware network in one of three ways, depending on the capabilities of
   the equipment from which the tunnel is constructed and the desires of
   the operator.

      1. The (logical) link may not support resource reservation or QoS
         control at all. This is a best-effort link. We refer to this as
         a best-effort or type 1 tunnel in this note.
      2. The (logical) link may be able to promise that some overall
         level of resources is available to carry traffic, but not to
         allocate resources specifically to individual data flows.  A
         configured resource allocation over a tunnel is an example of
         this.  We refer to this case as a type 2 tunnel in this note.
      3. The (logical) link may be able to make reservations for
         individual end-to-end data flows.  We refer to this case as a
         type 3 tunnel. Note that the key feature that distinguishes
         type 3 tunnels from type 2 tunnels is that in the type 3 tunnel
         new tunnel reservations are created and torn down dynamically
         as end-to-end reservations come and go.

   Type 1 tunnels exist when at least one of the routers comprising the
   tunnel endpoints does not support the scheme we describe here. In
   this case, the tunnel acts as a best-effort link. Our goal is simply
   to make sure that RSVP messages traverse the link correctly, and the
   presence of the non-controlled link is detected, as required by the
   integrated services framework.

   When the two end points of the tunnel are capable of supporting RSVP
   over tunnels, we would like to have proper resources reserved along
   the tunnel.  Depending on the requirements of the situation, this
   might mean that  one client's data flow is placed into a larger
   aggregate reservation  (type 2 tunnels) or that possibly a new,

   separate reservation is made for the data flow (type 3 tunnels).
   Note that an RSVP reservation between the two tunnel end points does
   not necessarily mean that all the intermediate routers along the
   tunnel path support RSVP, this is equivalent to the case of an
   existing end-to-end RSVP session transparently passing through non-
   RSVP cloud.

   Currently, however, RSVP signaling over tunnels is not possible.
   RSVP packets entering the tunnel are encapsulated with an outer IP
   header that has a protocol number other than 46 (e.g. it is 4 for
   IP-in-IP encapsulation) and do not carry the Router-Alert option,
   making them virtually "invisible" to RSVP routers between the two
   tunnel endpoints.  Moreover, the current IP-in-IP encapsulation
   scheme adds only an IP header as the external wrapper. It is
   impossible to distinguish between packets that use reservations and
   those that don't, or to differentiate packets belonging to different
   RSVP Sessions while they are in the tunnel, because no distinguishing
   information such as a UDP port is available in the encapsulation.

   This document describes an IP tunneling enhancement mechanism that
   allows RSVP to make  reservations across all IP-in-IP tunnels. This
   mechanism is capable of supporting both type 2 and type 3 tunnels, as
   described above, and requires minimal changes to both RSVP and other
   parts of the integrated services framework.

2.  The Design

2.1.  Design Goals

   Our design choices are motivated by several goals.

      * Co-existing with most, if not all, current IP-in-IP tunneling
        schemes.
      * Limiting the changes to the RSVP spec to the minimum possible.
      * Limiting the necessary changes to only the two end points of a
        tunnel.  This requirement leads to simpler deployment, lower
        overhead in the intermediate routers, and less chance of failure
        when the set of intermediate routers is modified due to routing
        changes.
      * Supporting correct inter-operation with RSVP routers that have
        not been upgraded to handle RSVP over tunnels and with non-RSVP
        tunnel endpoint routers. In these cases, the tunnel behaves as a
        non-RSVP link.

2.2.  Basic Approach

   The basic idea of the method described in this document is to
   recursively apply RSVP over the tunnel portion of the path. In this
   new session, the tunnel entry point Rentry sends PATH messages and
   the tunnel exit point Rexit sends RESV messages to reserve resources
   for the end-to-end sessions over the tunnel.

   We discuss next two different aspects of the design: how to enhance
   an IP-in-IP tunnel with RSVP capability, and how to map end-to-end
   RSVP sessions to a tunnel session.

2.2.1.  Design Decisions

   To establish a RSVP reservation over a unicast IP-in-IP tunnel, we
   made the following design decisions:

   One or more Fixed-Filter style unicast reservations between the two
   end points of the tunnel will be used to reserve resources for
   packets traversing the tunnel. In the type 2 case, these reservations
   will be configured statically by a management interface. In the type
   3 case, these reservations will be created and torn down on demand,
   as end-to-end reservation requests come and go.

   Packets that do not require reservations are encapsulated in the
   normal way, e. g. being wrapped with an IP header only, specifying
   the tunnel entry point as source and the exit point as destination.

   Data packets that require resource reservations within a tunnel must
   have some attribute other than the IP addresses visible to the
   intermediate routers, so that the routers may map the packet to an
   appropriate reservation.  To allow intermediate routers to use
   standard RSVP filterspec handling, we choose to encapsulate such data
   packets by prepending an IP and a UDP header, and to use UDP port
   numbers to distinguish packets of different RSVP sessions. The
   protocol number in the outer IP header in this case will be UDP.

   Figure 1 shows RSVP operating over a tunnel. Rentry is the tunnel
   entry router which encapsulates data into the tunnel.  Some number of
   intermediate routers forward the data across the network based upon
   the encapsulating IP header added by Rentry.  Rexit is the endpoint
   of the tunnel.  It decapsulates the data and forwards it based upon
   the original, "inner" IP header.

     ...........             ...............            .............
               :   _______   :             :   _____    :
               :  |       |  :             :  |     |   :
     Intranet  :--| Rentry|===================|Rexit|___:Intranet
               :  |_______|  :             :  |_____|   :
     ..........:             :   Internet  :            :...........
                             :..............
                          |___________________|

                 Figure 1.  An example IP Tunnel

2.2.2.  Mapping between End-to-End and Tunnel Sessions

   Figure 2 shows a simple topology with a tunnel and a few hosts. The
   sending hosts H1 and H3 may be one or multiple IP hops away from
   Rentry; the receiving hosts H2 and H4 may also be either one or
   multiple IP hops away from Rexit.

             H1                                          H2
             :                                            :
             :                                            :
         +--------+     +---+     +---+     +---+     +-------+
         |        |     |   |     |   |     |   |     |       |
   H3... | Rentry |===================================| Rexit |.....  H4
         |        |     |   |     |   |     |   |     |       |
         +--------+     +---+     +---+     +---+     +-------+

            Figure 2: An example end-to-end path with
                      a tunnel in the middle.

   An RSVP session may be in place between endpoints at hosts H1 and H2.
   We refer to this session as the "end-to-end" (E2E for short) or
   "original" session, and to its PATH and RESV messages as the end-to-
   end messages.  One or more RSVP sessions may be in place between
   Rentry and Rexit to provide resource reservation over the tunnel. We
   refer to these as the tunnel RSVP sessions, and to their PATH and
   RESV messages as the tunnel or tunneling messages.  A tunnel RSVP
   session may exist independently from any end-to-end sessions.  For
   example through network management interface one may create a RSVP
   session over the tunnel to provide QoS support for data flow from H3
   to H4, although there is no end-to-end RSVP session between H3 and
   H4.

   When an end-to-end RSVP session crosses a RSVP-capable tunnel, there
   are two cases to consider in designing mechanisms to support an end-
   to-end reservation over the tunnel: mapping the E2E session to an
   existing tunnel RSVP session (type 2 tunnel), and dynamically
   creating a new tunnel RSVP session for each end-to-end session (type

   3 tunnel).  In either case, the picture looks like a recursive
   application of RSVP.  The tunnel RSVP session views the two tunnel
   endpoints as two end hosts with a unicast Fixed-Filter style
   reservation in between.  The original, end-to-end RSVP session views
   the tunnel as a single (logical) link on the path between the
   source(s) and destination(s).

   Note that in practice a tunnel may combine type 2 and type 3
   characteristics. Some end-to-end RSVP sessions may trigger the
   creation of new tunnel sessions, while others may be mapped into an
   existing tunnel RSVP session. The choice of how an end-to-end session
   is treated at the tunnel is a matter of local policy.

   When an end-to-end RSVP session crosses a RSVP-capable tunnel, it is
   necessary to coordinate the actions of the two RSVP sessions, to
   determine whether or when the tunnel RSVP session should be created
   and torn down, and to correctly transfer error and ADSPEC information
   between the two RSVP sessions.  We made the following design
   decision:

      * End-to-end RSVP control messages being forwarded through a
        tunnel are encapsulated in the same way as normal IP packets,
        e.g. being wrapped with the tunnel IP header only, specifying
        the tunnel entry point as source and the exit point as
        destination.

2.3.  Major Issues

   As IP-in-IP tunnels are being used more widely for network traffic
   management purposes, it is clear we must support type 2 tunnels
   (tunnel reservation for aggregate end-to-end sessions).  Furthermore,
   these type 2 tunnels should allow more than one (configurable,
   static) reservation to be used at once, to support different traffic
   classes within the tunnel. Whether it is necessary to support type 3
   tunnels (dynamic per end-to-end session tunnel reservation) is a
   policy issue that should be left open.  Our design supports both
   cases.

   If there is only one RSVP session configured over a tunnel, then all
   the end-to-end RSVP sessions (that are allowed to use this tunnel
   session) will be bound to this configured tunnel session.  However
   when more than one RSVP session is in use over an IP tunnel, a second
   design issue is how the association, or binding, between an original
   RSVP reservation and a tunnel reservation is created and conveyed
   from one end of the tunnel to the other. The entry router Rentry and
   the exit router Rexit must agree on these associations so that

   changes in the original reservation state can be correctly mapped
   into changes in the tunnel reservation state, and that errors
   reported by intermediate routers to the tunnel end points can be
   correctly transformed into errors reported by the tunnel endpoints to
   the end-to-end RSVP session.

   We require that this same association mechanism work for both the
   case of bundled reservation over a tunnel (type 2 tunnel), and the
   case of one-to-one mapping between original and tunnel reservations
   (type 3 tunnel). In our scheme the association is created when a
   tunnel entry point first sees an end-to-end session's RESV message
   and either sets up a new tunnel session, or adds to an existing
   tunnel session.  This new association must be conveyed to Rexit, so
   that Rexit can reserve resources for the end-to-end sessions inside
   the tunnel. This information includes the identifier and certain
   parameters of the tunnel session, and the identifier of the end-to-
   end session to which the tunnel session is being bound. In our
   scheme, all RSVP sessions between the same two routers Rentry and
   Rexit will have identical values for source IP address, destination
   IP address, and destination UDP port number. An individual session is
   identified primarily by the source port value.

   We identified three possible choices for a binding mechanism:

      1. Define a new RSVP message that is exchanged only between two
         tunnel end points to convey the binding information.
      2. Define a new RSVP object to be attached to end-to-end PATH
         messages at Rentry, associating the end-to-end session with one
         of the tunnel sessions. This new object is interpreted by Rexit
         associating the end-to-end session with one of the tunnel
         sessions generated at Rentry.
      3. Apply the same UDP encapsulation to the end-to-end PATH
         messages as to data packets of the session.  When Rexit
         decapsulates the PATH message, it deduces the relation between
         the source UDP port used in the encapsulation and the RSVP
         session that is specified in the original PATH message.

   The last approach above does not require any new design.  However it
   requires additional resources to be reserved for PATH messages (since
   they are now subject to the tunnel reservation).  It also requires a
   priori knowledge of whether Rexit supports RSVP over tunnels by UDP
   encapsulation.  If Rentry encapsulates all the end-to-end PATH
   messages with the UDP encapsulation, but Rexit does not understand
   this encapsulation, then the encapsulated PATH messages will be lost
   at Rexit.

   On the other hand, options (1) and (2) can handle this case
   transparently.  They allow Rexit to pass on end-to-end PATHs received
   via the tunnel (because they are decapsulated normally), while
   throwing away the tunnel PATHs, all without any additional
   configuration.  We chose Option (2) because it is simpler.  We
   describe this object in the following section.

   Packet exchanges must follow the following constraints:

      1. Rentry encapsulates and sends end-to-end PATH messages over the
         tunnel to Rexit where they get decapsulated and forwarded
         downstream.
      2. When a corresponding end-to-end RESV message arrives at Rexit,
         Rexit encapsulates it and sends it to Rentry.
      3. Based on some or all of the information in the end-to-end PATH
         messages, the flowspec in the end-to-end RESV message and local
         policies, Rentry decides if and how to map the end-to-end
         session to a tunnel session.
      4. If the end-to-end session should be mapped to a tunnel session,
         Rentry either sends a PATH message for a new tunnel session or
         updates an existing one.
      5. Rentry sends a E2E Path containing a SESSION_ASSOC object
         associating the end-to-end session with the tunnel session
         above.  Rexit records the association and removes the object
         before forwarding the Path message further.
      6. Rexit responds to the tunnel PATH message by sending a tunnel
         RESV message, reserving resources inside the tunnel.
      7. Rentry UDP-encapsulates arriving packets only if a
         corresponding tunnel session reservation is actually in place
         for the packets.

2.3.1.  SESSION_ASSOC Object

   The new object, called SESSION_ASSOC, is defined with the following
   format:

    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |          length               |  class        |     c-type    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    |          SESSION object  (for the end-to-end session)         |
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    |           Sender FILTER-SPEC (for the tunnel session)         |
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                           SESSION_ASSOC Object

   Length

      This field contains the size of the SESSION_ASSOC object in bytes.

   Class

      Should be 192.

   Ctype

      Should be sent as zero and ignored on receipt.

   SESSION object

      The end-to-end SESSION contained in the object is to be mapped to
      the tunnel session described by the Sender FILTER-SPEC defined
      below.

   Sender FILTER-SPEC

      This is the tunnel session that the above mentioned end-to-end
      session maps to over the tunnel. As we mentioned above, a tunnel
      session is identified primarily by source port. This is why we use
      a Sender Filter-Spec for the tunnel session, in the place of a
      SESSION object.

2.3.2.  NODE_CHAR Object

   There has to be a way (other than through configuration) for Rexit to
   communicate to Rentry the fact that it is a tunnel endpoint
   supporting the scheme described in this document. We have defined for
   this reason a new object, called NODE_CHAR, carrying this
   information. If a node receives this object but does not understand
   it, it should drop it without producing any error report. Objects
   with Class-Num = 10bbbbbb (`b' represents a bit), as defined in the
   RSVP specification [RFC2205], have the characteristics we need. While
   for now this object only carries one bit of information, it can be
   used in the future to describe other characteristics of an RSVP
   capable node that are not part of the original RSVP specification.

   The object NODE_CHAR has the following format:

    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |          length               |  class        |     c-type    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                         Reserved                            |T|
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length

      This field contains the size of the NODE_CHAR object in bytes. It
      should be set to eight.

   Class

      An appropriate value should be assigned by the IANA. We propose
      this value to be 128.

   Ctype

      Should be sent as zero and ignored on receipt.

   T bit

      This bit shows that the node is a RSVP-tunnel capable node.

   When Rexit receives an end-to-end reservation, it appends a NODE_CHAR
   object with the T bit set, to the RESV object, it encapsulates it and
   sends it to Rentry. When Rentry receives this RESV message it deduces
   that Rexit implements the mechanism described here and so it creates
   or adjusts a tunnel session and associates the tunnel session to the
   end-to-end session via a SESSION_ASSOC object. Rentry should remove
   the NODE_CHAR object, before forwarding the RESV message upstream. If

   on the other hand, Rentry does not support the RSVP Tunnels mechanism
   it would simply ignore the NODE_CHAR object and not forward it
   further upstream.

3.  Implementation

   In this section we discuss several cases separately, starting from
   the simplest scenario and moving to the more complex ones.

3.1.  Single Configured RSVP Session over an IP-in-IP Tunnel

   Treating the two tunnel endpoints as a source and destination host,
   one easily sets up a FF-style reservation in between.  Now the
   question is what kind of filterspec to use for the tunnel
   reservation, which directly relates to how packets get encapsulated
   over the tunnel.  We discuss two cases below.

3.1.1.  In the Absence of End-to-End RSVP Session

   In the case where all the packets traversing a tunnel use the
   reserved resources, the current IP-in-IP encapsulation could be used.
   The RSVP session over the tunnel would simply specify a FF style
   reservation (with zero port number) with Rentry as the source address
   and Rexit as the destination address.

   However if only some of the packets traversing the tunnel should
   benefit from the reservation, we must encapsulate the qualified
   packets in IP and UDP. This allows intermediate routers to use
   standard RSVP filterspec handling, without having to know about the
   existence of tunnels.

   Rather than supporting both cases we choose to simplify
   implementations by requiring all data packets using reservations to
   be encapsulated with an outer IP and UDP header. This reduces special
   case checking and handling.

3.1.2.  In the Presence of End-to-End RSVP Session(s)

   According to the tunnel control policies, installed through some
   management interface, some or all end-to-end RSVP sessions may be
   allowed to map to the single RSVP session over the tunnel.  In this
   case there is no need to provide dynamic binding information between
   end-to-end sessions and the tunnel session, given that the tunnel
   session is unique and pre-configured, and therefore well-known.

   Binding multiple end-to-end sessions to one tunnel session, however,
   raises a new question of when and how the size of the tunnel
   reservation should be adjusted to accommodate the end-to-end sessions

   mapped onto it.  Again the tunnel manager makes such policy decision.
   Several scenarios are possible. In the first, the tunnel reservation
   is never adjusted. This makes the tunnel the rough equivalent of a
   fixed-capacity hardware link. In the second, the tunnel reservation
   is adjusted whenever a new end-to-end reservation arrives or an old
   one is torn down. In the third, the tunnel reservation is adjusted
   upwards or downwards occasionally, whenever the end-to-end
   reservation level has changed enough to warrant the adjustment. This
   trades off extra resource usage in the tunnel for reduced control
   traffic and overhead.

   We call a tunnel whose reservation cannot be adjusted a "hard pipe",
   as opposed to a "soft pipe" where the amount of resources allocated
   is adjustable. Section 5.2 explains how the adjustment can be carried
   out for soft pipes.

3.2.  Multiple Configured RSVP Sessions over an IP-in-IP Tunnel

   It is straightforward to build on the case of a single configured
   RSVP session over a tunnel by setting up multiple FF-style
   reservations between the two tunnel endpoints using a management
   interface.  In this case Rentry must carefully encapsulate data
   packets with the proper UDP port numbers, so that packets belonging
   to different tunnel sessions will be distinguished by the
   intermediate RSVP routers.  Note that this case and the one described
   before describe what we call type 2 tunnels.

3.2.1.  In the Absence of End-to-End RSVP Session

   Nothing more needs to be said in this case. Rentry classifies the
   packets and encapsulates them accordingly. Packets with no
   reservations are encapsulated with an outer IP header only, while
   packets qualified for reservations are encapsulated with a UDP header
   as well as an IP header. The UDP source port value should be properly
   set to map to the corresponding tunnel reservation the packet is
   supposed to use.

3.2.2.  In the Presence of End-to-End RSVP Session(s)

   Since in this case, there is more than one RSVP session operating
   over the tunnel, one must explicitly bind each end-to-end RSVP
   session to its corresponding tunnel session.  As discussed
   previously, this binding will be provided by the new SESSION_ASSOC
   object carried by the end-to-end PATH messages.

3.3.  Dynamically Created Tunnel RSVP Sessions

   This is the case of a type 3 tunnel. The only differences between
   this case and that of Section 4.2 are that:

      - The tunnel session is created when a new end-to-end session
        shows up.
      - There is a one-to-one mapping between the end-to-end and tunnel
        RSVP sessions, as opposed to possibly many-to-one mapping that
        is allowed in the case described in Section 4.2.

4.  RSVP Messages handling over an IP-in-IP Tunnel

4.1.  RSVP Messages for Configured Session(s) Over A Tunnel

   Here one or more RSVP sessions are set up over a tunnel through a
   management interface.  The session reservation parameters never
   change for a "hard pipe" tunnel. The reservation parameters may
   change for a "soft pipe" tunnel. Tunnel session PATH messages
   generated by Rentry are addressed to Rexit, where they are processed
   and deleted.

4.2.  Handling of RSVP Messages at Tunnel Endpoints

4.2.1.  Handling End-to-End PATH Messages at Rentry

   When forwarding an end-to-end PATH message, a router acting as the
   tunnel entry point, Rentry, takes the following actions depending on
   the end-to-end session mentioned in the PATH message. There are two
   possible cases:

      1. The end-to-end PATH message is a refresh of a previously known
         end-to-end session.
      2. The end-to-end PATH message is from a new end-to-end session.

   If the PATH message is a refresh of a previously known end-to-end
   session, then Rentry refreshes the Path state of the end-to-end
   session and checks to see if this session is mapped to a tunnel
   session. If this is the case, then when Rentry refreshes the end-to-
   end session, it includes in the end-to-end PATH message a
   SESSION_ASSOC object linking this session to its corresponding tunnel
   session It then encapsulates the end-to-end PATH message and sends it
   over the tunnel to Rexit. If the tunnel session was dynamically
   created, the end-to-end PATH message serves as a refresh for the
   local tunnel state at Rentry as well as for the end-to-end session.

   Otherwise, if the PATH message is from a new end-to-end session that
   has not yet been mapped to a tunnel session, Rentry creates Path
   state for this new session setting the outgoing interface to be the
   tunnel interface. After that, Rentry encapsulates the PATH message
   and sends it to Rexit without adding a SESSION_ASSOC message.

   When an end-to-end PATH TEAR is received by Rentry, this node
   encapsulates and forwards the message to Rexit. If this end-to-end
   session has a one-to-one mapping to a tunnel session or if this is
   the last one of the many end-to-end sessions mapping to a tunnel
   session, Rentry tears down the tunnel session by sending a PATH TEAR
   for that session to Rexit. If, on the other hand, there are remaining
   end-to-end sessions mapping to the tunnel session, then Rentry sends
   a tunnel PATH message adjusting the Tspec of the tunnel session.

4.2.2.  Handling End-to-End PATH Messages at Rexit

   Encapsulated end-to-end PATH messages are decapsulated and processed
   at Rexit. Depending on whether the end-to-end PATH message contains a
   SESSION_ASSOC object or not, Rexit takes the following steps:

      1. If the end-to-end PATH message does not contain a SESSION_ASSOC
         object, then Rentry sets the Non_RSVP flag at the Path state
         stored for this end-to-end sender, sets the global break bit in
         the ADSPEC and forwards the packets downstream. Alternatively,
         if tunnel sessions exist and none of them has the Non_RSVP flag
         set, Rexit can pick the worst-case Path ADSPEC params from the
         existing tunnel sessions and update the end-to-end ADSPEC using
         these values. This is a conservative estimation of the composed
         ADSPEC but it has the benefit of avoiding to set the break bit
         in the end-to-end ADSPEC before mapping information is
         available. In this case the Non_RSVP flag at the end-to-end
         Path state is not set.

      2. If the PATH message contains a SESSION_ASSOC object and no
         association for this end-to-end session already exists, then
         Rexit records the association between the end-to-end session
         and the tunnel session described by the object. If the end-to-
         end PATH arrives early before the tunnel PATH message arrives
         then it creates PATH state at Rexit for the tunnel session.
         When the actual PATH message for the tunnel session arrives it
         is treated as an update of the existing PATH state and it
         updates any information missing. We believe that this situation
         is another transient along with the others existing in RSVP and
         that it does not have any long-term effects on the correct
         operation of the mechanism described here.

         Before further forwarding the message to the next hop along the
         path to the destination, Rexit finds the corresponding tunnel
         session's recorded state and turns on Non_RSVP flag in the
         end-to-end Path state if the Non_RSVP bit was turned on for the
         tunnel session.  If the end-to-end PATH message carries an
         ADSPEC object, Rexit performs composition of the
         characterization parameters contained in the ADSPEC. It does
         this by considering the tunnel session's overall (composed)
         characterization parameters as the local parameters for the
         logical link implemented by the tunnel, and composing these
         parameters with those in the end-to-end ADSPEC by executing
         each parameter's defined composition function. In the logical
         link's characterization parameters, the minimum path latency
         may take into account the encapsulation/decapsulation delay and
         the bandwidth estimate can represent the decrease in available
         bandwidth caused by the addition of the extra UDP header.
         ADSPECs and composition functions are discussed in great detail
         in [RFC2210].

         If the end-to-end session has reservation state, while no
         reservation state for the matching tunnel session exists, Rexit
         send a tunnel RESV message to Rentry matching the reservation
         in the end-to-end session.

   If Rentry does not support RSVP tunneling, then Rexit will have no
   PATH state for the tunnel. In this case Rexit simply turns on the
   global break bit in the decapsulated end-to-end PATH message and
   forwards it.

4.2.3.  Handling End-to-End RESV Messages at Rexit

   When forwarding a RESV message upstream, a router serving as the exit
   router, Rexit, may discover that one of the upstream interfaces is a
   tunnel.  In this case the router performs a number of tests.

   Step 1: Rexit must determine if there is a tunnel session bound to
   the end-to-end session given in the RESV message.  If not, the tunnel
   is treated as a non-RSVP link, Rexit appends a NODE_CHAR object with
   the T bit set, to the RESV message and forwards it over the tunnel
   interface (where it is encapsulated as a normal IP datagram and
   forwarded towards Rentry).

   Step 2: If a bound tunnel session is found, Rexit checks to see if a
   reservation is already in place for the tunnel session bound to the
   end-to-end session given in the RESV message. If the arriving end-
   to-end RESV message is a refresh of existing RESV state, then Rexit
   sends the original RESV through tunnel interface (after adding the
   NODE_CHAR object). For dynamic tunnel sessions, the end-to-end RESV

   message acts as a refresh for the tunnel session reservation state,
   while for configured tunnel sessions, reservation state never
   expires.

   If the arriving end-to-end RESV message causes a change in the end-
   to-end RESV flowspec parameters, it may also trigger an attempt to
   change the tunnel session's flowspec parameters.  In this case Rexit
   sends a tunnel session RESV, including a RESV_CONFIRM object.

   In the case of a "hard pipe" tunnel, a new end-to-end reservation or
   change in the level of resources requested by an existing reservation
   may cause the total resource level needed by the end-to-end
   reservations to exceed the level of resources reserved by the tunnel
   reservation. This event should be treated as an admission control
   failure, identically to the case where RSVP requests exceed the level
   of resources available over a hardware link. A RESV_ERR message with
   Error Code set to 01 (Admission Control failure), should be sent back
   to the originator of the end-to-end RESV message.

   If a RESV CONFIRM response arrives, the original RESV is encapsulated
   and sent through the tunnel. If the updated tunnel reservation fails,
   Rexit must send a RESV ERR to the originator of the end-to-end RESV
   message, using the error code and value fields from the ERROR_SPEC
   object of the received tunnel session RESV ERR message. Note that the
   pre-existing reservations through the tunnel stay in place. Rexit
   continues refreshing the tunnel RESV using the old flowspec.

   Tunnel session state for a "soft pipe" may also be adjusted when an
   end-to-end reservation is deleted.  The tunnel session gets reduced
   whenever one of the end-to-end sessions using the tunnel goes away
   (or gets reduced itself). However even when the last end-to-end
   session bound to that tunnel goes away, the configured tunnel session
   remains active, perhaps with a configured minimal flowspec.

   Note that it will often be appropriate to use some hysteresis in the
   adjustment of the tunnel reservation parameters, rather than
   adjusting the tunnel reservation up and down with each arriving or
   departing end-to-end reservation.  Doing this will require the tunnel
   exit router to keep track of the resources allocated to the tunnel
   (the tunnel flowspec) and the resources actually in use by end-to-end
   reservations (the sum or statistical sum of the end-to-end
   reservation flowspecs) separately.

   When an end-to-end RESV TEAR is received by Rexit, it encapsulates
   and forwards the message to Rentry. If the end-to-end session had
   created a dynamic tunnel session, then a RESV TEAR for the
   corresponding tunnel session is send by Rexit.

4.2.4.  Handling of End-to-End RESV Messages at Rentry.

   If the RESV message received is a refresh of an existing reservation
   then Rentry updates the reservation state and forwards the message
   upstream. On the other hand, if this is the first RESV message for
   this end-to-end session and a NODE_CHAR object with the T bit set is
   present, Rentry should initiate the mapping between this end-to-end
   session and some (possibly new) tunnel session. This mapping is based
   on some or all of the contents of the end-to-end PATH message, the
   contents of the end-to-end RESV message, and local policies. For
   example, there could be different tunnel sessions based on the
   bandwidth or delay requirements of end-to-end sessions)

   If Rentry decides that this end-to-end session should be mapped to an
   existing configured tunnel session, it binds this end-to-end session
   to that tunnel session.

   If this end-to-end RSVP session is allowed to set up a new tunnel
   session, Rentry sets up tunnel session PATH state as if it were a
   source of data by starting to send tunnel-session PATH messages to
   Rexit, which is treated as the unicast destination of the data. The
   Tspec in this new PATH message is computed from the original PATH
   message by adjusting the Tspec parameters to include the tunnel
   overhead of the encapsulation of data packets. In this case Rentry
   should also send a PATH message from the end-to-end session this time
   containing the SESSION_ASSOC object linking the two sessions. The
   receipt of this PATH message by Rexit will trigger an update of the
   end-to-end Path state which in turn will have the effect of Rexit
   sending a tunnel RESV message, allocating resources inside the
   tunnel.

   The last case is when the end-to-end session is not allowed to use
   the tunnel resources. In this case no association is created between
   this end-to-end session and a tunnel session and no new tunnel
   session is created.

   One limitation of our scheme is that the first RESV message of an
   end-to-end session determines the mapping between that end-to-end
   session and its corresponding session over the tunnel. Moreover as
   long as the reservation is active this mapping cannot change.

5.  Forwarding Data

   When data packets arrive at the tunnel entry point Rentry, Rentry
   must decide whether to forward the packets using the normal IP-in-IP
   tunnel encapsulation or the IP+UDP encapsulation expected by the
   tunnel session.  This decision is made by determining whether there
   is a resource reservation (not just PATH state) actually in place for
   the tunnel session bound to the arriving packet, that is, whether the
   packet matches any active filterspec.

   If a reservation is in place, it means that both Rentry and Rexit are
   RSVP-tunneling aware routers, and the data will be correctly
   decapsulated at Rexit.

   If no tunnel session reservation is in place, the data should be
   encapsulated in the tunnel's normal format, regardless of whether
   end-to-end PATH state covering the data is present.

6.  Details

6.1.  Selecting UDP port numbers

   There may be multiple end-to-end RSVP sessions between the two end
   points Rentry and Rexit. These sessions are distinguished by the
   source UDP port. Other components of the session ID, the source and
   destination IP addresses and the destination UDP port, are identical
   for all such sessions.

   The source UDP port is chosen by the tunnel entry point Rentry when
   it establishes the initial PATH state for a new tunnel session. The
   source UDP port associated with the new session is then conveyed to
   Rexit by the SESSION_ASSOC object.

   The destination UDP port used in tunnel sessions should the one
   assigned by IANA (363).

6.2.  Error Reporting

   When a tunnel session PATH message encounters an error, it is
   reported back to Rentry. Rentry must relay the error report back to
   the original source of the end-to-end session.

   When a tunnel session RESV request fails, an error message is
   returned to Rexit. Rexit must treat this as an error in crossing the
   logical link (the tunnel) and forward the error message back to the
   end host.

6.3.  MTU Discovery

   Since the UDP encapsulated packets should not be fragmented, tunnel
   entry routers must support tunnel MTU discovery as discussed in
   section 5.1 of [IP4INIP4]. Alternatively, the Path MTU Discovery
   mechanism discussed in RFC 2210 [RFC2210] can be used.

6.4.  Tspec and Flowspec Calculations

   As multiple End-to-End sessions can be mapped to a single tunnel
   session, there is the need to compute the aggregate Tspec of all the
   senders of those End-to-End sessions. This aggregate Tspec will the
   Tspec of the representative tunnel session. The same operation needs
   to be performed for flowspecs of End-to-End reservations arriving at
   Rexit.

   The semantics of these operations are not addressed here.  The
   simplest way to do them is to compute a sum of the end-to-end Tspecs,
   as is defined in the specifications of the Controlled-Load and
   Guaranteed services (found at [RFC2211] and [RFC2212] respectively).
   However, it may also be appropriate to compute the aggregate
   reservation level for the tunnel using a more sophisticated
   statistical or measurement-based computation.

7.  IPSEC Tunnels

   In the case where the IP-in-IP tunnel supports IPSEC (especially ESP
   in Tunnel-Mode with or without AH) then the Tunnel Session uses the
   GPI SESSION and GPI SENDER_TEMPLATE/FILTER_SPEC as defined in
   [RSVPESP] for the PATH and RESV messages.

   Data packets are not encapsulated with a UDP header since the SPI can
   be used by the intermediate nodes for classification purposes.
   Notice that user oriented keying must be used between Rentry and
   Rexit, so that different SPIs are assigned to data packets that have
   reservation and "best effort" packets, as well as packets that belong
   to different Tunnel Sessions if those are supported.

8.  RSVP Support for Multicast and Multipoint Tunnels

   The mechanisms described above are useful for unicast tunnels.
   Unicast tunnels provide logical point-to-point links in the IP
   infrastructure, though they may encapsulate and carry either unicast
   or multicast traffic between those points.

   Two other types of tunnels may be imagined.  The first of these is a
   "multicast" tunnel.  In this type of tunnel, packets arriving at an
   entry point are encapsulated and transported (multicast) to -all- of
   the exit points.  This sort of tunnel might prove useful for
   implementing a hierarchical multicast distribution network, or for
   emulating efficiently some portion of a native multicast distribution
   tree.

   A second possible type of tunnel is the "multipoint" tunnel. In this
   type of tunnel, packets arriving at an entry point are normally
   encapsulated and transported to -one- of the exit points, according
   to some route selection algorithm.

   This type of tunnel differs from all previous types in that the '
   shape' of the usual data distribution path does not match the 'shape'
   of the tunnel.  The topology of the tunnel does not by itself define
   the data transmission function that the tunnel performs.  Instead,
   the tunnel becomes a way to express some shared property of the set
   of connected tunnel endpoints.  For example, the "tunnel" may be used
   to create and embed a logical shared broadcast network within some
   larger network.  In this case the tunnel endpoints are the nodes
   connected to the logical shared broadcast network.  Data traffic may
   be unicast between two such nodes, broadcast to all connected nodes,
   or multicast between some subset of the connected nodes.  The tunnel
   itself is used to define a domain in which to manage routing and
   resource management - essentially a virtual private network.

   Note that while a VPN of this form can always be implemented using a
   multicast tunnel to emulate the broadcast medium, this approach will
   be very inefficient in the case of wide area VPNs, and a multipoint
   tunnel with appropriate control mechanisms will be preferable.

   The following paragraphs provide some brief commentary on the use of
   RSVP in these situations. Future versions of this note will provide
   more concrete details and specifications.

   Using RSVP to provide resource management over a multicast tunnel is
   relatively straightforward. As in the unicast case, one or more RSVP
   sessions may be used, and end-to-end RSVP sessions may be mapped onto
   tunnel RSVP sessions on a many-to-one or one-to-one basis. Unlike the
   unicast, case, however, the mapping is complicated by RSVP's
   heterogeneity semantics. If different receivers have made different
   reservation requests, it may be that the RESV messages arriving at
   the tunnel would logically map the receiver's requests to different
   tunnel sessions. Since the data can actually be placed into only one
   session, the choice of session must be reconciled (merged) to select
   the one that will meet the needs of all applications. This requires a
   relatively simple extension to the session mapping mechanism.

   Use of RSVP to support multipoint tunnels is somewhat more difficult.
   In this case, the goal is to give the tunnel as a whole a specific
   level of resources. For example, we may wish to emulate a "logical
   shared 10 megabit Ethernet" rather than a "logical shared Ethernet".
   However, the problem is complicated by the fact that in this type of
   tunnel the data does not always go to all tunnel endpoints. This
   implies that we cannot use the destination address of the
   encapsulated packets as part of the packet classification filter,
   because the destination address will vary for different packets
   within the tunnel.

   This implies the need for an extension to current RSVP session
   semantics in which the Session ID (destination IP address) is used
   -only- to identify the session state within network nodes, but is not
   used to classify packets.  Other than this, the use of RSVP for
   multipoint tunnels follows that of multicast tunnels. A multicast
   group is created to represent the set of nodes that are tunnel
   endpoints, and one or more tunnel RSVP sessions are created to
   reserve resources for the encapsulated packets. In the case of a
   tunnel implementing a simple VPN, it is most likely that there will
   be one session to reserve resources for the whole VPN. Each tunnel
   endpoint will participate both as a source of PATH messages and a
   source of (FF or SE) RESV messages for this single session,
   effectively creating a single shared reservation for the entire
   logical shared medium. Tunnel endpoints MUST NOT make wildcard
   reservations over multipoint tunnels.

9.  Extensions to the RSVP/Routing Interface

   The RSVP specification [RFC2205] states that through the RSVP/Routing
   Interface, the RSVP daemon must be able to learn the list of local
   interfaces along with their IP addresses. In the RSVP Tunnels case,
   the RSVP daemon needs also to learn which of the local interface(s)
   is (are) IP-in-IP tunnel(s) having the capabilities described here.
   The RSVP daemon can acquire this information, either by directly
   querying the underlying network and physical layers or by using any
   existing interface between RSVP and the routing protocol properly
   extended to provide this information.

10.  Security Considerations

   The introduction of RSVP Tunnels raises no new security issues other
   than those associated with the use of RSVP and tunnels. Regarding
   RSVP, the major issue is the need to control and authenticate access
   to enhanced qualities of service. This requirement is discussed
   further in [RFC2205]. [RSVPCRYPTO] describes the mechanism used to
   protect the integrity of RSVP messages carrying the information
   described here.  The security issues associated with IP-in-IP tunnels
   are discussed in [IPINIP4] and [IPV6GEN].

11.  IANA Considerations

   IANA should assign a Class number for the NODE_CHAR object defined in
   Section 3.3.2. This number should be in the 10bbbbbb range. The
   suggested value is 128.

12.  Acknowledgments

   We thank Bob Braden for his insightful comments that helped us to
   produce this updated version of the document.

13.  References

   [ESP]        Atkinson, R., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
                RFC 1827, August 1995.

   [IP4INIP4]   Perkins, C., "IP Encapsulation within IP", RFC 2003,
                October 1996.

   [IPV6GEN]    Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
                IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, December 1998.

   [MINENC]     Perkins, C., "Minimal Encapsulation within IP", RFC
                2004, October 1996.

   [RFC1701]    Hanks, S., Li, T., Farinacci, D. and P. Traina, "Generic
                Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 1701, October 1994.

   [RFC1702]    Hanks, S., Li, T., Farinacci, D. and P. Traina, "Generic
                Routing Encapsulation over IPv4 Networks", RFC 1702,
                October 1994.

   [RFC1933]    Gilligan, R. and E. Nordmark, "Transition Mechanisms for
                IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 1933, April 1996.

   [RFC2210]    Wroclawski, J., "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
                Services", RFC 2210, September 1997.

   [RFC2211]    Wroclawski, J., "Specification of the Controlled-Load
                Network Element Service", RFC 2211, September 1997.

   [RFC2212]    Shenker, S., Partridge, C. and R. Guerin, "Specification
                of the Guaranteed Quality of Service", RFC 2212,
                September 1997.

   [RFC2205]    Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S. and S.
                Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version
                1 Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.

   [RSVPESP]    Berger, L. and T. O'Malley, "RSVP Extensions for IPSEC
                Data Flows", RFC 2207, September 1997.

   [RSVPCRYPTO] Baker, F., Lindell, B. and M. Talwar, "RSVP
                Cryptographic Authentication", RFC 2747, January 2000.

14.  Authors' Addresses

   John Krawczyk
   ArrowPoint Communications
   50 Nagog Park
   Acton, MA 01720

   Phone: 978-206-3027
   EMail:  jj@arrowpoint.com

   John Wroclawski
   MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
   545 Technology Sq.
   Cambridge, MA  02139

   Phone: 617-253-7885
   Fax:   617-253-2673
   EMail: jtw@lcs.mit.edu

   Lixia Zhang
   UCLA
   4531G Boelter Hall
   Los Angeles, CA  90095

   Phone: 310-825-2695
   EMail: lixia@cs.ucla.edu

   Andreas Terzis
   UCLA
   4677 Boelter Hall
   Los Angeles, CA 90095

   Phone: 310-267-2190
   EMail: terzis@cs.ucla.edu

15.  Full Copyright Statement

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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

 

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