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RFC 1941 - Frequently Asked Questions for Schools


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Network Working Group                                         J. Sellers
Request for Comments: 1941                   Sterling Software/NASA IITA
FYI: 22                                                     J. Robichaux
Obsoletes: 1578                                                 InterNIC
Category: Informational                                         May 1996

                 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   The goal of this FYI document, produced by the Internet School
   Networking (ISN) group in the User Services Area of the Internet
   Engineering Task Force (IETF), is to act as an introduction to the
   Internet for faculty, administration, and other school personnel in
   primary and secondary schools. The intended audience is educators who
   are recently connected to the Internet, who are accessing the
   Internet by some means other than a direct connection, or who are
   just beginning to consider Internet access as a resource for their
   schools.  Although the Internet Engineering Task Force is an
   international organization and this paper will be valuable to
   educators in many countries, it is limited in focus to
   internetworking in the United States.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................  2
   2. Acknowledgments................................................  3
   3. Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting.........  3
   4. Questions About Getting the Internet into the School...........  7
   5. Questions About Using Internet Services........................ 17
   6. Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, & Collaboration. 21
   7. Questions About Security and Ethics............................ 25
   8. Suggested Reading.............................................. 29
   9. Resources and Contacts......................................... 31
   10. References.................................................... 50
   11. Security Considerations....................................... 51
   12. Authors' Addresses............................................ 51
   Appendix A: Glossary of Terms Used in this Document............... 52
   Appendix B: Ways to Get Requests for Comments (RFCs).............. 60
   Appendix C: Examples of Educational Projects Using the Internet... 61

1.  Introduction

   As more and more schools begin using technology to achieve
   educational goals, access to the worldwide network of computer
   networks known as the Internet is expanding. Help for schools in the
   form of printed materials, electronic resources, and people is also
   expanding. The Internet School Networking (ISN) group of the Internet
   Engineering Task Force (IETF) remains committed to articulating the
   advantages of Internet connections for schools and providing
   solutions to the challenges schools face in getting connected. The
   FYI (For Your Information) series, which is a subset of the IETF-
   produced RFCs (Requests for Comments) is one way to achieve these
   goals. (See Appendix A, "Glossary of Terms Used in This Document" for
   further explanation of "FYI" and "RFC.")

   While the IETF and ISN are international groups, the authors of this
   document are experienced only in bringing the Internet to schools in
   the United States. We are aware that culture and the national economy
   effect how one views the issues surrounding school networking. (To
   give just one example, in the United States, educational reform is an
   important reason for schools to get connected to the Internet. Other
   countries may not have the same incentive to transform the teacher's
   role to more of a guide toward knowledge and less of a sole provider
   of information.) So, while this document may have a U.S. flavor, we
   feel that the focus will not prevent it from being useful to those in
   other countries!

   Some of the questions educators have about the Internet are of a more
   general nature, and for those we recommend reading FYI 4, "Answers to
   Commonly Asked 'New Internet User' Questions." (For information on
   how to get this and other IETF documents of interest to the general
   Internet user, See Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs.")

   Remember that the Internet is a changing environment. Although we
   have tried to include only the most stable of network services and
   contacts, you may still find that something listed is unavailable or
   has changed.  The positive side of this constant change is that you
   will discover much on your own, and some of what you discover will be
   new since the writing of this document.

   This is an update of an earlier document (FYI 22/RFC 1578, "Answers
   to Commonly Asked 'Primary and Secondary School Internet User'
   Questions"), and renders that document obsolete. If future updates
   are produced, the RFC number will change again, and the FYI number
   (22) will remain the same.

2.  Acknowledgments

   In addition to Ronald Elliott, Klaus Fueller, Raymond Harder, Ellen
   Hoffman, William Manning, April Marine, Michael Newell, and Anthony
   Rutkowski, all of whom contributed to the first version of this
   document, we would like to thank Sepideh Boroumand, Sandy Dueck, Jeff
   Gong, Bill Grenoble, Pat Kaspar, Ed Klein, Yermo Lamers, Gary Malkin,
   April Marine, Michael Newell, and Jan Wee for their invaluable
   suggestions and contributions to this version. Thanks also to Nathan
   Hickson for checking each of the entries in the formidable Section 9.

3.  Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting

3.1  What is the Internet?

   The Internet is a large and rapidly growing worldwide network
   comprised of smaller computer networks, all linked by a common
   protocol, that enables computers of different types to exchange
   information. The networks are owned by countless commercial,
   research, government, and education organizations and individuals.
   The Internet allows the almost 5 million computers [1] and countless
   users of the system to collaborate easily and quickly either in pairs
   or in groups. Users are able to discover and access people and
   information, distribute information, and experiment with new
   technologies and services. The Internet has become a major global
   infrastructure used for education, research, professional learning,
   public service, and business.

   There is a confusing variety of types of Internet access. These types
   of access are distinguished either by the services one can use
   (telnet, Gopher, FTP or File Transfer Protocol, World Wide Web) or by
   the technology underlying the access (the protocol, or rules the
   computers must follow in order to communicate with one another). The
   Internet is most clearly defined by its technology, but other
   technologies now offer access to many of the same Internet services,
   most notably electronic mail and the World Wide Web. The most
   important question for a user today is probably not "Am I on the
   Internet?" but "Do I have access to the Internet services I want?"
   See Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet Services," for further
   discussion of telnet, Gopher, FTP, the World Wide Web, and electronic
   mail.

   While there is no official governing body of the Internet, the
   Internet Society serves as the international organization for
   Internet cooperation and coordination. See Section 9, "Resources and
   Contacts" for Internet Society contact information.

   For a more complete basic introduction to the Internet, see FYI 20,
   "What is the Internet?" cited in Section 8, "Suggested Reading." For
   information on how to retrieve FYI documents produced by the Internet
   Engineering Task Force, see Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs."

3.2  What are the benefits of using the Internet in the classroom?

   The Internet is an exciting classroom resource. It expands the
   classroom dramatically by delivering information, data, images, and
   even computer software from places otherwise impossible to reach, and
   it does this almost instantly. This access to up-to-the-minute
   information can make a student's education more relevant. Some of
   these materials are original sources which are too expensive or in
   other ways difficult for schools to own. Some information is news
   unfiltered by mass media, requiring students to critically assess its
   content and value.

   But the Internet is not strictly a place from which to gather
   something.  It is also a place to communicate, to make contact with
   people all over the world. The Internet brings into the classroom
   experts in every content area, new and old friends, and colleagues in
   education. And it allows students and teachers to leave the classroom
   by sharing ideas with people far away. The isolation inherent in the
   teaching profession is well-known among educators. By having Internet
   access to colleagues in other parts of the world, as well as to those
   who work outside of classrooms, educators are not as isolated.

   Your site can become a valuable source of information as well.
   Consider the expertise in your school which could be shared with
   others around the world. For guidance in finding schools with a
   presence on the Internet, see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

   Use of the Internet shifts focus away from a teacher-as-expert model
   and toward one of shared responsibility for learning, making it a
   vital part of school reform. Many reform efforts attempt to move away
   from teacher isolation and toward teacher collaboration, away from
   learning in a school-only context and toward learning in a life
   context, away from an emphasis on knowing and toward an emphasis on
   learning, away from a focus on content and toward a focus on concepts
   [2]. The Internet can play an integral part in helping to achieve
   these shifts, since it is well-suited for use as a project resource.
   Information on the Internet, as in the rest of the world outside the
   classroom, is not divided into separate disciplines such as geometry,
   writing, geography, or painting.

   As a hands-on classroom tool, the use of the Internet encourages the
   kind of independence and autonomy that many educators agree is
   important to the learning process. Internet use itself can also be a

   motivator for students. Additionally, because class, race, ability,
   and disability are removed as factors in communication while using
   the Internet, it is a natural tool for addressing the needs of all
   students.

   There are a number of resources you can use to convince others of the
   benefits of the Internet in the classroom. The NASA IITA (National
   Aeronautics and Space Administration Information Infrastructure
   Technology and Applications) K-12 Internet Initiative has produced an
   11-minute video describing the benefits to schools in using the
   Internet.  Its title is "Global Quest: The Internet in the
   Classroom." Another video appropriate for a mixed audience of
   stakeholders is "Experience the Power: Network Technology for
   Education," produced by the National Center for Education Statistics
   in the U.S. Department of Education. Several articles appearing in
   various periodicals make a strong case for using the Internet in the
   classroom. A particularly good one by Al Rogers of the Global
   SchoolNet Foundation is called, "Global Literacy in a Gutenberg
   Culture." Student essays can also give compelling testimony.  For
   information on the Rogers article, see Section 8, "Suggested
   Reading." Some student essays can be found on NASA's Quest server
   listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," as can information on
   the videos.

3.3  Will using the Internet replace teachers?

   Just as textbooks, periodicals, videos, guest speakers, and field
   trips are often used to support a curriculum, the Internet can be
   used as a tool for teaching and learning. This does not mean that it
   must be the sole instructional method in a classroom. Teachers will
   remain responsible for making educated and informed decisions about
   the best way to use the Internet as a tool, just as they do with
   other materials used in the classroom. They can also use the Internet
   to individualize student learning, making a student's classroom
   experiences more relevant.

3.4  Will this technology replace books?

   There is room in any school for all kinds of materials and resources.
   Books and other print materials will certainly continue to be
   important.  Internet resources have the advantage of tying together
   information from all over the globe, making them useful research
   tools. As mentioned before, they can also provide up-to-the-minute
   information and are therefore particularly relevant. In addition, you
   may be able to engage an expert in a dialog that clarifies or updates
   what you find in published materials.

   One factor to consider is that much of the material published on the
   Internet lacks the authority imputed by an established publishing
   house or a reputable author, and may therefore be viewed as less
   reliable than books. For example, an encyclopedia or almanac found in
   a school library might reasonably be accepted as valid without
   question, while a source found on the Internet may require a more
   critical look. However, lack of authority is not always a negative.
   Reading an account of the fall of the Berlin Wall by a student in the
   local region the day it happened can be valuable even if the student
   is not a reputable author. Moreover, while it's true that with
   Internet materials it becomes increasingly important to evaluate
   where they came from, one of the hallmarks of a good education is the
   ability to assess information critically, whether the source be
   print, television, or some other media.

3.5  How can use of the Internet be integrated into the existing
     curriculum?

   This is a key question. In order for the Internet to be used
   successfully in schools, it must be employed as a tool to teach
   content and to reach educational goals that have already been
   established. It cannot be seen as an end in itself.

   Individual teachers will first need to become familiar enough with
   the Internet to know how to do at least two things: find information
   on topics they consider important and locate people with like
   educational goals.  Sections 5 and 6, "Questions About Using Internet
   Services" and "Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, and
   Collaboration" will give you some ideas about how to begin.

   Once they are familiar with how to find content on the Internet, most
   teachers can decide how to use Internet resources to help their
   students meet goals. For example, science teachers often teach about
   hurricanes and other weather phenomena in the normal course of
   instruction. With Internet access they can use information and
   satellite data pertaining to the most recent storm to make their
   points, rather than outdated examples from textbooks.

   When teachers become familiar with finding other people on the
   Internet, some of them already grouped into network "communities" of
   interest, they can gain experience in using the Internet from
   educators who have been using it longer; they can join existing
   projects, contribute to the evolution of proposed projects, and
   propose their own projects; and they can ask for and give help to
   solve problems in the classroom ranging from the content they teach,
   to addressing students as individuals, to mastering effective
   discipline.

   Internet access supports project-based learning. A teacher in an
   individual classroom can use the data and information available on
   the Internet as a resource for classroom projects, and there are also
   a variety of projects which take place over the Internet in more than
   one classroom at a time. A project may be initiated by any educator
   with an idea. A popular example of an educator-initiated project is
   one which requires data to be collected from diverse sites around the
   world or at least around the country. For example, together students
   in various locations have tracked butterfly and bird migrations,
   compared bodies of water, and measured the north-south circumference
   of the Earth. Various organizations also run projects in which
   schools can participate. Among the many groups which have invited
   schools to participate in projects with a focus on a specific topic
   are the Global SchoolNet Foundation, The European Schools Project,
   the International Educational and Research Network (I*EARN), and
   groups associated with such federal agencies as the Department of
   Energy, the United States Geological Survey, and the National
   Aeronautics and Space Administration.

   The Internet can also be used for peer review of student materials;
   as a medium for publishing student newspapers, art exhibits, and
   science fairs; and in a global email pen-pal program for the
   discussion of classroom topics.

   It cannot be stressed enough that the key factor these Internet uses
   have in common is that they are supporting classroom curriculum, not
   defining it.

   Learning about the Internet and how to use it is an important goal
   for any school's Internet program, but in the classroom, the message
   needs to be emphasized over the medium.

   There are several sources of material for discussing curriculum
   infusion, including mailing lists, World Wide Web sites, and archives
   of sample lesson plans. Most of the mail lists, Internet computers,
   and organizations in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," address
   infusion of technology into the curriculum. See also Appendix C,
   "Examples of Educational Projects Using the Internet."

4.  Questions About Getting the Internet into the School

4.1  How much does it cost to connect to the Internet, and what kind of
     equipment does my school need to support the Internet connection?

   The cost of an Internet connection varies tremendously with the
   location of your site and the kind of connection that is appropriate
   to your needs.  In order to determine the cost to your school, you
   will need to answer a number of questions. For help in learning what

   the questions are and getting answers to them, begin asking at local
   colleges, universities, technology companies, government agencies,
   community networks (often called "FreeNets"), local electronic
   bulletin board systems (BBS), Internet access providers, or
   technology consultants. See also Question 4.6.

   To give you an idea of possible cost and equipment needs, think of
   four groups of Internet users. We will call them basic individual
   users, advanced individual users, school networks, and school
   district networks.

   How you approach acquiring service depends on which category you feel
   best describes your needs. This discussion is based on experiences in
   the United States. (For more information on the Internet services
   you'll be reading about in this section, see Section 5, "Questions
   About Using Internet Services.")

   Basic users are individuals who want to access common Internet
   services such as the World Wide Web, Gopher, and email. There are two
   types of basic users: those who plan to be online for a few hours per
   week, and those who plan to be online for many hours per day.

   Basic individual users who require access to common Internet services
   such as Web pages, FTP sites, and email for only a few hours per week
   may be best served by one of the nationwide online services such as
   America Online, CompuServe, or Prodigy. These services have the
   advantage of providing the user with a simple setup and easy,
   graphics-based access screens which hide the complex commands
   required by some Internet services. They also provide value-added
   services not available via the general Internet, such as access to
   news magazines and encyclopedias.  Hardware required is generally a
   standard Windows-based PC or Macintosh and a 14.4 kilobits per second
   (Kbs) or higher modem. At the time of this writing, prices typically
   run around $10 per month for the first 5 hours of connect time, and
   $2-4 per hour thereafter.

   Basic individual users who access common Internet services for many
   hours per day should consider a "shell" account from a local Internet
   Service Provider (ISP). Shell accounts generally provide access to a
   Unix computer which is connected to the Internet, so those choosing
   this option should be prepared to learn a few Unix commands. Shell
   account users will get all the standard Internet services but at a
   cheaper rate, generally in the $30 per month range for 6 hours per
   day access plus $1-2 per hour for extra hours. Most shell account
   vendors do not provide nationwide access, and shell accounts do not
   have graphical user interfaces, so you cannot use Web browsers such
   as Netscape and Mosaic.  While you may be able to use Lynx, a text-
   based browser, some ISPs do not install it on their computer servers.

   Many FreeNets also offer shell account access gratis, but they may
   not be able to offer much support.

   In the United States, there are a number of statewide educational
   networks, most of them with access to the Internet. To find out if
   there is a state education network in your area which gives basic
   user accounts to educators and/or students, contact the Consortium
   for School Networking (CoSN) or consult the document "Getting US
   Educators Online"  by Linda Conrad, listed in Section 8, "Suggested
   Reading."

   Advanced individual users are those who want graphical user
   interfaces to Internet services and who may want to use their
   computers to offer services to other Internet users. For example,
   they may want to create Web pages for others to access or put files
   online for others to retrieve. If you are an advanced user, you might
   consider getting a Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to
   Point Protocol (PPP) account from an Internet Service Provider. The
   interface is similar to that of nationwide online services available
   to basic users, but the performance is better and the cost is less
   for someone who wants to use the service for more than just a few
   hours per week.

   Setting up a SLIP or PPP account requires configuration and
   installation of Internet and SLIP/PPP software. Some ISPs only
   provide the software, some will install the software for you, and
   some preconfigure the software and send it on disk, with instructions
   to the user, via postal mail.  Again, hardware required is generally
   a standard Windows-based PC or Macintosh and a 14.4 Kbs or higher
   modem. Costs are generally comparable to basic shell accounts, but
   for 24-hour connections expect to pay $100 or more per month.

   If in your school you plan to have more than a few individual
   Internet users, you will need to consider a network with a high-speed
   dedicated line connected to the Internet. This school network is
   probably a small- or medium-sized network in a single building or a
   very few geographically close buildings. It may include only one or
   several LANs.

   Most high speed connectivity is provided through a dedicated leased
   line, which is a permanent connection between two points. This allows
   you to have a high quality permanent Internet connection at all
   times. Most leased lines are provided by a telephone company, a cable
   television company, or a private network provider and cost $200 per
   month or more.  Typically the connection from your LAN or LANs is a
   digital leased line with a Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit
   (CSU/DSU) which costs between $600 and $1000. Less frequently, the
   connection is an analog leased line with a modem which costs between

   $200 and $800. You will also need a router which costs roughly $1500.
   This is a substantially more difficult setup to manage. After you
   have determined the ways in which you believe you will use Internet
   access, you should contact several ISPs in your area and compare
   prices and services.

   School district networks are even more complex. If you have several
   locations which require connectivity, you should contact several ISPs
   and get bids for the service.

   The ISP world is changing very rapidly, especially at the low end. At
   the time of the first edition of this document, local ISPs were rare,
   small, and fairly expensive. At the time of this writing ISPs abound,
   offering a wide variety of services at reasonable prices.
   Additionally, several groups are working on low-cost solutions to
   school networking. Subscribe to the mail lists in Section 9,
   "Resources and Contacts," to keep abreast of new developments.

   "Getting US Educators Online" and "Connecting to the Internet: An
   O'Reilly Buyer's Guide" by Susan Estrada are both listed in Section
   8, "Suggested Reading." Other books about the Internet and how to get
   connected to it are available and new ones are being published. Check
   libraries, bookstores, and booksellers' catalogs. Two lists of
   Internet providers available via the World Wide Web can be found in
   Section 9, "Resources and Contacts" along with the Consortium for
   School Networking.  The global regional Network Information Centers
   (NICs) such as the Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre
   (RIPE NCC) in Europe can also provide a list of service providers.
   The Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) in the Pacific
   Rim will have a similar list in the near future. These two NICs are
   listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

4.2  What are the other costs associated with having Internet access?

   When budgeting for your school's Internet connection there are a
   number of factors to consider that might not seem immediately
   obvious. Technical support and training will incur additional ongoing
   costs, even if those costs show up only as someone's time. Equipment
   will need to be maintained and upgraded as time passes, and even when
   all teachers have received basic Internet training, they will most
   likely have questions as they explore and learn more on their own. A
   general rule for budget planning is this: for every dollar you spend
   on hardware and software, plan to spend three dollars to support the
   technology and those using it.

   It will be necessary for your school to have some technical expertise
   on-site. (See also Question 4.4.) Your network access provider may
   offer training and support for technical issues, and other groups

   also offer formal classes and seminars. If your school has designated
   technical personnel, they will be good candidates for such classes
   and seminars. If your school does not have designated technical
   personnel, a teacher or other staff member with a strong interest may
   take on the task of becoming the local expert, but a better solution
   is to have someone dedicated to this at least part time. Students can
   help local experts maintain equipment and do other tasks, which
   allows them to learn new skills at the same time.

   Training is an equally significant component to deployment of the
   Internet in schools. Most teachers learn about the Internet during
   the time they use to learn about any new teaching tool, which often
   means they "steal" time at lunch, on weekends, and before and after
   school to explore resources and pursue relationships via the
   Internet. When a school is committed to providing the Internet as an
   educational resource, the administration will make in-service time
   available. It will also ensure that someone at the school is
   sufficiently knowledgeable to field questions and help people as they
   risk trying new ways of teaching using Internet resources. Again,
   some students make excellent tutors.

   Some technical support and a variety of training materials can be
   found by using the Internet itself. You can send questions to people
   in the know and join discussion lists and news groups that discuss
   and answer questions about support and training. The Edtech mail list
   is one such list. Some World Wide Web sites offer technical support
   information.  Videos also help bridge the information gap. See
   Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for a preliminary listing of
   these resources. Your local community may also have resources. These
   include colleges and universities, businesses, computer clubs and
   user groups, technology consultants, and government agencies.

4.3  How can my school afford access to the Internet?

   Although school budgets are impossibly tight in most cases, the cost
   of an Internet connection can be squeezed from the budget when its
   value becomes apparent. Costs for a low-end connection can be
   reasonable. (See the next question.) The challenge facing those
   advocating an Internet connection sometimes has less to do with the
   actual cost than it has with the difficulty of convincing
   administrators to spend money on an unfamiliar resource.

   In order to move the Internet connection closer to the top of your
   school's priority list, consider at least two possibilities. First,
   your school may be in the process of reform, as are many schools. As
   mentioned earlier, use of the Internet supports reform efforts, so
   framing Internet access as a component to systemic reform may help to
   persuade some people.  Second, to convince people of the value of a

   connection, an actual Internet demonstration can be more useful than
   words. While this may sound like a chicken-and-egg situation (I need
   Internet access to get Internet access), some organizations will
   provide guest accounts on an Internet-connected computer for people
   in schools who are trying to convince others of the value of an
   Internet connection. Another way to begin using Internet services is
   to sign up for one of the popular online services such as America
   Online, CompuServe, or Prodigy. Once subscribed, you can use these
   services either from home or from school. This method is recommended
   only as way to introduce yourself and others in your school community
   to the value of the Internet. It is not a good long-term solution to
   providing Internet access for a lot of users at one site such as a
   school.

   Contact local colleges, universities, technology companies, service
   providers, community networks, and government agencies for both guest
   accounts and funding ideas. For alternatives to your own school's
   budget or for supplements to it, look for funding in federal, state,
   and district budgets as well as from private grants. Work with
   equipment vendors to provide the hardware needed at low or no cost to
   your school, and consider forming a School/Community Technology
   Committee, or a joint School District/School/Community Technology
   Committee. Also investigate the possibility of a back-door connection
   to a local college or university.  Service providers often allow
   schools to connect to higher education sites at a lower cost.

   A number of sites on the Internet provide more information about
   grants and organizations that offer them. Two in particular that you
   may find useful are Grants Web, for grant information of all kinds,
   and the Foundation Center, for information on private and nonprofit
   organizations.  For information on where to find these sites on the
   Internet, see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

4.4  What organizational structure needs to be in place in order for my
     school to have Internet access?

   Schools and school districts have devised structures that vary
   widely, depending on a school's particular requirements. In many
   schools, the librarians/media specialists guide the development of
   the network and policies on its use and serve as the top of the
   structure within the school. In other schools, an interested teacher
   becomes the driving force behind getting the Internet into the school
   and may be the most appropriate person to see the project through.
   The school administration, if not the guiding force, needs to be
   behind the plan to bring the Internet into the school. And all other
   parties who might have a stake in the development should be brought
   in as early as possible, whether or not they are knowledgeable about
   the Internet. These might include area businesses, community leaders,

   teachers with Internet access at home, the librarian or media
   specialist, parents, and anyone in the school who finds the idea of
   bringing the Internet into the school appealing. In short, any
   organizational structure will do as long as it is clear and simple
   and includes the people who might have a stake in the process of
   bringing the Internet into the school.

   One way to ensure that an organizational structure develops and that
   the right people become involved is to invite a wide variety of
   people to create a technology plan for the school. The by-product of
   technology planning can be the development of an organizational
   structure, but of course the planning is useful in itself to help
   your school define and meet goals for Internet and other technology
   use. The National Center for Technology Planning hosts a collection
   of technology plans and planning aids for people who need help, new
   ideas, or solutions as they tackle technology planning in their
   schools or districts. Information on the National Center for
   Technology Planning can be found in Section 9, "Resources and
   Contacts."

   No matter what the structure, there should be someone at the school
   who can take the lead in working with vendors and Internet Service
   Providers (ISPs). This person should be knowledgeable about - or
   willing to learn about - the technical aspects of connecting to the
   Internet, including knowledge about any networks the school already
   has in place. The lead person should have an alternate so that the
   school is not completely dependent on one person. If your school
   hires an independent consultant, someone at the school should be
   aware of everything the consultant does and should receive at least
   some training in the areas of the consultant's work.

   Another role that must be filled is that of in-house network
   administrator. Having an already busy teacher take on this role as an
   extra duty is a bad idea; a greater time commitment is needed.

4.5  What questions do I need to ask people who are selling network
     services?

   There are a number of questions you should ask. Anything you hear
   that you don't understand must be questioned. If a vendor knows the
   product and the process well, he or she should be able to explain in
   terms you can understand.

   You should also ask any kind of vendor how available they are and at
   what point they either stop helping you or begin charging by the
   hour. Get references from other customers, preferably including at
   least one school which has requirements similar to yours.

   Questions for LAN vendors:

      If the school has not yet purchased a Local Area Network (LAN),
      ask the LAN vendor how the product will interact with TCP/IP.
      (TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
      Protocol, the technology which forms the basis of the Internet.)
      If necessary, arrange a meeting with the LAN vendor, the ISP, and
      any consultants that may be involved.

      Make a list of the school's requirements, including security, the
      number of computers on the LAN which will have Internet access,
      and the Internet services you want students and teachers to be
      able to use. (See Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet
      Services," for an introduction to the services.) Ask the vendors
      if they can provide services that will meet your requirements.

   Questions for Internet Service Providers:

      In general, ask the ISP what services are included with your
      purchase of Internet connectivity.

      Will they terminate the circuit in a router and leave you to your
      own resources to take care of the "LAN side" of the connection?

      Will they provide a primary domain name server for you?

      Will they register your domain name with the InterNIC?

      Are they providing you with all the IP addresses you need?

      Will they help you with security issues?

      Do they provide a newsfeed or a newsreading service? (Do you know
      the difference?)

      If they agree to do some work on the LAN side, what is the extent
      of that work? (Configure individual computers? Handle subnetting
      and routing issues?)

      Will they answer questions from your network administrator?

      Will a dedicated computer be needed as an Internet server for such
      things as domain name service, the World Wide Web, Gopher, and
      FTP?

      Do they provide any training sessions for your staff and are these
      sessions included in the connectivity price?

      Do they offer any other classes or seminars and are these included
      in the connectivity price?

      Does the ISP do their own training or do they contract to someone
      else, and if the latter, who is it? Check references on any
      contractors.

      Questions for Internet Service Providers furnishing dial-in
      service:

      There are some specific questions you should ask of an ISP who is
      providing dial-in connections. (See Question 4.7 for a further
      discussion on dialing in from home.)

      What is the charge per minute for connectivity?

      Is SLIP or PPP connectivity available?

      Will the ISP be providing software which allows you to use
      Internet services such as email and the World Wide Web or will
      they help you obtain it?

      Will they help you install it?

      Ask for references of other clients using dial-in service and when
      you check them, one of the questions to ask other customers is if
      they encounter lots of busy signals. (You can also check this
      yourself by trying the access provider's dial-in number at various
      times during the day. Just dial it by phone and see how many busy
      signals you get.)

4.6  How many of our computers should have Internet access and where
     in the school should they be located?

   You should make Internet access possible for as many of your school's
   computers as possible. Ideally, you have computers located throughout
   the school - in classrooms, the library, and laboratories - and they
   are all connected together with printers and other peripherals in one
   or more LANs. In that case, you acquire one dedicated Internet
   connection of 56 Kbs (Kilobits per second) or higher to serve the
   whole school.

   If your budget and existing computer equipment are both limited, you
   can use a dial-up service and a modem to access the Internet, but in
   most cases that will only be viable for one computer at a time. As
   use of the Internet catches on in your school, it will eventually be
   more effective for you to create the LAN with Internet access
   mentioned above than to keep adding modems in classrooms.

   If you must choose between Internet access in one lab in the school
   or Internet access for the same number of computers throughout the
   school, in order to get teachers to use the access you must make it
   available where they can most easily take advantage of it. This
   usually means that you make access available throughout the school.
   Although a computer lab is an easier maintenance set-up for the
   person in charge of keeping the equipment running and allows each
   individual (or pair) in an entire class to be using a computer at the
   same time, a computer located in the classroom is more convenient for
   both the teacher and the class. Internet resources can be more easily
   integrated into a classroom lesson, and the emphasis remains on using
   the Internet as an instructional tool. Since only one or two
   computers can usually be placed in each classroom, teachers will
   learn to allocate computer time creatively. And if you are able to
   provide only a few computers throughout the school, make sure that at
   least one of them is in the library where all students will have the
   chance to be exposed to the Internet as a resource.

   Networking all computers campus-wide can be expensive. You may want
   to investigate initially giving one lab, the library, and a few
   classrooms dial-up access, assuming phone lines are available. Even a
   connection to only one classroom as a demonstration may help you to
   garner more support for creating a campus-wide local area network
   that is routed to the Internet through a dedicated line.

4.7  Can people get on the Internet from home?

   This depends on your network access provider. It is certainly a
   possibility and is definitely desirable for the educators at your
   school.  To make it possible for teachers and other staff to dial in
   to the school network (and then out to the Internet) from home, you
   will need to employ, at the least, multiple phone lines and modems.
   Talk to your service provider about other technical requirements.

   Many teachers like to be able to learn at home as well as on school
   grounds, and having the ability to explore when they have the time is
   invaluable. One school district we know of made low-interest loans
   available to teachers so that they could buy home computers. When the
   technology was later made available in their classrooms, they already
   had some experience and were comfortable beginning to use it in day-
   to-day instruction.

   The question of whether or not to make the option to dial in from
   home available to students is more difficult. On one hand, a school
   may not be able to escape the idea that it is responsible for how
   students use the Internet access it provides, even though the school
   has no control over the home environment. On the other hand,
   particularly in high school, much schoolwork is done at home. Since

   most classrooms don't have enough computers for all students to
   access the Internet at once, it is even more likely that work will
   not be completed during class time. Having Internet access from home
   becomes more important.

   Discussion of whether or not you want to make this option available
   to students - even if it is technically possible - should involve as
   many school partners as possible, including faculty, administration,
   parents, and other community members. It might take place in a public
   forum such as a school/community meeting.

5.  Questions About Using Internet Services

   The way to find people, information, software, and anything else on
   the Internet is generally to use either printed or electronic guides
   and Internet services. In this section we will concentrate on the
   services.  (See Section 6, "Questions about Classroom Resources,
   Projects, and Collaboration," for information on guides.) We answer
   more questions about the World Wide Web than about other online
   services for three reasons.  First, the World Wide Web is the
   Internet tool coming into most prominence at the time of this
   writing. Second, many (if not all) of the other services are included
   seamlessly in the Web; that is, they're there, but you may or may not
   realize you're using them. Third, making your way around the Internet
   using the World Wide Web is easy; for people not interested in
   computers, access to the Internet and has become less frustrating.

   This is not to say that finding what you want is always simple. The
   Internet is like a vast library without a comprehensive card catalog.
   New ways to do indexing and searching are being devised and employed,
   and you'll need some time to learn how to use them.

5.1  What is the World Wide Web?

   The World Wide Web (WWW) is a project initiated by the European
   Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) located in Geneva, Switzerland
   and currently driven by the World Wide Web Consortium. When exploring
   the World Wide Web, users navigate through documents by selecting
   highlighted text that leads to another document or location. The
   highlighted text can be called a "pointer," a "link," or an "anchor."
   This navigation results in a three-dimensional exploration of
   documents instead of a flat text document. The World Wide Web
   incorporates different media into its documents, including text,
   sound, graphics, and moving images.

   The World Wide Web presents either a graphical or a text interface to
   numerous Internet resources. Not only can users access documents
   specifically designed for the Web, they can also view documents on

   Gopher servers, use FTP to download files, and launch a telnet
   session. Some World Wide Web clients also allow for the use of email
   and Usenet news.  This is an easy-to-use, nonthreatening way to
   approach the Internet, and does not require in-depth technical
   knowledge. (See Question 5.5 for a discussion of these other
   services.)

5.2  How do I connect to the World Wide Web?

   First, you will need at least a SLIP or PPP connection. (See Question
   4.1 for more information; SLIP or PPP is the "advanced individual
   user" solution described there.) Accessing the Web is like using any
   other service on the Internet: you run a client on your computer
   which accesses a server, in this case a Web server, running on
   another computer. In Web terms, the client is called a browser. The
   browser retrieves and reads documents from Web servers. Information
   providers establish Web servers for use by network users, and when
   you become proficient at using the Internet, you may want to become
   exactly that kind of information provider.

   Most Web browsers share common features. One feature is the hotlist,
   or bookmark. This allows you to mark your favorite sites. Your
   browser will store these sites and their addresses and allow you to
   revisit them later by simply selecting the name of a site from a
   menu. Another feature common to most browsers allows you to save the
   current file to your local disk.  Some browsers keep a tally of the
   sites you've visited recently and allow you to revisit them without
   typing in the location again. Every browser is different, so it pays
   to explore your own client software and learn its features through
   practice. Most people, even those with little computer experience,
   find that it's easy to learn to use a browser just by exploring on
   their own.

   Each document contained on Web servers across the Internet has a
   unique address. This is called a URL, a uniform resource locator.
   Browsers negotiate URLs just like mail software negotiates email
   addresses. Users can type in the URL for the browser to access. URLs
   are also embedded in a Web document's text, providing a seamless link
   to another location or document.

5.3  How is the World Wide Web linked?

   The Web functions as a distributed hypermedia system. The purpose of
   this system is to allow the exchange of information across the
   Internet in the form of hypertext documents called Web pages or home
   pages. Hypertext is text with pointers or links to further
   information in various formats (text, graphic, video), allowing you
   to branch off to another document for more information on a given

   topic, and then return to the same location in the original document
   with ease. Pointers in a Web document are analogous to HyperCard
   stacks or Microsoft help files in which you click on an option (a
   pointer or a link) and the program moves you to another document, or
   location.

   Documents published on the Web are constructed in hypertext markup
   language, or HTML. This is a simple language that allows you to
   format text, insert images and sound, and create links in a document.
   Tutorials on creating Web services are available at the NCSA Mosaic
   Home Page, the automatic starting place for Web exploration when
   using the Mosaic client.  There are also Web page creation resources
   listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

5.4  Where do I get a World Wide Web browser?

   The two most common graphical Web browsers at the time of this
   writing are Netscape and Mosaic. Netscape is a commercial product but
   is currently free for educational use. Mosaic is free.  Both of these
   packages are available for Macintosh, PC, and Unix platforms through
   the Internet. See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for details.

   For those users with lower-speed connections that cannot accommodate
   full graphical browsers, there is a text-based browser available for
   Unix systems called Lynx. A public-access Lynx client is accessible
   through telnet at the server of the World Wide Web Consortium, which
   is listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

   Many commercial online services, such as CompuServe, Prodigy, and
   America Online, include a Web browser as part of their offerings.
   More and more often, Web browsers are being included as part of the
   standard connection software provided by the Internet Service
   Provider.

5.5  What are the other services on the Internet?

   There are a number of other services to help you get around on the
   Internet. The most common ones are described here. For more
   information, see "EFF's (Extended) Guide to the Internet" by the
   Electronic Frontier Foundation, and "The Whole Internet User's Guide
   and Catalog" by Ed Krol, both of which are listed in Section 8,
   "Suggested Reading," in addition to the Glossary entries mentioned
   for each tool.

   Email.  Email is probably the most basic tool on the Internet. It is
   short for electronic mail and may be used in a couple of ways. You
   can send messages back and forth with just one person, or you can
   participate with a group of people who discuss topics of common

   interest. These groups are called mail lists. You join and leave the
   lists by sending email to one address, and you post messages to all
   the people on the list by sending email to a slightly different
   address. Sometimes a human does the list registration and sometimes a
   software program does it. For more information see the entries for
   email and mailing lists in the Glossary.  A list of mail lists
   related to primary and secondary education can be found in Section 9,
   "Resources and Contacts."

   Network News.  Also known as Usenet News or Net News. Reading news is
   similar to joining an email list, but instead of the messages coming
   to your mailbox, you use news reader software to read messages on a
   computer where they are accumulated. For more information see the
   entry for Usenet News in the Glossary.

   FTP.  FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, and just as the name
   implies, it allows you to transfer files from one computer to
   another. It is the name for both the protocol and the program. A
   special kind of FTP, Anonymous FTP, allows you to access the many
   public archives on the Internet. FTP is not used by itself as much as
   it used to be, since people often use Web browsers and Gopher clients
   which incorporate FTP when they want to retrieve files. For more
   information see the entries for Anonymous FTP and FTP in the
   Glossary.

   Telnet.  Telnet allows you to log into a computer somewhere else on
   the Internet and use the services there. For example, if you don't
   have a Gopher client or a Web browser, there are some public access
   sites that you can telnet to in order to use a Gopher client or a
   text-based Web browser.

   Gopher.  Gopher is a tool that lets you browse for information on the
   Internet using menus. If you know what you're looking for and have an
   idea about where to find it, Gopher can make your search easier. And
   when you have located something of interest, whether it's a document,
   a data set, or a picture, Gopher will retrieve it for you. For more
   information see the entry for Gopher in the Glossary.

   Searching and Indexing Tools.  Archie is a tool for searching FTP
   sites; Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Network Index to
   Computerized Archives, which works the same way Archie does) is a
   tool for searching Gopherspace; WAIS (Wide Area Information Service;
   pronounced "wayz") is a tool for searching indexed databases, whether
   the databases are full of numbers, text, or graphics files; and
   Yahoo, Lycos, and WebCrawler are some of the many searching and
   indexing tools available on and for the World Wide Web. For more
   information see the entries for Archie, Gopher, WAIS, WWW, and
   Veronica in the Glossary.

   Videoconferencing. At the time of this writing, schools are beginning
   to participate in conferences, meetings, and collaborative activities
   via video. The two services or applications used are Multicast
   Backbone (MBONE) and CU-SeeMe, both of which allow for desktop
   videoconferencing, or videoconferencing via computer.

   MBONE is an option for videoconferencing using several operating
   systems at the time of this writing: Unix, Windows NT, Windows 95,
   and Mac Operating System 7.5.2. It requires that your Internet
   service provider be a part of the MBONE, which depends on a
   specialized routing strategy.  Ask your service provider if they are
   equipped to support MBONE traffic.  If so, you will need to work
   fairly closely with your provider to establish working configurations
   for your network. More information on MBONE is available at the MBONE
   Information Web. (See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts.")

   CU-SeeMe, developed by Cornell University, also presents conferencing
   capabilities over an IP network. You may participate in a CU-SeeMe
   videoconference as a sender, a recipient, or both. Through use of
   reflectors, multiple sites may participate in any given conference.
   For any of these activities, you'll need a PC or a Macintosh with a
   connection to the Internet and CU-SeeMe software. Additionally, if
   you'd like to send video and audio, you will need a video camera and
   a video board in your computer. Full information on the hardware
   requirements is available at the CU-SeeMe Web site; there is also a
   mailing list for CU-SeeMe information. For guidance and discussion
   about using CU-SeeMe as an instructional tool, the Global SchoolNet
   Foundation hosts a mail list called cu-seeme-schools which announces
   opportunities for participation in CU-SeeMe events. For information
   on the Web site and mailing lists, see Section 9, "Resources and
   Contacts."

6.  Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, and Collaboration

6.1  How can I find specific projects using the Internet that are
     already developed?

   When you have learned to use some of the Internet services discussed
   in Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet Services," particularly
   the search tools, you will be able to answer that question more fully
   for yourself. In the meantime, since there are several resources on
   the Internet that are directed specifically at the primary and
   secondary school communities, here are some ideas to get you started.

   Computer Information Servers:

      Global SchoolNet.  The Global SchoolNet Foundation's World Wide
      Web site contains a wealth of valuable information and materials,
      including help setting up projects by learning what has worked
      best based on others' experience. The GSN site also contains a
      landmark registry of projects in which schools can participate.

      EdWeb.  Andy Carvin's EdWeb is an excellent source of K-12
      information.

      CoSN.  The Consortium for School Networking maintains an Internet
      server.

      NASA.  NASA's Spacelink and Quest are directed at primary and
      secondary school educators, and both house lesson plans,
      Internet-based curriculum units, and interactive projects and
      activities. Many NASA projects also maintain computer information
      servers.

      Empire Internet Schoolhouse.  The New York State Education and
      Research Network (NYSERNet) hosts the Empire Internet Schoolhouse,
      an extension of its Bridging the Gap program.

      K-12 Schools on the Internet.  Gleason Sackman of North Dakota's
      SENDIT network for K-12 educators maintains an active list of K-12
      schools on the Internet.

      National School Network Testbed.  The Bolt Beranek and Newman
      (BBN) project called the National School Network Testbed provides
      links to numerous schools and projects.

      Internet School Networking.  The Web pages for the group which
      brings you this paper contain a collection of documents and case
      studies on projects.

   Mail lists:

      Many people on electronic mailing lists such as Ednet, Kidsphere,
      and the Consortium for School Networking Discussion List post
      their projects and ask for partners and collaborators.

   News groups:

      The K12 hierarchy of Usenet News has several groups where
      educators post these invitations as well. For subscription to
      these and other electronic lists and for names of news groups see
      Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

   Conferences:

      There are also a number of conferences worth looking in to. The
      National Education Computing Conference (NECC) and Tel-Ed, both
      held annually, are conferences sponsored by the International
      Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). The Internet Society
      (INET) conference is the annual conference for the Internet
      Society. See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts" for contact
      information for these organizations.

      Specific computer information servers, mail lists, news groups,
      and conference sponsors are listed in Section 9, "Resources and
      Contacts."  A number of Web sites also provide favorite
      "bookmarks," or lists of sites for educators. Bookmarks are not
      included in Section 9, but you will quickly find them if you begin
      at any of the Web server entry points listed here.

6.2  What are some examples of how the Internet is being used in
     classrooms now?

   Projects which use the Internet sometimes request sites from all over
   the world to contribute data from the local area then compile that
   data for use by all. Weather patterns, pollutants in water or air,
   and Monarch butterfly migration are some of the data that have been
   collected over the Internet. In Appendix C, "Examples of Educational
   Projects Using the Internet," you will find several examples
   collected from various online servers and electronic mailing lists
   pertaining to education, each from a different content area and
   representing different ways of using the Internet. Some of the
   projects require only that you be able to use email, some require
   that you have access to the most advanced Internet services, and some
   offer varying levels of participation.

   There are a number of specific projects you may find interesting:

   KIDS.  KIDS is a project managed by the nonprofit KIDLINK Society. It
   includes discussion lists and services, some of them only for people
   who are ten through fifteen years old.

   Academy One. Academy One is part of the National Public Telecomputing
   Network (NPTN) and usually has a number of projects running at a
   time.

   I*EARN.  The International Education and Research Network (I*EARN), a
   project of the nonprofit Copen Family Fund, facilitates
   telecommunications in schools around the world.

   Chatback Trust.  Initiated to provide email for schools in the United
   Kingdom and around the world with students who have mental or
   physical difficulty with communicating, Chatback Trust and Chatback
   International maintain a network server that you may want to
   investigate.

   ESP.  The European Schools Project (ESP) involves approximately 200
   schools in 20 countries and has as its goal building a support system
   for secondary school educators.

   Electronic Field Trips.  The online interactive projects on NASA's
   Quest server and the JASON Project are designed especially to provide
   classroom contact with real science and scientists.

   For contact information on these groups and computer information
   servers refer to Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

6.3  Are there any guides to using the Internet in schools that list all
     these resources in one place?

   Printed guides to using the Internet in education are appearing along
   with the new books on the Internet and you can expect to see more in
   the near future. The problem with paper resource guides is that the
   Internet is a changing environment so they become outdated quickly.
   Most (like this document) try to list only the most stable resource
   sites, and even if not everything you try is available, these guides
   can be particularly helpful if you are new to the Internet. Try the
   books entitled "Education on the Internet," "Teaching with the
   Internet:  Putting Teachers Before Technology," and "Brave New
   Schools" listed in Section 8, "Suggested Reading," for a sampling of
   those available at the time of this writing.  Check bookstores,
   libraries, and booksellers' catalogs for others.

   One answer to the problem of printed Internet guides is the
   newsletter.  Two we recommend are specifically for primary and
   secondary school educators interested in networking and contain
   information on new services on the Internet that are of interest to
   educators, projects for collaboration, conferences, new books and
   publications, essays, and practical tutorials on using network tools
   and services. NetTeach News is published ten times a year and is
   available both hardcopy and via email.  Classroom Connect is
   published nine times a year. Information on subscribing and related
   online services for both newsletters can be found in Section 9,
   "Resources and Contacts."

   Internet computers which act as guides to the Internet for educators
   are, among others, BBN's Copernicus server, the Global SchoolNet
   server, NASA's Quest server, the University of Illinois College of

   Education's Learning Resource Server, and Web66. All are listed in
   Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

6.4  How can I add my own contributions to the Internet?

   In addition to sharing your knowledge and expertise on the electronic
   mail lists and news groups mentioned, as you gain experience you may
   find you have the knowledge and inclination to put up a Web page for
   your own site.  Many K-12 schools are maintaining Web pages, either
   on Web servers they set up at the school or on a computer at another
   site, to publish student projects and information about their
   schools. Gleason Sackman's Hot List of K-12 Internet School Sites and
   Web66 offer a comprehensive listing of these schools and provide
   links to their home pages. These pages may give you ideas about ways
   your school can use the World Wide Web to contribute to the K-12
   Internet community. There are also a number of sites which give
   instruction in how to publish on the Web and how to maintain Web
   sites, including Web66, the National Center for Supercomputing
   Applications (NCSA), and the Geometry Forum. For the Internet
   locations of these resources see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.  Questions About Security and Ethics

7.1  I've heard that there is a lot of objectionable material on the
     Internet.  How do I deal with that problem?

   Because sensational media accounts tend to downplay the educational
   uses of the Internet in favor of the more controversial material
   available, this will almost certainly be an issue raised when you
   discuss getting an Internet connection in your school. Concerned
   educators should learn more about this issue and formulate a strategy
   for resolving problems before they arise. One important point to
   realize early is that students do not accidentally bump into
   objectionable material in the course of most educational
   explorations. Although we are not suggesting that people never run
   across objectionable material by chance, most find this material only
   because they're looking for it.

   At the time of this writing the most important and effective action
   schools can take is to develop clear policies to guide students' use
   of the Internet and establish rules - and consequences for breaking
   them - that govern behavior on the Internet. These policies, called
   Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs), work best when they are in line with
   rules governing other behavior at school. Additionally, schools
   should integrate issues around technology and ethics into the
   curriculum [3]. Schools need to exercise reasonable oversight while
   realizing that it is almost impossible to absolutely guarantee that
   students will not be able to access objectionable material. It may be

   wise to make this clear to parents and students before a student is
   given access to the Internet. To limit a school's liability, some
   systems obtain signed releases from students and parents stipulating
   that they have read the AUP and that the student agrees to abide by
   it.

   Several commercial software products are available which attempt to
   address the problem of access to objectionable material. They block
   access to controversial sites, look for specific text in email
   messages, or do both. Some can be configured in the home or school
   and some block a preconfigured collection of sites which is
   maintained and configured by the company.

   Some success has been achieved through the use of proxy servers. A
   school hooks up all its computers to a single computer that has full
   Internet access. This computer server then becomes the gateway to the
   Internet for all of the school computers. The server can be
   configured to mask away sites that have objectionable material,
   including Web pages, Gopher and FTP sites, and network news and WAIS
   servers. One further step can be taken by also installing a caching
   server on the gateway machine. A caching server can hold Web pages
   locally after they have been retrieved from other sites. Once a page
   has been loaded into the server it can thereafter be fetched from the
   cache, useful if a set of Web pages needs to be accessed frequently
   from a site that is usually busy.

   Although proxy and caching servers are relatively easy to set up by a
   system administrator, entering all the sites that are objectionable
   and keeping the cache up to date can be time consuming. Also, this
   method does not stop teachers and students from receiving and sending
   objectionable material as email attachments.

   The store-and-forward method is one way to filter information to
   which students are exposed. Usenet News and email (both described in
   Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet Services") are "stored" on
   a computer until the time appointed for that computer to contact the
   next one along the path to the final destination, at which time it is
   "forwarded" along its way. Most computers are set up to process
   outgoing requests at least every 30 minutes. This method requires
   quite a bit of management on the part of humans.

   It is also possible to control the times and opportunities that
   students have to access the Internet and only allow access under
   supervision. Many teachers find that engaging their students in
   meaningful, supervised learning activities operates as an effective
   deterrent to unauthorized Internet exploration.

   At the time of this writing none of the technical solutions discussed
   above has proven wholly successful in addressing the problem of
   student access to controversial material. However, this area is
   currently the focus of intense development efforts. In the mean time,
   these solutions may be used in combination with clear policies and
   consequences for breaking them to ensure the integrity of the school,
   its students, and its educators. No matter what option or combination
   of options you choose, teaching the ethics of Internet access as a
   matter of course is imperative.

   There are resources for further exploration of the issue of students
   and objectionable material available on the Internet. The National
   Center for Missing and Exploited Children has produced a sensible and
   practical brochure entitled, "Child Safety on the Information
   Highway," written by Los Angeles Times columnist Lawrence J. Magid.
   It is available both online and hardcopy. Another good document,
   "Internet Parental Control Frequently Asked Questions," describes the
   tools available at the time of this writing to help with issues of
   children using the Internet, from guidance by parents to government
   restrictions to rating and filtering systems. It is produced by the
   Voters Telecommunications Watch and is available on the Internet.
   There is also at least one mailing list which you may want to join
   called Children Accessing Controversial Information (CACI). For
   information on all of these, please see Section 8, "Suggested
   Reading," and Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.2  How do we keep our own and other people's computers safe from
     student "hackers"?

   In the language of computer folks, a "hacker" is someone who is
   excellent at understanding and manipulating computer systems. A
   "cracker" is someone who maliciously and/or illegally enters or
   attempts to enter someone else's computer system.

   Computer security is unquestionably important, both in maintaining
   the security of the school's computers and in ensuring the proper
   behavior of the school's students (and others who use the network).
   In this area, not only school policy, but also state and national
   laws may apply. One source of information which you can read to help
   you sort through security issues is the Site Security Handbook (FYI
   8), which suggests to site computer administrators, Network
   Information Centers, Network Operation Centers, and others how to set
   up security policies and directs you to further information. A good
   book available commercially is "Computer Security Basics" by Russell
   and Gangemi. The full reference for these two sources of information
   can be found in Section 8, "Suggested Reading."

   Your school's AUP (see Question 7.4) should specify the consequences
   for such activity, and it may also be prudent to require a signed
   release from each student stating that he understands these
   consequences and possible legal implications of intentional
   exploitation of computer networks.

   In the unlikely event that someone from outside your school breaks in
   to a computer on your network, you should report the activity to the
   CERT Coordination Center. Contact information for the center can be
   found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.3  How do we keep viruses from attacking all of our computers if we
     get connected to the Internet?

   Even if you use the Internet to exchange only data (such as text or
   pictures), virus infection can be a problem. This is because many
   programs today allow data files to include commands which are run
   when the data is loaded. Certainly when you download software
   programs and run them on your own computer you should use caution.
   Anything you download over the Internet or an electronic bulletin
   board system could have a virus. For that matter, any program and
   even some documents, whether on tape or a disk, including commercial
   software still in its original packaging, might possibly have a
   virus. Therefore there are two precautions you should take. First,
   install virus protection software on all your computers.  Second, use
   only trusted sources from which to download software and files. If
   you are uncertain about whether to download something, ask someone
   first.

   Virus checking software is available free over the Internet via
   Anonymous FTP from the CERT Coordination Center. Your hardware or
   software vendor, your network access provider, your technical support
   resources, or your colleagues on network mailing lists should be able
   to provide more specific information applicable to your site. Contact
   information for the CERT Coordination Center can be found in Section
   9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.4  What are the rules for using the Internet?

   When your Internet connection is established, your access provider
   should acquaint you with their Acceptable Use Policy. This policy
   explains acceptable and unacceptable uses for your connection. For
   example, it is in all cases unacceptable to use the network for
   illegal purposes. It may, in some cases, be unacceptable to use the
   network for commercial purposes.  If such a policy is not mentioned,
   ask for it. All users are expected to know what the acceptable and
   unacceptable uses of their network are.

   Remember that it is essential to establish a school-wide policy in
   addition to the provider's AUP. A school's AUP is usually more
   restrictive and specific than the one used by the service provider. A
   repository of sample school AUPs can be found on the Armadillo Web
   server, listed in section 9, "Resources and Contacts." As mentioned
   earlier, some school systems have found it worthwhile to make
   Internet access contingent upon a student's signed agreement to abide
   by the school's AUP.

   Beyond your service provider's AUP and the one you create for your
   school, there are no overreaching rules for Internet use. There are,
   however, community standards and conventions that should be observed.
   You can review some generally agreed-upon guidelines at Arlene
   Rinaldi's etiquette page and by reading FYI 28 (RFC 1855),
   "Netiquette Guidelines." See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for
   the location of the etiquette page, and Appendix B, "Ways to Get
   RFCs" for instructions on obtaining FYI 28.

8.  Suggested Reading

   Those items marked with an asterisk (*) are available free online.
   For information on retrieving RFCs and FYIs, see Appendix B, "Ways to
   Get RFCs."

   * Connecting to the Future: A Guide For Building a Network
     Infrastructure for Education. NASA IITA, Department of Education
     NCES. 1995. Gopher: quest.arc.nasa.gov/How to Get Connected to and
     How to Use the Internet  (Also available from NASA CORE with
     accompanying video. See NASA Central Operation of Resources for
     Educators in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts.")

   * Conrad, L. B. "Getting US Educators Online"
     http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/online/table.html  (State-by-state
     compilation of Internet service offerings especially for teachers.)

   Cummins, J. and D. Sayers. Brave New Schools: Challenging Cultural
     Illiteracy Through Global Learning Networks. New York: St. Martin's
     Press, 1995.

   Ellsworth, J. H.  Education on the Internet: A Hands-on Book of
     Ideas, Resources, Projects, and Advice. Indianapolis, Indiana:
     Sams Publishing, 1994.

   * Electronic Frontier Foundation. EFF's (Extended) Guide to the
     Internet.
     http://www.eff.org/pub/Net_info/EFF_Net_Guide/netguide.eff
     and from the EFF online archives at ftp.eff.org, gopher.eff.org,
     AOL keyword EFF, CIS EFFSIG forum.

   Estrada, S. Connecting to the Internet: An O'Reilly Buyer's Guide.
     Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc., 1993.

   * FYI 4  "FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly asked
     `New Internet User' Questions," Marine, A., J. Reynolds, and
     G. Malkin. (fyi4.txt or rfc1594.txt)

   * FYI 5  "Choosing a Name for Your Computer," Libes, D. (fyi5.txt or
     rfc1178.txt)

   * FYI 8  "Site Security Handbook," Holbrook, J.P. and J.K. Reynolds.
     (fyi8.txt or rfc1244.txt)

   * FYI 18 "Internet Users' Glossary," Malkin, G. and T. LaQuey Parker.
     (fyi18.txt or rfc1392.txt)

   * FYI 20 "What is the Internet?" Krol, E. and E. Hoffman. (fyi20.txt
     or rfc1462.txt)

   * FYI 26 "K-12 Internetworking Guidelines," J. Gargano, D. Wasley.
     November 1994. (fyi26.txt or rfc1709.txt)

   * FYI 28 "Netiquette Guidelines," Hambridge, S. (fyi28.txt or
     rfc1855.txt)

   Giagnocavo, G., et. al. Educator's Internet Companion (with diskette
     and video). Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wentworth Worldwide Media,
     1995.

   Harris, J. Way of the Ferret: Finding and Using Educational Resources
     on the Internet. Eugene, Oregon: International Society for
     Technology in Education, 1995.

   Krol, E. The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog, Second Edition.
     Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1994. (Also available
     in textbook version)

   * National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
     http://www.missingkids.org/information_superhighway.html (Online
     brochure "Child Safety on the Information Highway")
     Also available from
     National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
     2101 Wilson Boulevard
     Suite 550
     Arlington, VA 22201-3052
     1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678)

   Protheroe, N. and E. Wilson. The Internet Handbook for School Users.

     Arlington, Virginia: Educational Research Service, 1994.

   * RFC 1480  "The US Domain,"  Cooper, A. and J. Postel. June 1993.
     (rfc1480.txt)
     [This document will also be useful to people not in the United
     States.  See the sites listed under the FYI documents for the
     location nearest you from which to download the file.]

   * Rinaldi, A. "The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette,"
     http://rs6000.adm.fau.edu/rinaldi/netiquette.html

   * Rogers, A. "Global Literacy in a Gutenberg Culture,"
     http://gsn.org/gsn/article.gutenberg.html

   Russell, D., and G. T. Gangemi, Sr. Computer Security Basics.
     Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly and Associates, 1991.

   * Safdar, S. J. "Internet Parental Control Frequently Asked Questions,"
     Voters Telecommunications Watch, 1995.
     http://www.vtw.org/pubs/ipcfaq, or email vtw@vtw.org and in the
     subject line type "send ipcfaq" without the quotes

   Steen, D.R., M.R. Roddy, D. Sheffield, and M.B. Stout. Teaching with
     the Internet: Putting Teachers Before Technology. Bellevue,
     Washington: Resolution Business Press, Inc., 1995.

9.  Resources and Contacts

   -----------
   CONFERENCES
   -----------

   A list of other conferences, primarily in the United States, can be
   found at http://www.classroom.net/classroom/conf.htm

   NECC and Tel-Ed
      International Society for Technology in Education
      1787 Agate Street
      Eugene, Oregon  97403-1923
      USA
      Phone:  503-346-4414 or 1-800-336-5191
      Fax:    503-346-5890
      Email:  iste@oregon.uoregon.edu
              (CompuServe:  70014,2117)
              (AppleLink:  ISTE)

   See also "Internet Computers" in this section.

   INET
      Internet Society
      12020 Sunrise Valley Dr.
      Suite 210
      Reston, Virginia  22091
      USA
      Phone:  703-648-9888
      Fax:    703-620-0913
      Email:  isoc@isoc.org

   ---------------------
   ELECTRONIC MAIL LISTS
   ---------------------

   Lists of electronic mail lists which you can search by category can
   be found via the World Wide Web at http://tile.net/listserv, at
   http://k12.cnidr.org:90/lists.html, and at
   http://catalog.com/vivian/interest-group-search.html.

   Classroom Connect mailing list
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      crc-request@wentworth.com
      Leave the Subject field blank and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe

   CACI (Children Accessing Controversial Information)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      caci-request@cygnus.com

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe

      To post, send a message to...
      caci@cygnus.com

   Cosndisc (Consortium for School Networking Discussion List)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listproc@list.cren.net

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe cosndisc YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      cosndisc@list.cren.net

   Cu-seeme-l (General CU-SeeMe discussion list)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listproc@cornell.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe cu-seeme-l YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      cu-seeme-l@cornell.edu

   Cu-seeme-schools (Discussion about using CU-SeeMe as an instructional
        tool)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      majordomo@gsn.org

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe cu-seeme-schools

      To post, send a message to...
      cu-seeme-schools@gsn.org

   Ednet
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listproc@lists.umass.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe ednet YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      ednet@lists.umass.edu

   Edtech (Educational Technology list)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@msu.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe edtech YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      edtech@msu.edu

   European Schools Project (ESP)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listproc@educ.uva.nl

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe bbs YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      bbs@educ.uva.nl

   Internet School Networking (List for the working group which produced
        this document)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listmanager@nasa.gov

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe isn-wg (NOTE: Do not add your name)

      To post, send a message to...
      isn-wg@nasa.gov

   Kidsphere
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      kidsphere-request@vms.cis.pitt.edu
      Type any message asking to subscribe.

      To post, send a message to...
      kidsphere@vms.cis.pitt.edu

   KIDLINK (Also KIDS-96, KIDS-97, etc.)
      KIDLINK operates 24 public mailing lists in English, Spanish,
      Portuguese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Scandinavian languages, and
      a private "chat" network for members.

      To learn about KIDLINK projects, subscribe to the news service by
      sending a message to...
      listserv@vm1.nodak.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe KIDLINK YourFirstName YourLastName

      To receive a file of general information on KIDLINK, send email to
      the same listserv address, leave the Subject field blank, and in
      the first line of the body of the message enter...
      get kidlink general

   K12admin (A list for K-12 educators interested in educational
      administration)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@listserv.syr.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe k12admin YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      k12admin@listserv.syr.edu

   LM_NET (A list for school library media specialists worldwide)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@listserv.syr.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      subscribe LM_NET YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      LM_NET@listserv.syr.edu

   NOVAE Group: Teachers Networking for the Future (Distribution list --
         not discussion list -- of projects and happenings of interest
         to educators)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@idbsu.idbsu.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of
      the body of the message, enter...
      subscribe novae YourFirstName YourLastName

   UK-schools (for teachers and others interested in the use of the
         Internet in UK schools and for general discussion about
         anything concerning international classroom connections)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
      of the message enter...
      join uk-schools YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      uk-schools@mailbase.ac.uk

   WWWedu (the World Wide Web in Education list; pronounced "we do")
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listproc@educom.unc.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of
      the body of the message, enter...
      subscribe wwwedu YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      wwwedu@educom.unc.edu

   ------------------
   INTERNET COMPUTERS
   ------------------

   Academy One (National Public Telecomputing Network)
      via WWW:
      http://www.nptn.org/cyber.serv/AOneP/index.html

   Armadillo's WWW Server
      via WWW:
      http://riceinfo.rice.edu:80/armadillo/

   BBN National School Network Testbed
      via Gopher:
      copernicus.bbn.com

      via WWW:
      http://copernicus.bbn.com:70/testbed/

   Censorship/Freedom of Speech/Child Safety on the Internet Web page
      via WWW:
      http://www.voicenet.com/~cranmer/censorship.html

   Classroom Connect on the Net
      via WWW:
      http://www.classroom.net/

      via FTP:
      ftp.classroom.net/wentworth/Classroom-Connect/aup-faq.txt (for an
        FAQ document on Acceptable Use Policies)

   Chatback Trust and Chatback International network server
      via WWW:
      http://www.tcns.co.uk/chatback/welcome.html

   CERT Coordination Center
      via WWW:
      http://www.sei.cmu.edu/SEI/programs/cert/CERT.info.html
      http://www.sei.cmu.edu/technology/trustworthy.html

      via email:
      cert@cert.org

      via FTP: info.cert.org
      cd pub/

   Consortium for School Networking
      via Gopher:
      cosn.org

      via WWW:
      http://cosn.org/

   CU-SeeMe
      via WWW:
      http://cu-seeme.cornell.edu/

   Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)
      via WWW:
      http://ericir.syr.edu/

      via Gopher:
      ericir.syr.edu

      via telnet:
      telnet bbs.oit.unc.edu
      login: launch
        (Follow directions on screen for registration. At the main menu,
        choose number 4, "Topical Document Search (WAIS)", and move to
        eric-digests.  For help in WAIS, type a question mark.)

      via email:
      askeric@ericir.syr.edu
        (In your message ask for the topic you're interested in. A human
        will answer you.)

   Empire Internet Schoolhouse
      via Gopher:
      nysernet.org (port 3000)

   Electronic Frontier Foundation ("A non-profit civil liberties
      organization working in the public interest to protect privacy,
      free expression, and access to online resources and information.")

      via WWW:
      http://www.eff.org/

      via email:
      ask@eff.org

      via snailmail, telephone, and fax:
      The Electronic Frontier Foundation
      1550 Bryant Street
      San Francisco CA 94103 USA
      +1 415 668 7171 (voice)
      +1 415 668 7007 (fax)

   EdWeb
      via WWW:
      http://edweb.cnidr.org:90/

   European Schools Project
      via WWW:
      http://www.educ.uva.nl/ESP/

   Foundation Center
      via WWW:
      http://fdncenter.org/

   Geometry Forum
      via WWW:
      http://forum.swarthmore.edu/
      http://forum.swarthmore.edu/~steve/steve/wwwhtml.html ("Learning
        to Use the Web and Create Web Pages")

   Global SchoolNet Foundation
      via WWW:
      http://gsn.org/
      http://gsn.org/gsn/article.connect.levels.html ("Internet
        Connectivity Levels")
      http://gsn.org/gsn/article.design.project.html ("How to Design a
        Successful Project")
      http://gsn.org/gsn/article.gutenberg.html ("Global Literacy in
        a Gutenberg Culture")

   Grants Web
      via WWW:
      http://infoserv.rttonet.psu.edu/gweb.htm

   Hot List of K-12 Internet School Sites (Gleason Sackman, SENDIT)
      via WWW:
      http://www.sendit.nodak.edu/k12/

   International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)

      via WWW:
      http:// www.iearn.org/iearn/

      via Gopher:
      gopher.iearn.org (port 7008)

      via email:
      iearn@iearn.org

   Internet School Networking (ISN) working group home page (publishers
        of this document)
      via WWW:
      http://spider.lloyd.com/isn/index.html

   International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
      via WWW:
      http://isteonline.uoregon.edu/

      via Gopher:
      isteonline.uoregon.edu

   KIDLINK
      via WWW:
      http://www.kidlink.org/

      via Gopher:
      gopher.kidlink.org

   Learning Resource Server, University of Illinois College of Education
      via WWW:
      http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/
      http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/Activity-Structures/ (Judi Harris' Network-
         Based Educational Activity Collection)

      via Gopher:
      gopher.ed.uiuc.edu

   MBONE (Multicast Backbone)
      via WWW:
      http://www.mbone.com/techinfo/

   NASA Jason Project
      via WWW:
      http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/JASON/JASON_HOME.html

   NASA Online Educational Resources
      via WWW:
      http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/OER/

   NASA Quest
      via WWW:
      http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/
      http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/essay/essay-index.html ("Networks, Where
         Have You Been All My Life" student essay contest winners)

      via Gopher:
      quest.arc.nasa.gov (port 70)

      via FTP:
      ftp quest.arc.nasa.gov

   NASA Spacelink
      via WWW:
      http://spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov/

      via Gopher:
      spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov

   via telnet:
      telnet spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov
      login: guest

      via FTP:
      ftp spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov

   To find information on the NASA Teacher Resource Center Network,
   choose "Educational Services," then "Teacher Resource Center Network."
   For television schedules, follow the menu for "Educational Service"
   to nthe menu option, "Technology."

   National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
      via WWW:
      http://www.missingkids.org/
      http://www.missingkids.org/information_superhighway.html (Online
         brochure "Child Safety on the Information Highway)

   National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)
      via WWW:
      http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/NCSAMosaicHome.html
         (Mosaic Home Page)
      http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimer.html
         (A Beginner's Guide to HTML)

      via FTP:
      ftp ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu (to download the Mosaic WWW browser)

   National Center for Technology Planning
      via Gopher:
      gopher.msstate.edu

   Choose "Resources Maintained at MS State University," then select
   "National Center for Technology Planning."

   National Science Foundation's (United States) Science and Technology
   Information System (STIS)

      via WWW:
      http://stis.nsf.gov/

      via Gopher:
      stis.nsf.gov

      via telnet:
      telnet stis.nsf.gov
      login:  public
      Follow instructions on screen.

   Netscape Communications
      via WWW:
      http://www.netscape.com/

      via FTP:
      ftp ftp.netscape.com

   Netscape's WWW browser can be downloaded from Netscape's FTP sites at
   ftp.netscape.com, ftp2.netscape.com, ftp3.netscape.com...through
   ftp7.netscape.com.

   Office of Educational Research and Improvement (U.S. Department of
   nEducation)

      via WWW:
      http://oeri.ed.gov/

       via Gopher:
       gopher.ed.gov

   Providers of Commercial Internet Access (for a list of Internet
   Service Providers)

      via WWW:
      http://www.celestin.com/pocia/

   THE LIST (for a list of Internet Service Providers)
      via WWW:
      http://thelist.com

   Voters Telecommunications Watch
      via WWW:
      http://www.vtw.org/
      http://www.vtw.org/pubs/ipcfaq [Internet Parental Control
         Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) by Shabbir J. Safdar]

   World Wide Web Consortium
      via WWW:
      http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/

      via telnet:
      telnet telnet.w3.org (public access Lynx client. Use "lynx"
         without the quotes if a login is requested.)

   Web66
      via WWW:
      http://web66.coled.umn.edu/
      http://web66.coled.umn.edu/schools.html (International WWW Schools
         Registry)
      http://web66.coled.umn.edu/Cookbook/contents.html (Classroom
         Internet Server Cookbook)

   -----------
   NEWS GROUPS
   -----------

      alt.algebra.help
      alt.comp.shareware.for-kids
      alt.education.distance
      alt.kids-talk
      bit.listserv.edtech
      comp.security.announce
      k12.chat.elementary
      k12.chat.junior
      k12.chat.senior
      k12.chat.teacher
      k12.ed.art
      k12.ed.business

      k12.ed.comp.literacy
      k12.ed.health-pe
      k12.ed.life-skills
      k12.ed.math
      k12.ed.music
      k12.ed.science
      k12.ed.soc-studies
      k12.ed.special
      k12.ed.tag
      k12.ed.tech
      k12.edu.life-skills (especially for school counselors)
      k12.euro.teachers (in Europe)
      k12.lang.art
      k12.lang.deutsch-eng
      k12.lang.esp-eng
      k12.lang.francais
      k12.lang.russian
      k12.library
      k12.news
      k12.sys.projects
      misc.education
      misc.education.language.english
      misc.education.multimedia
      misc.kids
      misc.kids.computer
      news.announce.newusers
      uk.education.misc
      uk.education.teachers

   ------------------------
   NEWSLETTERS and JOURNALS
   ------------------------

   Classroom Connect

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      costs U.S. $39.00.

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      Phone:  1-717-393-1000
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      Fax:    1-717-390-4378
      Email:  connect@wentworth.com

      via WWW:
      http://www.wentworth.com/classroom/crcpub.htm (Classroom Connect
         homen page)
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         Classroom Connect Newsletter, books, software, and videos about
         the Internet for educators)

   Electronic Learning

      Published eight times per year, a current subscription to this
      magazine for technology and school change costs $23.95.

      Scholastic, Inc.
      2931 East McCarty Street
      P.O. Box 3710
      Jefferson City, MO  65102-3710

   Learning and Leading with Technology (Formerly "The Computing
   Teacher")

      Published monthly, the current U.S. $61.00 ISTE membership fee
      includes $36.00 for this journal.

      ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education)
      1787 Agate Street
      Eugene, OR  97403
      Phone:  1-503-346-4414

   MultiMedia Schools

      Published five times a year, a subscription currently costs
      U.S. $38.00.

      Online, Inc.
      462 Danbury Road
      Wilton, CT  06897-2126
      USA
      Phone:  1-800-222-3766

   NetTeach News

      Published ten times a year, subscription prices are as follows.

      Annual hardcopy subscription cost:
      U.S. $38.00  for individual subscriptions in the U.S.
      U.S. $45.00  for individual subscriptions in Canada and Mexico
      U.S. $60.00  for individual subscriptions outside North America

      Annual ASCII electronic copy cost:
      U.S. $22.00  for individual subscriptions worldwide

      Site licenses are available for the electronic version.
      Discounts are available for ten or more orders of the printed
      version for educational institutions.

      For subscription questions and submissions contact:

      Kathleen M. Rutkowski, Editor
      Chaos Publications
      13102 Weather Vane Way
      Herndon, VA  22071
      USA
      Phone:  1-703-471-0593
      Fax:    1-703-471-0596
      Email:  netteach@chaos.com

      via WWW:
      http://www.chaos.com/netteach

   -------------
   ORGANIZATIONS
   -------------

   Asia Pacific Network Information Center
      c/o The United Nations University
      53-70 Jingumae 5-Chome
      Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150
      Japan
      Phone:  +81-3-5467-7014
      Fax:    +81-3-5467-7015
      Email:  hostmaster@apnic.net
      WWW:    http://www.apnic.net

   AskERIC Project
      ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources
      Syracuse University
      4-194 Center for Science & Technology
      Syracuse, New York 13244-4100
      Phone:  315-443-3640
      Fax:    315-443-5448
      Email:  AskERIC@ericir.syr.edu

   See also "Internet Computers" above.

   CERT Coordination Center (Formerly CERT, Computer Emergency Response
   Team)
      Software Engineering Institute
      Carnegie Mellon University
      Pittsburgh, PA 15313-3890
      USA
      Phone:  412-268-7090
      Fax:    412-268-6989
      Email:  cert@cert.org

   See also "Internet Computers" above.

   Chatback International
      Dr. R. Zenhausern, Executive Director
      Psychology Department
      St. Johns University
      SB 15, Marillac
      Jamaica, NY  11439
      USA
      Phone:  718-990-6447
      Fax:    718-990-6705
      Email:  drz@sjuvm.stjohns.edu

   The Chatback Trust
      Tom Holloway, UK Director
      6 St. Mary's Crescent
      Royal Leamington Spa
      Warwickshire, 1JL
      Phone:  +44-926-888333
      Fax:    +44-926-420204
      Email:  t.holloway@warwick.ac.uk

   See also "Internet Computers" above.

   Consortium for School Networking
      P.O. Box 65193
      Washington, DC  20035-5193
      USA
      Phone:  202-466-6296
      Fax:    202-872-4318
      Email:  info@cosn.org

   See also "Internet Computers" above.

   European Schools Project ("...a support system for secondary schools
         to explore applications of educational telematics.")
      University of Amsterdam
      Centre for Tele-Learning
      Wibautstraat 4
      1091 GM Amsterdam
      The Netherlands
      Contact: Dr. Pauline Meijer or Dr. Henk Sligte
      Phone:   +31-20-5251248
      Fax:     +31-20-5251211
      Email:   risc@esp.educ.uva.nl
      WWW:     http://www.educ.uva.nl/ESP

   FidoNet
      1151 SW Vermont Street
      Portland, OR 97219
      USA
      Contact: Janet Murray
      Phone:   1-503-280-5280
      Email:   jmurray@psg.com
      WWW: http://bbs.owls.com/~jerrys/fidonet.html (A Fidonet Primer)

   Global SchoolNet Foundation (formerly FrEdMail)
      P.O. Box 243,
      Bonita, CA 91908
      USA
      Phone: (619) 475-4852
      Fax: (619) 472-0735
      Email:  info@gsn.org

   See also "Internet Computers" above.

   International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)
      c/o Copen Family Fund
      345 Kear Street
      Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
      USA
      Contact: Dr. Edwin H. Gragert
      Phone:   914-962-5864
      Fax:     914-962-6472
      Email: iearn@iearn.org

   See also "Internet Computers" above.

   Internet Society
      12020 Sunrise Valley Dr.
      Suite 210
      Reston, Virginia  22091
      USA
      Phone:  703-648-9888
      Fax:    703-620-0913
      Email:  isoc@isoc.org
      WWW:    http://www.isoc.org/home.html

   KIDLINK Society
      4815 Saltrod
      Norway
      Phone:   +47-370-31204
      Fax:     +47-370-27111
      Email:   kidlink-info@kidlink.org

   See also "Internet Computers" and "Electronic Mail Lists" above.

   K12Net
      1151 SW Vermont Street
      Portland, OR 97219
      USA
      Phone:   503-280-5280
      Contact: Janet Murray
      Email:   jmurray@psg.com
      Gopher:  gopher.psg.com
      WWW:     http://arlo.wilsonhs.pps.k12.or.us/k12.html

   Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
      Kruislaan 409
      NL-1098 SJ  Amsterdam
      The Netherlands
      Phone: +31 20 592 5065
      Fax:   +31 20 592 5090
      Email: ncc@ripe.net
      WWW: http://www.ripe.net/ripe/default.html

   ------
   VIDEOS
   ------

   Master Communications Group
      7322 Ohms Lane
      Minneapolis, MN  55439
      Phone:  1-800-862-6164
      Fax:    1-612-835-9573

   Titles:
      Experience the Power: Network Technology for Education (produced
        by the National Center for Education Statistics)
      Future Schools: Connected to the World (produced by MIT)

   NASA Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE)
      Lorain County Joint Vocational School
      15181 Route 58 South
      Oberlin, OH  44074
      USA
      Phone:   1-216-774-1051, x293/294
      Fax:     1-216-774-2144
      Email: video-info@quest.arc.nasa.gov

   Titles:
      Global Quest: The Internet in the Classroom
      Connecting to the Future: A Guide for Building a Network
         Infrastructure for Education
      Global Quest II: The Internet in the Curriculum
      Others

   The fee for the videos is cost plus shipping and handling.  You may
   also make a copy yourself by taking a blank copy to the nearest NASA
   Teacher Resource Center. For information on the NASA Teacher Resource
   Center Network or on NASA Select, contact your nearest NASA facility
   or consult NASA Spacelink, listed above in "Internet Computers."

   Wentworth Worldwide Media
      1866 Colonial Village Lane
      P.O. Box 10488
      Lancaster, PA 17605-0488
      USA
      Phone:  1-717-393-1000
              1-800-638-1639
      Fax:    1-717-390-4378

   Titles:
      The Amazing Internet
      Internet Email
      Searching the Internet
      Discovering the World Wide Web
      Others

10.  References

   [1] "Internet Domain Survey, January 1995," Network Wizards
       http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW/report.html

   [2] "Restructuring Schools: A Systematic View," Action Line, the
       newsletter of the Maryland State Teachers Association, a National
       Education Association Affiliate. R. Kuhn, Editor. No. 93-6. June,
       1993.

   [3] Sivin, J. P. and E. R. Bialo, "Ethical Uses of Information
       Technologies in Education." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
       Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of
       Justice. 1992.

11.  Security Considerations

   General security considerations are discussed in Section 7 of this
   document.

12.  Authors' Addresses

   Julie Robichaux
   InterNIC
   505 Huntmar Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  22070
   Phone: 703-742-4839
   EMail: julier@internic.net

   Jennifer Sellers
   Sterling Software/NASA IITA
   700 13th Street, NW
   Suite 950
   Washington, DC  20005
   Phone:  202-434-8954
   EMail:  sellers@quest.arc.nasa.gov

APPENDIX A:  GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT

   The following is a short glossary of terms used in this document. For
   a more complete glossary of Internet terms, refer to FYI 18,
   "Internet Users' Glossary." These definitions are largely excerpted
   from that glossary. (See Section 8, "Suggested Reading," above for
   complete reference information.)

   Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)

   The policy which defines the uses of the network that the network's
   administrators consider appropriate. Enforcement of AUPs varies with
   the network.

   Anonymous FTP

   Accessing data via the File Transfer Protocol using the special
   username "anonymous." This was devised as a method to provide a
   relatively secure way of providing restricted access to public data.
   Users who wish to acquire data from a public source may use FTP to
   connect to the source, then use the special username "anonymous" and
   their email address as the password to log into a public data area.

   Archie

   A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on the
   Internet. The initial implementation of Archie provided an indexed
   directory of filenames from all anonymous FTP archives on the
   Internet.  Later versions provide other collections of information.

   Client

   An application which requests information from, or requests a service
   of, a shared resource (a computer or "server"). See also Server.

   Cracker

   A person who uses computer knowledge to attempt to gain access to
   computer systems and/or maliciously damage those systems or data.

   Dial-in (also dial-up)

   A connection, usually made via modems, between two computers (or
   servers) over standard voice grade telephone lines.

   Download

   To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer. The opposite
   of upload.

   DSU/CSU (Data Service Unit/Channel Service Unit)

   The digital equivalent of a modem. A Channel Service Unit connects to
   a telephone company-provided digital data circuit, and a Data Service
   Unit provides the electronics required to connect digital equipment
   to the CSU.  Paired together a DSU/CSU allows computer equipment to
   be connected into the telephone digital service for highly
   conditioned, high speed data communications.

   Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS)

   A computer, and associated software, which typically provides
   electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other
   services or activities of interest to the bulletin board system's
   operator. Although BBSs have traditionally been the domain of
   hobbyists, an increasing number of BBSs are connected directly to the
   Internet, and many BBSs are currently operated by government,
   educational, and research institutions.

   Email (Electronic Mail)

   A system whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other
   computer users (or groups of users) via a communications network.

   FidoNet

   A network of computers interconnected using the FIDO dial-up
   protocols.  The FIDO protocol provides a means of "store and forward"
   file transfer similar to UUCP.

   FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

   A protocol which allows a user on one host to access, and transfer
   files to and from, another host over a network.  Also, FTP is usually
   the name of the program the user invokes to execute the protocol.

   FYI (For Your Information)

   A subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards or descriptions
   of protocols.  FYIs convey general information about topics related
   to TCP/IP or the Internet. See also RFC (Request for Comments).

   Gopher

   A distributed information service that makes available hierarchical
   collections of information across the Internet. Gopher uses a simple
   protocol that allows a single Gopher client to access information
   from any accessible Gopher server, providing the user with a single
   "Gopher space" of information. Public domain versions of the client
   and server are available

   Hacker

   A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the
   internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in
   particular. The popular media has corrupted this term to give it the
   pejorative connotation of a person who maliciously uses computer
   knowledge to cause damage to computers and data. The proper term for
   this type of person is "cracker."

   Home page

   A form of Web page that serves as the introductory or main page for a
   subject. The home page generally contains basic information about a
   subject and hypertext links to other pages which contain more
   detailed information. See also WWW and Web page.

   Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

   The IETF is a large, open community of network designers, operators,
   vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate the
   operation, management and evolution of the Internet, and to resolve
   short-range and mid-range protocol and architectural issues. It is a
   major source of protocol proposals and standards.

   Internet Service Provider (ISP)

   See Network Access Provider.

   InterNIC

   A Network Information Center (NIC), funded by the National Science
   foundation, that provides information about the Internet. The
   InterNIC offers support in the areas of Information Services (the
   task most often cited in this document), Registration Services, and
   Directory and Database Services.

   Kbs (Kilo-Bits per Second)

   A data transmission rate expressed in 1000 bit per second units. For
   example, 56 Kbs is 56*1000 = 56,000 bits per second.

   LAN (Local Area Network)

   A data network intended to serve an area of only a few square
   kilometers or less. Since such networks are relatively small, they
   can usually be directly controlled by the users and operate at
   relatively high speeds (up to 100 Mbs [10 million bits per second])
   over inexpensive wiring.

   Leased line

   A leased line is a special phone company permanent connection between
   two locations. Leased lines are generally used where high-speed data
   (usually 960 characters per second and higher) is continually
   exchanged between two computers (in the Internet, generally between
   routers). A leased line is billed at the same rate per month
   independent of how much the line is used and can be cheaper than
   using dial modems depending on the usage.  Leased lines may also be
   used where higher data rates are needed beyond what a dial modem can
   provide.

   Listserv (mailing list server)

   An automated program that accepts mail messages from users and
   performs basic operations on mailing lists for those users. In the
   Internet, listservs are usually accessed as "listname@host." For
   example, the list server for the hypothetical list
   "newsreports@acme.org" would be called "listserv@acme.org." Sending
   email to "newsreports@acme.org" causes the message to be sent to all
   the list subscribers, while sending a message (to subscribe or
   unsubscribe, for example) to "listserv@acme.org" sends the message
   only to the list server program. Not all mailing lists use list
   servers to handle list administration duties. More than one automated
   mailing program exists on the Internet, although the term "listserv"
   is sometimes confusingly used to refer to any such program.

   Mailing Lists

   A list of email addresses.  Generally, a mailing list is used to
   discuss a certain set of topics, and different mailing lists discuss
   different topics.  A mailing list may be moderated. That is, messages
   sent to the list are actually sent to a moderator who determines
   whether or not to send the messages on to everyone else.  Many
   mailing lists are maintained by mail handling software such as

   listserv, majordomo, or listproc, which are programs that
   automatically handle operations such as adding new people to the
   list.  (See above.) In the Internet, for those mailing lists
   maintained by a human, rather than by a program, you can generally
   subscribe to a list by sending a mail message to: "listname-
   REQUEST@host" and in the body of the message enter a request to
   subscribe.  To send messages to other subscribers, you will then use
   the address "listname@host."

   Modem (MODulator/DEModulator)

   A device that converts the digital signals used by computers into
   analog signals needed by voice telephone systems.

   Network Access Provider (Network Service Provider, Internet Service
   Provider)

   Any organization that provides network connectivity or dial-up
   access.  Service providers may be corporations, government agencies,
   universities, or other organizations.

   Network News

   Another name for "Usenet News."

   NIC (Network Information Center)

   A central place where information about a network within the Internet
   is maintained. Usually NICs are staffed by personnel who answer user
   telephone calls and electronic mail, and provide general network
   usage information and referrals, among other possible tasks. Most
   network service providers also provide a NIC for their users.

   Port

   A specific access point on an Internet computer, designated by a
   number.  Most common Internet services, such as the World Wide Web,
   have specific port numbers associated with them, which makes it
   easier for applications on the Internet to interact. Human users of
   the Intern et normally do not need to worry about port numbers.

   PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

   A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
   such as dial-up telephone lines. Similar to SLIP (see below), PPP is
   a later standard that includes features such as demand dial-up,
   compression, and better flow control.

   Protocol

   A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers
   must follow to exchange those messages. Protocols can describe low-
   level details of machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g., the order in
   which bits and bytes are sent across a wire) or high-level exchanges
   between allocation programs (e.g., the way in which two programs
   transfer a file across the Internet).

   Protocol Stack

   A series of protocols linked together to provide an end-to-end
   service.  For example, the File Transfer Protocol uses the
   Transmission Control Protocol, which uses the Internet Protocol,
   which may use the Point to Point protocol, to transfer a file from
   one computer to another. The series FTP->TCP->IP->PPP is called a
   protocol stack.

   RFC (Request for Comments)

   The document series, begun in 1969, which describes the Internet
   suite of protocols and related experiments. Not all (in fact very
   few) RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards are
   written up as RFCs. The RFCs include the documentary record of the
   Internet standards process.

   Router

   A computer which forwards traffic between networks. The forwarding
   decision is based on network layer information and routing tables,
   often constructed by routing protocols.

   Server

   A shared resource which provides information or services to user
   applications or clients. See also Client.

   SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

   A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
   such as dial-up telephone lines. Small computers, such as PCs and
   Macintoshes, can use SLIP to dial up to servers, which then allow the
   computer to act as a full Internet node. SLIP is generally used at
   sites with a few users as a cheaper alternative than a full Internet
   connection. SLIP is being replaced by PPP at many sites.

   TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

   TCP/IP is named for two of the major communications protocols used
   within the Internet (TCP and IP). These protocols (along with several
   others) provide the basic foundation for communications between hosts
   in the Internet. All of the service protocols, such as FTP, Telnet,
   and Gopher, use TCP/IP to transfer information.

   Telnet

   Telnet is the Internet standard protocol for remote terminal
   connection service. The name "telnet" also is used to refer to
   programs that allow interactive access to remote computers, as well
   as the action of using said programs. For example, the phrase "Telnet
   to host xyzzy" means to interactively log into host "xyzzy" from some
   other host in the Internet.

   Upload

   To copy data from a local computer to a remote computer. The opposite
   of download.

   Usenet News

   An electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix
   community and which is accessible via the Internet. Usenet News forms
   a discussion forum accessible by millions of users in almost every
   country in the world. Usenet News consists of thousands of topics
   arranged in a hierarchical form. Major topics include "comp" for
   computer topics, "rec" for recreational topics, "soc" for social
   topics, "sci" for science topics, etc. Within the major topics are
   subtopics, such as "rec.music.classical" for classical music, or
   "sci.med.physics" for discussions relating to the physics of medical
   science.

   UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy)

   This was initially a program run under the Unix operating system that
   allowed one Unix system to send files to another Unix system via
   dial-up phone lines. Today, the term is more commonly used to
   describe the large international network which uses the UUCP protocol
   to pass news and electronic mail.

   Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Network Index to Computerized
   Archives)

   A utility which searches Gopher servers based on a user's list of
   keywords.

   Virus

   A program which replicates itself on computer systems by
   incorporating itself into other programs which are shared among
   computer systems. The term virus is also often used more generally to
   refer to any unauthorized software intrusion into a computer, no
   matter the type or behavior of the program.

   Web

   See WWW.

   Web page

   A document, usually containing hypertext links, which is available
   through the World Wide Web. Web pages are composed in a special
   language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which allows basic
   formatting such as font sizes, bold, underline, blinking text, and
   inclusion of graphics images. Web pages usually contain hypertext
   links to other Web pages. See also WWW and Home page.

   WAIS (Wide Area Information Server)

   A distributed information service which offers simple natural
   language input, indexed searching for fast retrieval, and a
   "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial
   searches to influence future searches. Public domain implementations
   are available.

   WWW (World Wide Web)

   A hypertext-based, distributed information system created by
   researchers at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in
   Switzerland.  The Web information system may be used to create, edit,
   or browse hypertext documents. The Web protocol interlinks
   information in such a way that a user can traverse the Web from any
   starting point. The protocol also interacts with many other Internet
   services, such as Gopher, to provide one consistent, transparent user
   interface to the Internet. Client and server software is widely
   available via a number of methods: as free software, as client
   software often included as part of an Internet connection package, or
   as a commercial product.

APPENDIX B:  WAYS TO GET RFCs

   FYI documents such as the one your are reading are a subset of the
   Internet Engineering Task Force's RFC documents.

   Note that the latest version of the following file may be found on
   the World Wide Web at http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc-editor/rfc-info

   For more information on Internet Engineering Task Force publications,
   visit the RFC Editor's home page on the World Wide Web at
   http://www.isi.edu:80/rfc-editor/rfc-sources.html

   RFC-Info Simplified Help
   ------------------------

   Use RFC-Info by sending email messages to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU.

   1.  To get a specific RFC send a message with text as follows:

           Retrieve: RFC
            Doc-ID: RFC1500

   This gets RFC 1500.  All RFC numbers in the Doc-Id are 4 digits (RFC
   791 would be Doc-ID: RFC0791).

   2.  To get a specific FYI send a message with text as follows:

           Retrieve: FYI
            Doc-ID: FYI0004

   3.  To get a list of available RFCs that match a certain criteria:

           LIST: RFC
            Keywords: Gateway

   Returns a list of RFCs with the word Gateway in the title or specified
   as a keyword.

   4.  To get the Index of all RFCs published:

           HELP: rfc_index

   5.  To get information about other ways to get RFCs, FYIs, STDs, or
       IMRs.

           HELP: ways_to_get_rfcs
           HELP: ways_to_get_fyis
           HELP: ways_to_get_stds

           HELP: ways_to_get_imrs

   6.  To get help about using RFC-Info:

           HELP: help

       or

           HELP: topics

APPENDIX C:  EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS USING THE INTERNET

   The following examples of projects using the Internet appeared on
   various online computers and electronic mailing lists pertaining to
   education during the 1995-96 school year. The messages have been
   edited in the interest of space and because many of the details about
   how to participate will become dated, but the information presented
   can give you a feel for the types and range of projects that are
   happening at the time of this writing.

   A good source for project examples is "Judi Harris' Network-Based
   Educational Activity Collection" and other World Wide Web sites
   listed above in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

   ------------------------------------------
   Example One: Interdisciplinary, Grades 2-4
   ------------------------------------------

   From> KIDSPHERE Mailing List <kidsphere@vms.cis.pitt.edu>
   Subject> interdisciplinary project - grades 2-4

   Project description: This interdisciplinary data collection activity
   will enable students to answer the question: Does our community size
   and location affect the types and numbers of pets we own?

   For grades 2,3,4

   Timeline:  January 29-March 4

   Our classes will collect and share information about our communities
   and will then collect and share data about the types and numbers of
   pets we own.  Students will be able to use the collected information
   to draw conclusions.

   To participate, please send me your:
   Name and grade level
   School address
   community size generalization:  rural, urban or suburban

   -----------------------------------------------------------
   Example Two: Science, Engineering, and Careers, Levels K-12
   -----------------------------------------------------------

   NASA is pleased to announce another exciting opportunity for K-12
   classrooms to interact with our scientists, engineers and support
   staff.

   This time, the men and women of the Galileo project will provide a
   behind-the-scenes look at what it's like to be part of the flight team
   on a pioneering interplanetary expedition through the ONLINE FROM
   JUPITER project.

   Galileo scientists and mission engineers are opening their notebooks
   to classrooms, museums and the public via the Internet to share their
   observations and experiences working on the NASA spacecraft mission to
   Jupiter.

   From now through January 1996, members of the flight team will write
   brief field journal entries describing the scientific puzzles,
   engineering challenges and excitement of discovery as the Galileo
   orbiter and atmospheric entry probe begin their scientific
   investigation of Jupiter.  The atmospheric probe is set to descend
   into Jupiter's atmosphere on Dec.  7, the same day the Galileo orbiter
   begins circling the giant planet for a two-year mission.

   "For the first time, we're providing a window on the inner workings
   and interactions of a scientific deep space mission," said Dr. Jo
   Pitesky, member of the Galileo Mission Planning Office.  "In sharing
   the journal entries, we hope to give readers, particularly students,
   an idea of the tremendous efforts that go into controlling and
   collecting data from a robot spacecraft a half-billion miles away."

   After reading background material and the journals, kindergarten
   through 12th grade students and their teachers can ask project members
   questions -- via E-mail -- starting in late November and running
   through January 1996.  They will receive personal responses,
   corresponding with experts on subjects ranging from atmospheric
   science to spacecraft systems. An archive of all questions and answers
   will be available online.

   In addition, students will be able to take part in online experiments
   that will use actual probe data. Another activity will challenge
   students to predict the exact timing of the Galileo probe's first-ever
   plunge into the Jovian atmosphere. Additionally, students will be
   invited to create Stumpers (riddles and puzzles) to share with one
   another. Other curriculum resources will help teachers integrate the
   Galileo project into their classrooms. As well, mechanisms will be

   provided to help like-minded teachers connect with each another to
   pursue collaborative projects of their own.

   Other than your own time, there is no cost to get involved. Please
   consider joining us on this learning adventure. To participate, you
   must sign up for the ONLINE FROM JUPITER maillist. To do this, send an
   email message to listmanager@quest.arc.nasa.gov. In the message body,
   write only these words: subscribe updates-jup

   For more information, make a webstop at our "continuous construction"
   site: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/jupiter.html

   These projects are part of the "Sharing NASA with the Classroom"
   series.  They are made possible by funding from the NASA Information
   Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) program. IITA is
   part of the High Performance Computing and Communications program
   authorized by Federal legislation passed in December 1991.

   ------------------------------------------------------
   Example Three: MathMagic; Math at Various Grade Levels
   ------------------------------------------------------

   [Note: The MathMagic World Wide Web home page is located at
   http://forum.swarthmore.edu/mathmagic/]

   What is MathMagic?

   MathMagic is a K-12 telecommunications project developed in El Paso,
   Texas. It provides strong motivation for students to use computer
   technology while increasing problem-solving strategies and
   communications skills. MathMagic posts challenges in each of four
   categories (k-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12) to trigger each registered team
   to pair up with another team and engage in a problem-solving dialog.
   When an agreement has been reached, one solution is posted for every
   pair.

   MathMagic has received wide ideological acceptance by hundreds of past
   FidoNet users because it addresses most of the National Council of
   Teachers of Mathematics standards. A modified format has now expanded
   into the Internet and is available via regular e-mail or via the World
   Wide Web (WWW).

   Who can participate?

   K-12 teachers and students, but higher education teachers, librarians,
   technology coordinators, computer teachers, and even home-schoolers
   are joining to act as facilitators.

   What is needed?

   Any teacher with access to electronic mail via the Internet can
   participate. Several net service providers and most of the commercial
   boards (America Online, Genie, CompuServe, Delphi, The Well, etc.) now
   offer e-mail gateways and other Internet services. MathMagic is best
   suited to schools that use computers with modems and have direct
   Internet access.

   In some areas, a local Bulletin Board System (BBS) or a Net user (such
   as a parent with net access) may have to act as a go-between. Please
   ask about special arrangements.

   [Example challenge for grades 10-12:]

   ***************************************

   MathMagic Cycle 18: Level 10-12 Regular

   ***************************************

   Using the numbers 1 9 9 2 in a "locked" position, can you develop a 31
   day calendar for the month of October?  You can use addition (+),
   subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/) exponents (^)
   factorial (!) square root (sqrt) and, naturally, parenthesis ( ).

   Example: Friday the 13th could be: (1+sqrt(9))!-9-2 (Scary, isn't it?)
   (Notice that the numbers appear in the "locked" sequence)

   ****************************************

   MathMagic Cycle 18: Level 10-12 Advanced

   ****************************************

   What 6 digit number, with 6 different digits, when multiplied by all
   integers up to 6, circulates its digits through all 6 possible
   positions, as follows:

                           ABCDEF * 1 - ABCDEF
                           ABCDEF * 3 - BCDEFA
                           ABCDEF * 2 - CDEFAB
                           ABCDEF * 6 - DEFABC
                           ABCDEF * 4 - EFABCD
                           ABCDEF * 5 - FABCDE

   *********
   Good luck
   MrH

   [Example challenges for grades K-3:]

   *************************************

   MathMagic Cycle 16: Level K-3 Regular

   *************************************

   When two straight lines meet, they form an angle. Some angles are easy
   to recognize. For instance, a RIGHT ANGLE is any of the four angles
   formed by a piece of paper (like typing or computer paper) that has
   sharp corners.

   Using a clock and "talking" with your partners, try to figure out how
   many times in a day (24 hours) the hour hand and the minute hand form
   a right angle. You may want to do a chart and watch the hour hand move
   between the numbers, as you move the minute hand...

   **************************************

   MathMagic Cycle 16: Level K-3 Advanced

   **************************************

   One of the better known works of architecture of the Roman Empire was
   the Coliseum. For a few months, at its maximum splendor (before the
   senate began cutting its funding... yes, old problem) there stood an
   Imperial Roman Guard in each of its 1000 arches. Imagine the splendor!
   (Not too cool if you were the entertainment.)

   The first budget conscious cut called for the removal of every other
   Imperial Guard. Imagine, one stayed, the next went. The second senate
   cut called for the removal of every third guard (from the original
   count). So, the order went out that guards of gate 1 and gate 2 (if
   there was one) could stay, while guard of gate 3 (and every other
   third one) had to go...  Naturally, what the senate was doing was
   getting rid of some guards, but also getting the credit for a lot of
   "cuts" of gates that had no guard.

   The "cuts" continued number after number, until a diligent member of
   the opposition party cried foul. He said, "Only some of the cuts are
   actually getting rid of guards. A lot of them are not!" Can you build
   an argument for this senator?

   Also, if you were a Roman Imperial Guard that every week had to choose
   a different gate you had to look after (and run the risk of loosing
   your job), which gates would be your choice?

   ------------------
   Good luck MrH
   ------------------------------------------------------------
   Example Four: Various Projects Announced by Global SchoolNet
   ------------------------------------------------------------

   Hi,

   Our teachers have been doing K12 projects over the Internet for the
   past 12 years.

   There is NO CHARGE for schools to participate in the projects. Global
   SchoolNet organizes, manages, and facilitates collaborative learning
   projects for schools with any level of connectivity . . . from email
   only . . . to desktop videoconferencing.

   To access these projects go to:
    http://gsn.org/gsn/gsn.projects.html

   Sample of Projects you will find
   ---------------------------------

   The Global Schoolhouse (Featuring Desktop Video-Conferencing)

   Today's "school of the future" uses the most powerful Internet tools,
   including live video, to link K12 classrooms to their communities and
   to other children around the world.

   CALREN: Building the California Global Schoolhouse

   Education leader (Global SchoolNet) partners with business leader
   (Aldea Communications) to discover and document how schools,
   businesses, and the community can network to share resources.

   CyberStars: Number Ones of Tomorrow

   For the first time ever, children around the globe can share their
   musical talents with the world via the Internet.

   PAACE: Personal Achievement And Career Awareness

   Students learn and practice important career skills, including those
   dealing with education, attitude, manners, grooming, and fashion.

   Scientist-on-Tap

   Scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory demonstrate the power of
   distance learning, by interacting with students around world, from the
   comfort of their own offices!

   Projects that Require Email Access Only
   --------------------------------------

   Ask a Geologist (AAG)

   Have you ever wondered about why California has so many earthquakes
   and New York does not? Why is there so much oil in Texas but not in
   Wisconsin?  What are the deepest canyons in the United States? (The
   answer might surprise you!) While the answers to many of these
   questions might be as close as an encyclopedia, some questions are
   difficult to answer without checking many sources. Beginning Monday,
   October 3, 1994, the USGS will offer a new, experimental Internet
   service - Ask-A-Geologist.  General questions on earth sciences may be
   sent by electronic mail

   Family Tree-Mail: Language Translation

   In this pilot project, children use Globalink's language translation
   software to share family histories via email in their native languages
   of Spanish, French, German, and Italian.

   Field Trips

   Join other classes on their live field trips. In turn, you take other
   classes with you when you visit local places of interest. Our
   FIELDTRIPS-L mailing list manages this "exchange" of classroom field
   trips and excursions.

   Geogame

   This perennially favorite project will excite your students as they
   immerse themselves in atlases, maps, almanacs, and other references in
   order to solve a geography puzzle. Your students help create the
   puzzle by answering 8 questions about your community: latitude,
   typical weather, land formations, time zone, points of interest, etc.
   We combine their responses with other classes to create a geography
   puzzle your students will love to solve. A simple first project for
   beginning telecommunicators.

   Global Grocery List

   Your students visit their local grocery stores and record the prices
   of items on the grocery list, then share their prices with other
   participating classes all over the world. The result is a growing
   table of current, peer-collected data that can be used in math, social
   studies, science, and health classes (and others). This project is
   especially good for telecomputing beginners: it has very little
   structure and no timeline.

   Jane Goodall Institute

   Students learn about the interconnectedness of all life on earth as
   they observe the world around them and become involved in
   environmental and humanitarian issues. Explore Gombe and Kibira
   National Parks, ChimpanZoo, and the Roots & Shoots Program.

   The Jason Project

   The Jason Project brings the thrill of exploration and discovery live
   to students around the world as they participate in an amazing
   electronic field trip. In 1995 they trekked to Hawaii to study
   volcanoes. The Global SchoolNet Foundation manages the Jason Project
   Listservs and features them in our Global SCHLnet Newsgroup Service.

   LOGO Foundation

   The Logo Foundation, in cooperation with the Global SchoolNet
   Foundation, is now managing a Logo listserv discussion group available
   to anybody on the Internet.

   Newsday

   Your students write articles and post them on the Newsday Newswire for
   the whole world to see! Then they read and choose articles from other
   schools to download and include in their own newspaper! Finally... you
   share your newspaper with other classes... and they in turn share
   theirs with you.  Your students' reading and writing skills will
   improve while they learn about current local, national, and global
   issues.

   Where on the Globe is Roger?

   Children are invited to learn about history, culture, geography, and
   the environment, while they electronically travel around the world
   with Roger Williams - in his quest to promote world peace!

   --------------------------------------
   Example Five: Professional Development
   --------------------------------------

          THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND ANNOUNCES "DISASTER IN THE CLASSROOM"
          A *LIVE* TELEVISION PROGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE USES OF REAL-TIME
          WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMAGERY IN K-12 EDUCATION

   Beginning in September 1995, Professor Perry Samson, University of
   Michigan professor and Director of the Weather Underground, will host
   an innovative, biweekly series of live, interactive, television shows
   aimed at teachers, administrators, and parents interested in K-12
   education, Internet resources, and the use of real-time weather
   information in science.  Aimed specifically at the professional
   development of teachers, the programs create a model for teachers to
   carry back into their classroom, a model that promotes project-based
   student centered learning environments using new technology and
   science ideas creatively.

   The programs, interactive in design, allow participants to ask
   questions and respond to information through a simultaneous e-mail
   dialogue. A strength in the design of this series is its ability to
   allow an interactive discussion of environmental issues (severe
   weather, snowstorms, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic activity , El
   Nino, etc.) in a timely manner, matching current news items to
   science activities. The programs in the virtual classroom series are
   uplinked to a satellite from the University of Michigan.  Teachers,
   administrators, parents or students can view the class either on
   their own or in groups.  Participants will be encouraged to use their
   computer and modem to log into our server during the show.  This
   interactive virtual classroom will allow participants to pose or
   answer questions live (or after the show).

   Navigation on the Internet and pointers to information specific to
   the science curriculum ideas presented on the show are emphasized and
   made available to teachers for use in their classrooms.  Participants
   are shown where on the Internet to find imagery and activities
   relevant to the topics discussed and are lead through a discussion of
   new methods to utilize these data in their classroom activities.
   Example activities utilizing current weather, climate and
   environmental conditions are demonstrated.

   If you are interested in participating in this series from your home
   or school and would like to receive graduate credit for it, please
   contact:

           The Weather Underground
   URL:    http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu

   [other contact information deleted]

   First show is Sept. 18, contact us or look to URL above for more
   information soon!!!!!!

 

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