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RFC 1574 - Essential Tools for the OSI Internet


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Network Working Group                                           S. Hares
Request for Comments: 1574                                  Merit/NSFNET
Obsoletes: 1139                                             C. Wittbrodt
Category: Informational                      Stanford University/BARRNet
                                                           February 1994

                  Essential Tools for the OSI Internet

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document specifies the following three necessary tools to debug
   problems in the deployment and maintenance of networks using ISO 8473
   (CLNP):

      - ping or OSI Echo function
      - traceroute function which uses the OSI Echo function
      - routing table dump function

   These CLNS tools are the basics required for hosts and routers for
   CLNS network support. It is intended that this document specify the
   most basic support level required for CLNS hosts and routers.

   To support some of the needed tools (ping and traceroute) this memo
   specifies the mechanism specified in RFC 1575 [3].

Table of Contents

   Section 1. Conventions .......................................  2
   Section 2. Introduction ......................................  2
   Section 3. Specification .....................................  2
   Section 3.1 Ping .............................................  3
   Section 3.1.1 Protocol Support ...............................  3
   Section 3.1.2 Functions supported by the ping utility ........  3
   Section 3.2 Traceroute .......................................  3
   Section 3.2.1 Basic Traceroute ...............................  4
   Section 3.2.2 Use of Partial Source route in traceroute ......  5
   Section 3.2.3 Information needed from a Traceroute utility ...  6
   Section 3.3 OSI routing table dump ...........................  6
   Section 3.4 MIB variables available via SNMP .................  7
   Section 3.4.1 Summary of MIB Variables .......................  8
   Section 3.4.2 ASN.1 Syntax for these MIB variables ...........  8

   Section 4. OSI HOST.txt format ............................... 10
   Section 5. Acknowledgements .................................. 11
   Section 6. References ........................................ 12
   Section 7. Security Considerations ........................... 12
   Section 8. Author's Addresses ................................ 13

1.  Conventions

   The following language conventions are used in the items of
   specification in this document:

      o MUST, SHALL, or MANDATORY -- the item is an absolute
        requirement of the specification.

      o SHOULD or RECOMMENDED -- the item should generally be followed
        for all but exceptional circumstances.

      o MAY or OPTIONAL -- the item is truly optional and may be
        followed or ignored according to the needs of the implementor.

2.  Introduction

   Currently in the Internet, OSI protocols are being used more and
   more.  As the network managers of an Internet once predominantly a
   TCP/IP network began deploying parts of the emerging OSI Internet, it
   became apparent that network layer OSI network debugging tools were
   almost nonexistent.  When such tools existed, different
   implementations didn't work together.

   As stated in RFC 1575, a simple network layer mechanism is necessary
   to allow systems to be probed to test network layer integrity.  For
   the purposes of running OSI networks the authors of this document
   believe that other tools are necessary too.  Other tools described
   below are an echo function, a traceroute function, and a routing
   table dump.  What this document defines is the minimum subset of
   tools that are necessary to allow for the debugging of network
   problems.

3.  Specification

   This document's purpose is to specify a standard ping, traceroute,
   and OSI routing table dumping mechanisms for use for the ISO 8473
   (CLNP) protocol in the OSI Internet.  A detailed description of the
   specified mechanisms is below.  These mechanism MUST be available on
   every router (inter mediate system) or host (end system) that
   provides OSI service for the Internet.  These three functions are the
   basic tool set for the OSI network layer for the Internet.

3.1.  Ping

3.1.1.  Protocol Support

   The long term echo mechanism, as described in 1575, requires the use
   of two new type values in the packet header of the ISO 8473 Network
   Protocol Data Units (NPDUs), or preferably packets.  The two values
   are:

      1E(hex) - for the echo-request Selector and,
      1F(hex)  - for the echo-response Selector.

   Nodes which support ISO 8473 but do not support these two new values
   (for the type code option field in the header of an ISO 8473 packet)
   MUST send back an error packet if the ERROR report flag is set in the
   packet.

   To support a ping function for ISO 8473, all end systems (hosts) and
   intermediate systems (routers) MUST support the "long term" echo
   function as defined by RFC 1575 [3] AND also set the ERROR report
   flag in the 8473 header.

   The setting of the ERROR report flag is required because this allows
   a way for a compliant host or router to ping a non-compliant host or
   router.  When a non-complaint host or router receives a "ping" packet
   with the new type function (Echo Request Selector), it MUST attempt
   to return an ISO 8473 error packet to the originating host, thus
   showing reachability.

3.1.2.  Functions supported by the ping utility

   A ping utility MUST be able to provide the Round trip time of each
   packet, plus the average minimum and maximum RTT over several ping
   packets.  When an error packet is received by the node, the ping
   utility MUST report the error code to the user.

3.2.  Traceroute

   The CLNP trace is similar to the ping utility except that it utilizes
   the "Lifetime" field in the ISO 8473 packet.  Hosts and routers that
   support OSI MUST also support CLNP trace.  The "Lifetime" field
   serves the same function as the Time To Live (TTL) field does in an
   IP packet.  A node (router or host) cannot forward ISO 8473 packet
   with a value for the Lifetime of zero.  If the ERROR REPORT flag is
   set in the ISO 8473 packet, an error packet, will be returned to the
   originator of the packet.

3.2.1.  Basic Traceroute

   If a ISO 8473 echo-request packet is sent with "Lifetime" field value
   of 1, the first hop node (router or end system) will return an error
   packet to the originator the packet.  If the first hop node supports
   the echo-request type field the error code will be either:

      A0 (hex) - Lifetime Expired while Data Unit in Transit
      A1 (hex) - Lifetime Expired during Re-assembly

   If the first hop node does not support echo-request type field, the
   error code will be:

      B0 (hex) - Unsupported Option not Specified.

   When trying to trace a route to a remote node, the destination
   address in the echo-request packet sent should be this remote
   destination.  By using increasing values in the "Lifetime" field a
   route can be traced through the network to the remote node.  This
   traceroute function should be implemented on each system (host or
   router) to allow a user to trace a network path to a remote host or
   router.

   The error message is used as evidence of the reachability and
   identity of the first hop.  The originator then sends a packet with a
   "lifetime" field value of 2.  The first hop decrements the "Lifetime"
   and because the "Lifetime" is still greater than 0, it forwards it
   on.  The second hop decrements the "Lifetime" field value and sends
   an error packet (ER NPDU) with one of the two "Lifetime Expired"
   error codes listed above to the originator.  This sequence is
   repeated until either:

      - the remote host is reached an either an echo-response packet is
        sent back or (for nodes that do not have the required Echo
        support) an error packet is sent back, or

      - the an error packet is received with error code (B0) indicating
        that a node will not pass the echo-response packet, or

      - an error packet is received with one of the following errors:

      80(hex)  - Destination Address Unreachable
      81(hex)  - Destination Address Unknown.

   If any of the following Error codes are received in an error packet,
   a second packet should be sent by the originating node:

             CodeReason from 8473
             -----------------------------
             00(hex)  - Reason not specified
             01(hex)  - Protocol procedure error
             02(hex)  - Incorrect checksum
             03(hex)  - Packet Discarded due to Congestion
             04(hex)  - Header Syntax Error (cannot be parsed)
             05(hex)  - Segmentation needed but not permitted
             06(hex)  - Incomplete packet received
             07(hex)  - Duplicate Option
             B1(hex)  - Unsupported Protocol Version
             B2(hex)  - Unsupported Security Option
             B3(hex)  - Unsupported Source Routeing Option
             B4(hex)  - Unsupported Recording of Route Option
             C0(hex)  - Reassembly Interface

   If one of these error is detected, an error value should be returned
   to the user.  More than one echo packet, may be sent at a "Lifetime"
   value.  The number of additional echo packets is left up to the
   implementation of this traceroute function.

   If one of the following errors is received, AND "partial source
   route" is not specified in the echo-request packets, send a second
   echo-request packet to the destination at a "Lifetime" value:

             Code      Reason from 8473
             --------------------------------
             90(hex)   Unspecified Source Routeing Error
             91(hex)   Syntax Error in Source Routeing Field
             92(hex)   Unknown Address in Source Routeing Field
             93(hex)   Path not Acceptable

   (The echo-request packet may have been damaged while traversing
   through the network.)

3.2.2.  Use of Partial Source route in traceroute

   The current IP traceroute has a 3rd party or "loose source route"
   function.  The ISO 8473 protocol also supports a "partial source
   routeing" function.  However, if a node (router or host) does not
   support the "partial source routing" function an ISO 8473 packet gets
   passed along the path "exactly as though the function has not been
   selected.  The packet shall not be discarded for this reason." [2]

   In order utilize the partial source route function in the OSI
   traceroute, a node must set the "source routeing" option and "partial
   source routeing" parameter within that option.  A 3rd party, or
   "loose source route" traceroute function requires that a node send an

   echo-request packet with the "loose source routeing" field set. The
   functioning of the 3rd party/"loose source route" traceroute is the
   same except the following errors cause the traceroute to be
   terminated:

             Code      Reason from ISO 8473
             --------------------------------------------------
             92 Unknown Address in Source Routeing Field
             93 Path not Acceptable

   These errors may indicate a problem with the "loose source route"
   listed in the echo-request packet for this destination.  Additional
   packets with the same lifetime will only repeat this error.  These
   errors should be reported to the user of the traceroute function.

3.2.3.  Information needed from a Traceroute utility

   A traceroute utility should provide the following information to the
   user:

      - the identity of systems that comprise the path or route
        to the destination (the identifiers are called Network
        Entity Titles or NETs in OSI and ISO 8473)

      - ping times (in Round trip times) for each
        hop in the path,

      - error codes from error packet received as a
        response to the an echo-request packet, and

      - any other error conditions encountered
        by traceroute.

3.3.  OSI routing table dump

   Each OSI host (end system) or router (intermediate system) MUST be
   able to dump any of its routing tables.  Routing tables may come from
   the:

             a.) the ES-IS information
             b.) static
             c.) IS-IS
             d.) IDRP

   or any other source.

   Each system MUST be able to dump the routing table entries via some
   out of band mechanism. A method MUST exist to provide these. A show

   osi routes command SHOULD be created with the following options:

             - a        for all routes
             - esis     for es-is routes
             - isis     for is-is routes
             - idrp     for idrp routes
             - static   for static routes
             - other    for routes from other sources.

   In addition, routing tables SHOULD be available via either SNMP or
   CMIP.  The specification of CMIP variables are outside the scope of
   this specification.  Section 3.4 specifies the RFC 1238 MIB variables
   which MUST be available via SNMP.  These two variables simply allow
   the user to get some basic CLNS routing information.

   Please note that not all the information requested is available via
   the CLNS MIB.  Due to this fact, it is anticipated that additional
   work on a CLNS MIB will be done in the future.  When a new MIB is
   written, it is anticipated that this document will be updated to
   include the additional MIB variables to collect such things as the
   ES-IS cache.

3.4.  MIB variables available via SNMP

   The Simple Network Management Protocol [6] plays an important role in
   monitoring of multi-protocol, managed resources in the Internet. By
   convention, SNMP is mapped onto User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 6);
   however, in those situations where it is not possible to communicate
   with an ISO 8473 managed resource using SNMP over UDP, or where
   communication with an ISO 8473 managed resource using SNMP/UDP is not
   possible/appropriate, SNMP messages should be mapped onto an OSI
   transport (7) The following Managed Objects for the SNMP SHOULD be
   supported to facilitate remote monitoring using the SNMP:

   The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) plays an important role
   in monitoring of multi-protocol, managed resources in the Internet.
   By convention, SNMP is mapped onto User Datagram Protocol (UDP);
   however in those situations where it is not possible to communicate
   with an ISO 8473 managed resource using SNMP over UDP, or where
   communication with an ISO 8473 managed resource using SNMP/UDP is not
   possible/appropriate, SNMP should be mapped onto an OSI transport
   (8).  The following Managed Objects SHOULD be supported for remoted
   monitoring using SNMP:

3.4.1.  Summary of MIB Variables

   RFC 1238 CLNS MIB [5]

      1) clnpAddrTable - Addresses for Interfaces
      2) clnpRoutingTable - OSI routes in system routing table.

3.4.2.  ASN.1 Syntax for these MIB variables

   The ASN.1 syntax for the two variables in CLNS MIB (RFC 1238) is
   included below for easy reference.  That RFC remains the
   authoritative source for the MIB definitions.

          1) clnpAddrTable

            clnpAddrTable OBJECT-TYPE
            object.id =  .... {clnp 21 }

            clnpAddrTable = SEQUENCE OF ClnpAddrEntry
            CLNPAddrEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
                  clnpAdEntAddr
                          CLNPAddres,
                  clnpAdEntIfIndex,
                          INTEGER,
                  clnpAdEntReasmMaxSize
                          INTEGER (0...65535);
                  }

              clnpAdEntAddr = ClnpAddress
              clnpAddress = OCTET string (Size (1...20);
              clnpAdEntIfIndex = INTEGER;
              clnpAdEntReasmMaxSize = INTEGER (0...65535);   #

          Descriptions of Table entry values:

          clnpAdEntAddr - CLNP address for this interface value
          clnpAdEntIfIndex - Interface Index value corresponding to
                             IfIndex value.
          clnpAdEntReasmMaxSize = Maximum size of a pdu that can be
                                  reassembled from incoming PDUs
                                  received on this interface.

          2)  clnpRoutingTable

             object id =....{clnp 22}
             clnpRoutingTable =  SEQUENCE OF ClnpRouteEntry;
             ClnpRouteEntry = SEQUENCE OF {
                          clnpRouteDest,
                          clnpRouteIfIndex,
                          clnpRouteMetric1,
                          clnpRouteMetric2,
                          clnpRouteMetric3,
                          clnpRouteNextHop,
                          clnpRouteType,
                          clnpRouteProto,
                          clnpRouteAge,
                          clnpRouteInfo}

            clnpRoutDest ::= ClnpAddress;    # Address in Route table
                                             # (prefix or full address
            clnpRouteIfIndex ::= Integer;    # IfIndex value for
                                             # interface next hop can
                                             # be reached through.
            clnpRouteMetric1 ::= Integer;    # primary routing metric
                                             # for this protocol.
                                             # Specific meaning
                                             # depends on clnpRouteProto
                                             # value -1 if not used
            clnpRouteMetric2 ::= Integer;    # alternate routing metric
                                             # for this protocol.
                                             # Specific meaning
                                             # depends on clnpRouteProto
                                             # value -1 if not used
            clnpRouteMetric3 ::= Integer;    # alternate routing metric
                                             # for this protocol.
                                             # Specific meaning
                                             # depends on clnpRouteProto
                                             # value -1 if not used
            clnpRouteMetric4::= Integer;     # alternate routing metric
                                             # for this protocol.
                                             # Specific meaning
                                             # depends on clnpRouteProto
                                             # value -1 if not used
            clnpRouteNextHop::= ClnpAddress; # Address of Next Hop in
                                             # Routing
                                             # Table
            clnpRouteType::=INTEGER {
                          other (1),         # none of following
                          invalid (2),       # an invalid route
                          direct(3),         # a direct route

                          remote(4)}         # a remote route

            clnprouteProto::= INTEGER {
                          other (1),         # none of the following
                                             # (manually configured
                                             # falls in this category)
                          local(2),          # configured entries
                          netmngt(3),        # set via Network
                                             # management
                          is-is(9),          # ISO 10589
                          ciscoIgrp(11),     # Ciscos OSI IGRP
                          ospf(13),          # OSPF set
                          bgp(14),           # BGP sets
                          idrp(15)           # addition suggested to
                                             # rfc 1238
                                             # in processing
            clnpRouteMetric5::= Integer;     # alternate routing metric
                                             # for this protocol.
                                             # Specific meaning
                                             # depends on clnpRouteProto
                                             # value -1 if not used
            clnpRouteInfo ::= OBJECT-ID;     # protocol id that
                                             # installed this route
                          }

4.  OSI HOST.txt format

   The OSI format for addresses allows addresses to be 20 bytes.  In the
   long term, a Directory service (DNS service or OSI Directory service
   (X.500)), will provide a host name to address mapping.  The process
   of getting OSI capable DNS and Directory service may require OSI
   pathway to already be set-up.  Most host and router systems use a
   fixed table to provide this name to NSAP address mapping in order to
   get OSI working on their system. The current operational problem is
   each implementation has a different format.  This document defines a
   fixed format so that these initial name to NSAP mapping files can be
   shared through-out the internet.

   To conform to this document, a host or router supporting CLNS MUST
   have support a "osi host.txt" file with the format below. The "osi
   host.txt" file may be used for other OSI applications or TUBA
   applications.  For these other applications, other fields may be
   defined but the definition of these is outside the scope of this
   specification.

   OSI applications may use another file name for osi address
   information.  NSAP addresses in any osi address information MUST use
   the format below.  This host name to NSAP mapping MUST be available

   for use by the following utilities on CLNS hosts and routers:

      - OSI Echo (Ping) function,
      - OSI traceroute function, and
      - router table look-up for CLNS
        routing information

   Host and router systems MUST also support a NSAP to name mapping by
   the Domain Name Service Directory or or the OSI Directory service
   (X.500).

   Format of osi hosts file:

      <NSAP Address> <name1> <name2> ...<name>

   The NSAP Address should be in the following format:

      <first octet>.<2nd octet 3rd octet>.<4th octet 5 octet>.

   comments on the above format:

   The NSAP octets should be expressed in hexidecimal. The dots are aids
   to help read the NSAP address, and MUST NOT be required for an NSAP
   address parsing.  However, each NSAP address file MUST be able to
   have the ability to handle the insertion of dots.  The location of
   the inserted dots within an NSAP address MUST NOT have any
   significance other than to make the address easier to read.

   An example of this use in the GOSIP format is:

      47.0005.80ff.ff00.0000.0001.0001.0a0b.0c0d.0204.00

   An example of this format in ANSI format is:

      39.480f.8000.0500.0000.0001.0001.0a0b0c0d.0204.00

   This value quickly shows the AFI and the NSEL octets on either end.

      <name1> <name2> <name> - Indicates a sequence of name associated
      with this nsap address.

5.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Dave
   Piscitello.  He not only kept the document accurate, but also helped
   us to get rid of the ISO jargon and make the document more readable.
   Thanks to Paulina Knibbe for her work with the host.txt format. We
   would also like to thank members of the Network OSI Operations

   Working Group of the IETF for their comments.

6.  References

   [1] ISO/IEC 8473, Information Processing Systems, "Protocol for
       Providing the Connectionless-mode Network Service and Provision
       of Underlying Service", May 1987.

   [2] Hagens, R., "An Echo Function for ISO 8473",  RFC 1139,  IETF-OSI
       Working Group, January 1990.

   [3] Hares, S., and C. Wittbrodt, "CLNP echo (ISO 8473)", RFC 1575,
       Merit/NSFNET, Stanford University/BARRNet, February 1994.

   [4] ISO/IEC DIS 10747 Information Processing Systems -
       Telecommunications and Information Exchange between Systems -
       Protocol for Exchange of Inter-domain Routeing Information among
       Intermediate Systems to Support Forwarding of ISO 8473 packets.

   [5] Satz, G., "Connectionless-mode Network Service Management
       Information Base - for use with Connectionless Network Protocol
       (ISO 8473) and End system to Intermediate System Protocol (ISO
       9452)", RFC 1238, cisco Systems, Inc., June 1991.

   [6] Case, J., Fedor, M., Schoffstall, M., and J.  Davin, "Simple
       Network Management Protocol", STD 15, RFC 1157, SNMP Research,
       Performance Systems International, Performance Systems
       International, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, May 1990.

   [7] Rose, M., "SNMP over OSI", RFC 1418, Dover Beach Consulting,
       Inc., March 1993.

   [8] Information processing systems - Open Systems Interconnection -
       Protocol for Providing the Connectionless-mode Transport Service,
       International Organization for Standardization.  International
       Standard 8602, December 1987.

7.  Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

8.  Authors' Addresses

   Susan K. Hares
   MERIT/NSFNET
   Internet Engineering
   1075 Beal Avenue
   Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2112

   Phone: (313) 936-3000
   EMail: skh@merit.edu

   Cathy J. Wittbrodt
   Stanford University/BARRNet
   Networking Systems
   Pine Hall 115
   Stanford, CA 94305

   Phone: (415) 725-5481
   EMail: cjw@magnolia.Stanford.EDU

 

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