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RFC 1241 - Scheme for an internet encapsulation protocol: Versio

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Network Working Group                                       R. Woodburn
Request for Comments: 1241                                         SAIC
                                                               D. Mills
                                                 University of Delaware
                                                              July 1991

            A Scheme for an Internet Encapsulation Protocol:
                               Version 1

1. Status of this Memo

   This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested.
   Please refer to the current edition of the "IAB Official Protocol
   Standards" for the standardization state and status of this protocol.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

2. Glossary

   Clear Datagram -
     The unmodified IP datagram in the User Space before

   Clear Header -
     The header portion of the Clear Datagram before
     Encapsulation.  This header includes the IP header and
     possibly part or all of the next layer protocol header,
     i.e., the TCP header.

   Decapsulation -
     The stripping of the Encapsulation Header and forwarding
     of the Clear Datagram by the Decapsulator.

   Decapsulator -
     The entity responsible for receiving an Encapsulated
     Datagram, decapsulating it, and delivering it to the
     destination User Space.  Delivery may be direct, or via
     Encapsulation.  A Decapsulator may be a host or a gateway.

   Encapsulated Datagram -
     The datagram consisting of a Clear Datagram prepended with
     an Encapsulation Header.

   Encapsulation -
     The process of mapping a Clear Datagram to the
     Encapsulation Space, prepending an Encapsulation Header to
     the Clear Datagram and routing the Encapsulated Datagram

     to a Decapsulator.

   Encapsulation Header -
     The header for the Encapsulation Protocol prepended to the
     Clear Datagram during Encapsulation.  This header consists
     of an IP header followed by an Encapsulation Protocol

   Encapsulation Protocol Header -
     The Encapsulation Protocol specific portion of the
     Encapsulation Header.

   Encapsulation Space -
     The address and routing space within which the
     Encapsulators and Decapsulators reside.  Routing within
     this space is accomplished via Flows.  Encapsulation
     Spaces do not overlap, that is, the address of any
     Encapsulator or Decapsulator is unique for all
     Encapsulation Spaces.

   Encapsulator -
     The entity responsible for mapping a given User Space
     datagram to the Encapsulation Space, encapsulating the
     datagram, and forwarding the Encapsulated Datagram to a
     Decapsulator.  An Encapsulator may be a host or a gateway.

   Flow -
     Also called a "tunnel."  A flow is the end-to-end path in
     the Encapsulation Space over which Encapsulated Datagrams
     travel.  There may be several Encapsulator/Decapsulator
     pairs along a given flow.  Note that a Flow does not
     denote what User Space gateways are traversed along the

   Flow ID -
     A 32-bit identifier which uniquely distinguishes a flow in
     a given Encapsulator or Decapsulator.  Flow IDs are
     specific to a single Encapsulator/Decapsulator Entity and
     are not global quantities.

   Mapping Function -
     This is the function of mapping a Clear Header to a
     particular Flow.  All encapsulators along a given Flow are
     required to map a given Clear Header to the same Flow.

   User Address -
     The address or identifier uniquely identifying an entity
     within a User Space.

   Source Route -
     A complete end-to-end route which is computed at the
     source and enumerates transit gateways.

   User Space -
     The address and routing space within which the users
     reside.  Routing within this space provides reachability
     between all address pairs within the space.  User Spaces
     do not overlap, that is, a given User Address is unique in
     all User Spaces.

3. Background

   For several years researchers in the Internet community have needed a
   means of "tunneling" between networks.  A tunnel is essentially a
   Source Route that circumvents conventional routing mechanisms.
   Tunnels provide the means to bypass routing failures, avoid broken
   gateways and routing domains, or establish deterministic paths for

   There are several means of accomplishing tunneling.  In the past,
   tunneling has been accomplished through source routing options in the
   IP header which allow gateways along a given path to be enumerated.
   The disadvantage of source routing in the IP header is that it
   requires the source to know something about the networks traversed to
   reach the destination.  The source must then modify outgoing packets
   to reflect the source route.  Current routing implementations
   generally don't support source routes in their routing tables as a
   means of reaching an IP address, nor do current routing protocols.

   Another means of tunneling would be to develop a new IP option.  This
   option field would be part of a separate IP header that could be
   prepended to an IP datagram.  The IP option would indicate
   information about the original datagram.  This tunneling option has
   the disadvantage of significantly modifying existing IP
   implementations to handle a new IP option.  It also would be less
   flexible in permitting the tunneling of other protocols, such as ISO
   protocols, through an IP environment.  An even less palatable
   alternative would be to replace IP with a new networking protocol or
   a new version of IP with tunneling built in as part of its

   A final alternative is to create a new IP encapsulation protocol
   which uses the current IP header format.  By using encapsulation, a
   destination can be reached transparently without the source having to
   know topology specifics.  Virtual networks can be created by tying
   otherwise unconnected machines together with flows through an
   encapsulation space.

                                               ++++++  Clear Datagram
                                               ******  Encapsulated
                                                    &  User Space Host

           User Space A                        User Space C

          --------------                    -----------
         /              \                  /           \
        /                \                /             \
       |                  |              |               |
       |     &            |              |               |
       |     +   +++++    |              |      *****    |
       |     +++++   +    |              |      *   *    |
       |             +    |              |  *****   *    |
        \            +   /  -----------  \ *       *    /  ----------
         \           ++> # *         **> # *        ***> # ++++      \
          --------------  / *        *  \  ------------  /   +        \
                         |  *        *   |              |    +         |
                         |  *        *   |              |    +         |
                         |  *****    *   |              |    +++++++   |
                         |      *****    |              |          V   |
                         |               |              |          &   |
                          \             /                \             /
                           \           /                  \           /
                            -----------                    ----------
                           Encapsulation                      User
                              Space B                        Space D

                  Fig. 1.  Encapsulation Architectural Model

   Up until now, there has been no standard for an encapsulation
   protocol.  This RFC provides a means of performing encapsulation in
   the Internet environment.

4. Architecture and Approach

   The architecture for encapsulation is based on two entities -- an
   Encapsulator and a Decapsulator.  These entities and the associated
   spaces are shown in Fig. 1.

   Encapsulators and Decapsulators have addresses in the User Spaces to
   which they belong, as well as addresses in the Encapsulation Spaces
   to which they belong. An encapsulator will receive a Clear Datagram

   from its User Space, and after determining that encapsulation should
   be used, perform a mapping function which translates the User Space
   information in the Clear Header to an Encapsulation Header.  This
   Encapsulation Header is then prepended to the Clear Datagram to form
   the Encapsulated Datagram, as in Fig 2.  It is desirable that the
   encapsulation process be transparent to entities in the User Space.
   Only the Encapsulator need know that encapsulation is occurring.

         | Encapsulating |  Encapsulation  | Clear  |  Remainder of  |
         |   IP Header   | Protocol Header | Header | Clear Datagram |

         |                                 |                         |
         |        Encapsulation Header     |      Clear Datagram     |
         |                                 |                         |

                 Fig. 2.  Example of an Encapsulated Datagram

   The Encapsulator forwards the datagram to a Decapsulator whose
   identity is determined at the time of encapsulation.  The
   Decapsulator receives the Encapsulated Datagram and removes the
   Encapsulation Header and treats the Clear Datagram as if it were
   received locally.  The requirement for the address of the
   Decapsulator is that it be reachable from the Encapsulator's
   Encapsulation Space address.

5. Generation of the Encapsulation Header

   The contents of the Encapsulation Header are generated by performing
   a mapping function from the Clear Header to the contents of the
   Encapsulation Header.  This mapping function could take many forms,
   but the end result should be the same.  The following paragraphs
   describe one method of performing the mapping.  The process is
   illustrated in Fig. 3.

   In the first part of the mapping function, the Clear Header is
   matched with stored headers and masks to determine a Flow ID.  This
   is essentially a "mask-and-match" table look up, where the lookup
   table holds three entries, a Clear Header, a header mask, and a
   corresponding Flow ID.  The mask can be used for allowing a range of
   source and destination addresses to map to a given flow.  Other
   fields, such as the IP TOS bits or even the TCP source or destination
   port addresses could also be used to discriminate between Flows.
   This flexibility allows many possibilities for using the mapping
   function.  Not only can a given network be associated with a
   particular flow, but even a particular TCP protocol or connection

   could be distinguished from another.

   How the lookup table is built and maintained is not part of this
   protocol.  It is assumed that it is managed by some higher layer
   entity.  It would be sufficient to configure the tables from ascii
   text files if necessary.

                                                |        |
                                             +->| Encap. |--+
                                             |  | Info.  |  |
                   +-------+                 |  | Table  |  |
                   | Mask  |   +---------+   |  |        |  |
       Clear --+-->|  &    |-->| Flow ID |---+  |        |  |
       Header  |   | Match |   +---------+      +--------+  |
               |   +-------+                                |
               |                                            +-->  Encap
               +----------------------------------------------->  Header

                Fig. 3.  Generation of the Encapsulation Header

   The Flow IDs are managed at a higher layer as well.  An example of
   how Flow IDs can be managed is found in the Setup protocol of the
   Inter-Domain Policy Sensitive Routing Protocol (IDPR). [4] The upper
   layer protocol would be responsible for maintaining information not
   carried in the encapsulation protocol related to the flow.  This
   could include the information necessary to construct the
   Encapsulation Header (described below) as well as information such as
   the type of data being encapsulated (currently only IP is defined),
   and the type of authentication used if any.  Note that IDPR Setup
   requires the use of a longer Flow ID which is unique for the entire
   universe of Encapsulators and is the same at every Encapsulator.

   The Flow ID that results from the mapping of a Clear Header is a 32
   bit quantity and identifies the Flow as it is seen by the
   Encapsulator.  If a Clear Datagram must be encapsulated and
   decapsulated several times in order reach the destination, the Flow
   ID may be different at each Encapsulator, but need not be.  The Flow
   ID acts as an index into a table of Encapsulation Header information
   that is used to build the Encapsulation Header.  Note that the
   decision to make the Flow ID local to the Encapsulator is due to the
   difficulty in choosing and maintaining globally unique identifiers.

   The intermediate step of using a Flow ID entirely optional.  The
   important requirement is that all Encapsulators along a Flow map the
   same Clear Header to the same Flow (which could be identified by
   different identifiers along the way).  However, by allowing for a

   Flow ID in the protocol, a more efficient implementation of the
   mapping function becomes possible.  This is discussed in more detail
   when we consider the Decapsulator.

   The following information is required to construct the Encapsulation

   Flow ID -
     This is the key for this table of information and
     represents the Flow ID relative to the current

   Decapsulator Address -
     The IP address of the Decapsulator in the Encapsulation
     Space must be known to build the IP portion of the
     Encapsulation Header.

   Decapsulator's Flow ID -
     The Flow ID, if any, for the Flow as seen by the
     Decapsulator must be known.

   Previous Encapsulator's Address -
     If this is not the first Encapsulator along the Flow, the
     previous Encapsulator's address must be known for error

   Previous Encapsulator's Flow ID -
     In addition to the previous Encapsulator's address, the
     Flow ID of the Flow relative to the previous Encapsulator
     must be known.

   The Encapsulation Header consists of an IP Header as well as an
   Encapsulation Protocol Header.  The two pieces of information
   required for the Encapsulation Protocol Header which must be
   determined at the time of encapsulation are the protocol which is
   being encapsulated and the Flow ID to send to the Decapsulator.  The
   generation of the IP header is more complicated.

   There are  two possible ways each field in the Clear Header could
   related to the new IP header.

   Copy -
     Copy the existing field from the Clear Header to the IP
     header in the Encapsulation Header.

   Ignore -
     The field may or may not have existed in the Clear Header,
     but does not apply to the new IP header.

   The IP header has a fixed portion and a variable portion, the options
   list.  A summary of all possible IP fields and the relation to the
   Clear Header follows in Table 1. [2]

   Note that most of the fields in the Clear Header are simply ignored.
   Fields such as the Header Length in the Clear Header have no effect
   on the Header Length of the new IP header.  The fields which are more
   interesting and require some thought are now discussed.

   The Quality of Service bits should be copied from the Clear Header to
   the new IP header.  This is in keeping with the transparency
   principle that if the User Space was providing a given service, then
   the Encapsulation Space must provide the same service.

   The More Fragments bit and Fragment Offset should not be copied,
   since the datagram being built is a complete datagram, regardless of
   the status of the encapsulated datagram.  If the completed datagram
   is too large for the interface, it will be fragmented for
   transmission to the decapsulator by the normal IP fragmentation

   The Don't Fragment bit should not be copied into the Encapsulation
   Header.  The transparency principle would again be violated.  It
   should be up to the Encapsulator to decide whether fragmentation
   should be allowed across the Encapsulation Space.  If it is decided
   that the DF bit should be used, then ICMP message would be returned
   if the Encapsulated Datagram required fragmentation across the
   Encapsulation Space The mechanism for returning an ICMP message to
   the source in the User space will have to be modified, however, and
   this is discussed in the Appendix B.

   Regarding the Time To Live (TTL) field, the easiest thing to do is to
   ignore the TTL from the Clear Header.  If this field were copied from
   the Clear Header to the new IP header, the packet life might be
   prematurely exceeded during transit in the Encapsulation Space.  This
   breaks the transparency rule of encapsulation as seen from the User
   Space.  The TTL of the Clear Header is decremented before
   encapsulation by the IP forwarding function, so there is no chance of
   a packet looping forever if the links of a Flow form a loop.

                          |        Field        | Mapping |
                          | Version             | Ignore  |
                          | Header Length       | Ignore  |
                          | Precedence          | Copy    |
                          | QoS bits            | Copy    |
                          | Total Length        | Ignore  |
                          | Identification      | Ignore  |
                          | Don't Fragment Bit  | Ignore  |
                          | More Fragments Bit  | Ignore  |
                          | Fragment Offset     | Ignore  |
                          | Time to Live        | Ignore  |
                          | Protocol            | Ignore  |
                          | Header Checksum     | Ignore  |
                          | Source Address      | Ignore  |
                          | Destination Address | Ignore  |
                          | End of Option List  | Ignore  |
                          | NOP Option          | Ignore  |
                          | Security Option     | Copy    |
                          | LSR Option          | Ignore  |
                          | SSR Option          | Ignore  |
                          | RR Option           | Ignore  |
                          | Stream ID Option    | Ignore  |
                          | Timestamp Option    | Ignore  |

                       Table 1.  Summary of IP Header Mappings

   The protocol field for the new IP header should be filled with the
   protocol number of the encapsulation protocol.

   The source address in the new IP header becomes the IP address of the
   Encapsulator in the Encapsulation Domain.  The destination address
   becomes the IP address of the Decapsulator as found in the
   encapsulation table.

   IP Options are generally not copied because most don't make sense in
   the context of the Encapsulation Space, as the transparency principle
   would indicate.  The security option is probably the one option that
   should get copied for the same reason QOS and precedence fields are
   copied, the Encapsulation Space must provide the expected service.
   Timestamp, Loose Source Route, Strict Source Route, and Record Route
   are not copied during encapsulation.

6. Decapsulation

   In the ideal situation, a Decapsulator receives an Encapsulated

   Datagram, strips off the Encapsulation Header and sends the Clear
   Datagram back into IP so that it is forwarded from that point.
   However, if the Clear Datagram has not reached the destination User
   Space, it must again be encapsulated to move it close to the
   destination User Space.  In this latter case the Decapsulator would
   become an Encapsulator and would perform the same calculation to
   generate the Encapsulation Header as did the previous Encapsulator.
   In order to make this process more efficient, the use of Flow IDs
   have been incorporated into the protocol.

   When Flow IDs are used, the Flow ID received in the Encapsulation
   Header corresponds to a stored Flow ID in the Decapsulator.  At this
   point the Decapsulator has the option of bypassing the mask and match
   operation on the Clear Header.  The received Flow ID can be used to
   point directly into the local Encapsulator tables for the
   construction of the next Encapsulation Header.  If the Flow ID is
   unknown, an error message is sent back to the previous Encapsulator
   to that effect and a signal is sent to upper layer entity managing
   the encapsulation tables.

   Because the normal IP forwarding mechanism is being bypassed when
   Flow IDs are used, certain mechanisms normally handled by IP must be
   taken care of by the Decapsulator before encapsulation.  The
   Decapsulator must decrement the TTL before the next encapsulation
   occurs.  If a Time Exceeded error occurs, then an ICMP message is
   sent to the source indicated in the Clear Header.

7. Error Messages

   There are two kinds of error message built into the encapsulation
   protocol.  The first is used to report unknown flow identifiers seen
   by a Decapsulator and the second is for the forwarding of ICMP

   When a Decapsulator is using the received Flow ID in an Encapsulation
   Header to forward a datagram to the next Decapsulator in a Flow, it
   is possible that the Flow ID may not be known.  For this case the
   Decapsulator will notify the previous Encapsulator that the Flow was
   not known so that the problem may be reported to the layer
   responsible for the programming of the Flow tables.  This is
   accomplished through an encapsulation error message.

   If an Encapsulator receives an ICMP messages regarding a given flow,
   this message should be forwarded backwards along the flow to the
   source Encapsulator.  This is accomplished by the second kind of
   error message.  The ICMP message will contain the Flow ID of the
   message which caused the error.  This Flow ID must be translated to
   the Flow ID relative to the Encapsulator to which the error message

   is sent.

   If an error occurs while sending any error message, no further error
   message are generated.

8. References

   [1]  J. Postel,  Internet  Control  Message  Protocol,  RFC  792,
        September 1981.

   [2]  J. Postel, Internet Protocol, RFC 791, September 1981.

   [3]  J. Postel, Transmission Control Protocol, RFC 793, September

   [4]  ORWG, Inter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol Specification and
        Usage, Draft, August 1990

A. Packet Formats

   This section describes the packet formats for the encapsulation

        0               8              16              24            31
       | Vers  |  HL   |  MT   |  RC   |            Checksum           |
       |                            Flow ID                            |

                  Fig. A.1.  Encapsulation Protocol Header Example

       Vers      4 bits    The  version   number  of  the  encapsulation
                           protocol.     The  version  of  the  protocol
                           described by this document is 1.

       HL        4 bits    The  header   length  of   the  Encapsulation
                           Protocol Header in octets.

       MT        4 bits    The  message   type  of   the   Encapsulation
                           Protocol message.    A  data  message  has  a
                           message type  of 1.   An  error message has a
                           message type of 2.

       RC        4 bits    The reason code.  This field is unused in the
                           Data Message  and must have a value of 0.  In
                           the Error Message it contains the reason code
                           for the  Error Message.   Defined reason code

                           values are:

                                1 Unknown Flow ID
                                2 ICMP returned

       Checksum  16 bits   A   one's   complement   checksum   for   the
                           Encapsulation Protocol Header.  This field is
                           set to 0 upon calculation of the checksum and
                           is  filled   with  the  checksum  calculation
                           result before the data message is sent.

       Flow ID   32 bits   The Flow  ID as  seen by  the Decapsulator or
                           Encapsulator to  which this  message is being
                           sent.   In the  case of  an Unknown  Flow  ID
                           error, the Flow ID causing the error is used.

For Data Messages, the Encapsulation Protocol Header is followed by the
Clear Datagram.  For Error Messages, the header is followed by the ICMP
message being forwarded along a flow.

B. Encapsulation and Existing IP Mechanisms

   This section discusses in detail the effect of this encapsulation
   protocol upon the existing mechanisms available with IP and some the
   possible effects of IP mechanisms upon this protocol.  Specifically
   these are Fragmentation and ICMP messages.

B.1 Fragmentation and Maximum Transmission Unit

   An immediate concern of using an encapsulation mechanism is that of
   restrictions based upon MTU size.  The source of a Clear Datagram is
   going to generate packets consistent with MTU of the interface over
   which datagram is transmitted.  If these packets reach an
   Encapsulator and are encapsulated, they may be fragmented if they are
   larger than the MTU of the Encapsulator, even though the physical
   interfaces of the source and Encapsulator may have the same MTU.
   Because the Encapsulated Datagram is sent to the Decapsulator using
   IP, there is no problem in allowing IP to perform fragmentation and
   reassembly.  However, fragmentation is known to be inefficient and is
   generally avoided.  Because a new header is being prepended to the
   Clear Datagram by the encapsulation process, the likelihood of
   fragmentation occurring is increased.  If the Encapsulator decides to
   disallow fragmentation through the Encapsulation Space, it must send
   an ICMP message back to the source.  This means that the MTU of the
   interface in the encapsulation space is effectively smaller than that
   of the physical MTU of the interface.

   Fragmentation by intermediate User Space Gateways introduces another

   problem.  Fragmentation occurs at the IP level.  If a TCP protocol is
   in use and fragmentation occurs, the TCP header is contained in the
   first fragment, but not the following fragments.  [3] If these
   fragments are forwarded by an Encapsulator, discrimination of the
   Clear Header for a given flow will only be able to occur on the IP
   header portion of the Clear Header.  If discrimination is attempted
   on the TCP portion of the header, then only the first fragment will
   be matched, while remaining fragments will not.

B.2 ICMP Messages

   The most controversial aspect of encapsulation is the handling of
   ICMP messages. [1] Because the Encapsulation Header contains the
   source address of the Encapsulator in the Encapsulation Space, ICMP
   messages which occur within the Encapsulation Space will be sent back
   to the Encapsulator.  Once the Encapsulator receives the ICMP
   message, the question is what should the next action be.  Since the
   original source of the Clear Datagram knows nothing about the
   Encapsulation Space, it does not make sense to forward an ICMP
   message on to it and ICMP message are not supposed to beget ICMP
   messages.  Yet not sending the original source something may break
   some important mechanisms.

   In addition to deciding what to forward to the source of the Clear
   Datagram, there is the problem of possibly not having enough
   information to send anything at all back to the source.  An ICMP
   message returns the header of the offending message and the first
   eight octets of the data after the header.  For the case of the
   encapsulation protocol, this translates to the IP portion of the
   Encapsulation Header, the first eight octets of the Encapsulation
   Protocol Header, and nothing else.  The contents of the Clear
   Datagram are completely lost.  Therefore, for the Encapsulator to
   send an ICMP message back to the source it has to reconstruct the
   Clear Header.  However, it is essentially impossible to reproduce the
   exact header.

   For the purpose of this specification, the Flow ID has been assumed
   to be a unique one way mapping from a Clear Header.  There is no
   guarantee that the Flow ID could be used to map back to the Clear
   Header, since several headers potentially map to the same flow.  With
   there being no effective way to regenerate the original datagram,
   some compromises must be examined.

   For each of the possible ICMP messages, the alternatives and impact
   will be assessed.  There are three categories of ICMP message
   involved.  The first is those ICMP messages which are not applicable
   in the context of Encapsulation.  These are: Echo/Echo Reply and
   Timestamp/Timestamp Reply.

   The second category are those ICMP messages which concern mechanisms
   local to the encapsulation domain.  These are messages which would
   not make sense to the original source if it did receive them.  In
   these cases the encapsulator will have to decide what to do, but no
   ICMP message need be sent back to the original source.  The datagram
   will simply be lost, IP is not meant to be a reliable protocol.
   Subsequent messages received for encapsulation may cause the
   encapsulator to generate ICMP Destination Unreachable messages back
   to the original source if the encapsulator can no longer send
   messages to the destination decapsulator.  This requires that ICMP
   messages inside the encapsulation domain affect the mapping from the
   Flow ID.  ICMP messages in the second category are: Parameter
   Problem, Redirect, Destination Unreachable, Time Exceeded.

   Finally there is one ICMP message which has direct bearing on the
   operation of the original source of datagrams destined for
   encapsulation, the ICMP Source Quench message.  The only possible
   mechanism available to the Encapsulator to handle this message is for
   the source quench message set a flag for the offending Flow ID such
   that subsequent messages that map the Flow cause the generation of a
   source quench back to the original source before the datagram is

   This last mechanism may be a solution for the more general problem.
   The rule of thumb could be that when an ICMP message is received for
   a given flow, then flag the Flow so that then next message
   encapsulated will cause the next message encapsulated on that flow to
   force an ICMP message to the source.  After the ICMP message is sent
   to the source, the mechanism could be reset.  This would effectively
   cause every other packet to receive an ICMP message if there were a
   persistent problem.  This mechanism is probably only safe for
   Unreachable messages and Source Quench.

C. Reception of Clear Datagrams

   In order to use the encapsulation protocol a modification is required
   to IP forwarding.  There must be some way for the IP module in a
   system to pass Clear Datagrams to the encapsulation protocol.  A
   suggested means of doing this is to make an addition to a system's
   routing table structures.  A flag could be added to a route that
   tells the forwarding function to use encapsulation.  Note that the
   default route could also be set to use encapsulation.

   With this mechanism in place, a system's IP forwarding mechanism
   would examine its routing tables to try and match the IP destination
   to a specific route.  If a route was found, it would be then checked
   to see if encapsulation should be used.  If not the packet would be
   handled normally.  If encapsulation was turned on for the route, then

   the datagram would be sent to encapsulation for forwarding.

   In addition  to snagging packets as they are forwarded, something
   must be  done at  the last  Decapsulator on  a given flow so that
   packets that  are decapsulated  are properly  dumped into  the IP
   module for  delivery.   Because the packets are encapsulated just
   before forwarding,  it should be a simple matter for decapsulated
   datagrams to be injected into the output portion of IP.  However, the
   source  address in  the Clear  Header must  not change.   The address
   must  remain the address of the source in the source User Space and
   not be overwritten with that of the Decapsulator.

D. Construction of Virtual Networks with Encapsulation

   Because of the modification to the routing table to permit
   encapsulation, it becomes possible to specify a virtual interface
   whose sole purpose is encapsulation.  Using this mechanism, it would
   become possible to link topologically distant entities with Flows.
   This would allow the construction of a Virtual Network which would
   overlay the actual routing topology.  An example of such a virtual
   network is shown in Fig. 4.

                                      ++++++  Virtual Network A
                                      ******  Virtual Network B
                                           #  Encapsulator/Decapsulator
                                      ------  Common Routing Space

           ------------                     ------------
          /            \                   /            \
         /      +++ #   \                 /              \
        |  # +++    +    |               |    # ***** #   |
        |  +        +    |               |    *       *   |
        |  +       +     |               |     *     *    |
        |   +      +     |               |      *   *     |
        |   # ++++ # +   |               |       * *      |
         \            + /  -------------  \       # **   /  ---------
          \           + # ++            \ # ******   *** # **        \
           ------------  /  +++          *  ------------  /  ***      \
                        |      #        * |              |      # *** #|
                        |      +      **  |              |      *     *|
                        |      +     #    |              |     *    ** |
                        |      + ++++ *   |              |    *    *   |
                        |       #+     *  |              |   *    *    |
           ------------  \  ++++        */  ------------  \ *    #     /
          /            \ # +             # **           * # *****     /
         /              +  -------------  /  # ****** # *\   --------
        |   # +++++++   +|               |   *        *   |
        |   +        + + |               |   *         *  |
        |    +         # |               |   *          * |
        |    +       ++  |               |   *          # |
        |    # ++++++    |               |   * *********  |
         \              /                 \   #          /
          \            /                   \            /
           ------------                     ------------

                       Fig. 4.  Virtual Networks Example

   Each Encapsulator shown has an virtual interface on one of the
   virtual networks.  The lines represent individual links in the flows
   that connect each member of the virtual network.  Note that new links
   could be added between any points as long as the two entities are
   visible to each other in a common Encapsulation Space.  The routing
   within the virtual network would be handled by the encapsulation
   mechanism.  The programming of the routing tables could be a variant
   of any of the currently existing routing protocols, an encapsulated
   OSPF for example.

   With this in mind, it would be possible to have special encapsulation
   gateways with virtual interfaces on two virtual networks to form an

   entire virtual internet.  This is the role of the Encapsulators
   joining Virtual Network A and Virtual Network B.

E. Encapsulation and OSI

   It is intended that the encapsulation mechanism described in the memo
   be extensible to other environments outside of the Internet.  It
   should be possible to encapsulate many different protocols within IP
   and IP within many other protocols.

   The key concepts defined in this memo are the mapping of a header to
   a Flow ID and the mapping of fields in the original header to the
   encapsulating header.  Special mappings between protocols would have
   to be defined, i.e. for the QoS bits, and some sort of translation of
   meanings carefully crafted, but it would be possible, none the less.

F. Security Considerations

   No means of authentication or integrity checking is specifically
   defined for this protocol apart from the checksum for the header
   information.  However for authentication or integrity checking to be
   used with this protocol, it is suggested that the authentication
   information be appended to the Encapsulated Datagram.  Information
   regarding the type of authentication or integrity check in use would
   have to be included in the flow management protocol which is used to
   distribute the flow information.

G. Authors' Addresses

   Robert A. Woodburn
   8619 Westwood Center Drive
   Vienna, VA  22182

   Phone:  (703) 734-9000 or (703) 448-0210
   EMail:  woody@cseic.saic.com

   David L. Mills
   Electrical Engineering Department
   University of Delaware
   Newark, DE  19716

   Phone:  (302) 451-8247
   EMail:  mills@udel.edu


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