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RFC 1069 - Guidelines for the use of Internet-IP addresses in th


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Network Working Group                                          R. Callon
Request for Comments: 1069                                           DEC
Obsoletes: RFC 986                                            H.W. Braun
                                                                   UMich
                                                           February 1989

         Guidelines for the use of Internet-IP addresses in the
                ISO Connectionless-Mode Network Protocol

Status of This Memo

   This RFC suggests an addressing scheme for use with the ISO
   Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) in the Internet.  This is a
   solution to one of the problems inherent in the use of "ISO-grams" in
   the Internet.  This RFC suggests a proposed protocol for the Internet
   community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   This memo is a revision of RFC 986.  Changes were made in order to
   allow the addressing used in the CLNP in the Internet to be
   potentially useful for routing in the context of new inter- and
   intra-domain routing protocols, and in the context of large numbers
   of networks and routing domains.  The addressing scheme proposed in
   this RFC allows individual routing domains to make use of internal
   routing algorithms utilizing a variety of addressing formats, while
   still providing for a common addressing approach for use by inter-
   domain routing.  These features are important due to the rapid growth
   currently being experienced in the Internet.

1.  Objectives

   The data communications protocols currently emerging out of the
   international standardization efforts warrant an early integration
   into the existing extensive Internet network infrastructure.  The two
   possible approaches are a top-down one, where ISO applications like
   FTAM, X.400 and VTP are integrated on top of the transport function
   of the IP protocol suite, or a bottom-up approach where the whole ISO
   tower gets integrated without merging the two suites.  The bottom-up
   approach may make use of the fact that the ISO-CLNP and the IP are
   very similar in function.  This implies that it is reasonable to
   implement a multiprotocol function in some or all of the Internet
   gateways (potentially including part or all of the Internet
   environment).  The result would be that at least large portions of
   the Internet, in particular the backbones, can become usable for full
   implementations of the ISO protocol stack.

   A major problem with this approach is that there are open issues with

   regard to the ISO addressing within the CLNP.  In particular, the ISO
   network layer addressing standard allows a great deal of flexibility
   in the assignment of addresses, and a particular address format must
   be chosen.  A further problem is the need for implementation and
   integration of routing facilities for the ISO-compatible subset of
   the Internet environment.

   This paper proposed to use addresses which are considerably more
   flexible than the addresses used in the current IP Internet
   environment.  This flexibility is necessary in order to allow some
   routing domains to base their internal routing protocol on addresses
   derived from the current IP addresses, to allow other routing domains
   to base routing on addresses in accordance to the intra-domain
   routing protocol being developed by ANSI and ISO [6], and to allow
   generality for a future inter-domain routing protocol.

   The addressing scheme proposed here makes use of the concept of
   "routing domains" as used in ANSI and ISO.  This concept is similar
   to, but not identical with, the concept of "Autonomous System" used
   in the Internet.  Routing domains include a combination of gateways,
   networks, and end systems (not just gateways), and routing domain
   boundaries may be used to define associated access control and policy
   routing constraints.  Like autonomous systems, routing domains may be
   assumed to be topologically contiguous.  There is no a priori reason
   why routing domains assigned for use with the ISO IP need to have any
   particular relation with existing autonomous systems which have been
   assigned for use with the IP.  The assignment of specific routing
   domain identifiers is an "assigned numbers" function which is
   necessary for use of the ISO IP in the Internet, but is beyond the
   scope of this document.

   It is expected that this addressing scheme will be appropriate for
   long term use with the ISO IP in the Internet.  However, it is also
   expected that in the long term, the Internet will be interconnected
   with other routing domains making use of other schemes, such as
   addresses assigned to commercial internets through ANSI, and
   addresses assigned by national standards organizations in other
   countries.  This implies that, in the long term, gateways in the
   Internet will need to be able to route datagrams to destinations in
   other routing domains not conforming to the addressing format
   proposed here.  This is discussed in greater detail in section 6.

2.  Introduction

   The CLNP is documented in [1], but for matters of completeness the
   following illustration of the CLNP header is included here as Figure
   1.

   The addressing part of the header is the subject of this RFC, i.e.,
   the source and the destination address, respectively.  These
   addresses are generally discussed in [2] and [3], with this document
   presenting a specific method for addressing in the Internet
   environment, consistent with the international standardized NSAP
   addresses.

                                             Octet
   +--------------------------------------+                   +--------
   |  Network Layer Protocol Identifier   |  1                :
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |           Length Indicator           |  2                :
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |   Version/Protocol Id Extension      |  3                :   Fixed
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |              Lifetime                |  4                :    Part
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |SP|MS|E/R|      Type                  |  5                :
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |           Segment Length             |  6,7              :
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |              Checksum                |  8,9              :
   |--------------------------------------|                   +--------
   | Destination Address Length Indicator |  10               :
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |         Destination Address          |  11 through m-1   : Address
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |    Source Address Length Indicator   |  m                :    Part
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |            Source Address            |  m+1 through n-1  :
   |--------------------------------------|                   +--------
   |         Data Unit Identifier         |  n,n+1            :
   |--------------------------------------|                   : Segment
   |            Segment Offset            |  n+2,n+3          :   ation
   |--------------------------------------|                   :
   |             Total Length             |  n+4,n+5          :    Part
   |--------------------------------------|                   +--------
   |                Options               |  n+6 through p    : Options
                                                                   Part
   |--------------------------------------|                   +--------
   |                 Data                 |  p+1 through z    :    Data
   +--------------------------------------+                   +--------

                       Figure 1:   PDU Header Format

3.  Addresses for Use in the Internet

   This section describes the addresses used to address NSAPs in the
   Internet.

   The appropriate Authority and Format Identifier (AFI) is one octet in
   length.  It specifies an ISO-6523-ICD assignment, and also that the
   Domain Specific Part (DSP) of the address is based on binary.  The
   AFI octet uses the value "47".  The ISO-6523-ICD format is used to
   emphasize that this is an administrative assignment.  The usage of an
   ISO DCC (Data Country Code) would be possible, but could be
   misleading due to the fairly far spread geographical extent of the
   Internet.

   As required by the ISO addressing standard, the next two octets of
   the address, in this case, specify the Initial Domain Identifier.
   This two octet value is the International Code Designator (ICD)
   assigned to the Internet, "0006".

   The remainder of the NSAP address is the Domain Specific Part (DSP).
   This is assigned by the Internet administration, which is considered
   to be an addressing domain.  Note that there is no particular
   relationship required between addressing domains and routing domains.
   In this case, although the Internet is considered to be a single
   addressing domain, it is expected that it will consist of multiple
   routing domains.

   The DSP of the address specifies a one octet version number, a two
   octet global area number, a two octet routing domain number, a
   variable length padding field, a variable length IGP specific part,
   and a one octet selector field.

   The version number is provided to allow for future extensions, and
   must contain the value "02".

   The global area number and routing domain number are provided to
   allow for inter-domain routing.  Initially, the global area number is
   reserved and must be set to zero.  The routing domain number may be
   set to the routing domain number of any gateway by which the
   associated host address is directly reachable.

   The IGP specific part of the address may contain whatever addressing
   format is used in the routing domain.  Two particular formats are
   expected to be used initially, and are presented in section 4.
   Padding is used so that the entire address will always be 20 octets
   in length.

   The selector field performs the same function as the user protocol

   field in the IP header.  This is necessary because the ISO protocol
   considers identification of the user protocol to be an addressing
   issue, and therefore does not allow for the user protocol to be
   specified in the protocol header independently from the address.

   The assignment of specific routing domain identifiers to defined
   routing domains, and the assignment of values for use in the selector
   field, are functions for the Assigned Numbers authority for the
   Internet [4].  The specific values to be used are outside of the
   scope of this document.

   In summary, a source or destination address within the ISO
   Connectionless Protocol, when used in the Internet, looks as follows:

                                                  Octet

                       +------------------------+
                       |          AFI           |     1
                       +------------------------+
                       |       IDI / ICD        |     2
                       +--                    --+
                       |(specifies DoD Internet)|     3
                       +------------------------+
                       |     Version Number     |     4
                       +------------------------+
                       |      Global Area       |     5
                       +---                  ---+
                       |         Number         |     6
                       +------------------------+
                       |        Routing         |     7
                       +---                  ---+
                       |         Domain         |     8
                       +------------------------+
                       |                        |     9
                       :        Padding         :     :
                       :                        :     :
                       |                        |     n
                       +------------------------+
                       |          IGP           |   n+1
                       :                        :     :
                       :                        :     :
                       |        Specific        |    19
                       +------------------------+
                       |        Selector        |    20
                       +------------------------+

                    Figure 2: ISO IP address structure

   The Authority and Format Identifier (AFI) is "47" (BCD).  The Initial
   Domain Identifier (IDI) consists of the International Code Designator
   (ICD) assigned to the Internet, and must contain the value "0006".
   The Version Number must contain the value "02".  The Global Area
   Number must contains the value "00".  The Padding field is of
   variable length, but must contain the value zero.

4.  Specific Values for use with the IGP specific field

   In general, a particular routing domain may specify any addressing
   scheme for use with the IGP specific part of the address, up to 11
   octets in length (consistent with the maximum address length of 20
   octets).  However, it is expected that initially addresses used in
   this field will consist of either the current IP addresses, or
   addresses conformant with those specified in the draft ANSI proposal
   for intra-domain routing.

   For end systems which are members of routing domains using the IP
   addresses for internal routing, the addresses will look as follows:

                                                  Octet

                       +------------------------+
                       |          AFI           |     1
                       +------------------------+
                       |       IDI / ICD        |     2
                       +--                    --+
                       |(specifies DoD Internet)|     3
                       +------------------------+
                       |     Version Number     |     4
                       +------------------------+
                       |      Global Area       |     5
                       +---                  ---+
                       |         Number         |     6
                       +------------------------+
                       |        Routing         |     7
                       +---                  ---+
                       |         Domain         |     8
                       +------------------------+
                       |                        |     9
                       :        Padding         :     :
                       :                        :     :
                       |                        |    15
                       +------------------------+
                       |       Four Octet       |    16
                       +---                  ---+
                       |        Internet        |    17
                       +---                  ---+
                       |          DoD           |    18
                       +---                  ---+
                       |        Address         |    19
                       +------------------------+
                       |        Selector        |    20
                       +------------------------+

           Figure 3: ISO IP Address with Encoded DoD IP Address

   For end systems which are members of routing domains using the
   address format specified in the draft ANSI proposal for intra-domain
   routing [6], the addresses will look as follows:

                                                  Octet

                       +------------------------+
                       |          AFI           |     1
                       +------------------------+
                       |       IDI / ICD        |     2
                       +--                    --+
                       |(specifies DOD Internet)|     3
                       +------------------------+
                       |     Version Number     |     4
                       +------------------------+
                       |      Global Area       |     5
                       +---                  ---+
                       |         Number         |     6
                       +------------------------+
                       |        Routing         |     7
                       +---                  ---+
                       |         Domain         |     8
                       +------------------------+
                       |                        |     9
                       +---                  ---+
                       |        Padding         |    10
                       +---                  ---+
                       |                        |    11
                       +------------------------+
                       |                        |    12
                       +---     LOC-AREA     ---+
                       |                        |    13
                       +------------------------+
                       |                        |    14
                       :           ID           :     :
                       :                        :     :
                       |                        |    19
                       +------------------------+
                       |        Selector        |    20
                       +------------------------+

         Figure 4: ISO IP Address with Encoded ANSI-format Address

5.  Devices Attached to PDNs

   Otherwise isolated end systems, which are attached to the Internet
   only indirectly via public data networks, and simple LANs which are
   similarly attached only via Public Data Networks, may make use of a
   separate address format based on their X.121 address.  Such addresses
   may, for example, use the ISO-X.121 address format discussed in [3].
   These addresses will need to be handled for routing purposes in much
   the same way as addresses in routing domains which have been

   interconnected to the Internet, but which use other address formats,
   such as those specified by national standards bodies.

6.  Migration to Future Routing Protocols

   Initially, routing of ISO datagrams in the Internet may make use of
   the first 8 octets of the address (AFI, ICD, version, global area
   number, and routing domain number) as a flat field identifying the
   routing domain.  This implies that if EGP is initially used for
   routing between routing domains, a new version of EGP may be required
   to carry 8 octet routing domain numbers instead of 3 octet network
   numbers.

   There are currently several efforts underway to determine the
   requirements for inter-autonomous system routing, and to define a new
   protocol.  One of the requirements of inter-autonomous system routing
   is the need to be able to deal with a very large Internet.  It is
   anticipated that during the lifetime of the addressing scheme
   described in this RFC the number of networks in the Internet will
   grow to the point where it is no longer feasible for any gateway to
   maintain separate routes to every network in the Internet.  Allowing
   inter-domain routing to be done by routing domain number instead of
   network number is therefore a necessary step in the long term.

   It is difficult to anticipate the rate at which the number of routing
   domains may grow.  For example, during a period of time in which the
   number of networks grows by a factor of 100, it is not clear whether
   the number of routing domains may also be expected to grow by a
   factor of 100, or by some lesser amount.  It is possible that the
   number of routing domains will also grow to a point where it is not
   feasible for a single gateway to maintain separate routes to each.
   In order to prepare for this eventuality, we have provided for a
   "global area" field.

   In the long term, it will be necessary for gateways to route to
   destinations which are in routing domains utilizing other addressing
   formats, specified by other organizations such as ANSI, ECMA, etc.
   In this case, it will not be possible to ensure that the first 8
   octets of the address specifies the routing domain.  In the long
   term, it will therefore be necessary to route based on variable
   length routing domain identifiers.  It may be assumed that future
   inter-domain routing protocols will allow for specification of either
   (1) an address mask, specifying which part of an address is relevant
   for specifying those destinations which are reachable via a
   particular domain; or (2) a length field, specifying how many leading
   octets in a particular address are relevant.  Specification of the
   details of such a routing protocol is beyond the scope of this
   document.

References

   [1]  ISO, "Protocol for Providing the Connectionless-Mode Network
        Services", RFC-926, ISO, December 1984.

   [2]  ANSI, "Guidelines for the Specification of the Structure of the
        Domain Specific Part (DSP) of the ISO Standard NSAP Address",
        RFC-982, ANSI Working Document X3S3.3/85-258, April 1986.

   [3]  ISO, Draft International Standard 8348/DAD2, "Information
        Processing Systems  --  Data Communications  --  Network Service
        Definition, Addendum 2 Covering Network Layer Addressing", RFC-
        941, April 1985.

   [4]  Reynolds, J. and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC-1010,
        USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1987.

   [5]  Callon, R. and H. W. Braun, "Working Draft -- Guidelines for the
        use of Internet-IP addresses in the ISO Connectionless-Mode
        Network Protocol," RFC-986, June 1986.

   [6]  ISO TC97/SC6/WG2 working document, "Intermediate System to
        Intermediate System Intra-Domain Routing Exchange Protocol".

 

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