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 Question by fetsum Submitted on 6/1/2005 Related FAQ: comp.lang.c Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ List) Rating: Not yet rated Rate this question: N/A Worst Weak OK Good Great A data structur linked list implimentation users freindly C++ using poiters that insert first,last; get first,last remove first,last,set,indess of,size,clear -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of contents [showhide]   1 Introduction 1.1 The Node 1.2 Building a Chain from Nodes 1.3 The Principle of Induction 1.4 Induction on a Summation 2 Asymptotic Notation 2.1 How asymptotic notation relates to analyzing complexity 2.2 A few examples of asymptotic notation 3 Arrays 3.1 type 3.2 bounds 3.3 bounds check 3.4 Array Operations 3.5 Declaring Array Types 3.6 Array Acccess 3.7 Language Specifics 4 List Structures and Iterators 4.1 Syntactic Sugar 4.2 Implementations 4.2.1 Singly Linked List 4.2.2 Vector 4.3 Bidirectional Lists 4.4 Doubly Linked List Implementation 4.5 Vector Implementation 4.6 Tradeoffs 4.7 Advantages / Disadvantages 5 Stacks and Queues 5.1 Stacks 5.1.1 Linked List Implementation 5.1.1.1 Performance Analysis 5.1.2 Array Implementation 5.1.2.1 Performance Analysis 5.1.3 Related Links 5.2 Queues 5.2.1 Linked List Implementation 5.2.1.1 Performance Analysis 5.2.2 Ulol 5.2.2.1 Performance Analysis 5.2.3 Related Links 5.3 Dequeues 6 Trees 7 Min and Max Heaps 7.1 Compute the extreme value 7.2 Removing the Extreme Value 7.3 Inserting a value into the heap 7.4 TODO 8 Graphs 8.1 Representations 8.2 Graph searching 8.2.1 Depth-first 8.2.2 Breadth-first 9 Hash Tables 10 Sets 11 Tradeoffs  Introduction Data structures are abstractions we use to manage large amounts of information and the relationships different pieces of information have with each other. Sometimes we use data structures to allow us to do more: for example, to accomplish fast searching or sorting of data. Other times, we use data structures so that we can do less: for example, the concept of the stack is a limited form of a more general data structure. These limitations provide us with guarantees that allow us to reason about our programs more easily. Data structures also provide guarantees about algorithmic complexity-- choosing an appropriate data structure for a job is crucial to writing good software. Because data structures are higher-level abstractions, they present to us operations on groups of data, such as adding an item to a list, or looking up the highest-priority item in a queue. When a data structure provides operations, we can call the data structure an abstract data type (sometimes abreviated as ADT). Abstract data types can minimize dependencies in your code, which is important when your code needs to be changed. Because you are abstracted away from lower-level details, some of the higher-level commonalities one data structure shares with a different data structure can be used to replace one with the other. Our programming languages come equipped with a set of built-in types, such as integers and floating-point numbers, that allow us to work with data objects for which the machine's processor has native support. These built-in types are abstractions of what the processor actually provides because built-in types hide details both about their execution and limitations. For example, when we use a floating-point number we are primarily concerned with its value and the operations that can be applied to it. Consider computing the length of a hypotenuse:   let c := sqrt(a * a + b * b) The machine code generated from the above would use common patterns for computing these values and accumulating the result. In fact, these patterns are so repetitious that high-level languages were created to avoid this redundancy and to allow programmers to think about what value was computed instead of how it was computed. Two useful and related concepts are at play here: Abstraction is when common patterns are grouped together under a single name and then parameterized, in order to achieve a higher-level understanding of that pattern. For example, the multiplication operation requires two source values and writes the product of those two values to a given destination. The operation is parameterized by both the two sources and the single destination. Encapsulation is a mechanism to hide the implementation details of an abstraction away from the users of the abstraction. When we multiply numbers, for example, we don't need to know the technique actually used by the processor, we just need to know its properties. A programming language is both an abstraction of a machine and a tool to encapsulate-away the machine's inner details. For example, a program written in a programming language can be compiled to several different machine architectures when that programming language sufficiently encapsulates the user away from any one machine. In this book, we take the abstraction and encapsulation that our programming languages provide another step further: When applications get to be more complex, the abstractions programming languages provide become too low-level to effectively manage. Thus, we build our own abstractions on top of these lower-level constructs. We can even build further abstractions on top of those abstractions. Each time we build upwards, we lose access to the lower-level implementation details. While losing such access might sound like a bad trade off, it is actually quite a bargain: We are primarily concerned with solving the problem at hand than we are with any trivial decisions that could have just as arbitrarily been replaced with a different decision. When we can think on higher levels, we relieve ourselves of these burdens. Each data structure that we cover in this book can be thought of as a single unit that has a set of values and a set of operations that can be performed to either access or change these values. The data structure itself can be understood as a set of the data structure's operations together with each operation's properties (i.e., what the operation does and how long we could expect it to take).  The Node The first data structure we look at is the node structure. A node is simply a container for a value, plus a pointer to a "next" node (which may be null). Node Operations make-node(v, node next):node Create a new node, with v as its contained value and next as the value of the next pointer get-value(node n): element Returns the node n's contained value get-next(node n): node Returns the value of node n's next pointer set-value(node n, v) Sets the contained value of n to be v set-next(node n, node new-next) Sets the value of node n's next pointer to be new-next All operations can be performed in time that is O(1). The above is an abstraction of a structure:   structure node {     element value     // holds the value     node next         // pointer to the next node; possibly null   } In some languages, structures are called records or classes. Some other languages provide no direct support for structures, but instead allow them to be built from other constructs (such as tuples or lists). Here, we are only concerned that nodes contain values of some form, so we simply say its type is "element" because the type is not important. In some programming languages no type ever needs to be specified (as in dynamically typed languages, like Scheme, Smalltalk or Python). In other languages the type might need to be restricted to integer or string (as in statically typed languages like C). In still other languages, the decision of the type of the contained element can be delayed until the type is actually used (as in languages that support generic types, like C++ and Java). In any of these cases, translating the pseduocode into your own language should be relatively simple. Each of the node operations specified can be implemented quite easily: function make-node(v, node next): node   function set-value(node n, v)   let result := new node {v, next}         n.value := v   return result                          end end function get-value(node n): element      function set-next(node n, new-next)   return n.value                           n.next := new-next end                                      end function get-next(node n): node   return n.next end Principally, we are more concerned with the operations and the implementation strategy than we are with the structure itself and the low-level implementation. For example, we are more concerned about the time requirement specified, which states that all operations take time that is O(1). The above implementation meets this criteria, because the length of time each operation takes is constant. Another way to think of constant time operations is to think of them as operations whose analysis is not dependent on any variable. (The notation O(1) is mathematically defined in the next chapter. For now, it is safe to assume it just means constant time.)  Building a Chain from Nodes While the node structure is simple, it actually allows us to compute things that we couldn't have computed with just fixed-size integers alone. First, we'll look at a program that doesn't need to use nodes. The following program will read in (either from the user or a file) a series of numbers until the end-of-file is reached and output the largest number and the average of all numbers: program(input-stream in, output-stream out)   let total := 0   let count := 0   let largest :=   while has-next-integer(in):     let i := read-integer(in)     total := total + i     count := count + 1     largest := max(largest, i)   repeat   println out "Maximum: " largest   if count != 0:     println out "Average: " (total / count)   fi end But now consider solving a similar task: read in a series of numbers until the end-of-file is reached, and output the largest number and the average of all numbers that evenly divide the largest number. This problem is different because it's possible the largest number will be the last one entered: if we are to compute the average of all numbers that divide that number, we'll need to somehow remember all of them. We could use variables to remember the previous numbers, but variables would only help us solve the problem when there aren't too many numbers entered. For example, suppose we were to give ourselves 200 variables to hold the state input by the user. And further suppose that each of the 200 variables had 64-bits. Even if we were very clever with our program, it could only compute results for  different types of input. While this is a very large number of combinations, a list of 300 64-bit numbers would require even more combinations to be properly encoded. (In general, the problem is said to require linear space. All programs that need only a finite number of variables can be solved in constant space.) Instead of building in limitations that complicate coding (such as having only a constant number of variables), we can use the properties of the node abstraction to allow us to remember as many numbers as our computer can hold: program(input-stream in, output-stream out)   let largest :=   let nodes := null   while has-next-integer(in):     let i := read-integer(in)     nodes := make-node(i, nodes) // contain the value n,                                  // and remember the previous numbers too     largest := max(largest, i)   repeat   println out "Maximum: " largest   // now compute the averages of all factors of largest   let total := 0   let count := 0   while nodes != null:     let j := get-value(nodes)     if j divides largest:       total := total + j       count := count + 1     fi     nodes := get-next(nodes)   repeat   if count != 0:     println out "Average: " (total / count)   fi end Above, if n integers are successfully read there will be n calls made to make-node. This will require n nodes to be made (which require enough space to hold the value and next fields of each node, plus internal memory management overhead), so the memory requirements will be on the order of O(n). Similarly, we construct this chain of nodes and then iterate over the chain again, which will require O(n) steps to make the chain, and then another O(n) steps to iterate over it. Note that when we iterate the numbers in the chain, we are actually looking at them in reverse order. For example, assume the numbers input to our program are 4, 7, 6, 30, and 15. After EOF is reached, the nodes chain will look like this: Such chains are more commonly referred to as linked-lists. However, we generally prefer to think in terms of lists or sequences, which aren't as low-level: the linking concept is just an implementation detail. While a sequence can be made with a chain, in this book we cover several other ways to make a sequence. For the moment, we care more about the abstraction capabilities of the node than we do about one of the ways it is used.  The Principle of Induction The chains we can build from nodes are a demonstration of the principle of mathematical induction: Mathematical Induction Suppose you have some property of numbers P(n) If you can prove that when P(n) holds that P(n + 1) must also hold, then All you need to do is prove that P(1) holds to show that P(n) holds for all n For example, let the property P(n) be the statement that "you can make a chain that holds n numbers". This is a property of natural numbers, because the sentence makes sense for specific values of n: you can make a chain that holds 5 numbers you can make a chain that holds 100 numbers you can make a chain that holds 1,000,000 numbers Instead of proving that we can make chains of length 5, 100, and one million, we'd rather prove the general statement P(n) instead. Step 2 above is called the Inductive Hypothesis, let's show that we can prove it: Assume that P(n) holds. That is, that we can make a chain of n elements. Now we must show that P(n + 1) holds. Assume chain is the first node of the n-element chain. Assume i is some number that we'd like to add to the chain to make an n + 1 length chain. The following code can accomplish this for us: let bigger-chain := make-node(i, chain) Here, we have the new number i that is now the contained value of the first link of the bigger-chain. If chain had n elements, then bigger-chain must have n + 1 elements. Step 3 above is called the Base Case, let's show that we can prove it: We must show that P(1) holds. That is, that we can make a chain of one element. The following code can accomplish this for us: let chain := make-node(i, null) The principle of induction says, then, that we have proven that we can make a chain of n elements for all value of . How is this so? Probably the best way to think of induction is that it's actually a way of creating a formula to describe an infinite number of proofs. After we prove that the statement is true for P(1), the base case, we can apply the inductive hypothesis to that fact to show that P(2) holds. Since we now know that P(2) holds, we can apply the inductive hypothesis again to show that P(3) must hold. The principle says that there is nothing to stop us from doing this repeatedly, so we should assume it holds for all cases. Induction may sound like a strange way to prove things, but it's a very useful technique. What makes the technique so useful is that it can take a hard sounding statement like "prove P(n) holds for all " and break it into two smaller, easier to prove statements. Typically base cases are easy to prove because they are not general statements at all. Most of the proof work is usually in the inductive hypothesis, which can often require clever ways of reformulating the statement to "attach on" a proof of the n + 1 case. You can think of the contained value of a node as a base case, while the next pointer of the node as the inductive hyptothesis. Just as in mathematical induction, we can break the hard problem of storing an arbitrary number number of elements into an easier problem of just storing one element and then having a mechanism to attach on further elements.  Induction on a Summation [TODO: show the closed form of the sum of the first n numbers. This is useful as another example of induction, and also for when insertion sort is covered.]  Asymptotic Notation In order to analyze which data structure or algorithm is the best suited for the job, it is necessary to understand how a data structure or algorithm behaves over time and space. An important tool in this analysis is asymptotic notation. Big Oh Notation For non-negative functions, f(n) and g(n), if there exists an integer n0 and a constant c > 0 such that for all integers n > n0, f(n) �� cg(n), then f(n) is Big Oh of g(n). This is denoted as "f(n) = O(g(n))". If graphed, g(n) serves as an upper bound to the curve you are analyzing, f(n). It describes the worst that can happen for a given data size. Big Omega Notation For non-negative functions, f(n) and g(n), if there exists an integer n0 and a constant c > 0 such that for all integers n > n0, f(n) �� cg(n), then f(n) is omega of g(n). This is denoted as "f(n) = ��(g(n))". This is almost the same definition as Big Oh, except that"f(n) �� cg(n)", this makes g(n) a lower bound function, instead of an upper bound function. It describes the best that can happen for a given data size. Theta Notation For non-negative functions, f(n) and g(n), f(n) is theta of g(n) if and only if f(n) = O(g(n)) and f(n) = ��(g(n)). This is denoted as "f(n) = ��(g(n))". This is basically saying that the function, f(n) is bounded both from the top and bottom by the same function, g(n). Little Oh Notation For non-negative functions, f(n) and g(n), f(n) is little oh of g(n) if and only if f(n) = O(g(n)), but f(n) �� ��(g(n)). This is denoted as "f(n) = o(g(n))". This represents a loose bounding version of Big Oh. g(n) bounds from the top, but it does not bound the bottom. Little Omega Notation For non-negative functions, f(n) and g(n), f(n) is little omega of g(n) if and only if f(n) = ��(g(n)), but f(n) �� ��(g(n)). This is denoted as "f(n) = ��(g(n))". Much like Little Oh, this is the equivalent for Big Omega. g(n) is a loose lower boundary of the function f(n); it bounds from the bottom, but not from the top.  How asymptotic notation relates to analyzing complexity If you think of the amount of time and space your algorithm uses as a function of your data over time or space (time and space are usually analyzed separately), you can analyze how the time and space is handled when you introduce more data to your program. This is important in data structures because you want a structure that behaves efficiently as you increase the amount of data it handles. Keep in mind though that algorithms that are efficient with large amounts data are not always simple and efficient for small amounts of data. So if you know you are working with only a small amount of data and you have concerns for speed and code space, a trade off can be made for a function that does not behave well for large amounts of data.  A few examples of asymptotic notation Generally, we use asymptotic notation as an convienient way to examine what can happen in a function in the worst case or in the best case. For example, if you want to write a function that searches through an array of numbers and returns the smallest one: function find-min(array a[1..n])   let j :=   for i := 1 to n:     j := min(j, a[i])   repeat   return j end Regardless of how big or small the array is, every time we run find-min, we have to initialize the i and j integer variables and return j at the end. Therefore, we can just think of that part of the function as a constant and ignore it. So, how can we use asymptotic notation to discuss the find-min function? If we search through an array with 87 elements, then the for loop iterates 87 times, even if the very first element we hit turns out to be the minimum. Likewise, for n elements, the for loop iterates n times. Therefore we say the function runs in time O(n). What about this function: function find-min-plus-max(array a[1..n])   // First, find the smallest element in the array   let j := ;   for i := 1 to n:     j := min(j, a[i])   repeat   let min := j      // Now, find the biggest element, add it to the smallest and   // return the sum of the two   j := ;   for i := 1 to n:     j := max(j, a[i])   repeat   let max := j      return min + max; end What's the running time for find-min-plus-max? There are two for loops, that each iterate n times, so the running time is clearly O(2n). Because 2 is a constant, we throw it away and write the running time as O(n). Why can you do this? If you recall the definition of Big-O notation, the function whose bound you're testing can be multiplied by some constant. If f(x) = 2x, we can see that if g(x) = x, then the Big-O condition holds. Thus O(2n) = O(n). This rule is general for the various asymptotic notations.  Arrays [TODO: Remove language specific parts; put the yellow box ADT description closer to the top of the page; make indexes only integers; discuss matricies as an application of two dimensional arrays; discuss insertion sort on an array; discuss binary search on an array; perhaps mutable vs. immutable? (and their speeds?)] An array is a particular method of storing elements of indexed data. Elements of data are stored sequentially in blocks within the array. Each element is referenced by an index, or subscript. The index is usually a number used to address an element in the array. For example, if you were storing information about each day in August, you would create an array with an index capable of addressing 31 values -- one for each day of the month. Indexing rules are language dependent, however most languages use either 0 or 1 as the first element of an array. The concept of an array can be daunting to the uninitiated, but it is really quite simple. Think of a notebook with pages numbered 1 through 12. Each page may or may not contain information on it. The notebook is an array of pages. Each page is an element of the array 'notebook'. Programmatically, you would retrieve information from a page by referring to its number or subscript, i.e., notebook(4) would refer to the contents of page 4 of the array notebook. The notebook (array) contains 12 pages (elements) Arrays can also be multidimensional - instead of accessing an element of a one-dimensional list, elements are accessed by two or more indices, as from a matrix or tensor. Multidimensional arrays are as simple as our notebook example above. To envision a multidimensional array, think of a calendar. Each page of the calendar, 1 through 12, is an element, representing a month, which contains approximately 30 elements, which represent days. Each day may or may not have information in it. Programmatically then, calendar(4,15) would refer to the 4th month, 15th day. Thus we have a two-dimensional array. To envision a three-dimensional array, break each day up into 24 hours. Now calendar(4,15,9) would refer to 4th month, 15th day, 9th hour. A simple 6 element by 4 element array Arrays guarantee constant time read and write access, O(1), however many lookup operations (find_min, find_max, find_index) of an instance of an element are linear time, O(n). Arrays are very efficient in most languages, as operations compute the address of an element via a simple formula based on the base address element of the array. The implementation of arrays differ greatly between languages: some languages allow arrays to be resized automatically, or to even contain elements of differing types. Other languages are very strict and require the type and length information of an array to be known at run time. Arrays typically map directly to contiguous storage locations within your computers memory and are therefore the "natural" storage structure for most higher level languages. Simple linear arrays are the basis for most of the other data structures. Many languages do not allow you to allocate any structure except an array, everything else must be implemented on top of the array. The exception is the linked list, that is typically implemented as individually allocated objects, but it is possible to implement a linked list within an array.  type The array index needs to be of some type. Usually, the standard integer type of that language is used, but there are also languages such as Ada  and Pascal which allow any discrete type as an array index. Scripting languages often allow any type as an index (associative array).  bounds The array index consists of a range of values with a lower bound and an upper bound. In some programming languages only the upper bound can be choosen while the lower bound is fixed to be either 0 (C, C++, C#, Java) or 1 (FORTRAN). Other programming languages (Ada, PL/I, Pascal) both the upper and lower bound can be freely choosen (even negative).  bounds check The third aspect of an array index is the check for valid ranges and what happens when an invalid index is accessed. This is a very important point since the majority of computer_worms and computer viruses attack by using invaild array bounds. There are three options open: Most languages (Ada, PL/I, Pascal, Java) will check the bounds and raise some error condition when an element is accessed which does not exists. A few languages (C, C++) will not check the bounds and return or set some abritary value when an element outside the valid range is accessed. Scripting languages often automaticly expand the array when data is written to an index which was not vaild until them.  Array Operations create-array (index_type lower-bound, index_type upper-bound) Create an array of elements (in some languages the elements are homogeneous and the element type must be specified), indexed from lower-bound to upper-bound, inclusive. The number of elements in the array, also known as the size of the array, is equal to upperbound - lowerbound + 1. get-element (index_type index) : element_type Returns the value of the element at the given index. When an array has a constant size, then the index must be in bounds: lowerbound <= index <= upperbound. This operation is also known as subscripting. set-element (index_type index, element_type new-value) Sets the element of the array at the given index to be equal to new-value.  Declaring Array Types The declaration of array type depends on how many features the array in a particular language has. The easiest declaration is when the language has a fixed lower bound and fixed index type. If you need an array to store the monthly income you could declare in C typedef double Income; This gives you an array with in the range of 0 to 11. For a full description of arrays in C see Programming:C_arrays. If you use a language where you can choose both the lower bound as well as the index type, the declaration is -- of course -- more complex. Here are two examples in Ada: type Month is range 1 .. 12; type Income is array (Month) of Float; or shorter: type Income is array (1 .. 12) of Float; For a full description of arrays in Ada see Programming:Ada:Types:array.  Array Acccess We generally write arrays with a name, followed by the index in some brackets, square '[]' or round '()'. For example, august is the method used in the C programming language to refer to a particular day in the month. Because the C language starts the index at zero, august is the 4th element in the array. august actually refers to the first element of this array. Starting an index at zero is natural for computers, whose internal representations of numbers begin with zero, but for humans, this unnatural numbering system can lead to problems when accessing data in an array. When fetching an element in a language with zero-based indexes, make sure keep in mind the true length of an array, lest you find yourself fetching the wrong data. This is the disadvantage of programming in langunges with fixed lower bounds, the programmer must always remember that "" means "1st" and, when appropriate, add or subtract one from the index. Languages with variable lower bounds will take that burden off the programmer's shoulder. We use indexes, to store related data. If our C language array is called august, and we wish to store that we're going to the supermarket on the 1st, we can say, for example august = "Going to the shops today" In this way, we can go through the indexes from 0 to 30 and get the related tasks for each day in august.  Language Specifics Programming:Ada:Types:array Programming:C arrays Programming:Perl_Array_Variables  List Structures and Iterators We have seen now two different data structures that allow us to store an ordered sequence of elements. However, they have two very different interfaces. The array allows us to use get-element() and set-element() functions to access and change elements. The node chain requires us to use get-next() until we find the desired node, and then we can use get-value() and set-value() to access and modify its value. Now, what if you've written some code, and you realize that you should have been using the other sequence data structure? You have to go through all of the code you've already written and change one set of accessor functions into another. What a pain! Fortunately, there is a way to localize this change into only one place: by using the List Abstract Data Type (ADT). List ADT get-begin():List Iterator Returns the list iterator (we'll define this soon) that represents the first element of the list. Runs in O(1) time. get-end():List Iterator Returns the list iterator that represents one element past the last element in the list. Runs in O(1) time. prepend(new-item:item-type) Adds a new element at the beginning of a list. Runs in O(N) time. insert-after(iter:List Iterator, new-item:item-type) Adds a new element immediately after iter. Runs in O(N) time. remove-first() Removes the element at the beginning of a list. Runs in O(N) time. remove-after(iter:List Iterator) Removes the element immediately after iter. Runs in O(N) time. is-empty():Boolean True iff there are no elements in the list. Has a default implementation. Runs in O(1) time. get-size():Integer Returns the number of elements in the list. Has a default implementation. Runs in O(N) time. get-nth(n:Integer):item-type Returns the nth element in the list, counting from 0. Has a default implementation. Runs in O(N) time. set-nth(n:Integer, new-value:item-type) Assigns a new value to the nth element in the list, counting from 0. Has a default implementation. Runs in O(N) time. The iterator is another abstraction that encapsulates both access to a single element and incremental movement around the list. Its interface is very similar to the node interface presented in the introduction, but since it is an abstract type, different lists can implement it differently. List Iterator ADT get-value():item-type Returns the value of the list element that this iterator refers to. set-value(new-value:item-type) Assigns a new value to the list element that this iterator refers to. move-next() Makes this iterator refer to the next element in the list. equal(other-iter:List Iterator):Boolean True iff the other iterator refers to the same list element as this iterator. All operations run in O(1) time. There are several other aspects of the List ADT's definition that need more explanation. First, notice that the get-end() operation returns an iterator that is "one past the end" of the list. This makes its implementation a little trickier, but allows you to write loops like: var iter:List Iterator := list.get-begin() while(not iter.equal(list.get-end())) # Do stuff with the iterator iter.move-next() end while Second, each operation gives a worst-case running time. Any implementation of the List ADT is guaranteed to be able to run these operation at least that fast. Most implementations will run most of the operations faster. For example, the node chain implementation of List can run insert-after() in O(1). Third, some of the operations say that they have a default implementation. This means that these operations can be implemented in terms of other, more primitive operations. They're included in the ADT so that certain implementations can implement them faster. For example, the default implementation of get-nth() runs in O(N) because it has to traverse all of the elements before the nth. Yet the array implementation of List can implement it in O(1) using its get-element() operation. The other default implementations are: abstract type List method is-empty()   return get-begin().equal(get-end()) end method method get-size():Integer   var size:Integer := 0   var iter:List Iterator := get-begin()   while(not iter.equal(get-end()))    size := size+1    iter.move-next()   end while   return size end method helper method find-nth(n:Integer):List Iterator   if n >= get-size()    error "The index is past the end of the list"   end if   var iter:List Iterator := get-begin()   while(n > 0)    iter.move-next()    n := n-1   end while   return iter end method method get-nth(n:Integer):item-type   return find-nth(n).get-value() end method method set-nth(n:Integer, new-value:item-type)   find-nth(n).set-value(new-value) end method end type  Syntactic Sugar Occasionally throughout this book we'll introduce an abbreviation that will allow us to write, and you to read, less pseudocode. For now, we'll introduce an easier way to compare iterators and a specialized loop for traversing sequences. Instead of using the equal() method to compare iterators, we'll overload the == operator. To be precise, the following two expressions are equivalent: iter1.equal(iter2) iter1 == iter2 Second, we'll use the for keyword to express list traversal. The following two blocks are equivalent: var iter:List Iterator := list.get-begin() while(not iter == list.get-end()) operations on iter iter.move-next() end while for iter in list operations on iter end for  Implementations In order to actually use the List ADT, we need to write a concrete data type that implements its interface. There are two standard data types that naturally implement List: the node chain described in the Introduction, normally called a Singly Linked List; and an extension of the array type called Vector, which automatically resizes itself to accomodate inserted nodes.  Singly Linked List type Singly Linked List implements List head refers to the first node in the list. When it's null, the list is empty.   data head:Node Initially, the list is empty.   constructor()     head := null   end constructor   method get-begin():Sll Iterator     return new Sll-Iterator(head)   end method The "one past the end" iterator is just a null node. To see why, think about what you get when you have an iterator for the last element in the list and you call move-next().   method get-end():Sll Iterator     return new Sll-Iterator(null)   end method   method prepend(new-item:item-type)     head = make-node(new-item, head)   end method   method insert-after(iter:Sll Iterator, new-item:item-type)     var new-node:Node := make-node(new-item, iter.node().get-next())     iter.node.set-next(new-node)   end method   method remove-first()     head = head.get-next()   end method This takes the node the iterator holds and makes it point to the node two nodes later.   method remove-after(iter:Sll Iterator)     iter.node.set-next(iter.node.get-next().get-next())   end method end type If we want to make get-size() be an O(1) operation, we can add an Integer data member that keeps track of the list's size at all times. Otherwise, the default O(N) implementation works fine. An iterator for a singly linked list simply consists of a reference to a node. type Sll Iterator   data node:Node   constructor(_node:Node)     node := _node   end constructor Most of the operations just pass through to the node.   method get-value():item-type     return node.get-value()   end method   method set-value(new-value:item-type)     node.set-value(new-value)   end method   method move-next()     node := node.get-next()   end method For equality testing, we assume that the underlying system knows how to compare nodes for equality. In nearly all languages, this would be a pointer comparison.   method equal(other-iter:List Iterator):Boolean     return node == other-iter.node   end method end type  Vector Let's write the Vector's iterator first. It will make the Vector's implementation clearer. type Vector Iterator   data array:Array   data index:Integer   constructor(my_array:Array, my_index:Integer)     array := my_array     index := my_index   end constructor   method get-value():item-type     return array.get-element(index)   end method   method set-value(new-value:item-type)     array.set-element(index, new-value)   end method   method move-next()     index := index+1   end method   method equal(other-iter:List Iterator):Boolean     return array==other-iter.array and index==other-iter.index   end method end type We implement the Vector in terms of the primitive Array data type. It is inefficient to always keep the array exactly the right size (think of how much resizing you'd have to do), so we store both a size, the number of logical elements in the Vector, and a capacity, the number of spaces in the array. The array's valid indices will always range from 0 to capacity-1. type Vector   data array:Array   data size:Integer   data capacity:Integer We initialize the vector with a capacity of 10. Choosing 10 was fairly arbitrary. If we'd wanted to make it appear less arbitrary, we would have chosen a power of 2, and innocent readers like you would assume that there was some deep, binary-related reason for the choice.   constructor()     array := create-array(0, 9)     size := 0     capacity := 10   end constructor   method get-begin():Vector Iterator     return new Vector-Iterator(array, 0)   end method The end iterator has an index of size. That's one more than the highest valid index.   method get-end():List Iterator     return new Vector-Iterator(array, size)   end method We'll use this method to help us implement the insertion routines. After it is called, the capacity of the array is guaranteed to be at least new-capacity. A naive implementation would simply allocate a new array with exactly new-capacity elements and copy the old array over. To see why this is inefficient, think what would happen if we started appending elements in a loop. Once we exceeded the original capacity, each new element would require us to copy the entire array. That's why this implementation at least doubles the size of the underlying array any time it needs to grow.   helper method ensure-capacity(new-capacity:Integer) If the current capacity is already big enough, return quickly.     if capacity >= new-capacity       return     end if Now, find the new capacity we'll need,     var allocated-capacity:Integer := max(capacity*2, new-capacity)     var new-array:Array := create-array(0, allocated-capacity - 1) copy over the old array,     for i in 0..size-1       new-array.set-element(i, array.get-element(i))     end for and update the Vector's state.     array := new-array     capacity := allocated-capacity   end method This method uses a normally-illegal iterator, which refers to the item one before the start of the Vector, to trick insert-after() into doing the right thing. By doing this, we avoid duplicating code.   method prepend(new-item:item-type)     insert-after(new Vector-Iterator(array, -1), new-item)   end method insert-after() needs to copy all of the elements between iter and the end of the Vector. This means that in general, it runs in O(N) time. However, in the special case where iter refers to the last element in the vector, we don't need to copy any elements to make room for the new one. An append operation can run in O(1) time, plus the time needed for the ensure-capacity() call. ensure-capacity() will sometimes need to copy the whole array, which takes O(N) time. But much more often, it doesn't need to do anything at all. Amortized Analysis In fact, if you think of a series of append operations starting immediately after ensure-capacity() increases the Vector's capacity (call the capacity here C, and ending immediately after the next increase in capacity, you can see that there will be exactly  appends. At the later increase in capacity, it will need to copy C elements over to the new array. So this entire sequence of  function calls took  operations. We call this situation, where there are O(N) operations for O(N) function calls "am

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