Patent application title: Composition and Methods for Improved Lubrication, Pour Point, and Fuel Performance
Clyde Ritter (Bozeman, MT, US)
C.M. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND RESEARCH, INC.
IPC8 Class: AC10M12522FI
Class name: Lubricants or separants for moving solid surfaces and miscellaneous mineral oil compositions (e.g., water containing, etc.) inorganic compound (except water) (overbased or carbonated organic acidic compounds are not classified in this subclass or its indents on the basis of inorganic overbasing or carbonating agents; the overbased or carbonated compounds are treated as complexes, and are classified with the particular organic acidic compound) with organic nitrogen or sulfur compound
Publication date: 2008-12-18
Patent application number: 20080312114
An additive includes polyalphaolefin (PAO), a calcium source, and one or
more oils from, or components derived from, beans, seeds, or roots, such
as castor oil, jojoba oil, rape (canola) seed oil, palm oil, sunflower
oil, soybean oil, etc. The preferred composition of matter comprises a
calcium source, PAO, castor oil, jojoba oil, and a soy methyl ester
and/or rape seed methyl or ethyl ester. The additive may be used in fuels
that improve combustion engine performance in terms of efficiency and
emissions. The additive may be used in lubricants that improve
performance of both ferrous and non-ferrous metal components of engines,
guns, or other machinery. The additive also may be used in cutting fluids
for machining and fabrication. Used in conjunction with other additives,
embodiments of the invention may be used, to lower pour points in oils,
esters and other similar products.
1. An additive composition for motor fuels, metal lubricants, or cutting
fluids, the additive comprising:a polyalphaolefin (PAO) component;a
calcium source; andat least one plant oil or mixture of plant
oils;wherein the PAO component is present in 0.1-50 LV %, the calcium
source is present in 10-60 LV %, and said at least one plant oil or
mixture of plant oils is present in 0.1-89.9 LV % of the additive.
2. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the calcium source is calcium sulfonate.
3. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil is selected from the group consisting of castor oil, jojoba oil, rape seed (canola) oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, and mixtures thereof.
4. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil comprises castor oil.
5. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil comprises jojoba oil.
6. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil comprises soy methyl ester.
7. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil comprises soy ethyl ester.
8. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil is a methyl or ethyl ester.
9. A composition for motor fuels, metal lubricants, or cutting fluids, comprising:an additive comprising:a polyalphaolefin (PAO) component;a calcium source; andat least one plant oil or mixture of plant oils;wherein the PAO component is present in 25-35 LV %, the calcium source is present in 25-35 LV %, and said at least one plant oil or mixture of plant oils is present in 30-50 LV % of the additive; anda motor fuel;wherein said additive is blended with said motor fuel in a proportion of 0.1-5.0 LV % additive and 99.99%-95 LV-% fuel.
10. A composition according to claim 9, wherein said motor fuel is gasoline.
11. A composition according to claim 9, wherein said motor fuel is petroleum diesel.
12. A composition according to claim 9, wherein said motor fuel comprises soy methyl ester or soy ethyl ester biodiesel.
13. A composition according to claim 9, wherein the calcium source is calcium sulfonate.
14. A composition according to claim 9, wherein the plant oil is selected from the group consisting of castor oil, jojoba oil, rape seed (canola) oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, and mixtures thereof.
15. A composition according to claim 9, wherein the plant oil comprises castor oil.
16. A composition according to claim 9, wherein the plant oil comprises jojoba oil.
17. A composition according to claim 9, wherein the plant oil comprises soy methyl ester.
18. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil comprises soy ethyl ester.
19. An additive according to claim 1, wherein the plant oil is a methyl or ethyl ester.
20. A pour point depressant composition for biodiesel fuel, the composition comprising:a polyalphaolefin (PAO) component;a calcium source;at least one plant oil or mixture of plant oils;and a petroleum diesel pour point depressant;wherein the PAO component is present in 30-40 LV %, the calcium source is present in 30-45 LV %, said at least one plant oil or mixture of plant oils is present in 5-35% LV % of the additive; and said pour point depressant is present in 5-10 LV % of the additive.
This application claims priority of U.S. Provisional Application
Ser. No. 60/610,153, filed Sep. 13, 2004, and U.S. Provisional
Application Ser. No. 60/636,416, filed Dec. 14, 2004, the disclosures of
which are incorporated herein by this reference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to motor fuels or additives for motor fuels that improve combustion engine performance in terms of efficiency and emissions. The invention may also relate to lubricants or additives for lubricants that improve performance of both ferrous and non-ferrous metal components of engines, guns, or other machinery. The invention may also relate to cutting fluids or additives for cutting fluids used in machining and fabricating, as well as mining and other similar cutting, shearing, and grinding applications that benefit from ease of cutting and lower temperatures. The invention may also act as an enhancer of pour point depressant additives for fuels, oils, esters, grease, pasty compounds such as cosmetics, as well as other fluids and semi-solids.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present inventor, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,505,867 (issued Apr. 9, 1996), has disclosed compositions of matter for inclusion in fuels and lubricants that include overbased sulfonates, jojoba oil, and castor oil. The combination of these three components, when added to lubes oils for metals, was found to provide superior lubrication performance. The combination of these three components, when added to automotive diesel fuel, was found to provide superior power, lower fuel consumption, and lower smoke emissions. The combination of these three components, when added to 95 Research Octane gasoline, allowed a single-engine aircraft engine to perform without incipient detonation even while "leaning" the fuel by 20-25%.
Many other patents and products attempt to improve engine performance and lube oil performance, with varying success. Many commercial products are available from the major oil companies and from smaller specialty producers that tout improved engine performance and life due to removal of deposits, prevention of deposits, lubrication of engine metal surfaces, removal of water droplets in fuel, or rust inhibition.
Even in view of the present inventor's previous invention, and in view of the many formulations available on the market, the present inventor still believes that improvement in lube oil and fuel additives and in methods of using the additives is needed. Embodiments of the present invention meet these and other needs.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention comprises a composition of matter that improves combustion performance and reduces harmful emissions from combustion engines when added to fuels for said engines, or that improves lubricant performance when added to lubricants for metals. The present invention comprises polyalphaolefin (PAO), a calcium source, and one or more plant oils from (components derived from, beans, seeds, roots, or other vegetable and plant portions such as castor oil, jojoba oil, rape seed (canola) oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, etc.), blended together as an additive for fuels and lubricants. While various formulations having these components may be effective, the preferred composition of matter comprises a calcium source, PAO, castor oil, jojoba oil, and soy methyl (or ethyl) ester. Alternatively, another preferred composition of matter comprises a calcium source, PAO, castor oil, and jojoba oil, with or without soy methyl or ethyl ester, blended together for addition to preferably a soy-based fuel or soy-containing fuel, for example, soy methyl (or ethyl) ester "biodiesel." Preferably, the fuel based on or containing said soy-based esters preferably contains a pour point depressant, or, most preferably, the additive is formulated for addition to the pour point depressant that is then added to a biodiesel.
A preferred method comprises reducing harmful emissions, particularly NOx, from vehicles and stationary engines, by adding the invented composition of matter to stationary and non-stationary combustion engine fuels, including diesel fuel, gasoline fuel, two-stroke cycle fuel, aviation fuels, and ship fuels. The inventor believes that embodiments of the invented additive may work well to meet the EPA mandates for 2006 regarding ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and gasoline fuels to enhance combustion, improve lubrication/anti-wear properties, and reduce a variety of toxic emissions. The inventor also expects that embodiments of the invented additive will be effective in Methanol E85 fuel that is currently sold in some regions, which fuel is approximately 85% methanol.
Embodiments of the invented composition of matter may work well as an additive in lubricants for ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, composites, and other substances, for example, liquid or solid lubricants and greases or anti-corrosion treatments for guns and other machinery. The composition of matter also may be used in cuttings fluids.
Embodiments of the invented additive may work well to meet mandates for including biodiesel in conventional petroleum diesel fuels, by means of the additive supplementing/enhancing pour point depression most preferably via addition to a conventional pour point depressant used in the biodiesel or less preferably via direct addition to the biodiesel preferably already containing pour point depressant. As an enhancer of pour point depressants, embodiments of the invented additive may be used in combination with conventional pour point depressants that are in and of themselves not effective, or minimally effective, for lowering the pour point of bean oils, seed oils, animal oils, esters, and other oils, fuels including such oils, and other fuels. The combination of the additive plus conventional pour point depressants greatly suppresses pour point in the above-mentioned oils and fuels, for example, making handling and storage of these substances much easier and feasible even in cold climates. In the case of pasty substances such as fats, cosmetics and similar substances, embodiments of the invention may help maintain a softer more pliable solid at lower temperatures.
The inventor also envisions that the invented composition of matter may be used in other materials that are currently in use or that may be in use in the future.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
Various embodiments of the invented composition may be formulated for use alone, blended into fuels, lubricants, treatments, or cutting oils, or blended into additives or pour point depressants for said fuel, lubricants, treatments, or cuttings. Various embodiments of the invented composition may be used to treat various surfaces and improve combustion and/or operation of combustion engines. In this way, machinery and equipment operates with less wear and failure and with more efficiency. Combustion engines operate with less wear and failure, more efficiency, and/or lower pollutant emissions.
Of particular interest and benefit is that embodiments of the invented composition of matter reduce harmful emissions from combustion fuels a surprising amount. NOx, VOC's, HC, smoke, and odor are reduced, even with small amounts of the composition of matter added to the fuels under study. The inventor believes that there is a synergistic effect from the invented composition of matter, specifically, treatment of the metal engine surfaces and improvement of combustion characteristics that together result in greatly improved and cleaner engine performance. The immediate effect is seen in terms of reduced harmful and unpleasant emissions, and the longer-term effect is seen in that metal surfaces appear to be changed, at least temporarily, so that an engine run with the invented additive in its fuel continues to exhibit improved performance (compared to pre-additive operation) even when changed back to the original (pre-additive) fuel.
The preferred embodiments include polyalphaolefin (PAO); a calcium source; and preferably a plurality of components from bean oils, seed oils, or root oils. These preferred components are discussed below:
The calcium source is preferably a liquid and may be a calcium sulfonate, such as an overbased calcium sulfonate, but the inventor envisions that other calcium-containing molecules may be used. Many calcium sulfonates and overbased calcium sulfonates are known (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,505,867 Related Art), and are available commercially, for example, from Crompton Corporation/Great Lakes Corporation (Chemtura).
The preferred combination of plant oils (liquid vegetable/plant fats, carboxylic esters) are bean, seed and root oils or derivatives thereof, and, most preferably, are castor oil, jojoba, and one or more oils selected from the following group: a soy oil or ester (most preferably soy methyl ester), canola (rape seed) oil or ester (preferably, rape seed methyl or ethyl ester), palm oil, and sunflower oil. The oil(s) selected from said group may be selected for obtaining the desired flow characteristics for the additive and/or for the desired lubrication, combustion, emissions, and pour point effects. While the inventor prefers soy methyl ester, one or more of the other oils may be substituted for, or added with, the soy methyl ester, preferably with the sum of the oils from this listed group being present in an amount of about 5-30 LV % of the additive.
While the inventor prefers polyalphaolefin, castor oil, jojoba oil, soy methyl ester and calcium sulfonate, he also envisions that alternative components may be used, both crystalline and amorphic. For example, the inventor believes that polyolefinic esters ("POE") may be used in place of, or in addition to, PAO. As explained above, alternative calcium sources may be used. Alternative bean, seed, or root oils may be used, with the selected oils preferably having acid groups similar to those present in castor oil or jojoba oil. The inventor envisions that ethyl ester(s) may be used in addition to, or instead of, methyl ester. Also, as explained above, while soy methyl ester in the range of 5-30 LV % is preferred due to the resulting flow characteristics and excellent emissions reduction witnessed therewith, it should be noted that, in some embodiments, the soy methyl ester may be eliminated or reduced, and canola oil, palm oil, and/or sunflower oil may be substituted for, or added to, the soy methyl ester, still keeping the preferred 5-30 LV % range.
Preferred formulations for the invented composition of matter are within the following ranges:
10-60 LV-% Calcium sulfonate;
0.1-50 LV-% polyalphaolefin;
0.1-40 LV-% castor oil;
0.1-30 LV-% jojoba oil; and
5-80 LV-% soy methyl ester
Wherein components from these five groups are blended together to form 100 liquid-volume-% of the "five-group additive" composition. In view of the above formula, the preferred additive may be said to be: 10-60 LV-% calcium sulfonate component, 0.1-50 LV-% polyalphaolefin component; and 0.1-89.9 LV % plant oil or mixture of plant oils. More preferable ranges for the components are 25-35 LV % calcium sulfonate component, 25-35 LV % polyalphaolefin component, 5-10 LV % castor oil, 1-5 LV % jojoba oil, and 1-45 LV % soy methyl ester. In view of this, the more preferred ranges may be said to be: 25-35 LV % calcium sulfonate component, 25-35 LV % polyalphaolefin component, and 30-50 LV % plant oil or mixture of plant oils.
The blending process is best done by adding the jojoba oil to the calcium sulfonate, and blending these two components very well before adding any other components. After blending the first two components, the castor oil, PAO, and finally the soy methyl ester may be added. A thorough blending of these components, before any other components are added, is believed by the inventor to be very important to keeping all the components of the additive in solution or suspension, and in keeping the additive in proper solution or suspension with the oil, fuel, or lubricant into which the additive is placed. While the components may be at a range of temperatures during the blending process, it is preferred that the components be blended at about room temperature up to about 100-140 degrees F.
The preferred five-group additive of calcium sulfonate, PAO, Castor oil, jojoba oil, and soy methyl ester may be mixed with components of other "groups" or "families", thus forming a "blended additive". The blended additive may consist of, for example, 80-99.9 LV-% of the five group combination and 20-0.1 LV-% of "additional components." Thus, the "additional components" may range from a significant portion of the product (at about 20 LV-%, for example) to a very small portion of the product (at about 0.1 LV-%, for example). Examples of components that may be added to the "five-group additive" to form a "blended additive" include, but are not limited to, a pour point suppressant, wintergreen oil, dyes, oil, various esters, and/or various conventional additive packages for fuels or for lubricants. Further, the five-group additive or the blended additive may be added/blended with other materials, preferably lube oil or fuels, which themselves may already contain other "additives."
The five-group additive or the blended additive, may be placed into lube oil in a concentration of 0.002-20.0 LV-% five-group or blended additive with 99.998-80 LV-% lube oil, for example. The five-group additive, or the blended additive, may be placed into combustion engine fuel in a concentration of 0.1-5.0 LV-% five-group or blended additive with 99.998-95 LV-% fuel, for example.
The inventor believes that many, if not all, polyalphaolefin compounds will be effective in the preferred additives. Specific examples of polyalphaolefin compounds that have been effective in the below-described tests and examples are SYNTON® PAOs (such as SYNTON-40® and SYNTON-80®) available from Crompton Corporation/Great Lakes Corporation (Chemtura), and DURASYN® PAO's available from BP Amoco.
The inventor envisions use of a wide range of concentrations of the five-group additive or the blended additive in lube oils, fuels, cutting oils, treatment oils, and that the more important issue is that components from the five groups be present in the lube or fuel, with or without other conventional or unconventional additive components.
An embodiment of the invention, an additive including the preferred five components, called herein "CA-40", was made according to the following formula:
30 LV-% Calcium Sulfonate
30 LV-% Polyalphaolefin
7 LV-% Castor Oil
3 LV-% Jojoba Oil
30 LV-% Soy Methyl Ester
Equaling 100 LV-% additive.
This formulation was blended by the methods described above. The effect of the CA-40 additive was tested in various combustion engines, as follows:
Test Sequence A
CA-40 was added to diesel fuel and to gasoline, and run in a variety of engines, as noted in the table below.
Tests 1-9 were performed under no-load conditions, with diesel fuel plus CA-40 (in a concentration of 1 ounce of CA-40 in 12 gallons of conventional, commercial diesel fuel) compared to the same engine operating on only the diesel fuel. Tests 10 and 11 were performed under no-load conditions, with gasoline plus CA-40 (in a concentration of 1 ounce of CA-40 in 18 gallons of conventional 87 octane, commercial gasoline) compared to the same engine operating with only the gasoline. All emissions results were obtained by means of an analyzer in the vehicle tailpipe, such as a Ferret®, Sun®, or ECOM® analyzer.
The results of this testing are shown below as percent change in emissions when going from the diesel-only or gasoline-only performances to the "diesel plus CA-40" or the "gasoline plus CA-40" performance, respectively.
In Tests 1, 3-9 (no data available for Test No. 2): when CA-40 was included, O2 increased by an average of 3%, while NOx decreased by an average of approximately 18%, carbon monoxide decreased by an average of approximately 27%, and carbon dioxide decreased by an average of approximately 8%. When CA-40 was included, NO2 decreased by an average of approximately 19%, and NO decreased by an average of approximately 17%. Therefore, significant and surprising improvements in each of these emissions were seen in the diesel plus CA-40 operations. In Test 10 and 11: when CA-40 was included, hydrocarbon ppm emissions dropped by very large percentages, namely, approximately 100% and 67%, for an average of an 83.5% decrease. Therefore, significant and surprising improvement in emissions was seen in the gasoline plus CA-40 operations.
TABLE-US-00001 OVERVIEW OF EMISSIONS Test Sequence A VEHICLE #1 JOHN DEERE 4850 Diesel #2 JOHN DEERE 4650 Diesel #3 JOHN DEERE 8300 Diesel #4 CASE STIEGER 9390 Diesel #5 FORD 1900 Diesel #6 NEW HOLLAND LX665 Diesel #7 BOBCAT Diesel #8 FREIGHTLINER CAT Diesel #9 DODGE RAM 1/2 TON Diesel #10 96 JEEPCHEROKEE 4.0 Gas #11 2000 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE 3.8 Gas DIESEL VEHICLE #1 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 AVERAGE O2 +13% +1% +1% +5% +2% +1.1% +1% +0.3% 3% NOX -20% -14% -15% -16% -12% -23% -18% -21% -18.25% CO -20% -21% -18% -49% -19% -47% -25% -21% -27.50% CO2 -35% 0% -3% -14% -5% -14% -5% -4.80% -8.22% NO2 -20% -25% -10% -9% -10% -41% -20% 19.30% -19.28% NO -26% -7% -18% -17% -12% -18% -18% 24.90% -17.61% GAS VEHICLE % DROP #10 #11 AVERAGE HCPPM 100% 67% -83.50%
Test Sequence B
Testing was done in a Cummins B Series Turbo Diesel, starting with conventional, commercial #2 diesel (Test No. 1), followed by: the same diesel combined with CA-40 additive (Test No. 2), diesel with 2% bio-diesel additive and 1 ounce/10 gallons CA-40 additive (Test No. 3), diesel with 5% bio-diesel additive and 1 ounce/10 gallons CA-40 additive (Test No. 4), and the fuel of Test No. 4 with an additional 1 ounce of CA-409 per 10 gallons of fuel.
Testing was done at various engine rpm with no load, and at various road speeds ("with load"). Emissions were reported as shown in the table below, in the form of percent change from the base test, that is, Test No. 1. The data shows substantial and surprising improvement in NOX. with the addition of CA-40 and CA-40 combined with bio-diesel. For example, NOX decreased from about 7-14% at 2500 rpm, no load; 8-31% at 30 mph; 3-21% at 50 mph; and 4-8% at 70 mph.
TABLE-US-00002 Vehicle Dodge 2001 pick up VIN # 387KF23601G735111 Engine Cummin's B series Turbo Diesel Date of Testing Aug. 4, 2004 Test Condition O2 CO NOX CO2 800 RPM with No Load 1 18.5 286 282 1.8 Change -- -- -- -- 2 18.6 257 280 1.8 Change +.5% -10% -0.7% 0% 3 18.6 233 284 1.8 Change +0.5% -18.5% +0.7% 0% 4 18.5 163 298 1.8 Change 0% -43% +5.6% 0% 5 18.6 206 289 1.8 Change +0.5% -30% +2.4% 0% 2500 RPM with No Load 1 17.3 578 192 2.7 Change -- -- -- -- 2 17.3 751 167 2.7 Change 0% +29% -13% 0% 3 17.2 650 166 2.8 Change -0.6% +12% -14% -3.7% 4 17.1 627 172 2.9 Change +1.1% +8% -10% +7.4% 5 17.2 637 178 2.8 Change -0.6% -10% -7% +3.7% 30 MPH 1 15.5 460 587 4.0 Change -- -- -- -- 2 16.9 421 406 3.0 Change +9% -8.4% -31% -25% 3 16.8 378 420 3.1 Change +9% -17.8% -28.% -23% 4 16.9 377 505 3.7 Change +9% -18% -14% -7.5% 5 15.7 369 536 4 Change -1% -14% -8.6% 0% 50 MPH 1 13.5 202 760 5.5 Change -- -- -- -- 2 15.3 312 597 4.2 Change +13% +54% -21% -24% 3 14.2 243 669 4.8 Change +7% +20% -15% -12.7% 4 13.3 284 636 4.8 Change -1.4% +40% -16% -14.5% 5 13.6 243 733 5.8 Change +0.7% +20% -3.5% +5.5% 70 MPH 1 13.3 213 457 5.6 Change -- -- -- -- 2 13.8 307 427 5.3 Change +3.7% +44% -6.5% -5.3% 3 13.4 305 421 5.6 Change +5.7% +43% -7.9% 0% 4 12.5 196 439 6.2 Change -6% -7.9% -3.9% -10.7% 5 13.4 281 426 5.6 Change +0.7% +32% 6.8% 0% Vehicle- Pont. Bonneville Testing conditions 1. #2 diesel fuel 2. #2 diesel fuel with CA 40 treatment at 1 oz per 10 gallons of fuel 3. #2 diesel fuel + 2% bio-diesel with CA 40 treatment at 1 oz per 10 gallons of fuel 4. #2 diesel fuel + 5% bio-diesel with CA 40 treatment at 1 oz per 10 gallons of fuel 5. #4 fuel with additional 1 oz. CA 40 per 10 gallons of fuel O2 = % CO = ppm NOX = ppm CO2 = % Change - Difference from condition #1/condition 1 data
Test Sequence C
In this test, a gasoline vehicle was tested with load, at 75 mph. The vehicle was a 2001 Pontiac Bonneville with a 3800 engine (not turbo-charged) Test No. 1 was performed at 75 mph with conventional, commercial gasoline of 87 octane, and Test no. 2 was performed at 75 mph with the same gasoline plus 1 ounce of CA-40 added per 10 gallons of the gasoline. The test results show substantial and surprising results in CO emissions and in NOx emissions. CO was reduced by over 15% and NOx was reduced by over 50%, as shown by the table below.
TABLE-US-00003 Test Condition HC CO CO2 O2 NOx 1 1 .39 15.2 0 19 Change -- -- -- -- -- 2 1 .33 15.1 0 9 Change 0% -15.3% -0.6% 0% -53% ****While specific baseline and experimental data was not formally collected, it appeared that spikes in HC and NOx during and shortly after rapid acceleration were substantially reduced. Test condition 1-75 mph without product 2-75 mph with 1 oz CA 40 per 10 gallons of gasoline HC = ppm CO = %, CO2 = %, O2 = %, Nox = ppm
In addition to the emissions improvements, the inventor has witnessed substantial improvements (reductions) in emissions of smoke and odor, and improvements in engine efficiency in terms of miles per gallon. Use of the CA-40 resulted in approximately 25% improvement in miles per gallon in many of the under-load tests above. In addition to NOx reductions and efficiency improvement, the inventor believes that volatile organic compounds (VOC's) will be reduced as well with use of the CA-40 or similar formulations.
The inventor believes that the combination of the preferred components has a synergistic, positive effect on emissions, smoke, odor, and engine efficiency. The inventor believes that PAO and soy methyl ester may be important to smoke emissions, NOx, and 7° C.'s, and that there is a synergistic effect when said PAO and ester are combined with the other components to greatly improve the performance of the invented additive.
The inventor believes that formulations such as CA-40 and others within the broad scope of this invention will be very beneficial in a variety of applications. With use of the invented additive, decreased emissions are achieved, and increased engine efficiency translating into more miles per gallon. The inventor believes that automobile, bus, truck, airplane, train, heavy equipment, generators, etc. will benefit from the invented additive. Another example of a benefit of an embodiment of the invention is given below in Test Sequence D, wherein lawn mower performance is tested with and without an additive according to one embodiment of the invention.
Test Sequence D
Additive in Lawn Mower Fuel
Ambient Temp: 50 degreesLawn Mower Stanley riding lawn mower with Briggs & Stratton 21βP two cylinder engine
Procedures & Measurements:
Engine was warmed up and run until it burned up all the fuel in the tank and stopped.
The mower was then filled with three pints of Condition A fuel (below); engine was started and mower deck immediately engaged. RPM was held at 4400. A "Snap On" Tachometer was used to check the RPM. The engine was run until all of the three pints was burned and the engine stopped. A watch was set to measure the running time of this condition.
The mower was then filled with three pints of Condition B fuel (below); engine was started and mower deck immediately engaged. RPM was held at 4400. As above, a "Snap On" Tachometer was used to check the RPM. The engine was run until all of the three pints was burned and the engine stopped. As above, a watch was set to measure the running time of this condition.
Condition A fuel: 20 gallons gasoline with an octane rating of 87, plus one (1) ounce additive according to one embodiment of the invention:
Calcium Sulfonate: 30 LV %
Polyalphaolefin: 30 LV %
Castor Oil: 10 LV %
Jojoba Oil: 1 LV %
Soy Methyl Ester: 29 LV %
Equaling 100 LV-% additive.
Condition B used 100% gasoline with an octane rating of 87 (Not treated with any embodiment of the invented additive).Condition A ran for 2910 secondsCondition B ran for 2715 seconds2910 seconds/2715 seconds=1.0712 approximately a 7% improvement in performance.
Test Sequence E
Metal Conditioning Properties
Composition of Additive, according to one embodiment of the invention:
PAO: 30 LV %
Calcium Sulfonate: 40 LV %
Castor Oil: 20 LV %
Jojoba Oil: 1 LV %
Soy methyl ester: 9 LV %
Equaling 100 LV % Additive
Testing the muzzle velocity of a 180 grain 30-06 bullet when fired from a rifle as measured by a chronograph.Condition A: hand-loaded cartridge (described above) was fired and velocity measured.Condition B: identical to Condition A above except the cartridges were first put in the above-described Additive and the Additive with cartridges "soaking" therein were heated to 200 degrees F. After several minutes at 200 degrees F., the cartridges were removed, wiped clean, cooled, hand-loaded, and fired.
Condition A: 2768 feet per second.Condition B: 2916 feet per second.2916/2768=1.0535--approximately a 5.4% increase in muzzle velocity.
Test Sequence F
Mini-Masonry Chain Saw
Composition of Additive, according to one embodiment of the invention:
PAO: 20 LV %
Calcium sulfonate: 40 LV %
Castor Oil: 20%
Jojoba Oil: 1 LV %
Soy Methyl Ester: 19 LV %
Equaling 100 LV % Additive
Method: Use a prototype masonry chain saw, temperature was measured at the hottest point of the saw (tip). Also, an observation was made regarding the speed of cutting.Condition A: The saw was used to remove mortar between bricks on an existing wall. Water was used as a coolant.Condition B: The saw was used to remove mortar between bricks on an existing wall, as in Condition A. Water, treated with PB 10 sulfur chlorinated water-soluble cutting oil, was used as a coolant.Treatment rates: 1 oz per gallon of waterCondition C: The saw was used to remove mortar between bricks on an existing wall, as in Conditions A and B. Water, treated with the Condition B water soluble cutting oil and the Additive listed above, was used as a coolant. Treatment rates: 1 oz of the Additive was added to 4 oz PB 10. One ounce of the blend of Additive plus PB-10 was added per gallon of water.
Condition A: Tip Temperature=161 degree F.Condition B: Tip Temperature=130 degrees F.Condition C: Tip Temperature=91 degrees F.
Water soluble oil as a coolant (Condition B) resulted in an average 31 degree F. lower temperature compared to Condition A.Additive plus Water Soluble Oil (Condition C) resulted in a temperature 70 degrees F. lower than Condition A, and a temperature 39 degrees F. lower than Condition B.Other advantages included: In Conditions A and B (that is, without the Additive), the cutting debris stuck (impacted) to the chain and bar. Also, with the additive, the operator reported a significant increase in power and RPM, and that the rate of cutting appeared to double.
In some cases, not all of the preferred five groups/components are necessary for the formulation. For example, there are cases where the additive is formulated for addition to one of the preferred five basic components described above, for example, to soy methyl ester ("biodiesel"), that component may or may not be in the additive. For example, PAO, calcium sulfonate, castor oil, jojoba oil, and soy methyl ester may be added to biodiesel (soy methyl ester preferably with pour point depressant and/or other additives) or to a pour point depressant or other additive package that will subsequently be added to biodiesel. Also, the preferred components minus the soy methyl ester (PAO, calcium sulfonate, castor oil, jojoba oil) may be blended to formulate an additive that may be added to the biodiesel or to the pour point depressant or other additive package for biodiesel. Thus, when the additive is intended to be added to a larger amount of one of the preferred components, that component need not necessarily be included in the original additive formulation. For example, a preferred formula for this application is:
TABLE-US-00004 40% Calcium Sulfonate 15% Castor Oil 34% Poly Alpha Olefin (PAO) 10% Pour point depressant (RHO-Max 10 - 310) or other conventional petroleum diesel pour point depressant 1% Jojoba Oil Totaling 100 LV-%
Preferred ranges of the above components are: 30-45V % calcium sulfonate component; 30-40 LV % PAO; and 5-35 LV % plant oils or mixture of plant oil; and 5-10 LV % conventional pour point depressant.
The inventor has found that an additive of PAO, calcium sulfonate, castor oil, and jojoba oil, is especially beneficial as a pour point suppression enhancer in biodiesel. This is especially important in view of the fact that conventional pour point depressants typically fail to reduce pour point to an acceptable level. The "four-group" additive described in the test below, when combined with a conventional pour point depressant and then added to biodiesel, resulted in a pour point of less than -20 degrees F. The inventor has seen this beneficial effect when the invented additive is added to the pour point depressant (and then the combination added to the biodiesel), but, as of the date of filing this application, the inventor has not seen this beneficial effect when the invented additive is added to the biodiesel directly (separately from the pour point depressant).
These pour point improvements are particularly important for regions wherein regulations will mandate that biodiesel be added to conventional diesel or other fuels. Pour point of the biodiesel during storage, handling, and blending into the conventional diesel or other fuels has been problematic in the past. Embodiments of the invention, therefore, may greatly assist in storage, handling and blending of the biodiesel, as well as of the resulting blends, in order to achieve the desired environmental and agricultural-economy benefits of biodiesel.
Test Sequence G
Cold Temp Properties (Pour Point)
Soy Methyl Ester herein is called "Biodiesel" and "B-100" (meaning 100% soy methyl ester).Two samples were used:
Sample A: B-100
Sample B: B-100 plus an embodiment of the invented additive plus conventional pour point depressant (Rho-Max 10-310). The embodiment of the invented additive consisted of (LV-%):
TABLE-US-00005 44.4% Calcium Sulfonate 16.7% Castor Oil 37.8% Poly Alpha Olefin (PAO) 1.1% Jojoba Oil Totaling 100 LV-%
Pour point depressant was blended with the above additive, resulting in:
TABLE-US-00006 40% Calcium Sulfonate 15% Castor Oil 34% Poly Alpha Olefin (PAO) 10% Pour point depressant (RHO-Max 10 - 310) 1% Jojoba Oil Totaling 100 LV-%
This blend of the additive plus pour point depressant was then added to B-100 at a rate of one ounce per five gallons of B-100, and heated to 104 degrees Fahrenheit for a period of five hours.Method: Samples A and B were put in similar containers and brought to lower temperatures. Viscosity and pourability were visually checked.Results: Both Samples A and B were observed to have similar viscosity and both samples poured at similar rates from 80 to 30 degrees F. Sample A became cloudy at about 25 degrees F. and turned to a solid at 20 degrees F.
Sample B showed some clouding at -10 degrees F., but continued to pour well at -20 degrees F. (that is, poured in a manner similar to Sample A when Sample A was at 70 degrees F.). Pourability of Sample B remained at this level with no observable change for a period of two weeks. The sample was then diluted with 50% soy methyl ester (that is, 50 LV % more B-100 was added), and identical results were noted. Therefore, the inventor believes the additive to be highly effective as an enhancer for pour point depressant over a wide range of concentrations.
Test Sequence H
Cold Temp Properties
The inventor has found that, when embodiments of the invented additive are blended with a conventional pout point depressant and then added to "B-20" (which is common terminology for 80 LV-% conventional diesel fuel and 20 LV-% Biodiesel (soy methyl ester)), the soy methyl ester does not separate from the conventional diesel fuel
at -20 degrees F. This surprising result may be due to the invented additive being a bonding agent between the esters and the hydrocarbons. This benefit may extend to very low temperature, such as -40 degrees F., wherein the additive may act as an anti-gel/anti-separation agent for diesel fuels.
Although this invention has been described above with reference to particular means, materials and embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to these disclosed particulars, but extends instead to all equivalents within the broad scope the following claims.