Ergogenic Aids

Ergogenic aids are dietary supplements intended to enhance athletic performance. Athletes often look for a "magic bullet" that can give them an advantage over their opponents.

Exchange System

Prior to the development of exchange lists in 1950, meal planning for persons in the United States with diabetes was chaotic, with no agreement among the major organizations involved with diabetes and nutrition. To solve this problem, the concept of "exchange," or "substitution," of similar foods was developed by the American Dietetic Association, the American Diabetes Association, and the U.S.


More than 28 percent of Americans are completely sedentary (they engage in no physical activity), with an additional 60 percent being inadequately active (engaging in less than 30 minutes of activity per day). For those who strive to achieve and maintain a high quality of health, it must be recognized that physical activity is vital to optimal health.

Exercise Addiction

Individuals with an exercise addiction are characterized by their compulsive exercise behaviors, an overinvolvement in exercise, and the presence of an activity disorder—meaning they exercise at a duration, intensity, and frequency beyond that required for sport. A rigid schedule of intense exercise is maintained, accompanied by strong feelings of guilt when this schedule is violated.

Expanded Food Nutrition and Education Program

The Expanded Food Nutrition and Education Program (EFNEP), established in 1968, is funded by the United States Department of Agriculture. By providing grants to local communities, the program assists U.S.

Fad Diets

Americans are obsessed with dieting. They willingly try the latest diet appearing in popular magazines, discussed on talk shows, and displayed on the shelves of their local bookstore.

Failure to Thrive

Failure to thrive is a term used to describe infants and young children who are not growing or are losing weight due to malnutrition, neglect, abuse, or medical conditions. In failure to thrive, the child may have a low body weight (below the third percentile for the child's age), a low height for age, or a small head circumference.


Famine is the culmination of a long process, typically covering two or more crop seasons, in which increasing numbers of people lose their access to food. Although early detection seems highly possible, the origins of famine are unclear, and early response is therefore rare.

Fast Foods

Fast foods are relatively inexpensive foods that are prepared and served quickly. The fast-food industry had its beginnings around the mid-twentieth century, and it grew tremendously during the last three decades of the twentieth century.


The term fasting refers to voluntarily or involuntarily going without food. A person may fast voluntarily because of an eating disorder, as a dietary practice related to religious proscriptions, or for health reasons, such as weight loss or internal cleansing.

Fat Substitutes

Since the late 1980s, fat-free and reduced-fat foods have become widely available. While not all new products survive the competitive marketplace, thousands of new reduced-fat and fat-free products have been introduced each year since 1990.


Lipids are organic substances consisting mostly of carbons and hydrogen atoms. They are hydrophobic, which means that they have little or no affinity to water.

Female Athlete Triad

The female athlete triad is a common nutritional disorder among female athletes caused by the drive of girls and women to be unrealistically thin in an attempt to improve performance. The disorder is most common in sports judged by build (e.g., gymnastics, diving, figure skating), sports with a weight classification (e.g., light-weight crew), and endurance sports (e.g., distance running).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect caused by a mother's alcohol intake during pregnancy. The symptoms of FAS are mental retardation, poor growth, facial defects, and behavioral problems.


Fiber, which is found in all plant-based foods, is composed of a group of compounds that makes up the framework of plants. Although fiber cannot be digested, it is an essential nutrient for good health.

Food Aid for Development and the World Food Programme

Food aid has been a key to global agricultural development and trade policy since the end of World War II. Food aid creates agricultural development and income growth in poor nations, and thus creates future markets for donor countries, according to Christopher Barrett.

Food and Agricultural Organization

The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) is one of the largest specialized agencies of the United Nations. Founded in 1945, it is responsible for raising levels of nutrition and standards of living, increasing agricultural productivity, and improving rural living conditions throughout the world.

Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid is a graphic representation of A Pattern for Daily Food Choices, a food guide that was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the 1980s.

Food Insecurity

Millions of people worldwide suffer from hunger and undernutrition. A major factor contributing to this international problem is food insecurity.