A seizure is a sudden disruption of the brain's normal electrical activity accompanied by altered consciousness and/or other neurological and behavioral abnormalities. Epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures that may include repetitive muscle jerking called convulsions.
There are more than 20 different seizure disorders. One in ten Americans willhave a seizure at some time, and at least 200,000 have at least one seizurea month.
Epilepsy affects 1-2% of the population of the United States. Although epilepsy is as common in adults over 60 as in children under 10, 25% of all cases develop before the age of five. One in every two cases develops before the ageof 25. About 125,000 new cases of epilepsy are diagnosed each year, and a significant number of children and adults that have not been diagnosed or treated have epilepsy.
Most seizures are benign (not life-threatening), but a seizure that lasts a long time can lead to status epilepticus, a life-threatening condition in which continuous seizures cause lengthy loss of consciousness and respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulties). Non-convulsive epilepsy can impair physical coordination, vision, and other senses. Undiagnosed seizures can lead to conditions that are more serious and more difficult to manage.
There are many different types of seizures: Generalized epileptic seizures occur when electrical abnormalities exist throughout the brain. A partial seizure does not involve the entire brain. A partial seizure begins in an area called an epileptic focus, but may spread to other parts of the brain and causea generalized seizure. Some people who have epilepsy have more than one typeof seizure.
Motor attacks cause parts of the body to jerk repeatedly. A motor attack usually lasts less than an hour and may last only a few minutes. Sensory seizuresbegin with numbness or tingling in one area. The sensation may move along one side of the body or the back before subsiding.
Visual seizures, which affect the area of the brain that controls sight, cause people to see things that are not there. Auditory seizures affect the partof the brain that controls hearing and cause the patient to imagine voices, music, and other sounds. Other types of seizures can cause confusion, upset stomach, or emotional distress.
A generalized tonic-clonic (grand-mal) seizure begins with a loud cry beforethe person having the seizure loses consciousness and falls to the ground. The muscles become rigid for about 30 seconds during the tonic phase of the seizure and alternately contract and relax during the clonic phase, which lasts30-60 seconds. The skin sometimes acquires a bluish tint and the person may bite his tongue, lose bowel or bladder control, or have trouble breathing.
A grand mal seizure lasts between two and five minutes, and the person may beconfused or have trouble talking when he regains consciousness (post-ictal state). He may complain of head or muscle aches, or weakness in his arms or legs before falling into a deep sleep.
A primary generalized seizure occurs when electrical discharges begin in bothhalves (hemispheres) of the brain at the same time. Primary generalized seizures are more likely to be major motor attacks than to be absence seizures.
Absence (petit mal) seizures generally begin at about the age of four and stop by the time the child becomes an adolescent. Absence seizures usually beginwith a brief loss of consciousness and last between one and 10 seconds. A person having a petit mal seizure becomes very quiet and may blink, stare blankly, roll his eyes, or move his lips. A petit mal seizure lasts 15-20 seconds.When it ends, the person who had the seizure resumes whatever he was doing before the seizure began. He will not remember the seizure and may not realizethat anything unusual has happened. Untreated, petit mal seizures can recuras many as 100 times a day and may progress to grand mal seizures.
Myoclonic seizures are characterized by brief, involuntary spasms of the tongue or muscles of the face, arms, or legs. Myoclonic seizures are most apt tooccur when waking after a night's sleep.
A jacksonian seizure is a partial seizure characterized by tingling, stiffening, or jerking of an arm or leg and the seizure may progress along the limb.Loss of consciousness is rare.
Limp posture and a brief period of unconsciousness are features of akinetic seizures, which occur in young children. Akinetic seizures, which cause the child to fall, are also called drop attacks.
Simple partial seizures do not spread from the focal area where they arise. Symptoms are determined by what part of the brain is affected. The patient usually remains conscious during the seizure and can later describe it in detail.
A distinctive smell, taste, or other unusual sensation (aura) may signal thestart of complex partial seizures that start as simple partial seizures, butmove beyond the focal area and cause loss of consciousness. Complex partial seizures can become major motor seizures. Although a person having a complex partial seizure may not seem to be unconscious, he does not know what is happening and may behave inappropriately. He will not remember the seizure, but may seem confused or intoxicated for a few minutes after it ends.
The origin of 50-70% of all cases of epilepsy is unknown. Epilepsy is sometimes the result of trauma at the time of birth. Such causes include insufficient oxygen to the brain; head injury; heavy bleeding or incompatibility betweena woman's blood and the blood of her newborn baby; and infection immediatelybefore, after, or at the time of birth.
Other causes of epilepsy include:
- Head trauma resulting from a car accident, gunshot wound, or other injury.
- Brain abscess or inflammation of membranes covering the brain or spinal cord.
- Phenylketonuria (PKU, a disease that is present at birth, is often characterized by seizures, and can result in mental retardation) and other inherited disorders.
- Infectious diseases like measles, mumps, and diphtheria.
- Degenerative disease.
- Lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, carbonmonoxide poisoning, or ingestion of some other poisonous substance.
- Genetic factors.
Status epilepticus, a condition in which a person suffers from continuous seizures and may have trouble breathing, can be caused by:
- Suddenly discontinuing anti-seizure medication.
- Hypoxic or metabolic encephalopathy(brain disease resulting from lack of oxygen or malfunctioning of other physical or chemical processes).
- Acute head injury.
- Blood infection caused by inflammation of the brain or the membranes that cover it.
Diagnosis of seizures includes personal and family medical history, description of seizure activity, and physical and neurological examinations help primary care physicians, neurologists, and epileptologists diagnose this disorder.Doctors rule out conditions that cause symptoms that resemble epilepsy, including small strokes (transient ischemic attacks, or TIAs), fainting (syncope), pseudoseizures, and sleep attacks (narcolepsy).
Neuropsychological testing uncovers learning or memory problems. Neuro-imaging pr provides views of brain areas involved in seizure activity.
The electroencephalography (EEG) is the main test used to diagnose epilepsy.EEGs use electrodes placed on or within the skull to record the brain's electrical activity and pinpoint the exact location of abnormal discharges.
The patient may be asked to remain motionless during a short-term EEG or to go about his normal activities during extended monitoring. Some patients are deprived of sleep or exposed to seizure triggers, such as rapid, deep breathing (hyperventilation) or flashing lights (photic stimulation). In some cases,people may be hospitalized for EEG monitorings that can last as long as two weeks. Video EEGs also document what the patient was doing when the seizure occurred and how the seizure changed his behavior.
Other techniques used to diagnose epilepsy include:
- Magnetic resonanceimaging (MRI), which provides clear, detailed images of the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI), performed while the patient does various tasks, can measure shifts in electrical intensity and blood flow and indicate which brain region each activity affects.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) monitor blood flow and chemical activity inthe brain area being tested. PET and SPECT are very effective in locating thebrain region where metabolic changes take place between seizures.
The treatment goal for epilepsy is to eliminate seizures or make the symptomsless frequent and less severe. Long-term anticonvulsant drug therapy is themost common form of epilepsy treatment.
A combination of drugs may be needed to control some symptoms, but most patients who have epilepsy take one of the following medications:
- Tegretol (carbamazepine)
- Barbita (phenobarbital)
- Mysoline (primidone)
- Depakene (valproic acid, sodium valproate)
- Klonopin (clonazepam)
- Zarontin (ethosuximide).
Dilantin, Tegretol, Barbita, and Mysoline are used to manage or control generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures. Depakene, Klonopin, and Zarontin are prescribed for patients who have absence seizures.
Neurontonin (gabapentin) and Lamictal (lamotrigine) are medications recentlyapproved in the United States to treat adults who have partial seizures or partial and grand mal seizures.
Even a patient whose seizures are well controlled should have regular blood tests to measure levels of anti-seizure medication in his system and to checkto see if the medication is causing any changes in his blood or liver. A doctor should be notified if any signs of drug toxicity appear, including uncontrolled eye movements; sluggishness, dizziness, or hyperactivity; inability tosee clearly or speak distinctly; nausea or vomiting; or sleep problems.
Status epilepticus requires emergency treatment, usually with Valium (Ativan), Dilantin, or Barbita. An intravenous dextrose (sugar) solution is given topatients whose condition is due to low blood sugar, and a vitamin B1 preparation is administered intravenously when status epilepticus resultsfrom chronic alcohol withdrawal. Because dextrose and thiamine are essentially harmless and because delay in treatment can be disastrous, these medications are given routinely, as it is usually difficult to obtain an adequate history from a patient suffering from status epilepticus.
Intractable seizures are seizures that cannot be controlled with medication or without sedation or other unacceptable side effects. Surgery may be used toeliminate or control intractable seizures.
Surgery can be used to treat patients whose intractable seizures stem from small focal lesions that can be removed without endangering the patient, changing the patient's personality, dulling the patient's senses, or reducing the patient's ability to function. Each year, as many as 5,000 new patients may become suitable candidates for surgery, which is most often performed at a comprehensive epilepsy center. Potential surgical candidates include patients with:
- Partial seizures and secondarily generalized seizures (attacks thatbegin in one area and spread to both sides of the brain).
- Seizures and childhood paralysis on one side of the body (hemiplegia).
- Complexpartial seizures originating in the temporal lobe (the part of the brain associated with speech, hearing, and smell) or other focal seizures. However, therisk of surgery involving the speech centers is that the patient will lose speech function.
- Generalized myoclonic seizures or generalized seizures featuring temporary paralysis (akinetic) or loss of muscle tone (atonal).
A physical examination is conducted to verify that a patient's seizures are caused by epilepsy, and surgery is not used to treat patients with severe psychiatric disturbances or medical problems that raise risk factors to unacceptable levels. Surgery is never recommended unless:
- The best available anti-seizure medications have failed to control the patient's symptoms satisfactorily.
- The origin of the patient's seizures has been precisely located.
- There is good reason to believe that surgery will significantly improve the patient's health and quality of life.
Every patient considering epilepsy surgery is carefully evaluated by one or more neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, and/or social workers. Apsychiatrist, chaplain, or other spiritual advisor may help the patient andhis family cope with the stresses that occur during and after the selection process.
Surgical techniques used to treat intractable epilepsy include:
- Lesionectomy. Removing the lesion (diseased brain tissue) and some surrounding brain tissue is very effective in controlling seizures. Lesionectomy is generallymore successful than surgery performed on patients whose seizures are not caused by clearly defined lesions, but removing only part of the lesion lessensthe effectiveness of the procedure.
- Temporal resections. Removing part of the temporal lobe and the part of the brain associated with feelings, memory, and emotions (the hippocampus) provides good or excellent seizure control in 75-80% of properly selected patients with appropriate types of temporal lobe epilepsy. Some patients experience post-operative speech and memory problems.
- Extra-temporal resection. This procedure involves removing some or all of the frontal lobe, the part of the brain directly behind the forehead. The frontal lobe helps regulate movement, planning, judgment, and personality, and special care must be taken to prevent post-operative problems with movement and speech. Extra-temporal resection is most successful in patients whose seizures are not widespread.
- Hemispherectomy. This method ofremoving brain tissue is restricted to patients with severe epilepsy and abnormal discharges that often extend from one side of the brain to the other. Hemispherectomies are most often performed on infants or young children who have had an extensive brain disease or disorder since birth or from a very youngage.
- Corpus callosotomy. This procedure, an alternative to hemispherectomy in patients with congenital (present at birth) hemiplegia, removes some or all of the white matter that separates the two halves of the brain. Corpus callosotomy is performed almost exclusively on children who are frequentlyinjured during falls caused by seizures. If removing two-thirds of the corpus callosum doesn't produce lasting improvement in the patient's condition, the remaining one-third will be removed during another operation.
- Multiple subpial transection. This procedure is used to control the spread of seizures that originate in or affect the "eloquent" cortex, the area of the brainresponsible for complex thought and reasoning.
Another form of treatment consists of a special high-fat, low-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is sometimes used to treat patients whose severe seizures have not responded to other treatment. Calculated according to age, height, andweight, the ketogenic diet induces mild starvation and dehydration. This forces the body to create an excessive supply of ketones, natural chemicals withseizure-suppressing properties.
The goal of this controversial approach is to maintain or improve seizure control while reducing medication. The ketogenic diet works best with children between the ages of one and 10. It is introduced over a period of several days, and most children are hospitalized during the early stages of treatment.
If a child following this diet remains seizure-free for at least six months,increased amounts of carbohydrates and protein are gradually added. If the child shows no improvement after three months, the diet is gradually discontinued.
Introduced in the 1920s, the ketogenic diet has had limited, short-term success in controlling seizure activity. Its use exposes patients to such potentially harmful side effects as:
- Staphylococcal infections
- Stuntedor delayed growth
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- Excess fat in the blood (hyperlipidemia)
- Disease resulting from calcium deposits in the urinary tract (urolithiasis)
- Disease of the optic nerve (optic neuropathy).
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use ofvagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in patients over the age of 16 who have intractable partial seizures. This non-surgical procedure uses a pacemaker-like device implanted under the skin in the upper left chest, to provide intermittentstimulation to the vagus nerve. Stretching from the side of the neck into thebrain, the vagus nerve affects swallowing, speech, breathing, and many otherfunctions, and VNS may prevent or shorten some seizures.
A person having a seizure should not be restrained, but sharp or dangerous objects should be moved out of reach. Anyone having a complex partial seizure can be warned away from danger by someone calling his/her name in a clear, calm voice.
A person having a grand mal seizure should be helped to lie down. Tight clothing should be loosened. A soft, flat object like a towel or the palm of a hand should be placed under the person's head. Forcing a hard object into the mouth of someone having a grand mal seizure could cause injuries or breathing problems. If the person's mouth is open, placing a folded cloth or other softobject between his teeth will protect his tongue. Turning his head to the side will help him breathe. After a grand mal seizure has ended, the person whohad the seizure should be told what has happened and reminded of where he is.
Alternative medicine can often be beneficial. Stress increases seizure activity in 30% of people who have epilepsy. Relaxation techniques can provide somesense of control over the disorder, but they should never be used instead ofanti-seizure medication or used without the approval of the patient's doctor. Yoga, meditation, and favorite pastimes help some people relax and manage stress more successfully. Biofeedback can teach adults and older adolescents how to recognize an aura and what to do to stop its spread. Children under 14are not usually able to understand and apply principles of biofeedback. Acupuncture treatments (acupuncture needles inserted for a few minutes or left inplace for as long as half an hour) make some people feel pleasantly relaxed.Acupressure can have the same effect on children or on adults who dislike needles.
Aromatherapy involves mixing aromatic plant oils into water or other oils andmassaging them into the skin or using a special burner to waft their fragrance throughout the room. Aromatherapy oils affect the body and the brain, andundiluted oils should never be applied directly to the skin. Ylang ylang, chamomile, or lavender can create a soothing mood. People who have epilepsy should not use rosemary, hyssop, sage or sweet fennel, which seem to make the brain more alert.
Dietary changes that emphasize whole foods and eliminate processed foods maybe helpful. Homeopathic therapy also can work for people with seizures, especially constitutional homeopathic treatment that acts at the deepest levels toaddress the needs of the individual person.
The prognosis (expected outcome) for people suffering from seizures differs with the type of seizure. People who have epilepsy have a higher-than-averagerate of suicide; sudden, unexplained death; and drowning and other accidentalfatalities.
Benign focal epilepsy of childhood and some absence seizures may disappear intime, but remission is unlikely if seizures occur several times a day, several times in a 48-hour period, or more frequently than in the past.
Seizures that occur repeatedly over time and always involve the same symptomsare called stereotypic seizures. The probability that stereotypic seizures will abate is poor.
About 85% of all seizure disorders can be partially or completely controlledif the patient takes anti-seizure medication according to directions; avoidsseizure-inducing sights, sounds, and other triggers; gets enough sleep; and eats regular, balanced meals.
Anyone who has epilepsy should wear a bracelet or necklace identifying his seizure disorder and listing the medication he takes.
Eating properly, getting enough sleep, and controlling stress and fevers canhelp prevent seizures. A person who has epilepsy should be careful not to hyperventilate. A person who experiences an aura should find a safe place to liedown and stay there until the seizure passes. Anticonvulsant medications should not be stopped suddenly and, if other medications are prescribed or discontinued, the doctor treating the seizures should be notified. In some conditions, such as severe head injury, brain surgery, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, anticonvulsant medications may be given to the patient to prevent seizures.