Salmonella food poisoning
Salmonella food poisoning is a bacterial food poisoning caused by the Salmonella bacterium. It results in the swelling of the lining of the stomachand intestines (gastroenteritis). While domestic and wild animals, includingpoultry, pigs, cattle and pets such as turtles, iguanas, chicks, dogs and cats can transmit this illness, most people become infected by ingesting foodscontaminated with significant amounts of Salmonella.
Salmonella food poisoning occurs worldwide, however it is most frequently reported in North America and Europe. Only a small proportion of infected peopleare tested and diagnosed, and as few as 1% of cases are actually reported. While the infection rate may seem relatively low, even an attack rate of lessthan 0.5% in such a large number of exposures results in many infected individuals. The poisoning typically occurs in small, localized outbreaks in the general population or in large outbreaks in hospitals, restaurants, or institutions for children or the elderly. In the United States, Salmonella isresponsible for about 15% of all cases of food poisoning.
Improperly handled or undercooked poultry and eggs are the foods which most frequently cause Salmonella food poisoning. Chickens are a major carrier of Salmonella bacteria, which accounts for its prominence in poultry products. However, identifying foods which may be contaminated with Salmonella is particularly difficult because infected chickens typically show no signs or symptoms. Since infected chickens have no identifying characteristics, these chickens go on to lay eggs or to be used as meat.
At one time, it was thought that Salmonella bacteria were only found in eggs which had cracked, thus allowing the bacteria to enter. Ultimately, itwas learned that, because the egg shell has tiny pores, even uncracked eggswhich sat for a time on a surface (nest) contaminated with Salmonellacould themselves become contaminated. It is known also that the bacteria canbe passed from the infected female chicken directly into the substance of theegg before the shell has formed around it.
Anyone may contract Salmonella food poisoning, but the disease is most serious in infants, the elderly, and individuals with weakened immune systems. In these individuals, the infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites, causing death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. In addition, people who have had part or all oftheir stomach or their spleens removed, or who have sickle cell anemia, cirrhosis of the liver, leukemia, lymphoma, malaria, louse-borne relapsing fever,or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are particularly susceptible toSalmonella food poisoning.
Salmonella food poisoning can occur when someone drinks unpasteurized milk oreats undercooked chicken or eggs, or salad dressings or desserts which contain raw eggs. Even if Salmonella-containing foods such as chicken are thoroughly cooked, any food can become contaminated during preparation if conditions and equipment for food preparation are unsanitary.
Other foods can then be accidentally contaminated if they come into contact with infected surfaces. In addition, children have become ill after playing with turtles or iguanas, and then eating without washing their hands. Because the bacteria are shed in the feces for weeks after infection with Salmonella, poor hygiene can allow such a carrier to spread the infection to others.
Symptoms appear about 1-2 days after infection, and include fever (in 50% ofpatients), nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps and pain. Thediarrhea is usually very liquid, and rarely contains mucus or blood. Diarrheausually lasts for about four days. The illness usually ends in about five toseven days.
Serious complications are rare, occurring most often in individuals with other medical illnesses. Complications occur when the Salmonella bacteriamake their way into the bloodstream (bacteremia). Once in the blood stream, the bacteria can enter any organ system throughout the body, causing disease.Other infections which can be caused by Salmonella include:
- Bone infections (osteomyelitis)
- Joint infections (arthritis)
- Infection of the sac containing the heart (pericarditis)
- Infection ofthe tissues which cover the brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
- Infection of the liver (hepatitis)
- Lung infections (pneumonia)
- Infection of aneurysms (abnormal outpouchings which occur in weak areas of the walls of blood vessels)
- Infections in the center of existing tumors or cysts.
Under appropriate laboratory conditions, Salmonella can be grown and then viewed under a microscope for identification. Early in the infection, theblood is far more likely to positively show a presence of the Salmonella bacterium when a sample is grown on a nutrient substance (culture) for identification purposes. Eventually, however, positive cultures can be obtainedfrom the stool (feces) and in some cases from a urine culture.
Even though Salmonella food poisoning is a bacterial infection, most practitioners do not treat simple cases with antibiotics. Studies have shown that using antibiotics does not usually reduce the length of time that the patient isill. Paradoxically, it appears that antibiotics do, however, cause the patient to shed bacteria in their feces for a longer period of time. In order to decrease the length of time that a particular individual is a carrier who can spread the disease, antibiotics are generally not given.
In situations where an individual has a more severe type of infection with Salmonella bacteria, a number of antibiotics may be used. Chloramphenicol was the first antibiotic successfully used to treat Salmonella food poisoning. It is still a drug of choice in developing countries because it is so inexpensive, although some resistance has developed to it. Ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfonamide have been used successfully in the treatment of infectionscaused by chloramphenicol-resistant strains. Newer types of antibiotics, such as cephalosporin or quinolone, are also effective. These drugs can be givenby mouth or through a needle in the vein (intravenously) for very ill patients. With effective antibiotic therapy, patients feel better in 24-48 hours, the temperature returns to normal in three to five days, and the patient is generally recovered by 10-14 days.
A number of alternative treatments have been recommended for food poisoning.One very effective treatment that is strongly recommended is supplementationwith Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, and/or Bifidobacterium to restore essential bacteria in the digestive tract. These preparations are available as powders, tablets, or capsules from health food stores; yogurt with live L. acidophilus cultures can also be eaten. Fasting or a liquid-only diet is often used for food poisoning. Homeopathic medicine can work very effectively in the treatment of Salmonella food poisoning. The appropriate remedy for the individual and his/her symptoms must be used toget the desired results. Some examples of remedies commonly used are Chamomilla, Nux vomica, Ipecac, and Colchicum. Juice therapy, including carrot, beet, and garlic juices, is sometimes recommended, although it can cause discomfort for some people. Charcoal tablets can help absorb toxins and remove them from the digestive tract through bowel elimination. A variety of herbs with antibiotic action, including citrus seed extract, goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), and Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium), may also be effective in helping to resolve cases of food poisoning.
The prognosis (expected outcome) for uncomplicated cases of Salmonella food poisoning is excellent. Most people recover completely within a week's time. In cases where other medical problems complicate the illness, prognosis depends on the severity of the other medical conditions, as well as the specific organ system infected with Salmonella.
Prevention of Salmonella food poisoning involves the proper handling and cooking of foods likely to carry the bacteria. This means that recipes utilizinguncooked eggs (Caesar salad dressing, meringue toppings, mousses) need to bemodified to eliminate the raw eggs. Not only should chicken be cooked thoroughly, until no pink juices flow, but all surfaces and utensils used on raw chicken must be carefully cleaned to prevent Salmonella from contaminating other foods. Careful handwashing is a must before, during, and after all food preparation involving eggs and poultry. Handwashing is also important after handling and playing with pets such as turtles, iguanas, chicks, dogs and cats.