Physicians and Diagnostic Procedures - Medical specialties

Among the major specialties are the following:

Allergy and Immunology: Allergists and immunologists specialize in the treatment of allergic and immunologic diseases.

Anesthesiology: An anesthesiologist decides which type of anesthesia will be used, administers it during surgery, and monitors its effects after surgery.

Dermatology: A dermatologist diagnoses and treats diseases of the skin, hair, and nails.

Emergency Medicine: An emergency medicine specialist practices emergency medicine in a trauma center.

Family Practice: The role of the family practitioner is discussed above.

Gastroenterology: A gastroenterologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the digestive system and of the liver.

Internal Medicine: An internist specializes in the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of diseases. Sub-specialties of internal medicine include:

cardiology , the study of diseases of the heart; endocrinology , the study of diseases of the glands; gastroenterology; hematology , the study of blood and blood-forming tissues; infectious diseases; medical oncology , the study of tumors; nephrology , the study of disorders of the kidneys; pulmonary diseases , the study of disorders of the lungs and respiratory system; and rheumatology , the study of connecting and supporting tissues.

Neurological Surgery: The neurological surgeon deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and surgical management of disorders and diseases of the brain, spinal cord, and nervous systems.

Neurology: A neurologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the brain and nervous system as well as of the muscles.

Nuclear Medicine: The nuclear medicine specialist is concerned with the use of radioactive material in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Obstetrics and Gynecology: An obstetrician specializes in the treatment of pregnant women and delivers babies. A gynecologist specializes in the treatment of women and their particular diseases, especially the reproductive system. Often, physicians specialize in both areas.

Ophthalmology: An ophthalmologist specializes in the medical and surgical treatment of the eye. Ophthalmologists also treat eye diseases.

Orthopedic Surgery: An orthopedist diagnoses, treats, and surgically corrects disorders and injuries of the bones, joints, muscles, cartilage, and ligaments.

Otorhinolaryngology: An otorhinolaryngologist treats disorders of the ears, nose, and throat.

Pathology: A pathologist investigates the course and causes of diseases.

Pediatrics: A pediatrician specializes in all medical aspects of child care. Subspecialties of pediatrics include: pediatric cardiology , pediatric endocrinology , pediatric hematology/oncology , neonatal/perinatal medicine , and nephrology .

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: A physiatrist deals with restoring either the full or partial use of body parts that have been injured or diseased, or have been defective at birth.

Plastic Surgery: A plastic surgeon repairs defects of the skin and underlying tissue. The plastic surgeon also performs surgery sought purely for cosmetic reasons.

Psychiatry: A psychiatrist treats behavior disorders, often with psychotherapy, but also with drugs.

Radiology: A radiologist specializes in the use of radiant energy such as X rays to diagnose and treat disease.

Surgery: A general surgeon specializes in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a wide range of diseases, although most surgeons choose to specialize further.

Urology: A urologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the urinary-tract organs, and in men, problems of the reproductive system.

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