Physicians and Diagnostic Procedures - Medical specialties
Among the major specialties are the following:
Allergy and Immunology: Allergists and immunologists specialize in the treatment of allergic and immunologic diseases.
Anesthesiology: An anesthesiologist decides which type of anesthesia will be used, administers it during surgery, and monitors its effects after surgery.
Dermatology: A dermatologist diagnoses and treats diseases of the skin, hair, and nails.
Emergency Medicine: An emergency medicine specialist practices emergency medicine in a trauma center.
Family Practice: The role of the family practitioner is discussed above.
Gastroenterology: A gastroenterologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the digestive system and of the liver.
Internal Medicine: An internist specializes in the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of diseases. Sub-specialties of internal medicine include:
cardiology , the study of diseases of the heart; endocrinology , the study of diseases of the glands; gastroenterology; hematology , the study of blood and blood-forming tissues; infectious diseases; medical oncology , the study of tumors; nephrology , the study of disorders of the kidneys; pulmonary diseases , the study of disorders of the lungs and respiratory system; and rheumatology , the study of connecting and supporting tissues.
Neurological Surgery: The neurological surgeon deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and surgical management of disorders and diseases of the brain, spinal cord, and nervous systems.
Neurology: A neurologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the brain and nervous system as well as of the muscles.
Nuclear Medicine: The nuclear medicine specialist is concerned with the use of radioactive material in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Obstetrics and Gynecology: An obstetrician specializes in the treatment of pregnant women and delivers babies. A gynecologist specializes in the treatment of women and their particular diseases, especially the reproductive system. Often, physicians specialize in both areas.
Ophthalmology: An ophthalmologist specializes in the medical and surgical treatment of the eye. Ophthalmologists also treat eye diseases.
Orthopedic Surgery: An orthopedist diagnoses, treats, and surgically corrects disorders and injuries of the bones, joints, muscles, cartilage, and ligaments.
Otorhinolaryngology: An otorhinolaryngologist treats disorders of the ears, nose, and throat.
Pathology: A pathologist investigates the course and causes of diseases.
Pediatrics: A pediatrician specializes in all medical aspects of child care. Subspecialties of pediatrics include: pediatric cardiology , pediatric endocrinology , pediatric hematology/oncology , neonatal/perinatal medicine , and nephrology .
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: A physiatrist deals with restoring either the full or partial use of body parts that have been injured or diseased, or have been defective at birth.
Plastic Surgery: A plastic surgeon repairs defects of the skin and underlying tissue. The plastic surgeon also performs surgery sought purely for cosmetic reasons.
Psychiatry: A psychiatrist treats behavior disorders, often with psychotherapy, but also with drugs.
Radiology: A radiologist specializes in the use of radiant energy such as X rays to diagnose and treat disease.
Surgery: A general surgeon specializes in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a wide range of diseases, although most surgeons choose to specialize further.
Urology: A urologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the urinary-tract organs, and in men, problems of the reproductive system.