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Yolo County, California USENET FAQ Part 3 of 3

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Archive-name: yolo/faq/part3
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          The Yolo County, California USENET FAQ Part 3 of 3
       Frequently Asked Questions about Yolo County, California
                       (c) Copyright 1995 & 1996


                         David F. Prenatt, Jr.
                         Internet Esquire(SM)
                            P.O. Box 74632
                         Davis, CA 95617-5632

               < >

                  < >

The Yolo County, California USENET FAQ (Yolo County USENET FAQ) may be
comprised of more than one part.  If it is, please see the TABLE OF
CONTENTS in Part One for a complete list of the questions that I have
attempted to answer and for other important legal information.  Caveat
emptor:  I assume no obligation for anyone through the publication of the
Yolo County USENET FAQ.  Furthermore, all versions of the Yolo County
USENET FAQ are my personal property and are protected by applicable
copyright laws.  All rights are reserved except as follows:  I hereby give
my permission to anyone who has access to this version of the Yolo County
USENET FAQ to reproduce the information contained herein for non-profit
purposes, provided that proper credit is given to me as the author of this
FAQ and that I am notified of any use other than personal use.  Permission
to reproduce any version of this FAQ may be revoked by me at any time.

- - - - -
               The Yolo County, California USENET FAQ Part 3 of 3
            Frequently Asked Questions about Yolo County, California
               (c) Copyright 1995 & 1996 by David F. Prenatt, Jr.


4.1)  The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Yolo County.

     As long ago as 40,000 years, the aboriginal inhabitants of California
     (known collectively as the "California Indians") first arrived in Yolo
     County.  The most recent aboriginal inhabitants of Yolo County were
     primarily the Patwin ("the people" in their native tongue).  Like most
     aboriginal Californians, the Patwin relied heavily upon oak tree
     acorns as their primary food supply.  The Patwin employed a basic
     monetary system that was recognized by their neighboring culture
     groups and helped prevent most conflicts over territories and
     resources.  This monetary system also formed the basis for an
     extensive trade network that stretched throughout California,
     notwithstanding the dearth of long distance travel and communication
     between different culture groups in aboriginal California.

4.2)  Spanish and Mexican Occupation.

     While the Age of Exploration and subsequent historical developments
     took their toll upon all cultures in the New World, it had no special
     or noteworthy impact upon the aboriginal inhabitants of Yolo County.
     Early on, the Spanish Mission system came very close to Yolo County
     with the founding of San Francisco de Asis in 1776.  However, this
     mission and other neighboring missions had little influence on the
     life of aboriginal California residents outside of the San Francisco
     Bay Area.  By the time San Francisco Solano was founded in 1823 the
     Mission System was no longer even a viable institution in California.

4.3)  The Gold Rush and the Advent of Agriculture.

     The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 (days after the signing
     of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) triggered a large westward
     migration to California, but once again the migration stopped short of
     Yolo County, this time primarily on the east side.  Of all the
     counties bordering the Sacramento River, Yolo County maintained the
     slowest population growth.  The Sacramento River formed an
     inhospitable barrier that most 49ers simply had no reason to cross for
     any appreciable length of time.  Meanwhile, however, the aboriginal
     population of Yolo County that had avoided the missionization process
     disappeared virtually overnight, succumbing to the totally exotic
     forces of alcohol, disease, and hostile white emigrants.
          After the Gold Rush, agriculture emerged as the primary industry
     in Yolo County.  Yolo was one of the original counties established
     when California became a state, but to this day, Yolo County remains
     an obscure, rural agricultural area, but for the presence of U.C.
     Davis (formerly the U.C. College of Agriculture, and before that the
     U.C. Berkeley farm) in its midst.  Yolo County agriculture is
     comprised almost entirely of automated tomato harvesting and
     processing, a multi-billion dollar agribusiness that dominates 90% of
     the national market in tomatoes.
          The Yolo County Historical Museum, located at 512 Gibson Rd in
     Woodland, exhibits artifacts and displays dating from the time of the
     Gold Rush through the end of the Depression.  Contact the Yolo County
     Historical Museum at (916)666-1045 for more information.



     I have attempted to answer some basic questions about computers in
     this section.  However, the best place to get answers for your
     computer questions is from your own Internet Service provider (ISP).

5.1.1)  Why should I use a computer?

     It is easier and faster to accomplish certain tasks by using a
     computer.  Do I really need to use a computer?

     No.  You don't need to use a computer, but many tasks are impossible
     to accomplish without a computer.  Isn't it difficult to learn how to use a computer?

     No.  Learning to use a computer is very easy, but this is a very well
     kept secret because many people who know how to use computers are very
     intimidating to people who do not know how to use them.  How can I get the computer training that I need?

     Admit your ignorance, both to yourself and to the people who offer you
     help.  Teaching people how to use computers is extremely difficult,
     but it doesn't have to be that way.  Many people erroneously assume
     that they understand how computers work, and this makes teaching these
     people extremely difficult.  Of course, people who are technically
     proficient may not be able to communicate with you or they may not be
     interested in helping you.  Avoid these people.  What practical uses would I have for a computer?

     Within the last ten years, the number of practical applications for
     personal computers has mushroomed to the point where anyone who is not
     computer literate is at a serious disadvantage in the competitive
     worlds of education and commerce.  Computer games were the original
     hook for most consumers, and word processing has since emerged as the
     most popular practical application for end users.  As useful as these
     applications are, however, they are little more than flotsam when
     compared with the phenomenal software vessels that sail the vast ocean
     of computer technology.  But don't take my word for it:  Stop by any
     store that sells computer software and do some window shopping.

5.1.2)  Do I need my own computer?

     No.  Computers are as ubiquitous as telephones.  The only reason you
     would want to own your own computer is for personal convenience, much
     like owning a cellular phone.  What kind of a computer should I buy?

     You should buy a computer with the features that you want at a price
     you can afford.  If you are reading this FAQ for a recommendation,
     then you probably want a Macintosh(r) or an IBM/IBM Clone (PC).  What is the difference between a Macintosh(r) and an IBM/IBM
            Clone (PC)?

     Macintosh(r) computers are much higher quality technology than IBM
     technology.  However, IBM is the standard for computer technology and
     is much more affordable than Macintosh(r).  Thus, if you are on a
     limited budget, you probably want an IBM/IBM clone (PC), especially
     because whatever you do buy will be obsolete when you buy it.  What is an IBM/IBM clone (PC)?

     IBM buys its technology on the open market and sets the standard for
     other computer companies (at least it used to do so).  Many companies
     build IBM clones (properly referred to as PCs) that meet or exceed
     IBM's standards (i.e., 100% IBM Compatible).  What kind of features should I have on a computer?

     There is no easy answer to this question, but as a general rule buy
     only proven technology and avoid all the bells and whistles.  New
     technology is inherently unreliable because many bugs are found only
     after a product has been released to the general public.  Try out a
     variety of computers and find out for yourself what features are the
     most useful and reliable.  What kind of accessories should I get on my computer?

     It depends upon what type of applications you are using.  If you are
     reading this FAQ for a recommendation, then you probably only need a
     modem and/or a printer.

5.2)  What is the Internet?

     The Internet is the product of a worldwide computer network developed
     by the military in the late 1960s (ARPANET), nurtured by academicians
     over the last 20 years or so, and currently used primarily as a medium
     for the communication and free exchange of information and ideas for
     anyone who knows how to obtain Internet access.  There are more
     breathtaking Internet applications, but they are not for "newbies" and
     they are well beyond the scope of this FAQ.

5.2.1)  How can I obtain access to the Internet? [Rev]

     You can use any computer system that has "telnet" capabilities or you
     can use your home computer to telnet via modem to an Internet Service
     Provider (ISP).  An ISP is an entity that provides a "gateway" to the
     Internet for "end users."  An ISP typically has a "Unix based"
     computer system that is linked to every other computer on the Internet
     around the world.  Computers that are part of the Internet are in
     constant communication with each other via underground cables,
     telephone lines, satellite feeds, etc.  End users access the Internet
     by using their computer accounts to telnet to the gateway services
     provided by an ISP.  A gateway to the Internet is any service that
     allows an end user to communicate with a computer that is part of the
          Many Bulletin Board Services (BBSs) provide gateways to the
     Internet.  To provide Internet access for their customers, these
     gateway services must telnet to an ISP themselves.  Some of the more
     popular commercial gateway services that are not part of the Internet
     are losing their appeal as ISPs now offer direct access to the
     Internet at a reduced rate by eliminating the middleman.
          In Yolo County, is the primary ISP for commercial
     users.  For more information on's services, contact "mom"
     at (916)757-8070; (800)557-8070.  Readers with a web browser may visit's Home Page on the World Wide Web (<
     >).  Due in no small part to the spectacular growth of the Internet
     that occurred late in 1995, a number of ISPs, based in Yolo County,
     are now forming, and a number of low cost ISPs that are not based in
     Yolo County are beginning to maintain a Yolo County presence.
          We are living in interesting times, and it's too soon to tell
     what the long term effects of this current market shakeup will be.
     Taking harbor with an established ISP will give you no long-term
     guarantees. as some of the most viable ISPs were formed very recently.
     In any event, whatever ISP you choose, you will have to provide your
     own computer and your own modem.  How do I telnet from a computer system that has telnet

     At the Unix prompt, simply type in "telnet" (without the quotes) and
     the name (or IP address) of the computer system which you wish to
     access.  For example:

          telnet computer.system

     where computer.system is the name of a hypothetical computer system
     that you wish to access by telnet.  You will then be asked for your
     account name and password, which is assigned to you by your ISP.  How do I obtain access to the Internet from my home computer?

     You will need a modem and some sort of communications software.  Check
     with your ISP for further information.

5.2.2)  How do I communicate with other people on the Internet? [Rev]

     Communication between individuals on the Internet usually takes place
     through the institutions of e-mail and the USENET newsgroups.  These
     are the most straightforward and easy to use Internet applications.
     Live time conversations also take place with the Internet Relay Chat
     (IRC); the World Wide Web provides access to multimedia communication.
     I hesitate to mention the highly intrusive Internet communication
     software "talk/ytalk," but for those of you who want more information
     on how to interrupt people with a talk request, contact David T.
     Witkowski (< >; readers with a web
     browser may visit David T. Witkowski's Ytalk Primer on the World Wide
     Web (< >).  Are there any rules for using e-mail and the USENET newsgroups.

     In most instances, yes.  Most ISPs impose regulations for e-mail and
     the USENET.  There are also informal rules of conduct that are
     enforced by the Internet community (fondly referred to as
     "netiquette").  For further information on official regulations on e-
     mail and the USENET, contact your ISP.  As for netiquette, use your
     own good judgment.  What is the difference between e-mail and the USENET newsgroups?

     The primary difference between e-mail and the USENET is privacy.
     However, neither e-mail or the USENET are confidential.  An e-mail
     message is directed to a particular individual or group of
     individuals; a USENET article is directed to anyone who has access to
     the newsgroup where the article is posted.  If you want to conduct
     confidential communications over the Internet, check out an encryption
     program such as PGP ("Pretty Good Privacy").
           PGP has a public domain version that is available free of charge
     to anyone who is using it for non-commercial purposes.  It has
     thwarted virtually every attempt that people have made to crack it.
     What makes PGP unique is that the key that encrypts your mail (i.e.,
     your "public key") is distinct and separate from the key that
     unscrambles it (i.e., your "private key").  Unless you tell someone
     your private PGP key or someone guesses it (which could take thousands
     of years of computer time) or discovers it by eavesdropping, no one
     can read your PGP encrypted mail.  How do I use e-mail?

     The most straightforward and easy way to use e-mail is by using a
     program called "pine" (pine is an acronym for "pine is nearly elm"--
     elm was an e-mail program that preceded pine).  To use pine, type in
     "pine" (without the quotes) at the Unix prompt.  The pine application
     is menu-driven, so just follow the instructions that you see on the
     screen.  [Note:  Not all ISPs support the pine application.]  How do I use the USENET newsgroups?

     The most straightforward and easy way to use the USENET newsgroups is
     by using a program called "tin."  To use tin, type in "tin" (without
     the quotes) at the Unix prompt.  The tin program is menu-driven, so
     just follow the instructions.  [Note:  Not all ISPs support the tin
     application.]  How many USENET newsgroups are there?

     There are several thousand USENET newsgroups (more than anyone could
     ever hope to read), and there are more being created every day.  Thus,
     you should decide which newsgroups you want to read.  How do I figure out which newsgroups I want to read?

     The USENET newsgroups are organized into a heirarchy that includes
     regional and other domains.  You can use this hierarchy to select-out
     thousands of newsgroups that do not interest you.  With tin, use the
     "yank" command (with the "y" key), the "search" command (with the "/"
     key), and the "subscribe" command (with the "s" key).  After you've
     subscribed to the named groups that you want, simply yank out the
     rest.  The "unsubscribe" command (the "u" key) will eliminate unwanted
     groups.  For more information, use the online help in tin (^g).  What regional domains are available from the Yolo County

     No discernible population of Internet users currently exists to define
     the exact boundaries of the Yolo County USENET.  However, the
     newsgroups in the yolo.* regional domain seem to be the logical
     foundation of the Yolo County USENET.  I have also received numerous
     inquiries about the yolo.* newsgroups from readers of the sac.*
     newsgroups.  The geographic area of both these regional domains are
     logically subordinate to the geographic area of the ca.* domain.  What newsgroups are available on the yolo.* USENET domain?

     The yolo.* USENET domain is comprised of the following newsgroups
     (which should be self-explanatory):

          *    yolo.general (<news:yolo.general >).

          * (< >).

          * (< >).

          * (< >).

          *    yolo.test (<news:yolo.test >).

     The yolo.* newsgroups are available to the general public courtesy of
     the news server (<newsrc:// >) thanks to the
     efforts of Steve Wormley at computer services.  How do I use the IRC?

     To use the IRC, type in "irc" (without the quotes) at the Unix prompt.
     There is online help available for the IRC and many of the people whom
     you meet on the IRC will be willing to answer many of your questions.
     You will also find a FAQ on the IRC on the news.answers USENET
     newsgroup (<news:news.answers >).  [Note:  Many ISPs do not support
     the IRC.  It is a resource hog.]  How do I access the World Wide Web?

     You can access the World Wide Web by using a text-based program, such
     as "lynx," or by using a "web browser," such as "Netscape."   Access
     to the multi-media features of various web sites (i.e., pictures and
     sound) is the biggest advantage of using Netscape.  How do I use lynx?

     Simply type in "lynx" (without the quotes) at the Unix prompt and
     follow the instructions that you find on the screen.  How do I use Netscape?

     Netscape is easy to use and has many exciting and revolutionary multi-
     media/multi-protocol features, but you will probably need help from
     someone who knows what he or she is doing to learn how to use
     Netscape.  Visit the Netscape Home Page on the World Wide Web for more
     information (< >).

5.2.3)  What resources are available over the Internet?

     In addition to the communication and exchange of information that
     people can accomplish over the Internet using e-mail, USENET, and IRC,
     people can download archived information from computers on the
     Internet using "file transfer protocol" (ftp).  What is ftp and how does it work?

     The ftp function resembles the telnet function (the basic method of
     gaining access to the Internet for e-mail and the USENET), but ftp is
     only used for downloading or uploading information.  There are
     generally two ways to access a computer via ftp, anonymous and
     privileged.  How do I use anonymous ftp?

     When you know which anonymous ftp site has the information that you
     want, log onto it using the ftp program:

          *    Type in "ftp" (without the quotes) at the Unix prompt,
               followed by the name of the ftp site that you wish to
               access.  For example:


               where is the name of a hypothetical ftp site that
               you want to access.

          *    You will be asked to provide your username, type in:


          *    You will then be asked to provide your password.

               TO BE *ANONYMOUS*.  If you wish, you may type in your
               Internet address as a return address, but you do not need to
               do so.  Virtually any response to the password request will
               give you access to an anonymous ftp site.

          *    Type in the GET command, followed by the exact name of the
               file that you want.  For example:

                    get ftp-document

               where ftp-document is the name of a hypothetical ftp
               document that you want to obtain via ftp.  This procedure
               will retrieve any ASCII document.

          *    If for some reason, there is something wrong with the
               document you obtain, it is probably not an ASCII document,
               so start over at the beginning and set the code to binary by
               typing in "binary" (without the quotes) after you have
               opened the anonymous ftp site.  For example:


               This should fix the problem so that you can GET the document
               that you want.  If it doesn't, then the file you have is
               probably compressed or encrypted, so you will need to find
               out what program you should use to decompress or decrypt the

     [Note:  Check with your ISP for more information on the quirks of its
     ftp programs.]  How do I use privileged ftp?

     A privileged ftp site requires an actual username and an actual
     password (as opposed to an anonymous ftp site).  Privileged ftp sites
     have all of the features of an anonyomus ftp site; you can also use
     the PUT command with privileged ftp.  For example:

          put ftp-document

     where ftp-document is the name of a hypothetical document that you
     want to load to your privileged ftp site.  How do I obtain ftp files by e-mail request?

     For information on ftp by e-mail service, send an e-mail message to with the text "help" somewhere in the body of
     the message.  Many ftp sites have mail-server software that will send
     ftp files by e-mail request.  For example, to obtain this faq by e-
     mail send the following message to (pending
     approval of the *.answers team):

          send usenet/news.answers/yolo/faq/part*
          . . .

     Where * is replaced by the numbers 1 and 3 in successive lines of
     text.  Other FAQs that I have written are archived at in
     the usenet/news.answers directory under the appropriate archive name.
     See Section 1.5 for more information about these other FAQs.  To
     obtain one of these other FAQs, change the text of the line in your e-
     mail message that begins with send so that the archive name
     yolo/faq/part* is replaced with the archive name of the other FAQ.  How can I find out what information is available via ftp?

     You can use various "search engines" on the Internet.  For example, my
     favorite search engine for the World Wide Web is Yahoo
     (< >).  What is a gopher?

     The term gopher refers to both a computer protocol and a type of menu-
     driven computer application that utilizes that protocol.  People use
     gophers to burrow through the Internet, figuratively speaking, and
     help them find the information that they want.  Gophers are named
     after the mascot of the University of Minnesota where the gopher
     protocol was developed.  All the gophers in the world are
     interconnected, so if you want to use a gopher, simply type in
     "gopher" (without the quotes) at the Unix prompt and follow the
     directions.  Who (or what) is/are Veronica and Jughead?

     Veronica (*Very *Easy *Rodent *Oriented *Netwide *Index to *Computer
     *Archives) and Jughead (*Jonzi's *Universal *Gopher *Hierarchy
     *Excavation *And *Display) are somewhat dated gopher-based search
     engines, but you are not that likely to encounter him.  Who (or what) is Archie?

     Archie (*Archive *Retrieval *C--- *H---  *I--- *E---) is a search
     engine that helps you locate computer programs that are archived on
     ftp sites on the Internet.  To use Archie, simply type in "archie"
     (without the quotes) at the Unix prompt.  How do I transfer files to and from my personal computer and my
          Internet account? [New]

     You can put your files on a diskette and use one of the workstations
     on campus to ftp your files to and from your Internet account.
     Alternatively, there are several file transfer programs available to
     accomplish such tasks.  Your best option among those that are
     currently available is a kermit file transfer.  Kermit is public
     domain software that is available from IT-CAP; instructions for kermit
     file transfers are available on the World Wide Web at the U.C. Davis
     Network Administrators FAQ:

          < >


     Nominations for this category are welcome.  I will make the final
     decision as to who qualifies.  As it stands right now, the only person
     to create any appreciable activity on the yolo.* USENET newsgroups was
     the mysterious (perhaps fictional) Mitch Kauffman who purported to
     take control of the newsgroup (< >) (claiming
     to rename it "yolo.mitch").  Other than "the Mitch," the yolo.*
     newsgroups have been conspicuously void of controversial or newsworthy


     [Note:  Expect periodic revisions in this section and/or its
     subsections.]  I have made every effort to make sure that the
     structure and organization of this FAQ will not require much change.
     If information is substantially changed or deleted, I will include
     specific notations bracketed in the section headings as follows:

          *    [CORRECTIONS]--If information is revised because of
               substantial inaccuracy, I will mark the heading with this
               notation; I will *not* note minor corrections.

          *    [New]--New section.

          *    [Rev]--Revised section.

          *    [Moved from . . .]/[Moved to . . .]--Section moved;
               information unchanged.

          As the above notations are meant to accomodate regular readers of
     this FAQ, these notations will only appear for one month.

      VERSIONS. [Rev]

     This version of the Yolo County USENET FAQ is more complete and
     accurate than previous versions, as I have had the time to include the
     helpful feedback that I have received from various readers.  Moreover,
     the organizational structure of previous versions of this FAQ helped
     me conduct the personal research necessary to discover certain obscure
     information resources.  These information resources helped me fill in
     many of the missing details that belong in a FAQ like this, but the
     job is still not done.


     No changes are currently planned for the structure and/or organization
     of future versions of this FAQ.  I will simply fill in the remaining
     details and revise the information in this FAQ when it becomes
     outdated and/or as I receive further feedback from my readers.

- - - - -

End Document:

               The Yolo County, California USENET FAQ Part 3 of 3
            Frequently Asked Questions about Yolo County, California
                           (c) Copyright 1995 & 1996


                             David F. Prenatt, Jr.
                              Internet Esquire(SM)
                                 P.O. Box 74632
                              Davis, CA 95617-5632

                     < >

                        < >

Last Document.

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