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FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions

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Archive-name: xapps-faq
Maintainer: elf at ee dot ryerson dot ca

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Herein lie frequently asked questions (and the answers) that are posted
to , a group dedicated to the discussion of
applications that run under the X Window System.

If you've never been on the receiving end of a merciless flame, and wish
to experience this, then post a question about Windoze95 to this
newsgroup. This is considered fair warning; so don't come crying to me.


Last modified: Mon Sep 17 20:36:20 2001
        * Tcl/Tk Page : Updates to various URLs ( Sep 17, 2001 )
        * XVIII : Updated download site for xrecord ( Apr 26, 2001 )
   * o MISC:
NOTES: This entire FAQ is available, as one single document (updated
once a month; meant for hardcopy, caching, etc.), at:

Because of the transient nature of the Web, some of the links may, at
times, point to an endless void. On such an occasion, the reader is
urged to avail themselves of one of the numerous search engines and find
alternate sites for the particular package; the Google engine merits a
mention (if you are searching for an application by name, then this site
will find it the fastest, as the Altavista index grows, it becomes too
cluttered with useless stuff).

FTP URLs that locate files, have been split up into 2 components: the
host-path and the file-name. Click on the file-name component of the URL
to download the file; click on the host-path component, to browse the
directory where the file resides.

Visit the FAQ Consortium ( centralized access to other



I. Where do I get X programs?
   1 The X Consortium's contrib ftp site
   2 X11R6 distribution (standard X & contrib manifest)
   3 comp.sources.x archives
   4 HP/UX Archive Centres (great for keyword-based searches)
   5 Sunsite
   6 Various catalogs

II. Does anyone know of any good editors other than xedit?
   1 GNU Emacs
   2 XEmacs (previously known as Lucid Emacs)
   3 aXe
   4 xcoral
   5 asedit
   6 Misc. Tcl/Tk editors
   7 sam
   8 wily
   9 vile/xvile
   10  NEdit
   11  ce (time-limited binaries; unconditional Linux binary)
   12  xwpe (IDE, see IV , below)
   13  xed
   14  vim

III. Does anyone have any suggestions for X-based news-readers?
   1 Gnus (with Emacs)
   2 xrn
   3 mxrn (Motif)
   4 xvnews (OpenLook)
   5 Netscape/Mozilla (Web-browser)
   6 nn-tk (tcl/tk)
   7 Misc Tcl/Tk news readers
   8 Knews

IV. Any good debuggers (or front-ends) out there?
   1 xxgdb, xdbx (gdb/dbx front-ends)
   2 ups
   3 tgdb (shareware, with source; tcl/tk)
   4 DDD (Motif front-end to gdb/dbx)
   5 xwpe

V. Can anyone suggest any good calendar programs?
   1 xcal
   2 xkal
   3 ical (tcl/tk)
   4 calentool (OpenLook)
   5 k-lenders
   6 plan (Motif)
   7 xdiary (Motif)

VI. Are there any (CAD-type) drawing programs for X?
   1 xfig
   2 tgif
   3 Misc. Tcl/Tk drawing editors

VII. Any virtual window managers out there?
   1 fvwm (mwm-like (workspaces & virtual desktop))
   2 piewm (twm based)
   3 tvtwm (twm based)
   4 vtwm (twm based)
   5 olvwm (OpenLook)
   6 ctwm (twm based (workspaces))
   7 gwm (rooms)
   8 scwm (fvwm2 based (multiple virtual desktops))

IIX. Project Management Software
   1 FAQ

IX. Where can I find icon libraries?
   1 xpm-3 distribution
   2 Anthony's X Icon Library
   3 Really Humungous Library of Icons
   4 Tony's Icon Collection
   5 Erin's Icon Collection
   6 Building Blocks and Icons
   7 Graphic Element Samples
   8 Yahoo's Archive

X. Are there any editors/paint-programs for xpm/GIF/TIFF/etc.
   1 xpaint
   2 pixmap
   3 gimp

XI. Are there any apps that can display files in parallel, highlighting
(in color) the differences between them?
   1 ediff (emacs/xemacs)
   2 mgdiff (Motif)
   3 tkdiff (tcl/tk)
   4 xdiff (Motif)
   5 tkxcd (tcl/tk)
   6 yaxp (Motif)

XII. How do I make a screen-dump of my window and/or print it out?
   1 xv (3.x is shareware, with source; also an excellent general-
     purpose image-browser)
   2 xwpick
   3 ImageMagick (also an excellent general-purpose image-browser)

XIII. Are there any mail-readers for X?
   1 xmail
   2 xmh
   3 exmh (tcl/tk)
   4 ml (Motif)
   5 Rmail; MH-e; VM; Gnus (Emacs/XEmacs)
   6 xfmail (Xforms)

XIV. How do I view AVI, MPEG, etc. movies/animations?
   1 XAnim

XV. Is there any graphing/plotting or data-analysis software available?
   1 gnuplot
   2 Grace (Motif)
   3 Herng-Jeng Jou's compendium of URLs
   4 S. Baum's compendium of URLs

XVI. Is there any software that simultaneously duplicates an X display
on multiple workstations?
   1 xmx
   2 Question 105 in the FAQ

XVII. Are there any word-processors available for X?
   1 StarOffice
   2 Thot
   3 SciText (Motif)
   4 LyX (XForms)
   5 Cicero (Tcl/Tk)
   6 Question 88 in the FAQ (includes commercial
   7 AbiWord

XVIII. Is there any software that can record and playback X events?
   1 xrecord
   2 xscript
   3 xmon

   * Tcl/Tk
   * GNU Archives Around The World
   * Miscellaneous things X
   * Acknowledgments (looking through the web logs, hardly anyone ever
     reads this page; sad but true.)


This FAQ is Copyright 1994-2000 by Luis Fernandes. Only NON-COMMERCIAL
distribution and reproduction is permitted and on the condition that
this copyright message appear unchanged and in its entirety.

This FAQ is updated when I have the time. The text version of this FAQ
is posted to and uploaded to the archive on or about
the 15th of every month; the html document will always be the most
up-to-date version. Additions, corrections, criticisms, marriage
proposals and other suggestions are welcome and encouraged (especially
marriage proposals; it's not like I'm desperate or anything, but I've
been doing this for a few years now, and I've yet to receive a single
proposal. Are there no women out there that find FAQ maintainers sexy?);
please email them to the maintainer of this FAQ. If you are mailing a
note about a new package, remember to include either the package's
README or the URL to the package's home-page.


I. Where do I get X programs?

   1 X Consortium's contrib ftp site X clients (as the applications are
     normally referred to) are available for ftp from many sites; the
     most popular of these being the X Consortium's (now part of the
     Open Group ) contrib archive at
     Note that there is a limit on anonymous-ftp users on, so
     try a mirror (below). The contrib directory, organized into
     sub-directories by category; e.g. editors/, audio/, games/, fonts/,
     etc., archives clients that have been tested with X11R6.
     With the release of R6, the H U G E collection of clients in
     R5contrib is considered "old" (although they will still work with
     R4 & R5 servers). The file 0ftpxorg.dir , maintained by Daniel S.
     Lewart, is a concerted attempt at organizing the plethora of
     packages available. It contains descriptions of the more popular
     (and sometimes obscure) packages.
     New releases and updates to contributed packages will be placed in
     /contrib/ ; /R5contrib/ will eventually be deleted.
     If you cannot connect to, you may wish to try a mirror :
        * Mirrors of the X Consortium's archive:
             * North America
             * Europe
             * East Asia
             * Australia
             * Middle East
        * Alternate Sites:
             * (un-tarred source code)
   2 X11R6 distribution The X11R6 distribution, available for ftp, also
     contains clients written by the X Consortium, in:
     and clients contributed by others, in:
     The complete R6 distribution, including contibuted clients, is also
     available on CD-ROM. Information on purchasing the CD-ROM is
     available in the file:
   3 comp.sources.x archives No clients have been posted to
     comp.sources.x in recent memory but those that were, a long time
     ago, are archived and available at various sites.
        * In North America:
        * In Europe:
        * In Australia:
   4 HP/UX Archive Centre, is a joint initiative by the Department of
     Computer Science at the University of Liverpool and
     Hewlett-Packard. The centre and its official archive sites
     undertake the porting of public domain software to run under HP-UX
     systems and act as a repository for this software worldwide. All
     archived software has been successfully compiled and tested for the
     HP 700 series. Much of it will also run under the 300/400/800
     series. (Use this archive to search for applications by keyword or
     name since it is very well organized.)
     Please use the geographically closest one:
        * Canada
        * U.K.
        * Germany
        * France
        * US
        * Netherlands
        * Italy
   5 MetaLab (formerly SunSite), at the University of North Carolina,
     archives a ton of X stuff, including mailing lists and some Usenet
     newsgroups, GNU software, Linux, Internet talk radio, etc.
   6 Various catalogs list notable (popular) software organized into
     different categories.
        * Gaijin Catalog (
        * Bill Latura Catalog
        * Jeff Garzik's Games Catalog (
        * Freshmeat Catalog : software and more
Most archive sites usually have an index file that briefly lists the
contents of each volume in the archives. New packages or patches and
bug-fixes are announced in ; it would be worth
your while to subscribe to this newsgroup.

(Op-Ed: If at all possible, try not to ftp large packages during
prime-time (08:00 - 18:00 ftp-site local-time) so as not to load-down
the computing resources at the sites that graciously make these
facilities available. Also, try to use a ftp-server that is
geographically near your own site.

Now, I don't expect everyone to stay-up past their bed-time just to ftp
a package in the middle of the night. I have some nifty shell-scripts to
perform unattended ftp'ing using cron(1). If anyone wants a copy of
these scripts, mail me a note and I will mail them off to you) or you
can download them directly from here (21K shar-file).


II. Does anyone know of any good X-based editors other than xedit?

(Religious wars have been fought on this extremely sensitive topic;
flames about the merits of *your* favourite editor will be summarily
ignored, though submissions of additional editors will be gladly

   1 +Snapshot+ GNU Emacs , an extensible, customizable real-time
     display editor, is The One True Editor. It was developed and is
     maintained by Richard Stallman. It offers true Lisp--smoothly
     integrated into the editor--for writing extensions, and provides an
     interface to the X Window System (it works equally well on a
     dumb-terminal (VT100, etc.)).
     In addition to its powerful native command set, extensions which
     emulate other popular editors (vi, EDT (DEC's VMS editor) Wordstar,
     and Gosling (aka Unipress) Emacs) are distributed. An extermely
     short list of features making emacs a full computing-support
     environment include: pull-down menus, multiple fonts, multiple
     windows with multiple views into the same file, on-the-fly syntax
     highliting for various languages including C.
     Users seeking help or guidance with using or installing Emacs can
     post queries (after consulting the GNU Emacs FAQ (please!)) to (a mailing-list gatewayed to USENET), comp.emacs.xemacs
and comp.emacs . ( alt.religion.emacs offers support for the truly
devout seeking enlightenment.)

Donald Knuth is an Emacs user.

User contributed additions in the form of LISP packages (games (tetris),
PIM's, databases, calendars, mailers, news-readers, binary hex-editors,
etc.) are available from the definitive LISP archive:

GNU Emacs (or sometimes, a less feature-laden derivative) is available
for every system on this earth ; the latest version 20.4 is available
for ftp at various GNU archive sites around the world.

What's GNU? GNU's Not Unix!

(Note that various media, containing all the sources (of course) and
pre-compiled binaries (all major platforms) of all their applications
(emacs, gcc, gdb, gnuchess, etc.) and utilities (groff, flex, gmake,
etc.) in addition to the latest release of X), may be ordered from the
Free Software Foundation (for more information, send email to or refer to the order form
( William Smith has made the source and
binaries for GNU EMACS available via ftp on:

Binaries are avilable for:
   1 IBM RS6000 3.2.0-3.2.5 with X11R4 or X11R5;
   2 HP-UX 9.00-9.04 series 800 with X11R5;
   3 Solaris 2.3 with X11R5;
   4 SCO (ODT 2.0) - (ODT 3.0) with X11R5; and
   5 MSDOG (oemacs 4.1 GNU Emacs 19.19).

0 +Snapshot+ XEmacs 20.3 , formerly Lucid Emacs 19.10, developed by Jamie
Zawinski , now maintained by Chuck Thompson, is derived from GNU Emacs
version 19. Pre-compiled binaries are available for most popular
platforms; the reader is encouraged to check-out the XEmacs home-page
for details about the specific files to retrive. The XEmacs FAQ is
available at:

Some of XEmacs' popular features include:

   * TTY (dumb terminal) support (includes face support);
   * built-in toolbar and support to many packages;
   * the ability to embed pixmaps (glyphs) of arbitrary size in a
   * use of variable width fonts;
   * on a machine with audio hardware, XEmacs can play sound files
     instead of the default X beep;
   * embedding an X window in a buffer in the same way as a pixmap;
     external programs (such as GhostScript, or an MPEG player) can then
     render arbitrary graphics on that window. The latest version is
available for ftp from the canonical distribution point:

Since has a 10-user limit on simultaneous users, you are
advised to seek the distribution at one of the following mirror sites:


0 aXe (an X editor) was developed by Jim Wight. It is a simple to use text
editor that represents a significant improvement over xedit. Built
around the Athena Text Widget it features, amongst other things:

   * multiple windows and multiple buffers;
   * menu interface with configurable menus;
   * parenthesis matching, keyboard macros and regexp searching;
   * restricted or unlimited undo;
   * ability to change font;
   * hypertext on-line help.

The latest version of aXe, 6.1.2, is avaliable for ftp from: aXe-6.1.2.tar.Z

0 +Snapshot+ xcoral, developed by Lionel Fournigault, Bruno Pages and
Dominique Leveque is a multi-window text editor. It features:

   * a built-in browser to navigate through C functions and C++ classes,
     methods and files;
   * a built-in ANSI C interpreter to dynamically extend user functions,
     key bindings, modes etc;
   * variable-width fonts and colour syntax hilighting;
   * menus, scrollbars, buttons, kill-buffers, search, macros, undo
     regions, and a online manual;
   * commands are accessible from either menus or keyboard;
   * RCS interface and ability to run Unix commands (make, grep, etc.).

The latest version of xcoral, 3.14, is available for ftp at:

0 asedit, developed by Andrzej Stochniolis, is a text editor built around
the Motif text widget. It includes support for the following languages:
English, Dutch, French, German, Polish, Portuguese and Swedish. All
commands and messages are localized for each language; the context
sensitive, hypertext on-line help, however, is only available in
English. It features:

   * multiple editing windows with "point and click" interface;
   * drag and drop support (Motif 1.2 and above);
   * multiple undo and redo of edits;
   * user customizable commands and filters;
   * support for emacs keyboard bindings.

Version 1.3 of asedit (International Free Release) is available for ftp
from: asedit-1.3.tar.Z asedit-1.3.tar.Z

0 Refer to part 4 of the comp.lang.tcl FAQ for an extensive list of
editors that have been written with Tcl/Tk.
0 sam, developed by Rob Pike, is a hybrid command-oriented/GUI multi- file
editor for Bell Labs Plan 9 , that has been ported to X.

sam was developed as an editor for use by programmers, and tries to join
the styles of the Unix text editor ed(1) with that of interactive cut
and paste editors by providing a comfortable mouse-driven interface to a
program with a solid command-language driven by regular expressions.

sam extends the regular expression paradigm beyond line-oriented ASCII
files by introducing "structural regular expressions", which can
partition a file into arbitrary textual units.

sam supports the UTF-8 file-format-- an 8-bit encoding of the 16 bit
Unicode character set which has nice properties like ASCII being
preserved. This feature allows sam to simultaneously represent multiple
languages in a single file. Although full Unicode support is
unavailable, sam's flexibility with international text is still beyond
that of most text editors.

The latest version of sam is available for ftp from:
0 [IMAGE] wily (The Wile E. Interface), developed by Gary Capell , is an
emulation for the Unix/X environment of Acme , the Plan 9 editor. Wily
(and acme(1) ) integrates some of the functions of editor, window
manager, file browser and shell, as well as providing an interface for
external programs such as mail and news readers.

The latest version of wily may be fetched from:

0 +Snapshot+ vile/xvile , (VI Like Emacs), developed by Paul Fox now
maintained by Thomas E. Dickey, is a vi workalike. It works in an xterm
(vile) and as a true X client (xvile).

vile features:
   * multi-file editing and viewing (split-screen windows);
   * key rebinding (in addition to :map, :map!, :abbr );
   * mouse support (in an xterm, or when built as xvile);
   * selection highlighting;
   * full function- and arrow-key support;
   * filename, command, internal mode and variable completion;
   * command, search string, and filename history;
   * infinite undo;
   * rectangular operations;
   * man-page and C syntax highlighting;
   * built-in macro language;
   * "next error" cursor positioning after compilation;
   * vi operations on selected regions.

xvile features all the features of vile and additionally:
   * scrollbars and more complete mouse integration;
   * on-the-fly font change;
   * selection highlighting;
   * color support.

The latest version, 8.3, is available for ftp at:

Pre-built DOS, Win32, and OS/2 (requires a 386 or better) executables
( are sometimes available.

0 [IMAGE] NEdit , developed by Mark Edel, is a Macintosh/MS Windows style
text editor for Unix and VMS systems.

It provides users who are accustomed to modern GUI-based environments
with the standard dialogs, menus, graphics, and keyboard shortcuts that
are absent in most other X-based editors. NEdit is also one of the most
mouse-interactive text editors available, with support for both primary
and secondary quick-action selections, rectangular selections,
interactive dragging, and complete integration into the X/Motif

Supported executables are available for Silicon Graphics, Sun (Solaris &
SunOS), HP, OSF/1, DEC Ultrix, IBM AIX, Linux, and VMS systems.
Contributed executables and makefiles are available for many other

Sources and executables of the latest version, 5.0.2, are available

0 ce, developed by Enabling Technologies Group, is a full-screen, text
editor that was originally developed for users migrating from Apollo's
Domain environment and was modelled after the Display Manager editor. It

   * multiple edit sessions;
   * rectangular cut & paste;
   * global bounded search and replace;
   * coordinated mouse and text cursor control;
   * command macros;
   * unlimited UNDO & REDO;
   * customized keyboard mapping;
   * automatic file backup and save.

ce is available for IBM AIX, Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, Sun SunOS & Solaris,
HP Apollo Domain/OS, DEC OSF/1 & Ultrix, SGI IRIX, and Linux.

Evaluation binaries, that normally expire 30-60 days after downloading
(see the README file for more details), are available for various
platforms, at:

Note: The Linux version of ce has no expiration. It is a FREE copy.
0 xwpe, developed by Fred Kruse, is a programming environment similar to
the Borland C++ or Turbo Pascal IDE; the difference being that, unlike
the Borland IDE, different compilers and linkers may be invoked. See
Question IV for details .

0 +Snapshot+ xed, developed by Randolf Werner, is an editor based on the
Athena text widget. It features the usual amenities like on-line help,
search/replace, piping the text through a Unix command, etc.

The latest version is available at: xed1.3.tar.Z

0 vim , developed by Bram Moolenaar, is the "Vi IMproved" editor. It is so
compatible with vi - it even simulates Vi's bugs! The improvements
include different modes (C, HTML, LaTeX), fontification, drop-down
menus, multiple buffers, multi-level undo, online-help, &c.

The latest version is available at the primary site (and various


III. Does anyone have any suggestions for X-based news-readers?

Note: Dedicated news readers may be interested in the GroupLens
Project , " a collaborative filtering system that helps you work
together with other people to find the quality news articles out of
the huge volume of news articles generated every day ", available
for gnus, tin and xrn.

1 +Snapshot+ Gnus 5.0 (threaded) if you have Emacs 19.25+ or XEmacs
(toolbar support is included), developed by Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen .

Gnus 5.x is designed to be a drop-in replacement, and thus fully
compatible, with GNUS 4.x (developed by Masanobu Umeda). Almost all key
bindings have been kept. More key bindings have been added, of course,
but only in one or two obscure cases have old bindings been changed.

The gnus FAQ is at:

You need Emacs 19.30/XEmacs 19.13 (or better) to use versions after 5.1.
Gnus 5 features:

   * the ability to subscribe to groups from different servers and the
     ability to mix groups from spools, nntp servers and mail backends;
   * mail reading; currently implemented mail backends can read mbox
     files, an mh-like spool and a mail spool with NOV databases;
   * infinite customizability;
   * kill-files feature auto-expiring kill calls;
   * scoring of articles in various ways and kill files that
   * virtual newsgroups (groups composed of several other groups);
   * foreign servers, which gives you an easy way to subscribe to
     foreign groups;
   * asynchronous article pre-fetch;
   * adaptive scoring scheme for types of articles read most often, and
     lots more.

The latest version of Gnus, 5.2, is available at: or

 +Snapshot+ +Snapshot+ xrn (not threaded) is a NNTP-based newsreader, (originally
developed by Ellen M. Sentovich & Rick L. Spickelmier) now maintained by Jonathan
I. Kamens, based on rn (a termcap-based news-reader written by the reverend Larry
Wall); it is popular with novice users and looks rather elegant when compiled with
the 3D Athena Widgets developed by formidable Kaleb Keithley .

The latest version 9.02, is available for ftp from:

A mailing-list dedicated to announcements of new releases and bugs is available;
see the README accompanying the distribution.

 mxrn (not threaded) Motif-based NNTP news reader that has had part of the
functionality of `rn' added since a number of users are `rn' users. Much of the
`rn' functionality that mxrn currently has was not in the original plan; e.g.

The latest version is 6.18, but 6.17 seems to be the only one widely available for
ftp at the following sites: mxrn.tar.Z

 +Snapshot+ xvnews (not threaded) is a simple, intuitive Open-LOOK compliant
NNTP-based newsreader that uses the XView libraries.

The latest release, 2.3, is available for ftp from: xvnews-2.3.tar.gz xvnews-2.3.tar.gz.

 Netscape is a Web-browser, developed by Netscape Communications (consisting mostly
of the developers of the popular NCSA Xmosaic Web-browser), that includes a
built-in threaded news-reader, mail-reader, coffee-maker, &c.

On March 31st, 1998, the source code to the Netscape browser, Mozilla , was made
available and in true Californian style, there was a party to celebrate the
occasion. Netscape is available from the Netscape Comm. home-page at:

or via ftp at: .

Support for kill-files still missing from Netscape but now that it's in the hands
of the proles, this may soon be a thing of the past.

 +Snapshot+ nn-tk, developed by Toivo Pedaste, is based on the NN newsreader (NN
commands should still work). nn-tk provides a GUI interface with command menus and
buttons, the use of the mouse to select articles, a scrolling panel for displaying
articles and group selection using either of scrolling panel or cascading menus.
Support for MIME messages if EXMH is installed.

The latest version is available for ftp from: nn-tk.beta.12.1.tar.gz

 Refer to part 4 of the comp.lang.tcl FAQ for an extensive list of other newsreaders
(tknews, arTCLs) that have been written with Tcl/Tk. The latest version of the FAQ
is always available for ftp from:

 Knews (threaded), developed by Karl-Johan Johnsson, features:
   * true threading, with a graphical tree for the threads;
* full support for reading MIME articles;
* regexp searching in articles and the newsgroups;
* options to skip the active file or group descriptions on startup;
* fontification (colours & fonts) for quoted text and headers in articles;
* support for multiple nntp servers;
* kill-file support;
* articles, subjects and threads can be killed or marked with color based on
various criteria;
* tagging of articles and saving, uudecoding or piping them.

The latest version, 1.0b.1, is available at:


IV. Any good debuggers (or debugger front-ends) out there?

   1 An excellent C source-level debugger is gdb 4.16, the GNU debugger. gdb may either
be used as a stand-alone debugger or nicely integrated, from within Emacs itself.
It can be found at any GNU archive site .

+Snapshot+ xxgdb is an X front-end to the gdb debugger. Some people prefer using
gdb through this front-end rather than via the command-line. mxgdb is a Motif
front-end to the gdb debugger. xdbx is an X front-end to the the popular dbx(1)
debugger; xxgdb, xdbx, etc. are available for ftp from: xxgdb-1.12.tar.gz

2 +Snapshot+ ups is another source-level C debugger, (originally developed by Mark
Russell) now updated by Rod Armstrong. It also comes with its own theme song! Ups
includes a C interpreter which allows you to add fragments of code simply by
editing them into the source window (the source file itself is not modified). This
lets you add debugging printf calls without recompiling, relinking or even
restarting the target program.

Version 3.35 ) has many enhancements and bug fixes. It supports C, C++ and limited
FORTRAN debugging on SunOS, Solaris, Linux and FreeBSD. It has been compiled and
tested on Solaris 2.5, Solaris 2.6 and SunOS 4.1.3, with the Sparc Compilers SC4
and SC4.2, gcc/g++ 2.7.2 and 2.8.0 and the Centerline C and cfront/C++ compilers;
and also for Linux ELF 2.0.31 (Red Hat 5.0).

The latest version, 3.35 is available from:


The theme-song is available at:

3 tgdb is a Tcl/Tk -based GUI front-end to the gdb debugger with similarities to
commercial debuggers such as Borland's "Turbo debugger" or MicroSoft's "CodeView".
Some of its features include:

   * setting and deleting breakpoints, listing source code, displaying variables;
* direct command line interface to gdb, including command line completion, and
command history;
* windows, which display the CPU registers, memory, auto-display (watch)
variables and expressions, the current stack frames, etc.;
* an assembly dump window, which allows the display of machine instructions,
scrolling through the application's code and debugging at the assembler

The latest version, 1.4, is available at:

Pre-built binaries are available from:

4 +Snapshot+ DDD , developed by the DDD Development Team, is a Motif user interface
to gdb, xdb and dbx which, features:

   * support for Perl, Python, and Java (via jdb);
* graphical data display, unfolding structures through simple mouse clicks;
* navigating through source code, setting and editing breakpoints;
* hypertext source navigation and lookup;
* gdb/dbx command-line interface with completion, history, and search;
assembly, backtrace, breakpoints, settings, and register windows;
* on-line context-sensitive help & baloon help;
* debugging on remote host. The latest version, 3.1.4, is available at: ddd-3.1.4.tar.gz ddd-3.1.4.tar.gz

Pre-compiled binaries (for Sun, Linux, etc.) are available for ftp; see the DDD
home-page for details.

Note: a C++ compiler (e.g. g++), and Motif (or LessTif) are required to compile
5 +Snapshot+ xwpe , maintained by Dennis Payne, (originally developed by Fred Kruse,
is a programming environment similar to the Borland C++ or Turbo Pascal IDE; the
difference being that, unlike the Borland IDE, different compilers and linkers may
be invoked. It features, among other things:

   * jumping to compilation errors directly from compilation errors;
* built-in editor with pull-down menu, search and replace function (including
regular expressions) and a file-manager, and "project-file" support;
* running the program and debugger from within the Programming Environment and
setting break-points;
* viewing variables within a Watch Window.

xwpe can also be used as a simple editor (when run as 'xwe') without the
programming environment, and may be run under vt100 terminals as 'we'.

The latest version, 1.4.2, (see xwpe website for 1.5 alpha) is available at: xwpe-1.4.2-1.tar.gz


V. Can anyone suggest any good calendar programs?

There are several popular calendar packages with more features than the standard
calendar client xcalendar.

   1 +Snapshot+ xcal, written by Peter Collinson, is an interactive calendar program,
meant as a companion to the xclock program. It features:

   * "today"'s appointments inspector;
* calendar file for today and seven daily regular commitments;
* memos. xcal is available at any comp.sources.x archive ( See Question 1 ).

2 +Snapshot+ xkal, developed by George Ferguson, is a graphical appointment calendar
that allows you to maintain many types of reminders (system, personal (with
colour-coded criticality levels)), displays them in several different formats, and
allows you to add and edit them. Silent and non-graphic modes are provided to
allow xkal to be used to check for appointments without interaction.

The latest version, 1.20, is available at: xkal-1.20.tar.Z

3 ical , developed by Sanjay Ghemawat, is a calendar manager featuring:

   * appointments or notices can be added or deleted and can be made to repeat in
various ways;
* post reminders for upcoming appointments, print and list item occurrences;
* share calendars amongst different users.

Release 2.0 of ical is designed to work with Tk4.0. If you are using older
versions of Tcl/Tk, you will need to upgrade.

See the Appendix , for information about obtaining Tcl/Tk.

The latest version of ical can be ftp'd from: ical-2.0p2.tar.Z

4 +Snapshot+ calentool, developed by Bill Randle, is a day/week/month/year-
at-glance tool. It also features recurring appointments (e.g every Monday or every
1st & 3rd Tuesday), as well as a reminder of future appointments. calentool also
permits other user's schedules to be accessed and also provides interesting
information about the sun and moon.

The interface uses XView (2.X or 3.X) to present an Open Look style user interface
(including the Help key!).

The latest version of calentool, 2.3X, is available for ftp from: calentool-2.3.tar.gz

5 k-lendars, developed by Jean-Michel Leon, is a multi-user/multi-calendar diary
with a Motif interface. Multi-user functionality, is optional and k-lendars may be
used in single-user mode with one or more calendars.

Requires procmail, slocal , etc. for multi-user communications.

The latest version, 1.2, is available for ftp at: k-lendars-1.2.tar.gz k-lendars-1.2.tar.gz

6 plan, developed by Thomas Driemeyer, is a Motif-based calendar and group scheduler

The latest version, is available for ftp at:

7 +Snapshot+ XDiary , developed by Roger Larsson, is a personal organizer that
combines the functions of a desktop calendar, an appointment book and an alarm
clock; it can also be used as a group calendar to plan meetings, distribute
information to specific groups etc. It features:
   * A calendar with a month view;
* a day view where entries can be defined, moved, changed and removed;
* an appointment editor for entering appointments, making notes and defining
* the ability to print selected parts of the diary on any ASCII or PostScript
* an access control window to allow people access to your calendar(s);
* various tools to write scripts that access the XDiary calendars.

The latest version, 3.0 is available for ftp at: xmdiary-3.0.tar.gz


VI. Are there any (CAD) drawing programs for X?

   1 +Snapshot+ xfig (Facility for Interactive Generation of figures), originally
written by Supoj Sutanthavibul, is a menu-driven drawing program that may be used
to draw and manipulate objects interactively in an X window. It comes with a
translator package (transfig, also available at that allows xfig
drawings to be converted to sundry other formats including LaTeX, PostScript,
PiCTeX, etc. xfig can also import encapsulated PostScript files that can be
annotated. xfig features primitive objects: circles, ellipses, arcs, etc. that may
be grouped into complex objects and scaled, rotated, and manipulated in various

xfig is now maintained by Brian V. Smith (he certainly answers all the queries
posted); the latest version, 3.2.2, is at:

You also need to get the TransFig package which contains the post-processor needed
by xfig to convert fig files to one of several output formats.

The TransFig package is in:

I'm including the url for a list of CTAN (Comprehensive TeX Archive Network)
archives here because it's handy.

Ian MacPhedran maintains a page about other software that use the FIG protocol.

2 tgif , developed by William Chia-Wei Cheng, also features primitive objects:
circles, ellipses, arcs, etc. that may be grouped into complex objects and scaled,
rotated, and manipulated in various ways. It also supports "building-block"
objects that can be made part of a library of objects which are stored as Prolog
code. tgif can also generate PostScript, and xbm (x-bitmap files) compatible

tgif also supports the retrieval of tgif (obj and sym) files from HTTP servers.
Hypertext jumps are supported using the old tgif teleporting or traveling

The latest version, 4.1.22, is available at: tgif-4.1.22.tar.gz tgif-4.1.22.tar.Z

3 Refer to part 4 of the comp.lang.tcl FAQ for an extensive list of drawing editors
(picasso, for one) that have been written with Tcl/Tk. The latest version of the
FAQ is always available at: tcl-faq.part04.gz


VII. Any virtual window managers out there?

The "Virtual Desktop" feature of these window managers effectively makes the monitor
into a window, onto a screen that is larger than the physical limits of the monitor
Also see the Guide to Window Managers

   1 fvwm , developed by Robert Nation then maintained by Charles K. Hines, Brady Montz
and now a collective effort, seems to be the most ubiquitous of the virtual
window-managers in use (especially in the Linux community,; hey, Linus uses it).
It borrows heavily from Tom LaStrange's famous twm window manager. (Actually, any
self-respecting window-manager will borrow from twm since it was the first
ICCCM-compliant window-manager to be written. It should also be noted that Tom
LaStrange also wrote the first virtual window-manager (swm) for Solbourne Corp.
(is this guy brilliant or what?))

fvwm is a derivative of twm, redesigned to minimize memory consumption, provide a
3-D look (indistinguishable from Motif's mwm) and provide a simple virtual

The latest version of fvwm is available at:

2 piewm, developed by Don Hopkins, is a virtual window manager with the
look-and-feel of tvtwm, with the additional of pie-shaped menus. It is available
for ftp from: piewm.tar.Z

3 vtwm is a virtual window manager with the look-and-feel of twm. Now maintained by
D.J. Hawkey Jr. It sports a configurable 3D look, supports XPM images,
multi-headed systems and is still backward compatible with twm for the purists. It
is available from: vtwm-5.4.5a.tar.gz

4 olvwm, developed by Scott Oaks, is a virtual window manager with the look-and-feel
of OpenLook (Sun's windowing environment). It is available for ftp from: olvwm4.tar.Z

5 ctwm, developed by Claude Lecommandeur, is an extension to twm, that features up
to 32 multiple virtual screens, called workspaces.

You switch from one workspace to another either by clicking on a button in an
optional panel of buttons (the workspace manager) or by invoking a function. Each
workspace can be customize by choosing different colors, names, and pixmaps for
the buttons and root windows. It also features:

   * optional 3D window titles and border (ala Motif);
* shaped, colored icons;
* multiple icons for clients based on the icon name;
* windows that can belong to several workspaces;
* a map of your workspaces to quickly move windows between different
* icons, root backgrounds and buttons that can be animated;
* pinnable and sticky menus.

The latest version of ctwm, 3.5, is available for ftp from: ctwm-3.5.tar.Z

6 GWM , developed by Colas Nahaboo, is an extensible Window Manager for the X Window
System that is customized using a dialect of Lisp. This was the very first WM I
was exposed to on a Sun 386i and I enjoyed immensely the ability to configure it
in infinite dimensions (very much like the Emacs editor) and its ability to
display milti-colour pixmaps in the title-bar. However, at the time, it was very
buggy and I settled on twm, which I used until recently (1998); I now use fvwm2.
The author has fixed the bugs and it should be very stable now. If you are a
hacker, this is the WM for you.

The latest version, 1.8, is avilable at:

7 Scwm , is the Scheme Constraints Window Manager, jointly developed by Greg J.
Badros and Maciej Stachowiak. This is a highly dynamic and extensible window
manager and scripting facility for X, based on fvwm2 (fvwm2 modules are
supported), but now much enhanced with Guile Scheme as the configuration/extension
language. Nearly all decorations can be changed at run-time or per-window and
support for Themes is included. The .scwmrc configuration file can be edited in
Emacs, and the results evaluated immediately, without restarting. You'll also
enjoy using this wm if you are a hacker; it also has some neat new features like
the constraint-based window-layout system.
Note: you have to install Guile to use this wm .

The latest version (stable alpha) is available at: scwm-0.99.2.tar.gz

Various binary RPMs are available at:


IIX. Project Management Software

Pete Phillips maintains a Project Management Software FAQ that is posted regularily to . The FAQ, reviews and glossary documents are available at:


IX. Where can I find icons?

   1 The xpm-3 distribution has a set of icons available. They may be ftp'd from: xpm3icons.tar.Z

2 Anthony's X Icon Library is a large collection of monochrome bitmaps and color
pixmaps for general use by the X community. These icon-images are small (usually
less than 100x100 pixels) and can be used as:

   * program icons for general use by window managers;
* buttons/widget/gadget images;
* representing document types for a desktop program (like xdtm), wallpaper,
landscapes, space ships, objects for games;
* etc. The latest version, 1.5, is available for ftp from:

3 The Really Humungous Library of Icons (
4 Tony's Icon Collection (
5 Erin's Icon Collection (
6 Building Blocks and Icons (
7 Yahoo's Archive of Icons
8 Graphic Element Samples (

X. Are there any editors/paint-programs for xpm/GIF/TIFF/etc. image-formats?

   1 +Snapshot+ xpaint, developed by David Koblas, is a incredibly versatile
mono-bitmap and/or colour-pixmap editing tool. It features, among other things:

   * the usual paint operations:
* Brushes, Spray paint, Pencil;
* Lines, Arcs, Pattern Fill, Text;
* Boxes, Circles, Polygons (filled and un-filled);
* edit multiple images simultaneously and cut/copy/paste between them;
* "Fatbits"/zooming;
* on-line help facility;
* built-in font-selector;
* reading and writing of X11 bitmaps, PPM, GIF, XPM, and TIFF image-formats;
SGI RGB format (SGI only);
* writing PostScript;

The latest version, 2.1.1, is available at:

Xpaint 2.4.4 , has been released by Torsten Martinsen. It has some nifty filters
built-in and bug fixes.

2 pixmap, developed by Lionel Mallet, is an editor for XPM version 3.4 pixmap-format
files, derived from Davor Matic's bitmap editor. It can be optionally be compiled
with a Motif interface.

The latest version, 2.6, is available at: pixmap2.6.tar.gz pixmap2.6.tar.gz

3 +Snapshot+ The Gimp , developed by Spencer Kimball & Peter Mattis, is an
extensible (via third-party plug-ins) image manipulation tool, that out-features

The current version is 1.0 and available at:

It requires the GTK, available at:


There are 3 gimp related mailing majordomo lists available: , , .

XI. Are there any apps that can display files in parallel, highlighting (in color) the
differences between them?

   1 +Snapshot+ ediff, developed by Michael Kifer, is a visual interface to diff and
patch , accessed within emacs, that highlights the differences between two files
in color. It features:

   * highlights differing region in multiple colors, including differences within
the region;
* view the files being compared side-by-side (windows split vertically),
one-over-the-other (windows split horizontally) or in separate windows
* either of the files being compared can be patched with the differences of the
other, and old differences can also be recovered. Ediff is part of the
standard Emacs and Xemacs distribution.

Periodic updates are available at:

2 mgdiff, developed by Daniel Williams, is a graphical front-end to diff . When the
user selects two files for comparison, it runs the diff command, parses the output
and presents the results graphically. This presentation can also be used to
generate a user-specified merge of the two files into a third file.

This program's appearance is based upon a program called gdiff, available for
Silicon Graphics workstations.

The latest version of mgdiff is available for ftp at: mgdiff.tar.gz
3 +Snapshot+ tkdiff, developed by John Klassa, is a graphical front-end for the
standard Unix diff utility, based on Tcl/Tk . Its features include:

   * Highlighted difference regions;
* side-by-side viewing of files;
* linked (synchronized) scrolling of the two files;
* random access to difference regions. The latest version, 1.0b9, is available
at: tkdiff-1.0b9.tar.gz

4 xdiff, developed by Paul Lucas, is another graphical diff tool based on the SGI
gdiff utility.

It is available at: xdiff-1.1b3.tar.gz

5 [IMAGE] tkxcd, is a diff front end that has a look and feel similar to Atria
ClearCase's xcleardiff.

Available at:

6 +Snapshot+ yaxp , developed by Rudy Wortel, is yet another xdiff program based on
the SGI gdiff utility. It can display the differences of a file and up to four
revisions of that file. The text is presented side by side with the differences
aligned and highlighted in colour. xdiff can be used to produce a merged version
combining any or all of the differences.

The latest version, 3.3 is available at:


XII. How do I make a screen-dump of my window and/or print it out?

   1 xv , developed by John Bradley, is a full-featured program for displaying and
manipulating images in the GIF, JPEG, TIFF, PBM, PGM, PPM, X11 bitmap, Utah Raster
Toolkit RLE, PDS/VICAR, Sun Rasterfile, BMP, PCX, IRIS RGB, XPM, Targa, XWD,
PostScript (if GhostScript is available) and PM formats. It can also convert
between most of those formats.

It features:
* RGB and HSV colormap editing
* copy/cut & paste
* image resizing, zoom & cropping
* image-processing via different algorithms
* window-grab (for screen-dumps)
xv 3.10a is shareware for personal use with a suggested registration fee of US$25.
Commercial, industrial and institutional sites require a license fee of US$25.
The latest version, 3.10a, including a PostScript manual, is available via ftp


A less restrictive (wrt license), and older version, is available at: xv-2.21.tar.Z

2 xwpick, developed by Evgeni Chernyaev, allows a rectangular image of a window to
be captured and saved as PostScript, GIF, PCX (IBM PC), PICT (Macintosh), PPM
(PBMPlus). Note that the generated PostScript code is more compact than other
utilites of this sort, so if file-size is an issue, then get this app.

The latest version, 2.20, is available at: xwpick2.20.tar.gz

3 ImageMagick , developed by John Cristy, is a suite of tools for displaying and
interactively manipulating (image conversion, annotation, compositing, animation,
and creating montages) images. ImageMagick can read and write JPEG, TIFF, PNM,
XPM, Photo CD image formats.

The various tools allow:
* displaying a sequence of images as a slide show;
* copying and pasting regions of images;
* setting the maximum number of unique colors in an image;
* compositing one image within another;
* applying image processing techniques to a region of interest;
* displaying images specified by a World Wide Web URL;
* capturing a single window, the entire screen, or any rectangular portion of
the screen.

The current version of ImageMagick, 4.0.5, is available at ImageMagick-4.0.5.tar.gz

and and its mirrors:


XIII. Are there any mail-readers for X?

   1 xmail, developed by Michael C. Wagnitz, is a GUI to the Berkeley Unix mail program
and includes support for the X-face header (see entry for exmh, below, for ftp

The latest version, 1.6 is available at: xmail_1.6.tar.gz

2 xmh, is an X front-end for the MH mail system. It should be part of the standard
X11 distribution.
The latest version, used to be available at:

Note that most other sites still archive the R5 version and the patches to take it
up to R6.

3 +Snapshot+ exmh, developed by Brent Welch, is a Tcl/Tk-based (3.3 to 4.1) wrapper
to the MH (6.7 or 6.8) mail-handling system. The latest version, 1.6.7, is
available at: exmh-1.6.7.tar.Z The following packages are
also required:

   * MH mail-handler package, at
* Metamail, for MIME support, at
* Faces library, at
* Expect, at /expect.tar.Z

4 +Snapshot+ ML , developed by Mike Macgirvin, is an IMAP mail client. It features,
among other things:

   * mailbox reading, composing, filing, and printing operations;
* ability to follow URL's embedded in messages ( mosaic or netscape req.);
* personal address book;
* action scripting to simplify repetitive tasks;
* mail filters utilizing a filter language to sort mail automatically; etc.

ML requires X11R4, Motif 1.2, IMAP2bis, and optionally PGP 2.6.2.

The latest version, 1.1.1a is available at: ml.tar.Z

Pre-compiled binaries are available for SunOS, Solaris and linux in:

5 Several mailers are also available for Emacs/XEmacs : Rmail (standard), Mh-e and
Vm (the latter pair standard in XEmacs). Additionally, the Gnus newsreader also
incorporates a mail-reader.
6 xfmail , is developed by Gennady B. Sorokopud, is an XFroms based mailer. It's
features, among others, are:
   * multiple spool files and IMAP/POP servers
* fully configurable via the user interface (no need to change configuration
* mail retrevial from both from POP/IMAP and spool file
* supports MH and elm-style local mailboxes, faces, picons and MIME
* built-in address book; etc. The latest version, 1.3, is available at:


XIV. How do I view AVI, MPEG, etc. movies/animations?

   1 +Snapshot+ XAnim , developed by, Mark Podlipec, supports a variety of
animations/movies (FLI, FLC, IFF, AVI, Quicktime, MPEG, etc.). XAnim can even play
an audio file (WAV format) with an animation that doesn't already contain audio.
It has a handy remote-control window with buttons for volume-control and
frame-stepping control. Alternate sites:

* The latest version of xanim,, is available at: xanim27063.tar.gz

Also see the Moving Pictures coding Experts Group home-page.


XV. Is there any graphing/plotting or data-analysis software available?

   1 Gnuplot is the standard in plotting packages. It is a command-driven interactive
software plotting package which can plot pre-computed data or standard
mathematical functions. It features:
   * user-defined X and Y ranges (optional auto-ranging), smart axes scaling,
smart tic marks;
* labelling of X and Y axes;
* user-defined constants and functions It supports countless devices
(everything from the lowly Epson 8-pin dot-matrix printer to colour PostScript
printers) for hardcopy and display. is available for
comments and questions about gnuplot.

Gnuplot (not in anyway related to the GNU project) is available for ftp from any
GNU archive site and from:

2 Grace (previously known as xmgr), originally developed by Paul Turner, is also a
very popular package (considering the number of people that have recommended it
for inclusion in this FAQ) for XY plots.

It features:
   * user defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors;
* batch mode for unattended plotting;
* Linear regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT,
* hardcopy support for PostScript, HP-GL, and FrameMaker .mif format.

The latest version, 5.0.1, is available at:

3 Herng-Jeng Jou ( ) has pointers to
various packages (both commercial and free).

4 S. Baum ( ) has made
available, a collection of pointers to various packages (both commercial and


XVI. Is there any software that simultaneously duplicates an X display on multiple

   1 XMX , developed by John Bazik, allows an X display to be duplicated on multiple
workstations providing a WYSIWIS (What You See Is What I See) environment.

The latest version is available at: xmx-2.1beta.pl0.13nov.tar.g

2 Also see Question 105 in the FAQ

XVII. Are there any word-processors available for X?

Christopher B. Browne has a comprehensive discussion of word-processors for Unix.

   1 StarOffice is available for several, but not all, platforms (Solaris, Linux,
etc.). It is a complete office suite that includes a word-processor, spreadsheet,
and drawing tool. It does a reasonably good (but not perfect-- especially padding
within table cells, headers/footers, most all complaints are cosmetic in nature)
jobs of importing MS Office files. It is noted here because Sun has released the
source-code (Oct. 13, 2000) thus enabling the port to other architectures. Be
forewarned that it needs a decent (100 MHz RISC minimum) workstation to run
responsively otherwise it feels sluggish (it just flies on a 450MHz Ultra 10 =:o).
2 [IMAGE] Thot is a structured document editor, offering a graphical WYSIWYG
interface for X. Thot offers the usual functionality of a word processor, but it
also processes the document structure (it was used as a test-bed for HTML 3.x
style-sheets). It includes a large set of advanced tools, such as a spell checker
and an index generator, and it allows to export documents to common formats like
HTML and LaTeX. (This is a really cool editor but it needs a touch more effort to
make it flawless).

The source is available at:

Pre-compiled binaries for common paltforms are available at:
3 [IMAGE] SciText . It features:

   * User-Interface
Object oriented handling
Full WYSIWYG with free choice of zoom
Supports Type-1 PostScript fonts
Context-sensitive toolbars with bubble help
Independent of language by a special translation-table
Keyboard and menu shortcuts with a configurable actionevent-table
Online help with own Tcl/Tk helpbrowser
User installation with Tcl/Tk-Script

* Wordprocessing
Parapraph and document templates
Auto-Correction, spellchecker, thesaurus; no data yet :-(
Footnotes, table of contents, indices, chapter-numbering, glossary
Itemize and enumeration

* Layout
Free frames for text, graphic etc.
Tables, charts, mathematical plots

* Documentexchange
Send and receive SciTeXt documents via E-Mail
Drag & Drop
Many import and export filters for text and graphics
Faxing of documents

* Miscellaneous
Choice of printers with automatic detection of usability
Usable as an Integrated Development Environment similar to WEB

Pre-compiled binaries are available for Solaris, Irix, & Linux 2.0. The latest
version of SciText is available at:

4 [IMAGE] LyX is an WYSIWYG front-end to LaTeX.

Current features are :
* Different textclasses, for example letter, article, book
* Numbered headlines, table of contents (with hypertext functionality), nested lists
* Interactive wysiwyg math editor
* Postscript figures
* Interactive wysiwyg tables
* Spellchecking (uses ispell in background)
* Infinite undo/redo
* Labels/references
* Footnotes and margins
* Access to whole LaTeX functionaly with plain-latex-style
* GUI based access to all functions via menus and mouse. Additionally free
configurable keybindings.
* Support for various languages via LaTeX Babel-System
* Easy to configure support for various national keyboards and umlauts.
* Supports LinuxDoc-Sgml

It is available at:

It also requires the XForms library .

 +Snapshot+ Cicero is a WYSIWYG wordprocessor that is written in Tcl/Tk and the TIX
library; a previous version was written in C++.

It's available at:

 Question 88 in the FAQ
 AbiWord is an Open Source wordprocessor (part of an desktop suite). Features include:
* Basic character formatting (bold, underline, italics, etc.)
* Paragraph alignment
* Spell-checker
* Importing Word97 and RTF formats & exporting to RTF, Text, HTML, and LaTeX formats
* Interactive rulers and tabs
* Styles
* Unlimited undo/redo
* Multiple column control
* Images; etc.

Version 0.7.7 is available for download .


XVIII. Is there any software that can record and playback X events?

   1 xrecord , developed by Martin Vicente, records, the contents of a screen, a window or a
part of window. Playback is achieved via xplay.The latest version, 0.1, is available

2 xscript is a reasonably working working record/playback facility. It's available at:

3 xmon (a X protocol monitor) contains an optional record/playback facility; the author
claims that it is unfinished. The latest version, 1.5.4, is available at: xmon.1.5.4.tar.gz



Tcl and Tk were developed by John Ousterhout, UCB/Sun/Scriptics/Ajuba/etc. Tcl stands
for "tool command language" and is pronounced "tickle". Tcl is actually two things: a
language and a library. Tcl is a simple textual language, intended primarily for
issuing commands to interactive programs such as text editors, debuggers, illustrators,
and shells; it can also be used as a library package embedded in application programs.

Tk is an extension to Tcl which provides an interface to the X. Note that many users
will encounter Tk via "wish", a simple windowing shell which permits the user to write
Tcl applications interactively.

The latest versions of Tcl/Tk can be obtained via ftp from:

Additional Resources
   * Frequently Asked Questions about Tcl/Tk (;
* A complete report on the 1995 Tcl/Tk workshop ;
* Tcl/Tk WWW Info Page:
   * or
* The definitive archive of Tcl/Tk applications and packages:
* Nicely formatted online man-pages ;
* A brief introduction to Tcl/Tk ;
* TclTutor developed by Clif Flynt;
* The Tcl/Tk Cookbook is at but has
grown out of date.
* Contributed sources archive (via the Web)

Tcl/Tk related announcements may be mailed to to the moderator of
comp.lang.tcl.announce at < >.


GNU Archives Around The World

* In North America:
* In Asia:
* In Australia:
* (archie.oz or for ACSnet)
* In Africa:
* In the Middle-East:
* In Europe:
* In South America:

Misc. X things

Every conceivable online X resource should be available either in this FAQ or within
the following documents:
* MW3: Motif on the World Wide Web ( Ken Sall )
* X Window System and OSF/Motif WWW Sites ( Kenton Lee )
* A more comprehensive set (w.r.t. commercial software, books, etc.) of X-related
FAQs can be found in the FAQ



   * The description for GNU Emacs was adapted from the June 1994 GNU Bulletin.
* The descriptions for the apps listed in this FAQ were adapted from their
respective READMEs, newsgroup announcements or from man-pages.
* The description for sam was adapted from an early technical paper, supplied by
Castor Fu.
* Information about Tcl/Tk was adapted from Larry W. Virden's excellent
comp.lang.tcl FAQ.
* The individual icons in the introductory-image are icons and other bits from the
apps noted in this FAQ. I have merely arranged them in a (hopefully) visually
pleasing collage and detrimentally added to the access-time when this FAQ is
retrieved via the Web.
* The picture of the camera was from Ioi K. Lam's (Tix author) homepage.
* The entry for xv was supplied by Ralphe Neill.
* ups updated text was provided by Rod Armstrong.

Notable corrections, additions and suggestions to this FAQ were kindly contributed by:

Per Abrahamsen, Jamshid Afshar, Rod Armstrong, Bob Bagwill, Thomas Bahls,
Greg Badros , Steve Baur , John Bazik, Scott Berg, Roderick Boem, Karel De
Bruyne , Kevin Buettner, Gary Capell , Jeffrey David Cohen , Mike Davis,
Brian Decker, Bertrand Decouty, Mark Edel, Ian Edwards, Stephen Eglen, George
Fleming , Lionel Fournigault, Castor Fu, Sanjay Ghemawat , Stephen A.
Gilbert, Stephen Gildea , Joel S. Gillman, Denis Girou, Scott Goehring,
Matthew Hall , Guy Harris, Amancio Hasty, D.J. Hawkey Jr. , Charles K. Hines,
Jasper van der Horst, Damjan Janev, Webmaster Jim , Jonathan I. Kamens,
Selimir Kustudic, Roger Larsson, Marty Leisner, Craig Leres, Per Lewau,
Torbj&ouml;rn Lindgren, Peter Lowe, Mike Long , Orjan Lundberg , Thanh Ma,
Mike Macgirvin , Alexander Mai, Ken Martin, Robert J. McNamara, Bruce
Mitchener, Joe Moss, Duane T. Mun, John A. Murphy, Ralphe Neill, Aliza R.
Panitz, Alan Peery, Mark Podlipec, Bill Randle, Chuck Robey, Kevin Rodgers,
Tim Rowley, James Spath, Sam Steingold, Mark Stoutjensdijk, Philip J. Tait,
Nathan Urban, Gioacchino La Vecchia, Vegard Vesterheim, Martin Vicente, Larry
W. Virden , Larry Wall, Craig Wasielewski, Brent Welch, Jim Wight, Daniel
Williams, and Andreas Zeller.


Version 1 Release 1 of this FAQ, was compiled entirely from within GNU Emacs 19.23 (on
a lazy Sunday afternoon, sometime in July '94 (via a VT100-terminal dialup yet!)). GNUS
was used to access relevant USENET FAQ's in news.answers and the ange-ftp and crypt++
packages made it possible to visit the README's of the various packages mentioned, at
ftp sites around the world, after searching for them with archie (from within emacs, of

The hyper-FAQ (Release 1.8) was marked-up from the original text-version using Emacs'
massively useful macro-facility (and thus the conversion was painlessly automated) and
the html-mode package.

The plain-text version of this FAQ is now generated from the hyper-FAQ, with the
html-to-ascii perl-script written by James R. Davis.

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM