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rec.sport.table-soccer FAQ7 - Subbuteo


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Archive-name: sports/table-soccer/subbuteo
Rec-sport-table-soccer-archive-name: subbuteo
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 1996/09/25
Copyright: (c) 1995 Stephen Dettre
URL: http://www2.hawaii.edu/~uyeyama/subbuteo.txt
Version: 1.0b

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
All of the latest rec.sport.table-soccer FAQs are available at Foosball 
Heaven's FAQ archive http://www2.hawaii.edu/~uyeyama/foosball.html

****************************************
The Rec.sport.table-soccer
Subbuteo Frequently Asked Questions File
Version 1.0c                    11/17/96
****************************************

by Stephen Dettre  steved@tmx.mhs.oz.au  Compuserve: 100351,1723
FISTF Web Page: http://speedy.udg.es/~GA5442/unofsub.html
(c) Copyright 1995 Stephen Dettre.
Edited by: Jon Henning Bergane 17/11-96  jonb@hotmail.com


__________
Introduction 
__________
by Robert Uyeyama (uyeyama@hawaii.edu)

Note: The Subbuteo Web Page which contains the latest
version of this file and many other Subbuteo links is located at:
        http://www2.hawaii.edu/~uyeyama/subbuteo.html

The FISTF Rules of play are archived at Foosball Heaven at
http://www2.hawaii.edu/~uyeyama/subbuteo-fistf-rules.txt

The American Subbuteo Association's Rules of Play are archived at
Foosball Heaven at http://www2.hawaii.edu/~uyeyama/asarules.html.  These 
rules are slightly different from FISTF Rules.



Note that although this file was written by the FISTF,
If you play Subbuteo in the United States, please see the extensive 
resources of the American Subbuteo Association (ASA):
        ASA:            http://pages.prodigy.com/subbuteo
        ASA news:   http://members.aol.com/ASASUB/
        MM Sports:   http://members.aol.com/mmspt  (The official product
          sponsor and supplier of Subbuteo accessories, teams and club 
games
          announces the arrival of new teams. Such National Teams as
          Germany, Italy, and Brazil. Club teams like Juventus, Arsenal 
and
          Manchester United.  To catch up on what is available and how to
          order, check this out!
        Also you may e-mail Don Maldonado of the ASA at   
        subbuteo@prodigy.com

Some other web pages:
Foosball Heaven's subbuteo links page:
      http://www2.hawaii.edu/~uyeyama/subbuteo.html
From France, see La page Web du club de football de table
     de Caen at:   http://www.cpod.com/monoweb/subbuteo/
A Brazilian Subbuteo Page is at: http://kiwi.futuris.net/brazil/subbuteo/
From the UK, see The University of Surrey (UK) Electrical Engineering 
        Subbuteo Football Association at:   
        http://orc.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Societies/Subbuteo/
Co-author Jon Henning's Table Football Home Page is at: 	
	http://www.yi.com/home/BerganeJon/tf/
The FISTF web page is listed below, next to the author, Stephen Dettre.
_______________________________________________________



________________
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
________________
Part I   Questions & Answers (Includes Rules of Play)
Part II  History of Subbuteo
Part III Glossary of Terms


__________________________

Part I Questions & Answers
__________________________

Q: What is Subbuteo?
A: Subbuteo is the brand name of a form of table soccer that
was developed in 1947 by an Englishman by the name of Peter
Adolph. His game was a refinement and development of a previous
table soccer game that had been first introduced in 1920. That
game was called 'NewFooty'. The common principle of both games
was that small figurines with semi-spherical bases that were
slightly flattened on the bottom were flicked at a ball to
propel it forward and eventually into the opponent's goal. The
defender had a goalkeeper, which was a figure which had a rod
attached to the back of the base, extending through the back of
the goal, which allowed manipulation to save shots.
The NewFooty figures were made of lacquered cardboard which
were inserted into lead bases. This lead made them very hard to
flick and they had to be spread around the pitch because they
could not be flicked very far. As well, the figurines were all
different, and they had to be used only in their correct
position, ie. the left winger could only be positioned on the
left wing and not used as a centre half.
In 1947 Peter Adolph created his new Subbuteo game, using some
of the new materials that started to be available after the war
- plastic!
His figures were hard cardboard inserted into a plastic base
which was similar to the Keeling model, but more rounded.
These figures -- known as 'flats' -- were the basis of the game
right through until the 60s. Their aerodynamic shape allowed
them to be 'curled' around opposing figures to touch the ball.
A variety of 00-scale and two dimensional figures are now
available.
The basic principle of Subbuteo was dramatically different from
 all other table soccer games at that time, and even to this
day. If the player (player being the 'human') kept hitting the
ball with his figures, and the ball did not roll out, or touch
an opposing figure, then he retained possession. Each figure
could only be flicked three times in succession. The another
figure had to be used. However, you could flick one figure,
flick another, then flick the original. All being done, of
course, as long as the figure touched the ball. The attacker
also dictated the pace of the game.
The defender did not have to sit by and idly watch. For every
attacking flick that hit the ball, the defender could have a
defensive flick. With this flick you could not hit any other
figure, nor the ball, but could plug gaps in your defence, or
try and force the attacker's path away from the goal.
The method of flicking was achieved without using the thumb or
any other finger as a 'spring'. Instead, spring or 'purchase'
was effected off the pitch. Deftness of touch allowed passing
and more firm flicks allowed shooting.
Each team was composed of 10 field figures and a goalkeeper.
The pitch was originally made from a woollen ex-army blanket,
which were available in abundance after the war.
Another distinction of Subbuteo was that a player could only
shoot at goal once the ball was in the end 'shooting zone'. The
pitch was divided into quarters, and the end section was the
shooting zone.

Q: Where does the name Subbuteo come from?
A: When Peter Adolph was ready to patent his game, he went to
the British patents office with the idea of calling it 'The
Hobby'. Of course, they said no way to that name, because
everyone has a hobby and he could scarcely lay claim to an
exclusive title. So he went away and dreamed up a new name. Mr
Adolph was a keen ornithologist, and his favourite bird just
happened to be the English Hobby Falcon. The Latin name for
this bird was Falco Subbuteo -- so Mr Adolph chose the name
Subbuteo for his game. And the falcon has been on all Subbuteo
products ever since, and most national federations at some time
or other had the falcon head on their crest.

Q: Are there professional players?
A: No. Subbuteo table soccer is an amateur sport, and there are
mainly just trophies for winners. However, some of the bigger
tournaments have subsidised the transport costs of top flight
players to encourage them to compete and draw others along.
What does exist is a tournament circuit, where the best players
from around the world compete. There are 12 Grand Prix
tournaments -- one in Australia, and 11 in Europe.  There are
also 17 International Opens and dozens of other smaller
tournaments.
Players can gain ranking points for success in these
tournaments.
For those who don't want to play in these tournaments, there is
always the enjoyment of Subbuteo at home with family, friends
and colleagues.

Q: What Subbuteo Organisations exist around the world?
A: Subbuteo is organised on an international competition level
by the world federation, The Federation of International Sports
Table Football. This federation controls:
* The World Cup, staged every two years, in even years (1994,
1996, 1998 etc)
* The European Championships, staged every two years, in odd
years
* The Europa Cup, staged every year, for Club teams
* International matches between national teams
In world and continental championships there are six
classifications:
* Open
* Youth (Under 20)
* Junior (Under 16)
* Veterans (Over 35)
* Female (All ages)
* National team.

A national team or club team is composed of four players .
A team match pits the four players from one side against four
from another. A victory in a match gives that player's side one
point. A draw and a loss gives none. So the maximum score in an
international is 4-0. Other possible results are 3-0, 2-0, 1-0,
0-0, 3-1, 2-1, 1-1, 1-0, 2-2.

Q: What is the address of the International Federation?
A: The International Federation's headquarters are in France.
There are separate directorates  relating to Sports matters,
Media and Communications, Finance, Marketing.  For general
inquiries, please contact the Media Director first, and you
will be directed to the best section.
The  relevant addresses are:

FISTF President:
Raymond Kroonberg
Rue du Buck 14
4210 Marneffe
BELGIUM
Ph: 00 32 85 71 20 46 (+fax)

FISTF Vice President:
Baudouin Heuninckx
Avenue de la Chasse 195
1040 Bruxelles
BELGIUM
Ph: 00 32 75 77 38 19
Fax: 00 32 732 78 29

FISTF General Secretary
Markus Schaaf
Postfach 6621
D-79042 Freiburg
GERMANY
Ph: 00 49 76 18 63 47

FISTF Sports Director
Dr. Marco de Angelis
Haarhofe 9
59581 Warstein-Allagen
GERMANY
Ph/Fax: 00 49 29 25 48 83

FISTF Communication Director
Stefano Buzzi
Via Buonarotti 3
20149 Milano
ITALY
Ph: 00 39 24 80 10 908
Fax: 00 39 24 80 12 714

FISTF Finance Director
Eric Benvenuto
Via Italo Svevo 42
34145 Trieste
ITALY
Ph: 00 39 40 81 50 19
Fax: 00 39 40 57 21 02

Americas contact:
Carlos Eduardo Botero, World Trade Centre- Calle 100, 8A-49 Of.
707, Bogot=E1, Colombia.
CompuServe:70451,1537
Ph: ++ 57 1 226 9001 / 9029
Fax: ++ 57 1 222 9298

Q: Are there any publications available and what do they cost?
A: Yes, there is an international magazine produced by the Profibase 
team, called 'Profiflick News'. It's in both english and french. The 
price is 1.50DM, and

Q: What type of equipment is standard for Subbuteo table soccer
associations.
A: The following is an extract from the Official Rules and
Regulations of Sports Table Soccer, as published by FISTF in 1995?.
1. Playing Surface
(1) The playing surface must be properly fixed to hardboard or
similar material. It shall be a maximum 90 cms, minimum 70 cms
above floor level. The board must be level. No items shall be
attached to the board or its support that can cause any
obstruction to the game.
(2) The playing surface and the playing board must extend
outside the playing-area by 3 to l0 cms from the touch-line and
goalline. The playing board must not extend more than 3 cms
behind the back of the goal.
(3) The playing board must be surrounded by a fence of 2.5-5
cms in height and a maximum of 5 cms in width. Centrally behind
each goal there shall be a gap of 15-25 cms in the surround.
(4) In competition there shall be at least 100 cms of free
space around the table for the players, the referee and
linesmen to perform.
(5) The playing pitch shall be made of cotton, wool or material
with fixed undersurface. The pitch cloth should be free of
frayed or fluffy extrusions.
(6) The lines painted or printed on the playing-area shall not
be more than 3 mms in width and not interfere with the game by
affecting the run of the ball or deflecting playing figures.

2. Playing-area.
The playing-area of the pitch shall be a rectangle. The length
shall be marked by touch-lines of maximum 130 cms, minimum 110
cms. The width shall be marked by goallines maximum length 90
cms, minimum 70 cms. The playing-area shall be divided into two
equal halves by a center-line parallel to the goallines. There
shall be a center-spot on the center-line equidistant from each
touch-line and a center-circle of radius 9-12 cms, concentric
to the centre spot.

3. Shooting-area.
Each half shall be divided into two equal zones by a
shooting-line, parallel to the goallines. The zone between the
shooting-line and the goalline shall be called the
shooting-area.

4. Penalty-area.
In each shooting-area there shall be a penalty-area adjacent to
the goalline. Each penalty-area shall be formed by two parallel
lines, 16-18 cms long and 44-48 cms apart, which are
equidistant from the center of the goalline. These lines shall
be at right angles to the goallines and joined at the ends to
form rectangles. There shall be a penalty spot in each
penalty-area, 12-13 cms from the goalline and equidistant from
each touch-line.

5. Goal-area.
In each shooting-area there shall be a goal-area adjacent to
the goalline. Each goal-area shall be formed by two parallel
lines, 6-7 cms long and 24-26 cms apart, which are equidistant
from the center of the goalline. The vertical goal-area lines
may extend behind the goalline to allow a more precise
positioning of the spare-goalkeeper for it to be used in the
game.

6. Corner-area.
In each corner of the playing-area there shall be a quarter
circle of radius 2-3 cms concentric to the junction of the
touch- and goallines.

Rule 2: Goals
1. A goal shall be placed centrally on each goalline so the
front posts are on the line. The goals shall be fixed
mechanically to the playing board.

2. A goal shall consist of two posts, one crossbar, two bars on
each side, one or two back bars and a net, which must be
properly attached to the posts and the bars so that it does not
interfere with the operation of the goalkeeper on the rod.

3. The posts shall be upright and parallel, 6 cms long and 12.5
cms apart. The crossbar shall be fixed to the top of the posts.
The back bar or bars shall be positioned parallel to the
crossbar and 1.5 cms or 1.5 cms and 3 cms above the playing
surface. The posts and the bars shall not be thicker than 5
mms. The distance from the goalline to the back of the goal
shall be 5-10 cms.

Decisions of the FISTF Board of Directors
1. Each goal shall provide a clearly defined inner space thanks
to one or two bars at the back to prevent the player with the
goalkeeper pushing his/her hand towards the goalline to
interfere illegally but also to allow clear judgment of a
correctly scored goal.
2. The goals must be solidly constructed and produced of solid
material that does not bend under any playing conditions.

Rule 3: Ball
The ball shall be 2.2 cms in diameter and 1.5 g in weight.
Painted or marked balls may only be used if both players agree
on their use. The referee must replace a broken ball
immediately after the ball has stopped.
Decisions of the FISTF Board of Directors
For the time being, the Board of Directors considers the
Tango ball produced by Waddington Games Ltd. as the best
quality ball. Therefore, if opponents cannot agree on a ball, a
Tango ball shall be used.

Rule 4: The Playing Figures
1. Dimensions.
The playing figures and the spare-goalkeeper but not the
goalkeeper, shall consist of a round base and a figure which
must be firmly fixed to the base by fulfilling the following
standards:
(1) The base shall be maximum 0.7 cms, minimum 0.5 cms in
height and maximum 2.1 cms, minimum 1.6 cms in diameter.
(2) The figure fixed to the base shall be maximum 1.3 cms,
minimum 0.6 cms at its widest point and maximum 0.6 cms in
thickness.
(3) The maximum weight of the playing figures shall be 2.8 g,
the minimum weight shall be 1.4 g. The maximum height shall be
3.9 cms, the minimum height shall be 2.7 cms.

2. Composition.
(1) Each team shall consist of twelve (12) figures: ten (10)
field figures, one goalkeeper and one spare-goalkeeper. Each
figure of a team must be of the same composition. All figures
and the bases of a team shall have the same colour excepting
the spare-goalkeepers base which must be different in colour
from both teams. All figures must be painted or coloured.
(2) If two teams meet with identically or similarly coloured
bases, a coin shall be tossed by the referee and the player
losing the call shall change his/her team.
(3) The figure shall represent or symbolise a human body with
its head, middle body and legs.
(4) The bases of the figures may be polished with any adequate
means. The figures may be polished before the game starts or
during the half-time break. However, providing that the game is
not interrupted, the player may also polish figures during the
game which he/she is able to pick up: any figures at a
goal-flick or flick-off, or the flick-in taker, free-flick
taker, corner-taker, or if a figure has fallen off the
playing-board.

3. Substitution.
Damaged or broken figures may not be used and must be
substituted. Any number of figures may be substituted during a
match as long as the replacement playing figures are similarly
coloured and of the same composition. Figures can only be
substituted if the game is interrupted by a goal-flick,
corner-flick, flick-in, free-flick or after a goal has been
scored. See Rule I.2.8 for positioning of replacement figures.

4. Figures
The following styles of figures are approved by FISTF. Further
designs of figures are to be presented to FISTF and authorised
by the FISTF Board of Directors before they can be applied in
any competition under the authority of FISTF.

1. Flats (produced since 1940s)
Approved style dimensions:
a) 17-18 mms diameter of the base
b) 35-39 mms height of the figure including the base

2. 00-scale moulded style: (produced in 1960s/1970s)
The figure and the disc are made out of one mould.
Approved style dimensions:
a) 18-21 mms diameter of the base.
b) 28-31 mms height of the figure including the base

3. 00-scale walking figure: (produced in 1950s/60s)
The figure and disc is made out of one mould. The legs of the
figure are not parallel, with one in front of the other.
Approved style dimensions:
a) 18-21 mms diameter of the base.
b) 28-31 mms height of the figure including the base.

4. 00-scale bar-figure: (produced in 1960s/70s)
The figure is fixed on a bar that is inserted into a slot in
the disc.
Approved style dimensions:
a) 18-21 mms diameter of the base
b) 28-31 mms height of the figure including the base

5. 00-scale plug-figure (produced since 1980s)
The figure is fixed on a knob that is inserted into a round
hole in the disc.
Approved style dimensions:
a) 18-21 mms diameter of the base
b) 28-31 mms height of the figure including the base

6. Sports figures Mark I (produced since September 1993)
Approved style dimensions:
a) 21mms diameter of the base
b) 21mms height of the figure including the base

7. Sports figures Mark II (produced since October 1993)
Approved style dimensions:
a) 21 mms diameter of the base
b) 35-37 mms height of the figure including the base.

8. Toccer figures (produced since February 1994)
Approved style dimensions:
a) 21 mms diameter of the base
b)  35-37 mms height of the figure including the base.

9. All models of Profibase bases (produced since 1995)

Rule 5: Goalkeeper
1. Dimensions of the goalkeeper-figure.
The goalkeeper shall consist of a figure and a base.
The goalkeeper must be firmly fixed to a rod by fulfilling the
following standards:
(1)  The base shall be a maximum of 0.7 cms, minimum 0.5 cms in
height and maximum 2.1 cms, minimum 1.6 cms in diameter.
(2) The figure fixed to the base shall be maximum 1.3 cms,
minimum 0.6 cms at its widest point and maximum 0.6 cms in
thickness.
(3) The maximum height of the goalkeeper figure shall be 3.9
cms, the minimum height shall be 2.7 cms.

2. Dimensions of the goalkeeper-rod.
The rod is fixed to the goalkeeper-figure at its base and is
part of the goalkeeper. The goalkeepers rod shall be used with
a straight round rod up to 20 cms in length and 2mms in
diameter, excluding the handle. The handle should not exceed 10
cms in length, 4 cms in height and 3 cms in diameter.

3. Composition.
The goalkeeper figure shall represent or symbolise a human body
with its head, middle body and legs. The goalkeeper shall be
coloured differently from the other figures and the
spare-goalkeeper.

4. Substitution
The goalkeeper may be substituted at any time of the match if
it is broken or damaged. If the goalkeeper is not damaged or
broken it can be substituted only when the game is interrupted
by a goal-flick, corner-flick, flick-in, free-flick or after a
goal has been scored.

Q: How do I get involved in Subbuteo?
A: FISTF has taken the view that the players must be the
instigators in creating clubs, competitions and federations.
FISTF will do whatever it can to help these players once they
have shown an interest in playing competitively.
The first step is to find some equipment. In the United States,
the company Hasbro is the best contact point for information
about sales of Subbuteo equipment.
For sales of other items, such as metal goals, Sports and
Toccer figures, and cloth pitches, please contact the FISTF
Sports Director.

Q: Where do I see someone play?
A: In each country with a federation there should be a contact
name and number of the chief tournament organiser. This can be
obtained by contacting the FISTF Media Director.

___________________

History of Subbuteo
___________________

Basic History:
After the creation of the game in the 1940s, the first major
changes to the game occurred in the 1960 with the creation of
new Subbuteo figures. These were 00-scale, three dimensional
plastic figures, mounted on a base that was similar in design
to the original 'flats' base, but which was hollow, and which
had a metal washer added to give it some stability.
The game took off after this, as it was much easier to market
it as an attractive 'realistic' soccer game.
Literally every British schoolboy had a Subbuteo set. From
there, SSG set out to conquer the world. Immigrants took the
game around the globe, and then wherever soccer (football) was
king, there was scope for Subbuteo to make inroads. In Italy
it became very popular, and it strengthened in the low
countries.
In Malta it almost became the defacto national sport!
SSG unashamedly targeted the game at schoolboys aged between
11 and 16. That was their market, and they were astonishingly
successful at cornering it.
During the 60s and 70s, more players started to hunger for
competition beyond their own school or street league.
SSG responded by staging district, county and national
competitions in the UK, and encouraged Subbuteo distributors
to do the same in their countries. In 1970 they staged the
first Subbuteo World Cup. Looking back it says volumes that 90
per cent of the publicity of the tournament was about the
'Junior' event, while the Senior event was barely mentioned.
But this was a sign of the future. The 16-year-olds who
previously had dropped the game as being for 'kids', kept
playing as they went to university, got jobs, made contact
with other countries and started to treat their 'game'
seriously.
In the 60s this had already happened, with the creation of the
European Tablefootball Federation, independent of SSG. The ETF
staged its own Europa Cup, considered by all table soccer
players as the hardest event to win -- much harder than the
world cup. At the world cup, each nation was permitted one
entrant, while in the Europa Cup they could have two, and the
country whose player was the reigning champion could have
three. This meant that tough competitions such as in Belgium,
Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland, provided 'ace' players
who provided tough opposition.
SSG was not too crazy about 'independent' associations and
preferred to control all promotion, organisation and
tournaments.
When in the 80s they were bought out by the giant English firm
Waddingtons, they had even more money to control the
development of the game.
But the world federation FISA - Federation of International
Subbuteo Associations -- was a sham. It had no elected
officials, no directorate, no executive, no aims. Run by SSG
as part of Waddingtons, it did put on spectacular events such
as the European Championships and World Cups right through the
70s and 80s and into the 90s.
These were as much marketing exercises for the company as
competitive affairs.
What caused friction was exactly this marketing desire.
SSG wanted players to use the latest Subbuteo equipment, and
while a majority of players did use the 00-scale equipment, 90
per cent of the top flight players still used the 'flats'
which they considered superior for a more technical game.
SSG tournaments then banned anything but 00-scale, while the
ETF continued to stage its tournaments allowing anything: some
players even hand crafted their own 'wooden' figures. But as
long as the figures met qualifying criteria, they were
accepted.
The result of this was that in many countries, two federations
were created: a SSG federation which was basically run by the
company or a distributor, and an independent federation,
usually aligned with the ETF.
In some instances, namely Switzerland, Germany, Austria, there
was one federation and it existed in both camps.
The ridiculous thing was that such a small sport was
fragmented, with players unable or unwilling to pull together
for the common good.
While all this politics was going on, on the playing surface
there were tremendous changes -- some of which eventually led
to a great reconciliation.
The great problem with the 00-scale figures was that because
they were not as compact or aerodynamically streamlined as the
flats, they were not as accurate when trying to 'curl'. As
often as not, the figure would fall away from its intended
target.
Also, they were not as stable as the flats, again because they
were not as compact.
But they LOOKED great! So many players persisted with them,
and struggled to play as best they could.
Then a genius, whose name is lost in the annals of the game,
decided that he wanted the figure to be able to be flicked
much better, and he POLISHED the base of his figure, using a
household cleaner.
This Italian player overnight revolutionised the game.
Suddenly the clumsy and inaccurate 00-scale figures became a
potent weapon. With the deftness of touch, then figures could
slide beautifully across the pitch to caress the ball, rather
than clattering into it and misdirecting it.
Players soon realised that combined with polish, if they added
weight to the base they could affect the centre of gravity,
making the figures better for shooting.
At the World Cup in 1982 the Italian players stunned the table
soccer world with their polished and weighted figures.
One of the most impressed people was the Swiss champion, Willy
Hofmann, who had been thrashed 7-2 in the semi-final by the
eventual winner, Renzo Frignani.
Hofmann went back to Switzerland, analysed what the Italians
had done, worked on his own figures and launched his own
devastating campaign on the world.
Hofmann realised that what the 00-scale figures did best was
slide in straight lines as a result of the polish. He
experimented with how far they could do this accurately, and
was surprised to find he could flick the length of the pitch
to just delicately touch the ball, teeing himself up for a
shot.
He eliminated 'speculative' curling flicks from his game,
preferring a 3/4 pitch long flick to a 2 or 3 cm curl.
Possession became important: never needlessly give the ball
away.
He also found that by re-setting the figurine top into the
base at slightly different heights, you could affect the
balance and controllability of the figure, without adding any
extra weight.
This allowed the figure to be flicked at the ball from the
halfway mark for a shot. When you consider the figure has a
base of diameter 2.5cm and the ball is about 3cm, the accuracy
needed is quite great, when you also consider there are
usually other figures in the area and there is also a
goalkeeper to beat. Most players preferred to get in close for
a shot at the ball from about 5 to 6 cm. Hofmann perfected 45
to 50 cm flick-shots which took everyone by surprise, not
least because the angles were so hard to defend.
In late 1982, about four months after the world cup, he won
the Europa Cup in Switzerland,  then retained it in 1983 in
Haibach Germany, and 1984 in Verviers, Belgium. In 1985 he
lost the semi-final in a shoot-out, and in 1986 he lost the
q-final in a shoot-out. But in 1987 he was back, winning in
Birmingham, England, and 1988 in Vienna.  In between he won
the world cup in 1986, then lost the semi of the 1990 world
cup, but made a vow to win the Europa Cup that year -- which
he did in Scotland.
But more than just collecting trophies, Hofmann's greatest
gift to the game was to show what was possible with 00-scale
figures. The Italians had led the way, but he opened up a
whole new realm.
This meant that the era of the flats as 'king' was over.
It also showed more and more players that the game could be a
highly technical and tactical 'sport' and they did not have to
be embarrassed by their activity.
More and more stayed in the game into their adult years, and
this provided a core of people willing to run the sport
themselves.
At the 1990 World Cup the first proposals were made for a
player run federation, taking over from SSG, with SSG's
approval.
SSG at this stage was keen for this to happen, because there
were so many tournaments happening right around the world that
their marketing department was not able to do both its proper
job and help with administrative information on tournaments.
In 1992 SSG decreed that FISA was dead, and a new federation
was born - The Federation of International Subbuteo Table
Football.
Still many people were not happy with Subbuteo being in the
title, as it seemed to imply control by the company.
As well, an SSG employee, nominally the representative of the
English Subbuteo Association, was also on the board.
In 1994, however, the word Subbuteo was removed and the word
'Sport' was included to better reflect the development of the
game.
As well, in 1992 another firm began manufacturing table soccer
figurines for use in the game. These 'Sports' figures did not
infringe any Subbuteo copyright and were quickly recognised by
players as first class equipment. The company had approached
Willy Hofmann to help design them, and the end result was that
it was like buying a set of Subbuteo figures personally
modified by Willy Hofmann!
In 1994 the company brought out a new figure, Toccer, which
did away with the slightly rounded base altogether.
FISTF decreed that any figure which met certain technical
criteria could be used in the game. So there have been
tournaments where flats, 00-scale, Sports and Toccer figures
have played against each other.
It is impossible to say which is 'best'. A lot depends on the
player and his/her technical level.
But it is now recognised that for beginners, then Toccer
figures are great fun, and the Sports figures teach the basic
skills.

_________________

Glossary of Terms
_________________

Back - direction by the referee after a defensive flick has
touched either the ball or any playing figure.  The attacking
player may accept the 'back' or may play on.
Block - Flick made by the defender. It may not hit the ball
nor any other figure of either side.
Change - When a player misses the ball with a flick, or the
ball touches a figure of the opposing side, the referee shall
indicate a change of possession by stating 'Change'.
Corner - when the ball crosses the goalline after last being
played by a defensive figure or the goalkeeper, as long as the
attacker's  flick was a legitimate one - with the ball fully
inside the shooting area.
Distance - A request by the attacker at a free-flick,
flick-in, corner-flick when asking for opposing figures to be
moved the required distance from the ball.
Flick-in - When the ball leaves the sideline, the ball is
returned to play with a flick-in.
Flick-off - The start of the match.
Foul flick
- Illegal rebound - This occurs when a figure which is
flicked, hits the barrier around the board and returns to the
field of play and strikes either a figure or the ball.
- Illegal flicking - A flick taken when there was no right to
flick at the ball.
- Improper flicking - Flicking the figurine and not the base
of the figure, or committing a 'double flick' -touching the
base twice in the same move, rather than cleanly once.
- Insufficient flicking - failing to flick the ball the
required distance at a flick-off, corner-flick, flick-in or
goal-flick.
- Blocked ball - a ball which is touching two or more figures
of the same team, and which must be cleared from all figures
with the next flick.
- Excessive flicking - flicking at the ball with the same
figure four times in succession.
Foul position - Extending the goalkeeper past the goal-area
line. In the first instance, this is penalised with an
indirect free-flick from the penalty spot. All subsequent
offences are penalised with a penalty.
Hands - When a player has two hands over the playing area at
the same time, other than when flicking one figure and holding
the goalkeeper's rod.
Interference - When a defending player deliberately places his
hands across the line of sight of the attacker who is making a
flick.
Limited flick - If the attacker needs to assume a position
behind the defender's goal to make a flick, which would mean
the defender has to relinquish his grip on the goalkeeper rod,
the referee signal's 'Limited Flicking'. This allows the
attacker to make the flick, but he must then wait and allow
the defender to have a defensive flick. A shot on goal cannot
be made during 'Limited Flicking'.
Offside - When an attacking figure which is fully inside the
shooting area is closer to the goal than two defending
figures, including the goalkeeper. An attacking figure which
is level to a defending figure is not offside.
Over count - When a player starts a match with more than 11
figures. The punishment is to remove the extra figures and
then an equal number from the remaining figures. Starting a
match with 12 figures means that you have 2 removed.
Placing - when a figure which falls on its side, it shall be
stood upright and placed as close as possible to where its
base was resting.
Tick flick - a Flick which can be called at any time by an
attacker to put on-side a figure which is off-side.


This is the END of Rec.Sport.Table-soccer FAQ7: Subbuteo

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM