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rec.skydiving FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)


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Archive-name: sports/skydiving/faq
Last-modified: 8/13/97

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
[Changes since last version (04/28/97):
	1) Updated Denmark information.
]
[Changes since last version (03/30/97):
	1) Updated email address for germany's national association
]








		    Rec.Skydiving F.A.Q. Sheet
		    =-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=-=


	PARACHUTE : An aerodynamic deceleration device.
		(Federal Aviation Administration)


This posting constitutes a dynamic compilation of Frequently Asked Questions
concerning the sport of skydiving, related activities, and the news group
rec.skydiving.  It is posted on or about the second and fourth Mondays of
every month. 

Additions, corrections, or suggestions can be posted or emailed to the
current maintainer, Barry Brumitt, belboz@frc2.frc.ri.cmu.edu. 
The original version was written by Jerry Sobieski, jerrys@umiacs.umd.edu,
who is currently too busy to maintain it. 

First, the news group rec.skydiving is an unmoderated group for the discussion
of issues relating to sport skydiving.  It obviously is not limited to
skydiving as there are many sports that share technology, history, common
interests, and avid proponents; but these tend to be minor distractions for the
hard core jumper :-).  News or events to be held, or post-event reviews are
commonly posted, as are questions about equipment, skills, regulations, theory,
etc.  And plain ol' reminiscing over "the good ol' days" by the old timers, and
long exuberant descriptions of newcomer's first jumps are posted here as well.

Skydiving is not just a sport, it's a lifestyle (not to be confused with bungee
jumping which is just a sport :-).

It seems there are a great many new readers every year of rec.skydiving, many
of which stumbled across it and found it interesting but have never jumped.
After a time, they seem to always ask the same questions.  So in an effort to
promote the sport, minimize redundant postings, and in general continue the
camaraderie of fellow free spirits here is now the "Rec.Skydiving F.A.Q.
Sheet".  If your question is not answered in this document, please feel free to
post it to the net.  If we get tired of answering it (:-), we'll append it to
the FAQ sheet.  The information disseminated in this FAQ sheet is generally
related to the sport within the United States.  However, much of the
information is applicable world-wide as well.  If you need specifics for a
given geographical area, post it.  Someone from that region can then reply.

The questions are not ordered in their "asking frequency".  Instead, I have
tried to order them so as to provide the information in a more easily
understood manner.

The Most Frequently Asked Questions are:

	-.      How does one learn to skydive?
	-.      What are the age requirements?
	-.      What are the physical requirements?
	-.      What does the training consist of?
	-.      How do I tell a good Drop Zone from poor one?
	-.      What if my parachute doesn't open?
        -.      How fast do you fall?
	-.      How hard is the landing?
	-.      How much does it cost? 
	-.      I'm a skydiving student, and I'm have trouble with
                 something, can I get some help and advice.
	-.      Where can I try Skysurfing or BASE jumping?
	-. 	Where can I find out more about Hang/Paragliding?
	-.      "How do you breathe in freefall?" and other Whuffo questions.

Other Information provided in this file are:
	-.      Movie Myths
	-.      Appendix of abbreviations
	-.      List of Magazines and Skydiving Periodicals
	-.      Information about rec.skydiving FTP/WWW archive sites
	-.	Information about obtaining rec.skydiving/FTP via Email
	-.	Information about learning jump outside of the USA
	-.      Disclaimer




-.	How does one learn to skydive?
	------------------------------

One looks in the telephone directory (Yellow Pages) under "Parachuting"
or "Skydiving and Parachute Jumping Instructions" to find a local parachuting
operation - normally referred to as a "drop zone" (DZ).  A phone call will
generally provide you with enough information to make arrangements to attend
the First Jump Course and/or how to reach the DZ.  You can also call the United
States Parachute Association (USPA, 1440 Duke St., Alexandria, VA  22314) at
(703)-836-3495 to get the name of an affiliated drop zone in your area.  A
friend or acquaintance who has jumped previously may also be able to give you a
recommendation. You can also see http://home.worldweb.net/USPA/ for further
information from the USPA.

Most DZs will offer the First Jump Course (FJC) at least once each weekend.
Some will offer it during the week or several times during the weekend.  You
will need to contact your local DZ to determine their scheduling.  The FJC
consists of about 4-6 hours of ground school followed by your jump - weather
permitting.

There are several different types of training you can take: Static Line,
Accelerated Freefall, or Tandem.  They are described below in greater detail.
However, not all drop zones offer all these options, so you should ask the DZ
which type(s) of training they provide.

Some drop zones have promotional videos they will sell you (~$10) that describe
the training and show you what it is all about.  Almost every DZ these days
uses videos for training aids and will be glad to let you view them (for free!)
if you stop by.  They will mail you a brochure and other detailed information
upon request as well.

It is *your* safety at stake and *your* responsibility to look after it.  If
you have reservations about making your first jump, make the effort to visit
the DZ, check it out, meet the people and staff.  They will be glad to see you,
and you will be *much* more confident and comfortable having done so, and
consequently have a much better time!

-.	What are the age requirements?
	------------------------------

Most Dropzones will require you to be 18 years of age to make a skydive. Some
dropzones in some states will allow 16 year olds to jump with parental
consent. So, if you are under 16, you will just have to wait; take up
some odd jobs, and start saving your money.

On the other side, there is no maximum age. See the following question to
determine if skydiving is appropriate for you.


-.	What are the physical requirements?
	-----------------------------------

In general, the prospective student should be in reasonably good physical
shape, this *is* a sport after all.  You will be required wear around 35 lbs of
equipment, endure opening shock, maneuver the canopy, land, and possibly trudge
great distances on foot.  You will experience 30 degree swings in temperature,
atmospheric pressure changes, 4 hours of lecture, and lots of beer.  It's
grueling (:-).

But seriously, problems may arise where a prospect is too heavy (over ~250lbs/
110kg, see below)) or if they have medical conditions which may impair them
during the activity.  Someone who experiences fainting spells, blackouts, or
has a weak heart should not be jumping.  Someone with respiratory illness
*may* have a problem due to atmospheric changes at altitude.  The better your
physical condition, the more you will enjoy the experience.  This being said,
very few people have medical or physical conditions which actually preclude
jumping. 

Most dropzones will try to work with you.  If you have a question, ask them,
and as always, ask your doctor.  You may be surprised at the relatively few
physical constraints involved.

Concerning weight restrictions, there are two primay concerns. First, does
the drop zone have a parachute system which you can both legally use and safely
land? Second, if you are going to be at the top-end of the safe weight range
for a particular parachute, are you in relatively good shape? An imperfect
landing will be much less liekely to injure an athletic person. If this is
unclear, consider the difference between a 5'10" linebacker who weighs
240lbs, and a 5'10" channel surfer of the same weight. If the former has a bad
landing, he'll probably brush himself off and get up. The latter may very well
injure himself substantially, lacking both the strength to withstand landing
and coordination to do a good Parachute Landing Fall(PLF). With this in mind,
use the following table as a guide.

  Weight        Comments
  -----------   --------------------------------------------------------------
  < 200lbs      Almost every DZ should be willing to let you jump.
  200-230lbs.   The majority of DZ's should be willing to let you jump. Being
                  being in relatively good shape is a plus. Beyond about 
                  230lbs, most reserves canopies are no longer strictly legal
                  for you to use.
  230-250lbs.   Some DZ's may take you, but will likely insist that you be in
                  good shape, i.e. not a couch-potato. You must recognize that
                  there is a greater chance of injury, particularly if you are
                  not somewhat athletic.
  >250lbs.      Very few DZ's will be able to let you skydive. They are likely
                  to use converted Tandem gear. Without this type of 
                  equipment, you will need to be in excellent physical
                  condition, and be willing to accept a greatly increased
                  chance of injury in case of a bad landing.
Please note that this table is only a guideline. Call your local Drop Zone and
discuss the matter with them. Also, there are experienced skydivers who are
quite heavy -- however, they likely learned when they were lighter and had
mastered landing before they gaining the additional weight. 


-.	What does the training consist of?
	----------------------------------

The FJC teaches the student every thing they need to know to safely make their
first jump.  There are several different programs available for first jumpers;
the one you choose will depend on your personal preferences and circumstances.
The differences of each are summarized below:

	Static Line (S/L)

This method has evolved over the last ~30 years from its military origins into
a successful method for training sport parachutists.  The student gets 4-5
hours of ground training and is then taken to an altitude of about 3000 feet
for the jump.  The jump itself consists of a simple "poised" exit from the 
strut of a small single engine Cessna aircraft.  As the student falls away from
the plane, the main canopy is deployed by a "static line" attached to the 
aircraft.  The student will experience about two to three seconds of falling
as the parachute opens.

Subsequent S/L jumps require about 15 minutes of preparation.  After 2 good
static line jumps, the student will be trained to pull their ripcord for
themselves.  The student then does 3 more static line jumps where they
demonstrate this ability by pulling a dummy ripcord as they leave the plane
(the static line is still initiating the deployment).  The student is then
cleared to do their first actual freefall.

The first freefall is a "clear & pull", where the student initiates the pull
sequence immediately upon leaving the aircraft.  Next is a 10 second delay
jump.  Subsequent jumps go to progressively higher altitudes with longer
delays.  After 20 freefalls, and meeting certain other basic requirements, the
student receives their A license and is cleared off student status.

	Accelerated Free Fall (AFF)

The AFF program was instituted in 1982 as an "accelerated" learning process as
compared to the traditional static line progression.  The AFF program will give
you a true taste of modern sport skydiving.

The ground training is a bit more extensive than S/L (~5 hours) because the
student will be doing a 50 second freefall (that's right!) on his/her very
first jump.  The student will exit the aircraft at 10,000-12,000 feet along
with two AFF Jumpmasters (JM) who will assist the student during freefall.  The
jumpmasters maintain grips on the student from the moment they leave the
aircraft until opening, assisting the student as necessary to fall stable,
perform practice ripcord pulls, monitor altitude, etc.  The student then pulls
his/her own ripcord at about 4000 ft.

The AFF program is a 7 level program.  Levels 1, 2, & 3 require two freefall
Jumpmasters to accompany the student.  These dives concentrate on teaching
basic safety skills such as altitude awareness, body position, stability during
freefall and during the pull sequence, and most importantly- successful ripcord
pull.  On level 3, the JMs will release the student in freefall for the first
time, to fly completely on their own.

Levels 4, 5, 6, & 7 require only one freefall JM (less $$) and teach the
student air skills such as turns, forward movement and docking on other people,
frontloops, backloops, "superman" exits from the plane, etc.

Each AFF level is designed to take one jump, and requires about 45 minutes of
training.  After successfully performing the objectives of each level, the
student moves on to the next level.

After graduating Level 7, the student enters a more free format stage called
"Level 8" where they practice and hone their skills by themselves and in small
groups until they obtain 20 freefalls and qualify for their A license.

	Tandem jumps.

Tandem jumps are meant to offer an introduction to the sport.  They allow the
neophyte to take a ride with an experienced jumper.  A tandem jump requires
from 15 to 45 minutes of ground preparation (it is *not* a First Jump Course).
It consists of an experienced jumper called a "tandemmaster" and the
passenger.  The passenger and tandem master each wear a harness, however only
the master wears the parachutes.  The passengers's harness attaches to the
front of the master's harness and the two of them freefall *together* for 30
seconds, open together, and land together under one Really_BIG_Parachute.

Tandem jumping provides an obvious advantage for the adventurous spirit who
cannot adequately meet the physical or proficiency requirements for the S/L
or AFF jumps. By relying on Tandem Master's skills, they will still be able
to experience the thrill of skydiving.

Because the tandem training is not a First Jump Course, if you decide to 
pursue the sport, you will still have to attend a FJC in either the AFF or
Static Line curriculum.

It should be noted that, in the United States, tandem jumping is still
classed by the Federal Aviation Administration as an "experimental" form of
Parachuting, and as such operates under waiver to certain Federal Aviation
Regulations regarding required equipment. Currently the USPA (see below) is
not involved in the certification or training of tandem Masters or in the
setting of minimum tandem safety standards. These functions are performed
solely by, and at the discretion of, the manufacturers of the tandem
equipment. Among many experienced jumpers, tandem jumping remains a very 
controversial subject as to its safety and utility for novice training.


In all of these training methods, students are taught normal and emergency
procedures for all aspects of the jump - climb to altitude, exit, opening,
canopy control, and landing.  They are also shown the equipment and go over it
so that they understand how it works. 

Nearly all student training centers now utilize *sport* skydiving gear.  No
more military surplus stuff.  Students have light-weight harness/container
systems in aesthetic colors, high performance canopies designed for students.
No more paraboots-- students use their own tennis shoes.  No more heavy
motorcycle helmets-- students use lightweight sporting helmets.  Ground-to-air
radio for canopy control assistance, air-to-air video, on and on...


-.	How do I tell a good Drop Zone from poor one?
	---------------------------------------------

Most dropzones that provide regular student training are "USPA Affiliated".
The United States Parachute Association (USPA) is the representative body for
sport parachuting within the US, and a member of the FAI (the international
equivalent).  The USPA defends the sport's interests before the FAA and other
regulating/lawmaking bodies at all levels of government.  It also develops and
monitors safety and training doctrine for the sport.  Other benefits include
liability insurance for students and DZs in the case of damage to property, the
monthly magazine "Parachutist", etc.

The USPA has had tremendous success instituting rating programs for
Jumpmasters, Instructors, and Instructor-Examiners to ensure that only properly
trained and qualified personnel work with students.  You should insist on USPA
Instructors and Jumpmasters.

Some USPA-affiliated DZ's have not been diligent in using only Currently-rated
Instructors and Jumpmasters. Do not be afraid to ask to see your Instructor or
Jumpmaster's rating card. It should show the appropriate rating and expiration
date. Also note that currently, Tandem Jumpmasters are certified by the
equipment manufacturer, not USPA. 

USPA affiliation is not required, and does not *guarantee* a DZ to be a "good"
DZ, and non-affiliation does not mean the DZ is "bad".  However, the USPA,
through their diligence and caution, has compiled an excellent safety record
over the years.

These are just guidelines.  You should always check it out before you jump.


-.	What if your parachute doesn't open?
	------------------------------------

Clearly, this is the most Frequently-Asked-Question posed by all prospective
jumpers.

By law (FAA regulations), all intentional parachute jumps must be made with a
single harness, dual parachute system with both a main canopy *AND* a reserve
canopy.  In other words, you have a second (or spare) canopy in case the first
one fails to open properly.

However, it must be noted that the technology utilized in today's sport
parachuting equipment is light years ahead of the old military surplus gear
used in the '60s and '70s.  The canopies are DRASTICALLY different from the
classic G.I. Joe round parachutes.  The materials are stronger, lighter and
last longer, the packing procedures are simpler, the deployment sequence is
much more refined, etc.

The reserve canopies are even more carefully designed and packed.  The reserve
parachute must be inspected and repacked every 120 days by an FAA rated
parachute Rigger - even if it has not been used during that time.

The student's main canopy is always packed either by a rigger or under a
rigger's direct supervision by experienced packers.

There are also additional safety features employed to ensure canopy deployment
such as Automatic Activation Devices (AAD) and Reserve Static Lines (RSL) which
add still more layers of safety.


-.	How much does it cost?
	----------------------

Prices vary from DZ to DZ.  Typically, the S/L course runs ~$120-$150, AFF from
$250-$300, and the tandem from ~$140-$200.  Some DZs can provide a freefall
videoman to tape your skydive for an additional $50-75.  These prices include
the ground school and the first jump.

After completing their first jump, skydiving tradition allows each student to
express their appreciation and admiration for their newfound skydiving friends
for their assistance in successfully achieving this milestone in their life by
purchasing (from a local establishment) and presenting to them a case of beer.
This case, customarily a fine imported beer, is ceremoniously iced down for
consumption at the end of the day.  The cost generally runs $15-20.

(It should be noted that while jumpers have a reputation for major no-holds-
barred parties, the use of drugs and/or alcohol on the DZ premises is
*strictly* prohibited during jump operations for what should be obvious
reasons.  This rule is observed and enforced by both jumpers and management.)

After the first jump, the cost of each successive jump decreases in stages as
less supervision is required.  Once off student status, and owning your own
gear, jumps will cost about $15-17 to 13,000' (about 65 seconds of freefall).
Many drop zones have discount programs as well that can further decrease the
cost of jumps. 

A file containing prices for experienced jumpers is available via WWW at
http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~eap/prices , at the FTP site described below,
and via E-mail from eap@phase.stanford.edu (Subject: SEND DZ PRICE LIST). To
add your DZ to the list, see information contained therein.  The list includes
locations, prices, planes, phone number, internet contact, and web page
locations. 

Equipment can run from $1000 to $3500 depending on what you want to spend.
There is a used equipment market (much like the used car market) which can SAVE
you loads of money, or you can custom order everything brand-spankin-new with
your own personalized colors and sizes, which will COST you loads of money
(:-).  You can buy it all at once or a piece at a time as finances allow.
Generally, you shouldn't worry about buying gear until you are off student
status or close to your A license.

Of course, all prices are in US dollars (as opposed to dinars or rubles :-).


-.      How fast do you fall?
        ---------------------
When you leave the aircraft, you are moving horizontally at the same speed
as the aircraft, typically 90-110MPH. During the first 10 seconds, a skydiver
accelerates up to about 115-130MPH straight down. (A tandem pair uses a drouge
chute to keep them from falling much faster than this). It is possible to
change your body position to vary your rate of fall. In a standard
face-to-earth position, you can change your fall rate up or down a few (10-20)
miles per hour. However, by diving or "standing up" in freefall, any
experienced skydiver can learn to reach speeds of over 160-180MPH. Speeds of
over 200MPH require significant practice to achieve.  The record
freefall speed, done without any special equipment, is 321MPH.  Obviously, it
is desirable to slow back down to 110MPH before parachute opening.

Once under parachute, decent rates of 1000ft./min. are typical. A lighter
student with a bigger canopy may come down much more slowly, and, obviously, a
heavier person may have a somewhat faster decent. Experienced jumper's
can canopies descend (in normal glide) at up to 1500ft./min. During radical
turns, the decent rate can go well over 2000ft./min.


-.	How hard is the landing?
	------------------------

The canopies used today bear little resemblance to the classic round canopies
of years gone by.  Today, nearly all jumpers and jump schools use "square"
canopies for parachuting.  These canopies are actually rectangular in shape,
and when open, act like an airplane wing (or an airfoil).  They are more like
gliders than umbrellas.

The aerodynamics of the square canopy provide it with exceptional
maneuverability, allowing the jumpers to land almost anywhere they wish.  This
wing shape also provides tippy-toe soft landings for even the novice jumper.
The days of landing like a sack of flour are history.  Most students land
standing up on their first jump.


-.      I'm a skydiving student, and I'm have trouble with
        something, can I get some help and advice?
        --------------------------------------------------

Yes, you can ask any question on rec.skydiving about learning to skydive,
be it trouble with turns, packing, exits, or what-have-you. However, please
recognize the person best equipped to help you with your difficulties is
probably your regular real-life instructor. Be sure to ask him the same
question you ask on rec.skydiving! Don't take or act on any advice given on
rec.skydiving without talking to your instructor first -- not everyone here is
an instructor, and no one knows your history and experience better than your
instructor.

Advice given on rec.skydiving is offered without warranty. It is not uncommon
to see both excellent and downright dangerous advice given. Talk with a 
rated instructor or jumpmaster (or your country's local equivalent) before
changing your equipment, airplane, exit, freefall, deployment, emergency,
canopy control, landing, packing or any other skydiving-related procedures,
particularly if suggested anywhere on rec.skydiving. Remember, skydiving is
dangerous, the participant assumes all risks.


-.	Where can I try Skysurfing or BASE jumping?
        -------------------------------------------

It a nutshell, you can't --  unless you're already a very experienced skydiver.

"Skysurfing" or "Skyboarding" refers to skydiving with a small board, similar
to snowboard, attached to your feet. This allows for some radical maneuvers in
freefall.  However, such jumps should only be attempted by expert skydivers,
and preferably after long discussion with one of many skysurfers who have
experience. Some board manufacturers and experienced skydsurfers offer
instructional classes or videotapes.

BASE jumping involves jumping off of fixed objects (like Buildings, Antennas,
Spans (bridges), or Earth (cliffs)), and landing under a parachute.  While
being an expert skydiver isn't an absolute requirement, you need a great deal
of experience in parachute packing, canopy control, quick reflexes, and body
position awareness before this can be attempted with any real safety. Start
with skydiving, and then go from there. Furthermore, there are very few places
where one may BASE jump legally, as most locations are private property.


-.	Where can I find out more about Hang/Paragliding?
        -------------------------------------------------
      
rec.skydiving isn't the proper forum for the discussion of either of these
activities. However, for those who are interested Paragliding or
Hang-Gliding, there is a list server for these topics.  

To subscribe send a message to:       hang-gliding-request@lists.utah.edu
 with a subject line saying:          subscribe
For a daily digest this message to:   hang-gliding-d-request@lists.utah.edu

As of 5/15/95, rec.aviation.hang-gliding exists. This is an appropriate
location to post questions concerning hang-gliding or paragliding. 


-.	"How do you breathe in freefall?" and other Whuffo Questions
	------------------------------------------------------------

"How do you breath in freefall?"  
                  -- Through genetically developed gills.

This falls into the realm of urban folklore.  One CAN breathe in freefall - if
it were necessary.  However, due to the high speed of terminal freefall (and
much higher speeds in vertical freefall dives), the jumper's body is exposed to
O2 molecules at a much higher rate than someone walking around on the ground.
The body is able to absorb the necessary O2 through the skin.  This is why
jumpers flap their cheeks in freefall, it presents a larger surface area to the
airstream for oxygen osmosis.  Once under canopy, the jumper resumes breathing
normally. 

This is also why jumpers do not jump on cloudy days or when they might risk
going through clouds.  The moisture in the clouds can condense on their exposed
skin surfaces preventing the absorption of the necessary oxygen resulting in
suffocation.  AADs are recommended for jumpers in climates where weather is a
factor.

"Don't your ears pop on the way down?"  
                   -- "Yes, we're not ignoring you, we're deaf."
"What if you have to go the bathroom in the plane?"
                   -- "Go ahead!"
"Can you steer your parachute?"
                   -- "No, one time I landed in Jamacia."
"Does it hurt?"
                   -- "Yes, that's why we jump all the time! Masochism!"
"What if your parachute doesn't open?"
                   -- "Gee, I never thought of that..."
"Why do you jump?"
                   -- "Why do _you_ breathe?"
"Where do you jump?"
                   -- "O'Hare, Midway, LAX, Dulles, where ever I happen to be."
(:-)

-.	Movie Myths
	-----------

Myth #1: Freefall conversation.
        Talking in Freefall is virtually impossible.  The wind is too loud.
Myth #2: 4 minute freefalls. 
        Without taking Oxygen on the plane with you, freefall time is limited
 	to about 80 seconds on a single jump. 
Myth #3: First-jump freefall acrobatics
        Learning to fall stable and to fly while in freefall takes practice --
	it's not realistic to do this on your first jump.
Myth #4: Low-pull contests
	This virtually never happens.  Everyone tends to deploy around 
	2000-2500.  Skydivers fall at about 5.5 sec/thousand feet.
Myth #5: Diving out and catching someone without a parachute
        Stunts similar to this have been done, however, it almost impossible
        to hold onto someone during the opening shock of the parachute when at
        terminal velocity. 

-.	Appendix of Skydiving Abbreviations, Terms, and Colloquialisms
	-------------------------------------------------------------

AAD	Abbrev. n, "Automatic Activation Device".  A altitude sensing device
	used to automatically activate the opening sequence for a parachute.
	Most commonly refers to their application to sport reserve parachutes,
	but also used in other non-sport scenarios such as ejection seats,
	etc.

AFF	Abbrev. n, "Accelerated FreeFall".  A training program for first jump
	students where the skydiving skills development rate is accelerated
	over that of the older static line program.

boogie	n, A gathering of jumpers for the purposes of jumping and socializing.
	Typically, boogies will have large aircraft, unusual aircraft
	(balloons, helicopters), special events (record attempts), or some sort
	of competition as a focal point to attract jumpers from widely diverse
	regions.

bounce	Colloquialism v, term for landing, after freefall, without the aid of a
	parachute.  Also: hammer in, frappe, go in.

canopy  n, parachute.

CFS	Abbrev., "Canopy Formation Skydiving". The new "official" term for a 
	discipline of skydinvg in which jumpers *under canopy* fly their 
	parachutes together to form various formations. However, most skydivers
	still refer to it as "CRW". (See CRW.)

CRW	Abbrev., "Canopy Relative Work".  Describes the maneuvering done by
	jumpers *under canopy* to fly their parachutes together to form various
	formations.  Sometimes referred to as CReW (Crew). See CFS.

DZ	Abbrev. n, "Drop Zone".  A place where parachuting operations take
	place.  This is may be a designated area, or frequently, a commercial
	business which supplies aircraft, instruction, gear sales and
	services.

flare	v, to pull down on both of the canopy's steering toggles in order to
	lower decent rate and forward speed just prior to landing. The forward
        speed is traded-off for lift. A flare performed too late has no effect,
	a flare performed too early can result in a stall in which the canopy
	looses forward speed and drops straight down.  A correctly performed
	flare results in an exceptionally soft landing.  

FS	Abbrev., "Formation Skydiving". The new "official" term for a dicipline
	of skydiving in which two or more jumpers fly relative to each other 
	*in freefall* in order to form various formations. However, most 
	skydivers refer to it as Relative Work, or "RW." (See RW.)

hook turn n, A high-speed turn with either the steering toggles or the front
	risers performed at very low altitude in order to build up speed before
	landing.  See "turf surf."

JM	Abbrev. n, "JumpMaster".  A jumper trained and certified to supervise
	students and/or novices during their jump.

main	n, the primary parachute.

opening shock n, The force experienced by the jumper due to the sudden
	deceleration from terminal velocity due to the deployment of a
	parachute.

RW	Abbrev., "Relative Work".  Describes the freefall maneuvering whereby
	two or more jumpers fly relative to each other *in freefall* in order
	to form various formations. See FS.

reserve	n, the secondary, or backup, parachute.

round	n, a class of parachutes designed to simply decelerate a body in a
	fluid medium.  The classic parachute.

square	n, a class of parachutes designed to inflate and take the shape of an
	airfoil.  These are more accurately rectangular in shape and are
	semi-rigid wings.

turf surf v, (also, to "surf it") a high-speed style of landing.  The jumper 
	builds up speed (see Hook Turn) and then flares mere moments before
	touchdown, resulting in a spectacular landing in which the jumper skims
	mere inches above the ground at 30-40mph, for up to 100 yards.  Or, if 
	the jumper flares too late, resulting in a spectacular landing in which
	the jumper impacts the ground, leading to medical bills, orthopedic
	surgery, and/or death.  Attempt this maneuver at your own risk! 

USPA	Abbrev. n, "United States Parachute Association".

whuffo	Colloquialism, n, A person who is not a skydiver (from the often-asked
	phrase "Whuffo you jump out of them airplanes?").


-. 	List of Skydiving-related magazines and periodicals
	---------------------------------------------------
        Parachutist: Free w/ USPA Membership, $12/yr, back issues $3.
                USPA, 1440 Duke St, Alexandra, VA, 22314. 703-836-3495.
        Skydiving: $18/yr. 
                Skydiving, PO Box 1520, DeLand, FL, 32721. 904-736-4793.
        Sport Parachutist Magazine: sp@postlin.demon.co.uk
                (Publication of the British Parachuting Association)
        CANPARA: Canadian Parachuting Association Magazine. 613-835-3731
                CSPA, 4185 Dunning Rd. Rural Rt 3. Navan, ON. K4B 1J1 Canada
        Rambling On: A$30, A$55 overseas. Published Quarterly. (07)399-6400
                15 Wynnum Rd, Norman Park, Queensland 4170, Australia.
        Fallschrim Sportmagazin: DM70/yr, Europe. (43)316-846589
                Friedrich Wegerer,C.v.Hoetzendorfstrasse 29,A-8010 GRAZ,Austria
        Fritt Fall: NOK 100/year. Norwegian Parachuting Assoc. Magazine
                PO Box 3869, Ulleval Hageby, 0805 Oslo, Norway.
                Email: frittfall@online.no   http://www.stud.ntnu.no/studorg/
                          nthfsk/fnlf/frittfall/frittfall.html
        PARAMAG: 336FF/yr, 450FF airmail/yr, French, Phone:+33.21.37.38.00
                32 bis rue Malvoisin,62410 HULLUCH, France Fax:+33.21.37.60.57
	DropZone:270FF/yr,350FF/yrEEC,490FF/yr airmail Phone:+33.1.42.87.25.52
		EditionsHorsLimites,77BisRueRobespierre,BP187,93 103 Montreuil
		Cedex,France.Fax:+33.1.42.87.35.53.Email:emmanuel.ars@sligos.fr
        Blue Sky: Price Unknown, German. Phone: +49/561-774758 (Fax: -775506)
                Postfach 70, 34290 Ahnatal, Germany.

-.	rec.skydiving FTP and WWW archive sites
	---------------------------------------

There is a WWW (World Wide Web) site at http://www.afn.org/skydive/
which provides links to virtually all known skydiving-related
information in the Internet, including all the information on the
FTP site.

There is an FTP site for rec.skydiving located on ftp.afn.org (128.227.163.4)
under the /skydive directory.  It contains:

	1. Most recent FAQ.
	2. Archive of all rec.skydiving messages since July 1988.
	3. DZ information (reviews, prices (*).)
	4. A collection of skydiving GIF/JPG's (including hourly weather maps).
        
This site accepts anonymous FTP's, which means to log in as the user
"anonymous" and give your email address as the password.  Questions and
comments concerning this site can be directed to the FTP site maintainer
Eric Johnson, esj@afn.org. Feel free to upload non-copyrighted
materials/pictures into /upload, but please email esj@afn.org when you
do!

Email-only access to the FTP site is also supported.  Send the text "help"
as the message body (not in the Subject:) to ftpmail@afn.org for
details.

(*) DZ Prices also at http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~eap/prices

If you don't know anything about WWW, FTP or Telnet, see your local
computer guru for further details.


-.	Information about obtaining rec.skydiving/FTP via Email
	-------------------------------------------------------
To receive rec.skydiving via email you send a message to
skydive-request@afn.org with the body containing the word "subscribe".

To remove yorself from the mailing list send a message to
skydive-request@afn.org with the body containing the word "unsubscribe".

To post to rec.skydiving via email, send messages to skydive@afn.org.

Please note the FAQ maintainer does not run this mail-to-news-to-mail
gateway. Questions concerning it should be directed to esj@afn.org.

Email-only access to the FTP site is also supported.  See the section
on the FTP site for more information.


-. 	Information about Learning to jump outside of the USA
	-----------------------------------------------------
Admittedly, this FAQ is directed primarily at the United States. Since jumping
takes place all over the world, it seems appropriate to list contact
information for the national skydiving organization for other countries.  I
encourage jumpers outside of the USA to submit information which can be added
to the file. Also, information about magazines outside the US are welcome!
Contact belboz@cs.cmu.edu. Email addresses below are typically individuals in
the country who are willing to answer questions concering jumping there, rather
than representatives of the country's parachuting association. However, if 
a national parachuting organzation has an email address, this is used.


Austria:
  Oesterreichischer Aeroclub
  Prinz Eugen-Str. 12
  1040 Wien
  Phone: +43-1-5051028
  Fax: +43-1-504792%5
  E-Mail: office@oe.aeroclub.at

Australia:                              Belgium:
  Australian Parachute Federation         Para-Flight School
  PO Box 144                              Beekstraat 18
  Curtin 2605                             B-1933 Sterrebeek
  Australian Capital Territory            Phone: +32 (0)2 731 49 96
  Phone: +61 6 281 6830                   Fax:   +32 (0)2 731 97 98  
  Fax:   +61 6 285 3989                   E-mail: bormans@imec.be
  Email: apf@ozemail.com.au
  www.apf.asn.au/~apf/homepage.htm

Canada:                                 Denmark:
  Canadian Sport Parachuting Assoc.       Dansk Faldskaerms Union.
  4185 Dunning Road                       Idraettens hus.  
  Rural Route #3                          Broendby Stadion 20
  Navan, ON                               DK-2605 Broendby.
  K4B 1J1                                 Phone: +45 4326 2626 (M-Th 2-4pm)
  Phone/Fax: (613) 835-3731               Fax:   +45 4343 0345
  Email: cspa@travel-net.com              Email: skywalker@post1.com
  www.islandnet.com/~murrays/cspa.html    /www.dfu.dk/spring/index.htm

France:                                 Great Britain: 
  Federation Francaise de Parachutisme    British Paraachute Association  
  35 rue St-Georges                       Wharf Way, Glen Parva
  75009 Paris                             Leicester
  Phone: +33.1.44.53.75.00                LE2 9TF
  Fax:   +33.1.48.78.45.42                Phone: +44 (0)1162 785271
  Minitel: 3615 code FFP                  Fax:   +44 (0)1162 477662

Iceland:			        Italy:
  Fallhlifasamband Island                 Associazione Nazionale ...
  Box 992                                 ... Paracadutisti d'Italia
  101 Reykjavik                           via Sforza 5
  Email: nhobsi@nho.hydro.com             00184 
                                          Rome
                                          Phone: ++39-6-4815720

Ireland (Eire):                         Germany:
  The Irish Parachute Club                DFV e.V
  Clonbollogue, Edenderry,                Comotorstr. 5
  Co. Offaly                              66802 Ueberherrn
  Phone: +353 1 450 5448                  Phone: +49/6836-6382
  Email: skydive@indigo.ie                Fax:   +49/6836-6391
  //indigo.ie/~skydive                   Email: DFV1992@aol.com
  

Netherlands:                            Switzerland:
 Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor  Aeroclub der Schweiz
 Luchtvaart Afdeling Parachutespringen    Lidostr. 5
 Jozef Israelsplein 8                     6006 Luzern
 2596 AS Den Haag                         Phone: +41-41-312121
 Phone: +31-(0)70-3245457                 Fax:   +41-41-311453
 Fax  : +31-(0)70-3240230                 Email:  thkuehne@iiic.ethz.ch
 Email: KNVvL@sportnet.nl                 www.skydive.net/fsp/
 WWW: www.sportnet.nl/bonden/luchtvaart

Sweden:                                 Norway:
  Svenska fallskarmsforbundet             Norsk Aero Klubb - Parachute Section
  Idrottens Hus                           P.O. Box  3869, Ulleval Hageby
  123 87  FARSTA                          N - 0805 Oslo 
  Phone: +46-8-6056515                    Phone: (+47) 2293 0330/33
  Fax:   +46-8-6056514	                  Fax:   (+47) 2269 5942
  Email:  info@sff.se                     Street Addr: Moellesvingen 2
                                          Email: fnlf@nak.no
                                          www.stud.unit.no/studorg/nthfsk/fnlf
                                              /fnlf.html

-.	Disclaimer.
	-----------

All information provided herein is offered on an "as is" basis.  There is no
warranty expressed or implied concerning its applicability or fitness for any
particular purpose.  Consult a trained professional before attempting any of
the activities described in this document; it is not intended to be a
substitute for proper professional instruction.

		--------      End	---------
		    Rec.Skydiving F.A.Q. Sheet

-- 
Barry L. Brumitt    |     belboz@frc2.frc.ri.cmu.edu     |Disclaimer: Opinions
Robotics GradStudent|    Skydive! D-15427,SL/AFF I'96    |given herein may not
Carnegie Mellon     |        Babylon 5: Watch it!        |be the opinions of
"Who is John Galt?" | http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~belboz/ |FRC, SCS, RI, or CMU

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM