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Formula One Motor Racing FAQ (modified 3/14/97), Part 2/2

( Part1 - Part2 )
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Archive-name: sports/formula-one-faq/part2
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: March 14, 1997

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge

4.1 How many points are scored for a win? 

Currently points are awarded for the first six finishers as
follows: 10 - 6 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1. This applies to both the
driver's and constructor's championships. Each team is required
to enter two cars and both cars scores are counted towards the
constructor's championship. 

If a race is stopped, due to accident or weather, before
completion of 75% of the race distance, only half the points
will be awarded for that race.

4.2 Is that a brake light on the back of the cars?

No. The red light you will occasionally see on the back of the
cars is not a brake light and is required by the rules for
visibility in wet races. The light is required to be on whenever
the car is on treaded tyres.

4.3 The start 

The starting procedure was changed for 1996. The countdown
begins 17 minutes before the parade lap with a series of lights
and horns. The parade lap is started with a green light. The
cars proceed in grid order returning to their spots on the
starting grid. Transponders in the car signal to the officials
when all the cars are in position and the actual start procedure
begins. There are now five red lights and NO green light. The
five red lights will come on one at a time at one second
intervals. When the fifth light comes on the jump start system
is activated. At a pre-set, but unpublished interval, all five
red lights will go out and that is the signal to start. NB There
is no green light. This system eliminates the potential problem
of the red light going out but the green light failing to come
on. Such a situation has happened in the past and causes
enormous confusion and is potentially very dangerous. Also,
disabling the jump start system until immediately before the
start eliminated some of the bogus penalties we saw prior to 96 
when the system was activated as soon as the car stopped.

4.4 The finish [CS] & [HG]

When the leader crosses the line and the chequered flag is waved
at him, all drivers finish the lap which they are currently
driving. The top positions go to the drivers on the same lap as
the winner, in the order in which they crossed the line. The
next positions go to those drivers who completed one fewer lap
than the leader, in the order in which they crossed the line,
and so on. Should a driver fail to cross the line (due to an
accident, for example), his (or her) finishing position is based
on the race position the last time (s)he crossed the
start/finish line.

An example may help: It's the 50-lap US GP and the first 4
drivers at the end of lap 49 are Diniz, Hill, Schumacher and
Inoue. Fifth is Katayama, one lap down. Diniz crosses the line
at the end of lap 50 first to take the chequered flag and win
the race. Katayama is the next driver to cross the finish line
(albeit after only 49 laps) and is awarded 5th place, since
there were 4 drivers on the lead lap (who all completed 49 laps
before him). On lap 50, however, Hill and Schumacher collide and
both retire. Inoue is the only other driver to finish 50 laps
and is awarded 2nd place. Since Hill completed 49 laps ahead of
Schumacher, he gets 3rd place and Schumacher is awarded 4th.

All drivers who have completed at least 90% of the distance
driven by the winner are classified as finishers. 

All finishers must get themselves weighed, put the car in the
'parc ferme' for scrutiny and submit to any other tests
required. Top three must attend the podium ceremony and give a
press conference afterwards, or get fined. Press conferences
take place in a variety of languages - all the top drivers speak
English fluently enough for an interview. Naturally none of the
English drivers speak anything else! (It is noticeable how much
improved Schumacher's English has become in the last two years -
he sounds more American than German now; Berger also is fluent
enough to tell jokes thanks to his long spell at McLaren)

4.5 What is the safety car for? [HG]

Once this is deployed, the 'SC' board is shown and drivers must
slow down and circulate in their current order. The car waves
past each driver in turn, until the race leader is behind him.
Then all circulate until the race is deemed safe to continue,
with the safety car displaying flashing amber lights. Switching
off these lights indicates that the safety car will pull off
next time it reaches the pit entrance; once it does, the race

It should be noted that, unlike Indy, safety cars are rarely
used in F1. In fact, in the semi-permanent "What's the
difference between F1 and Indy" thread, the excessive use of the
safety car to close up the field is the major criticism of Indy
racing by F1 fans.

4.6 What is a stop-go penalty? 

Jump starts and pit lane speeding incur a 10 second 'stop-go'
penalty. Penalties are served in the team's own pit under the
supervision of the team manager. If the team does not administer
the penalty correctly and the driver leaves before the 10
seconds is up, then they will be called back for another 10
second penalty. The officials monitor the length of the stop by
means of the timing sensors buried in the pit box. They also send
an official onto the pitlane wall to ensure that no work is done
to the car during the stop.

Other offenses can incur fines, loss of points, disqualifications
or race bans. Decisions can be appealed but historically the FIA
has a propensity for increasing a penalty on appeal.

4.7 What do the different colored flags mean? [HG]

Yellow - caution; no overtaking/safety car out.
Yellow with red stripes - track is slippery (usually oil).
Blue - There is considerable controversy regarding the exact use
of blue flags. This is because the instructions given to the
marshals contradict the International Sporting Code. This
definition is based on written instructions from the clerk of
the course to marshals at at least two GPs this season.

  During Practice
  Stationary: A faster car is catching you. Give way.
  Waved:      A faster car is about to overtake you. Give way   

  During the Race
  Stationary: You are about to be lapped. Let the other car     
  Waved:      Let the other car through immediately. You are now
              risking a penalty.

(NB: The International Sporting Code states that a blue flag may
be used to allow a faster car to overtake for position. However,
its use in races appears to be almost exclusively limited to
situations where a driver is being lapped).

Red - race stopped, slow down and return to pit lane.
Chequered - race finished.
Black, with a car number  - car must return to pit lane within 3
laps and not restart race (this may mean a terminal rule
infringement, but it can also mean that there is something
dangerously wrong with the car that the driver does not know
about - hence it is grossly negligent to ignore this flag)

4.8 Is mid-race re-fueling allowed?

After being banned for 10 years for safety reasons, mid-race re-
fueling was inexplicably reintroduced for the 1994 season. The
re-fueling equipment used by all the teams is identical as the
FIA mandates that the equipment be bought from Intertechnique
and may not be modified by the teams. Fuel is pumped at a rate
of 12 liters (3.3 gallons) per second.

Apart from the FIA, almost everybody associated with F1, fans,
drivers and teams, believe that re-fueling is inherently
dangerous and that, if not before, it will finally be banned
when somebody is killed or seriously injured in a re-fueling
accident. Since its reintroduction in '94 there have already
been three pit-lane fires caused by re-fueling: Verstappen
(Benetton) in '94, Irvine (Jordan) and Gachot (Pacific) in '95
and Diniz's on-track fire in '96 was due to the re-fueling valve
becoming stuck open. 

4.9 What is the 107% rule?

Introduced for the 1996 season, the 107% rule is designed to
weed out the slower cars in the field. Any driver whose best
qualifying time is more than 107% of the pole-sitters time will
not qualify for the race. For example, if the pole time is 1 min
40 secs (100 seconds), then any car slower than 1 min 47 seconds
(107 seconds) will not be in the race. The rule does allow for
some discretion on the part of the stewards and this discretion
has so far been exercised just once for Pedro Diniz at Melbourne


5.2 How big are the engines?

Although subject to change periodically, engines are currently
limited to 3 liter, reciprocating, normally aspirated with no
more than 12 cylinders. These engines produce approximately 750
bhp down from a high of about 1,200 bhp that could be produced
by the now banned V6, 1.5l turbo-charged engines.

5.3 How much does a car weigh?

The minimum weight for an F1 car is 600 kg (1,323lbs)  including
the driver and 5kg (11 lbs) for either an on board camera or
mandatory ballast for those cars not carrying cameras.
Regulations define minimum weights to ensure that safety is not
compromised by the engineer's efforts to improve performance by
making the car lighter.

5.4 What is the tub made of?

The tub, the part that the driver sits in, is made of a
composite material consisting of an aluminum honeycomb
sandwiched between two sheets of carbon. The result is an
extremely strong, lightweight material. Smaller sections, such
as the nose-cone and engine cover, use a nomex honeycomb instead
of aluminum to allow greater flexibility. 

5.5  How many gears do the cars have?

The regulations state that the cars must have at least 4 and no
more than 7 forward gears as well as a reverse gear. Most cars
have 6 forward gears, Jordan and Benetton being the only cars
with 7 speed gearboxes. 

5.6  Interesting engine facts. (Based on a 1996 Ford Zetec-R).

     *In an F1 engine revving at 14,500 rpm, one revolution     
      takes 4 thousandths of a second.
     *Maximum piston acceleration is approximately 8,000g which 
      puts a load of over 3 tons on each connecting rod.
     *Maximum piston speed is 47.2 meters per second - the      
      piston in a Ford Zetec-R accelerates from rest to that    
      speed in 1 thousandth of a second.
     *If a connecting rod let go of its piston at maximum engine
      speed, the released piston would have enough energy to    
      travel vertically over 100 meters.
     *If a water hose were to blow off, the complete cooling    
      system would empty in just over a second.

5.7  What are those red boxes on the Williams' mirror.

Perhaps, one of the most annoying frequently asked questions.
Don't ask it in rasf1 unless you want to start a long, tedious
thread. The official answer is its to stop any potential health
hazards to the mechanics from the microwave transmitter which is
housed in the mirror. This transmitter sends telemetry data back
to the pits while the car is on the track. Several "news"
programmes and publications have reported claims that
microwaves, as used in cellular phones can cause cancer etc. etc.
While people more knowledgeable than me claim that this is
impossible, it remains the official explanation as to why they
put the box over the mirror when the mechanics are working around
the car.


6.1  What happens during a pit-stop?  [HG]

Cars must not exceed the pit lane speed limit, which is
different at each track. As driver comes in, one of the pit crew
indicates the location of the pit (it isn't easy to find in the
heat of the moment). The car stops on the marks and is lifted by
front and back jacks. Three mechanics are required for each
wheel; one to operate the tool to remove/replace the wheel, one
to take the old wheel off and one to put the new one on. In
addition, two are required to handle the fuel hose, and a couple
of spares wipe the drivers' visor etc.  The operation is
controlled by the chap at the front who holds the 'brakes on'
sign, and he looks out for all the mechanics to raise their
hands as a signal that they are finished and out of the way.
Then he signals for the car to be dropped off the jacks and the
driver can leave. Due to the restrictions on the equipment,
re-fueling actually takes longer than the tyre change.

Crews rehearse before every Grand Prix to keep in practice. As
there is now fuel being thrown around in the pitlane, all
mechanics wear fireproof overalls, and sometimes helmets too. A
few near-disasters have stressed that the pit lane is a
dangerous place, and personnel there should be kept to a
minimum.(i.e. groupies, relatives, under-age royals etc should
be somewhere else!) The driver should keep his visor closed
during a pit stop in case of fire. IMHO there WILL be a
disastrous fire unless refuelling is banned.  

6.2 Sponsorship [HG]

F1 teams could not continue to spend at current levels without
sponsors, among which the cigarette companies are major players.
Advertising regulations in Britain, France and Germany mean that
Williams appear there with 'Racing' rather than 'Rothmans'
written on them, and for McLaren it was 'McLaren' rather than
'Marlboro'. (Will they now use East instead of West as Zakspeed
use to do?) Sponsors can also rent out space on drivers as well
as cars, and all spaces are available right down to the back of
the mirrors. A six-inch wide patch on the front wing of a
Williams will cost you about 2 million dollars for the season.
Oh, and you won't be able to see it on the telly, but they'll do
you a nice package of sponsored events for the price. (!)

The best advert I saw was in 1993 when Sega sponsored Williams.
The Sega character, Sonic the Hedgehog, appeared at most of the
races, and the side of the car was painted so it appeared as a
cutout showing Sonic's legs doing the driving. McLaren responded
by sticking a squashed hedgehog logo to the side of their car
each time they won a race at the expense of a Williams. Senna's
incredible victory in the wet Donington GP of Europe was
headlined in Autosport as 'Senna's mega-drive'.

6.3 What's the difference between F1 and Indy?

Quite possibly THE most frequently asked question and the
subject of much debate in rasf1 which generally, after some
technical discussion, deteriorates into a slanging match between
European F1 fans and American Indy fans. Generally speaking,
Indy cars are bigger, faster and more durable whereas F1 cars
are more agile and accelerate faster. As to which is better and
which would win a head to head race? F1 cars are better under F1
regs at F1 circuits and Indy cars are better under Indy regs at
Indy circuits.

Tracks. Indy uses ovals as well as road and street courses - F1
does not. This, along with the use of the safety car, is the
most significant difference between the two series. Whilst
making for interesting discussion, the technical differences do
not have much of an impact from the spectators point of view.
However, Indy's detractors would say that the uniform ovals with
the resulting left turns only, produce a sterile racing
environment which allows no exciting passing. Furthermore, most
accidents will result in the safety car making an appearance
which will close up the field. Again, Indy's detractors would
argue that this produces an artificial racing environment
reducing the race to a series of short sprints which are merely
used to establish the grid order for the final sprint to the

On the other hand, F1 detractors would argue that because of the
wide difference in performance levels, and the fact that safety
cars are rarely used, there is very little close racing or
competitive passing in F1 and of course as a spectator you
cannot see the entire circuit at an F1 race. 

(I must apologize if my cultural bias has become apparent in
this section but as a Brit living in the U.S., I am living proof
that F1/Indy preference is determined by genes not environment).

Weight. F1 cars minimum weight is 585 kg (1,287 lbs). Indy car
minimum weight is 1,550 lbs (704.5 kg).

Brakes. F1 cars use carbon fibre brakes which are lighter and
more durable than the steel brakes used by Indy cars. (Indy cars
are allowed to use carbon brakes on the 2.5 mile superspeedways
at Indianapolis and Michigan. Steel brakes are mandatory at all
the other races). 

Ground effect. [AS] It is generally said that ground effect cars
are no longer allowed in F1 but this is not strictly true. All
cars generate ground effect, you cannot 'ban' it, only try to
design the rules to limit the downforce that can be obtained
from it. In F1 this is done by requiring flat bottoms between
the wheels (now with 50mm step). In Indycar they still allow
shaped ground effect tunnels, but with strictly controlled
dimensions and at a minimum height above the bottom of the

Turbo charging. Banned in F1 but still allowed in Indy -
although at a much lower boost pressure than was used by F1 cars
in the 80's.

Semi-automatic gearboxes. Allowed in F1 but not in Indy.

Nationality. Indy is basically a domestic U.S. series as far as
teams, venues and drivers are concerned. However, there are 3
venues outside of the U.S. (Surfer's Paradise, Brazil, Toronto
and Vancouver) and an increasing number of foreign drivers. F1
is truly international in teams, engines, venues and drivers
although there is a strong European influence, particularly
British and Italian.

And according to Jacques Villeneuve (Electronic Telegraph
3/4/96): "In the last few months I've done over 5,000 miles of
testing with Williams and I've learned a lot about the
differences between Formula One and Indycars. An F1 car is
slower on the straights but much quicker in the corners. The
engine has less horsepower but the power comes on quicker and
because a Formula One car is lighter and more responsive it
reacts faster to the driver's input and the braking is much
better. Because of its extra weight an IndyCar is a bit more
physical to drive, it slides more easily and it's harder
work to hold it. A Formula One car is more twitchy and when it
slides you have to react faster to catch it. It has higher
limits but I find this really enjoyable.

6.4  How many teams are there?

With the addition of Stewart and Lola and the demise in mid-96 of
Forti, there are currently 12 teams, down from an all time high
of 20 in 1989.

6.5  What is the connection between Ford and Cosworth?

Ford and Cosworth first co-operated in 1959 when Cosworth
developed a lightweight iron crankcase engine for the new Ford
Anglia. Cosworth founders, Keith Duckworth and Mike Costin, then
tuned the new engine, code-named MAE (Modified Anglia Engine)
and it soon became the power unit of choice for drivers in
Formula Junior and later Formula 3.

Next came the Cosworth FVA racing engine and, impressed by the
potential of the new power unit, Ford commissioned the
Northamptonshire-based company to produce a roadgoing version to
suit its new high-performance Escort, the RS1600. The result was
the BDA (Belt-Driven A-series) which employed many of the
lessons learned in motor racing to achieve excellent levels of
performance and efficiency at relatively low cost.

The most successful Ford-Cosworth collaboration to date has been
the DFV (Double Four Valve) F1 engine.The 90 degree V8 stunned
the racing world when it appeared for the first time at the 1967
Dutch GP in the bank of Colin Chapman's highly effective Lotus
49 chassis and promptly powered Jim Clark to an historic win.

The Ford DFV went on to win 154 more GPs and 12 World
Championships in a career that spanned 15 years. During that
time, the DFV's power output climbed from 405 bhp to 520 bhp at
11,000 rpm.

The most recent development to issue from Cosworth is the Ford
Zetec-R F1 engine. Carrying the same "Zetec" name as the range
of double overhead camshaft, four-valve-per-cylinder engines
used in the current Fiesta, Escort and Mondeo model ranges, the
new 3.5 liter power unit was the highest-revving racing V8 ever
produced when it was unveiled prior to the start of the 1994
season at up to 14,500 rpm.

The new 3.0 liter Zetec-R is very similar to the larger 1994
engine with small differences to allow for the new stepped
floors and races at engine speeds up to 15,000 rpm. The Zetec-R
V10 is provided exclusively to Ford's chosen factory team -
Sauber - while customer teams will be supplied with last year's
V8 or the ED.

6.6 What frequencies do the teams use? 

Contrary to popular belief, not all teams scramble their
transmissions. The following numbers are based on frequencies
actually monitored at the '97 Australian GP. Further comment,
either additions or confirmation that teams are/are not changing
frequencies at other races, is encouraged.

Schumacher - 451.6125
Irvine - 452.6125
Alesi - 454.275
Salo - 422.025

6.8 Why is Frank Williams in a wheelchair? [HG]

Frank Williams broke his neck in a car crash in France in 1986.
He was driving home from the Paul Ricard circuit, lost control
and turned the car over. The injury was so severe that he was
not expected to live, and only survived due to his excellent
fitness; he used to run half-marathons regularly. For a while it
was thought that he would be unable to swallow or breathe
unaided, but he regained more movement than expected. He is 
paralysed from the chest down, with some limited movement in his
arms. Among all the other obvious limitations, this means that
he needs 24 hour care, cannot travel on commercial aircraft and
even finds speaking an effort. Consider this when you wonder why
he is rarely seen to smile.

Virginia Williams, Frank's wife, has written a book called 'A
Different Kind of Life' which describes their lives before and
after the accident, up to about 1990.

Drive carefully.

6.9 What's the best Formula One movie ever made?

Sounds like a subjective question but almost universal opinion
seems to favour "Grand Prix" starring James Garner, directed by
John Frankenheimer. The plot may not be watchable but the racing
is. Actual race footage is combined with staged scenes which
were filmed during the GP weekends using Lotus F3's dressed up as
F1s. Graham and Phil Hill did some driving and Garner did a lot
of his own driving and was apparently quite fast. 

6.10 What happened at Imola in 1994? [HG]

Formula 1 has become used to seeing drivers walk away from
terrible accidents, as car and track safety standards have
improved. But racing at 200 mph will always be dangerous, and
this was tragically proved over the weekend of the San Marino
Grand Prix in 1994. The events of that weekend are well
documented elsewhere, here are brief details.

In Friday qualifying, Rubens Barrichello lost control of his car
and hit barriers at speed. He was knocked unconscious and rushed
to the medical centre, but regained consciousness with no worse
than a broken nose.

On Saturday, new driver Roland Ratzenberger was attempting to
qualify his Simtek. The team advised that he had damaged the car
following a minor off. However, Roland did not come into the pits
to have the car checked. The front wing came away, Roland lost
control and hurtled into a barrier. His neck was broken and he
died instantly, the first Formula 1 fatality in 12 years.

A saddened field assembled for the race on Sunday. During the
start, JJ Lehto stalled his car and there was a tremendous
startline accident as an unsighted Pedro Lamy ran into him.
Neither driver was hurt, but a wheel was hurled over the safety
fencing into the crowd, injuring three people. The race ran under
the safety car, with Ayrton Senna leading in his Williams, while
the debris was cleared. The safety car peeled off  after seven
laps. Passing Tamburello and running second behind Senna, Michael
Schumacher noticed the back of the Williams step out, until Senna
corrected it. On the next lap the Williams did not take the bend
at Tamburello, and crashed at full speed into the concrete wall,
11 metres from the track. The wheels came off (as they are
designed to do), but by a terrible mischance one wheel and its
steering arm hit and penetrated Senna's helmet, and he suffered
massive head injuries. He was airlifted to Bologna hospital and
placed on life-support, but was pronounced dead later that day.

The race was stopped, and restarted, and eventually won by
Michael Schumacher. Gerhard Berger, who had lost a fellow
countryman and a good friend on successive days, retired from the
race shortly afterwards. Erik Comas, who was mistakenly waved out
of the pits following Senna's accident, drove round the track
believing it to be clear until he came to Tamburello and found
the paramedics frantically trying to revive Senna. Understandably
he was too distraught to continue. Finally,  a pitlane accident
also injured several mechanics.

Ratzenberger's accident was adjudged to be due to 'driver error',
as he should have come in to have his car checked for safety.
However, the cause of Senna's crash has not been determined.
Under Italian law, Frank Williams, Patrick Head, Roland
Brunseyrade (the race director) and two Imola track officials are
to face manslaughter charges in a trial which was opened, and
adjourned, on February 20th 1997.  Theories continue to abound as
to the cause of the crash.

Following the weekend, the following measures were implemented:
 - changes to the cars for that season and next
 - radical changes to many of the circuits
 - Grand Prix drivers association revived

Ayrton Senna was buried at home in Brazil, with full state
honours. When his car was examined, a furled Austrian flag was
found inside. The great Brazilian champion had intended to
dedicate his 42nd victory to Roland Ratzenberger.


7.1 Read 'welcome to hierarchy', posted monthly
or so. This covers most of the points made below, which are
standard netiquette. Please read it.

7.2 Don't post jpegs,gifs or any other big files. Many people
download all messages in the newsgroup to be read off-line. If
you pay for connect time it is very annoying to find that you
have spent 10 minutes downloading a 7000 line binary. Post
pictures to and then you can just
post a short message on r.a.s.f1 telling people what you posted
and where you posted it.

7.3 Please don't get offensive - a driver can't help his
appearance or that of his wife, but their behaviour on or off
track is fair game. Also; ANYONE CAN MAKE A MISTAKE!!! Posts on
the lines of 'xxx is a complete yyyy' just get tedious.
Reasonable analysis please, we can buy junk newspapers if we
want rantings. Remember also that F1 is really easy from your
armchair, rather less so from the driving seat.

7.4 Great drivers and world champions come from all countries,
please keep down the nationalistic bias.

7.5 Not everyone on this group is male; chauvinist pig behaviour
will be spotted and rebuked! (By me and others!) Drivers are
good or bad on their own merits, not those of their chromosomes.
I'll let you get away with sexism, so long as it is in a
humorous vein; I too think that the swimsuit clad girlies on the
grid are unlikely to be filling in time between rocket-science

7.6 Not everyone on this group has English as a first language -
don't slag off someone for poor grammar or spelling. However
English is the language of the group, please try to post in it.

7.7 Spoilers; if you are posting within two days of a Grand
Prix, don't put the result in the header, just something like
'Hungarian GP - SPOILERS'; not 'Schumacher wins in Germany' as
this upsets people. On the other hand, it is almost certain that
somebody will violate the spoiler rule so read the group at your
peril - I have never seen the result of a race NOT given away in
at least one subject line!! Please don't perpetuate the regular
post-race argument about whether spoilers should or shouldn't be
used. We all know the arguments for and against spoilers so it is
REALLY, REALLY BORING and you cannot add anything original to
previous discussions.

7.8 Don't ask people to post results, practice times, starting
grids etc. All of these will be posted at least half a dozen
times so it is not necessary to ask - you will even see Friday's
practice times still being posted on Tuesday afternoon. If you
haven't seen the results within a few hours, then you have a
slow newsfeed and we can't help you with that. 

7.9 Don't post test messages. There are many news groups set up
specifically for test messages - use them. (If you post to
alt.test you will even get automatic responses from a couple of
sites around the world telling you how long it took your post to
get to their site).

7.10 If you're responding to a long post, please use the delete
key liberally to edit the original message. People don't want to
page through a three page message to see your "I agree" reply.

7.11 Please ensure that your software restricts your post to 72
character per line. Most people will not read messages which
spill off the edge of their screen.


My personal list of bookmarks includes the following sites:

For daily news:

For race previews and reports as well as results and times by e-

For feature articles:

For statistics:

This is just my personal list and there are a lot of very good F1
sites out there. Check the web version of the FAQ for a few more.


(Editor's note: I would like to expand on this section and
possibly make it a separate posting. Anybody who has this sort
of information on any regular and/or future venues, please let
me know).

     Canada -  Grand Prix Molson du Canada   
               Phone: (514) 350-0000
               Fax:   (514) 350-4709
               1997 prices -  Gold 3 day     Can$335
                              Silver 3 day   Can$275
                              Bronze 3 day   Can$135
                              G.A. 3 day     Can$75
                              G.A. daily     Can$20, 35 and 50

Consensus seems to be that the stands at the hairpin, silver or
bronze, are the best value for money. Golds are over-priced.
General Admission - can be OK but get there very early. Circuit
accessible by public transport - subway to Ile St-Helene

Belgian Grand Prix
Spa Francorchamps
(usually held at last weekend of August)

Route du Circuit 55
B-4970 Francorchamps
Tel +32 87-27.51.46 / 27.51.38 
Fax +32 87-27.55.51 / 27.52.96

1997 prices

                              Sunday         Weekend
     Gold 3              BEF                   12500
     Gold 1,2,4          BEF                   11000
     Gold 1,2,4 Child    BEF                    7000
     Silver 1,2,3,4      BEF                    8500
     Silver 1,2,3,4 Chd  BEF                    6000
     Bronze              BEF    5000            6000
     Bronze Child        BEF    2500            3000

Green is limited access only, which means you allowed to stand
on the banking along the 'Kemmel' straight. Bronze gives you
access to (practically) all around the circuit. There are some
pretty fast corners at Spa, which are a must to be seen {Usually
a spin or two occurs at well :-)}. A Silver ticket buys you a
place at the open tribunes, while Gold either gives you right to
sit at the covered tribune at the finish line or the tribune
facing the awesome 'Eau Rouge' corner.

Looking for a place to stay? The Tourist Office might help you
Spa Office du Tourisme
Place Royal 41
B 4900 Spa
Tel (+32) 87 77.17.00
Fax (+32) 87 77.07.00

Monaco Grand Prix
Always held at the weekend following Ascension day.

The following information about the event in 1996 was found on
the Webpages at

                                      Thursday  Saturday  Sunday
Stand          Situation              16-May    18-May    19-May
A1             Saint Devote - Tabac   250F      600F      1400F
A3             Viaduc Saint Devote    250F      600F      1400F
A4             Ave de la Costa        -         300F       500F
B              Casino                 250F      700F      1400F
E              Chicane                -         600F      1400F
K              Quai Albert 1er        300F      750F      1500F
M              Route de la Piscine    300F      700F      1400F
N              Piscine panne Nord     200F      450F       900F
O              Piscine Plongeur       200F      600F      1400F
P              Piscine panne Sud      200F      450F       900F
L              Piscine Rainier III    200F      450F       900F
T              Cale de halage         150F      300F       -   
U              Virage Rascasse        250F      -          -   
V              Virage Anthony Noghes  250F      600F      1400F
W              Courbe des Gazometres  250F      600F      1400F
Z1             Av J.F. Kennedy        100F      200F       300F
Z2             Virage Anthony Noghes  150F      300F       600F 

R              Rocher de Monaco       -         150F       200F

Seating Notes
Stands K,M have the best view of the large TV screen (positioned
above and behind stand Z1.) Stand R is a large grass bank with a
view down over the port. There are no official seats. The large
TV can also be seen from this stand. 

The tickets do not reference a seat number. You are free to sit
anywhere in the stand you have chosen. 
Stands K,M: The ticket allows access to K and M. 
Stands N,O,P: The ticket allows access to N,O and P. 

The stands are free. The circuit is only operational in the
morning and there is no Formula 1 action. 

The tickets for all stands except Z,Z1,R are numbered to

The tickets for all stands except Z,Z1,R are numbered to

Buying Tickets

The Monaco Grand Prix tickets are on sale at the Automobile Club
of Monaco Reservations Office *) or at the accredited agents: 

     Voyages Kuoni 
     2 rue Marechal Joffre 
     06000 Nice 
     Tel:, FAX: 

Great Britain: 
     Page and Moy 
     136 London Road 
     Leicester LE2 1EN 
     Tel: (116) 252.4344, FAX: (116) 252.4283 

     Bononia Viaggi 
     Galleria del Toro 3 
     40121 Bologna 
     Tel: (51) 26.39.85, FAX: (51) 23.93.17 

     A.C. der Schweiz 
     Birsigstrasse 4 
     4011 Basel 
     Tel: (61) 272.39.33, FAX: (61) 281.36.57 

*) Automobile Club de Monaco 
     23, Bd. Albert 1er 
     MC98012 Monaco 
     Tel: +377. 
     FAX: +377.


Contact info:
        ACP (Automovel Clube de Portugal)
        R. Rosa Araujo, 24 P
        1250 Lisboa

        Tel: 351 1 3563931
             351 1 7936899
        Fax: 351 1 577708
             351 1 7930597

| Grandstand |  Friday  | Saturday |  Sunday  | Weekend  |
|     A      |    -     |    -     |    -     | 40 000$  |
|     B      |    -     |    -     |    -     | 35 000$  |
|     C      |  6 000$  | 10 000$  | 20 000$  | 23 000$  |
|     E      |  6 000$  | 10 000$  | 12 000$  | 16 000$  |
|     H      |  6 000$  | 12 000$  | 20 000$  | 25 000$  |
|K (no seats)|    -     |    -     | 10 000$  | 12 000$  |
|Paddock Vip |    -     |    -     |    -     | US $1300 |

Prices in Portugueses escudos (except Paddock in US dollars).
Some exchange rates:
        1 UKP  ~= 239$
        1 US $ ~= 158$
        1 DM   ~= 103$
        1 FF   ~=  30$
Check for other
exchange rates.

In 1995, in the C/E/H/K grandstands children up to age of 12
years accompanied by an adult payed 50% of adult price.

Check Rui Pedro Mendes Salgueiro's home page for a map of the track, with the
position of the grandstands.

A - In the start-finish line
B - Just after the A
C - On the outside of the first bend
K - On the inside of the track, from the first bend to the
beginning of the fourth.
E - On the inside of the track, near the new chicane. Moving
around it is possible to see from the inside parabolica to the
chicane and the Ss (there are more than one grandstand in this
H - On the outside of the Parabolica Senna.

25/26/27 April 1997 in Imola (Italy)

Contact Info:
SAGIS s.p.a.
Via Fratelli Rosselli 2
I-40026 Imola (Italy)
phone: (+39) 0542 / 31444
fax: (+39) 0542/ 30420

Ticket Office:
SAGIS s.p.a.
Piazzale Leonardo Da Vinci, 1
I-40026 Imola (Italy)
phone: (+39) 0542 / 34116
fax: (+39) 0542/ 34159

Ticket prices for 1997:
                            Friday        Saturday    Sunday  
Stand        Situation      25-April      26-April    27-May
Prato (No seats)           50'000        70'000      80'000     
Prato Tosa (No seats)      50'000        80'000     100'000     
A            Start/Finish 100'000       200'000     500'000
B (TV)       Tosa          80'000       130'000     280'000
C (TV)       Acque Mineali 50'000        70'000     250'000
D (TV)       Acque Mineali 50'000        70'000     250'000
E (TV)       Acque Mineali 50'000        70'000     250'000
F (TV)       Acque Mineali 50'000        70'000     250'000
G            Variante Alta 50'000        70'000     220'000
H            Rivazza       50'000        70'000     200'000
I            Marlboro      50'000       130'000     300'000
L            Agip Petroli                           240'000
M            Exit Marlboro 50'000       130'000     350'000
P (TV)       Panoramico Al 80'000       130'000     250'000
P (TV)       Panoramica Ba 80'000       130'000     220'000

68th Gran Premio d'Italia 1997
5/6/7 September 1997 in Monza (Italy)

Ticket prices for 1997:
                       Friday       Saturday    Sunday    Weekend
Stand   Situation      5-Sept       6-Sept      7-Sep
 General admission     50'000       75'000      75'000    130'000
F (TV)  Central Grandstand         100'000     Sold out
H (TV)  Left Lateral                           320'000
C (TV)  Right Lateral              100'000     400'000
J       Inner Goodyear                         300'000
K (TV)  Outer Goodyear             100'000     380'000
L       Second Variant                         220'000
M       Roggia Stand                           220'000
N1      Serraglio                              200'000
P       Ascari 3 Stand                         250'000
Q (TV)  Ascari 2 Stand             100'000     350'000
S (TV)  Rombo Stand                100'000     350'000
T1      Junior Stand                           200'000
Y (TV)  Parabolica Lateral                     200'000
Z (TV)  Renault Parabolica                     320'000
Z1      Inner Parabolica                       220'000

Daily Car Parking Pass                                 30'000
Daily Car Parking Pass & General admission            190'000

*Note: The prices have a surplus of 3% for booking in advance.
Ticket are not sold before May!

All prices in Italian Lira
Check for exchange rates.


The contribution of the following individuals is very gratefully
acknowledged. This FAQ would not have been possible without

Harald Bloche      [HB]
David Byrne        [DB]
Glenn Durden       [GD]
Tim Downie         [TD]
Darryl Ellson      [DE]
Helen Gerald       [HG]
Thomas Gmuer       [TG]
Andrew Henry       [AH]
Tom Herre          [TH]
Chuck Ingene       [CI]
RP Mendes Salgueiro[RM]
Randy Malbone      [RM]  
Kim Meijs          [KM]
Hans Molenaar      [HM]
Hugh Rankin        [HR]
AJ Samuels         [AS] 
Chris 'Bart'Simpson[CS]
Ulrich Teichert    [UT]

A big thank you also to McLaren, Jordan, Tyrrell, Sauber,
Benetton, Ferrari and Minardi for their assistance. 

Copyright (c) 1997 by Mitchell McCann

The hoopiest site in the whole, wide web. The F1 FAQ, circuit maps, 
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OK. So four out of five aint bad.

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