Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Internet FAQ Archives

comp.unix.sco Technical FAQ (2/5)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Property taxes ]
FAQ Starting Page

These FAQS were developed and maintained for years by (Stephen M. Dunn). Steve no longer has the time to
maintain them, and has asked me to take them over. Please remember the
debt all of us owe to Steve for his efforts- I myself spent many hours
learning from these very documents, and I'm sure many of us can say
similar things.

Because Steve has not been able to maintain these for a while now,
some of the information herein is outdated. I am working to correct
that, but it's a lot to catch up on, so if you spot something, please
let me know. For the moment, I'm just marking some of it as probably
being useless; as I have time, I'll check further to be certain before
I remove anything.

Suggestion: Use my Search to find what you are looking for.

NOTE: There are also many questions which apply not only to OSR5 but
also to other Unix (and possibly Xenix) versions. If you don't see the
answer to your question here, please check the other sections of this
FAQ, as your question may be answered there.

Graphical characters don't work

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
   OSR5 uses the IBM characters set by default. Try mapchan -n. If that
   cures the problem, comment out the appropriate line in
   /etc/rc.d/6/kinit - and make sure you make a note of this change so
   that you can remake it, if necessary, after a future upgrade.
   Bela Lubkin offered a slightly longer explanation:
   (as explained by Bela)
   SCO added a new alias for the console terminal emulation. The old one,
   "ansi", is still recognized. However, the new one, "scoansi", is used
   by default. There is no difference in the two terminal descriptions as
   long as your application uses the standard sources of terminal
   information: termcap (/etc/termcap) and terminfo
   However, many older applications are shipped with their own private
   terminal files. For instance, SCO FoxPlus comes with
   /usr/lib/foxplus/termcap. These private terminal descriptions are
   usually a superset of the normal information, plus other stuff that
   the application may use for its own purposes.
   Your problem is probably happening because your application provides
   its own termcap file with added information about line drawing. When
   the console terminal was called "ansi", the app looked up "ansi" in
   its private termcap and found out how to draw nice lines. Now that the
   console is called "scoansi", it looks that up and doesn't find it, so
   it falls back to the OS's public terminal description. That
   description actually *does* say how to draw nice boxes, but perhaps
   not in the same language that the application is expecting.
   Solution: the easiest one is to just call your console terminals
   "ansi". You can do that by editing the console entries in
   /etc/ttytype. Next easiest: find the app's private terminal database
   and teach it that "scoansi" is the same as "ansi".
   [Table of Contents]
sar doesn't work

   First off - did you run sar_enable? This is a new command in OSR5
   which sets everything up so that sar runs as it did previously. If sar
   isn't enabled, it simply won't run. Run /usr/lib/sa/sar_enable -y for
   starters. You will also need to edit root's and sys' crontab files if
   you wish data to be collected 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Also,
   if you wish to keep sar data for more than seven days, remove the
   'find' command in the last line of /usr/lib/sar/sa2.
   The file /etc/ps/booted.kernel gives the name of the booted kernel,
   and sar needs this to work properly. This file gets created each time
   the system is rebooted. In case it's messed up, try running kernel -uv
   and see if that cures it.
   There is another problem, though, which may not be cured by the above.
   There is a bug in the code in /boot. If the inode number of the kernel
   is greater than 32767, /boot improperly sign-extends it as a signed
   short integer rather than an unsigned one, and the end result is a
   completely wacky inode number. This should only happen on systems
   without a separate boot filesystem, which generally means those which
   were upgraded from an earlier release in place. The following is a
   patch to /boot which should cure the problem in 5.0.0; the TA from
   which it was derived (482688) states that this problem is for 5.0.0,
   but it also exists in 5.0.2. Be VERY careful, as always, applying
   patches; this one in particular may disable your system entirely if
   not done correctly.

# cp -p /boot /boot.orig
# what /boot
        SCO boot 23 Apr 95
# sum -r /boot
00357   134 /boot

   If either the results of what, or the results of sum -r, don't match
   exactly what you see above, stop! Do not apply this patch unless these
   are identical to the results you see.

# echo 3f:feb?h 90 | _fst -w /boot -
* 3f:feb?h 90
0x3f:0xfeb:     0x99    =       0x90
# sum -r /boot
09082   134 boot

   Again, if the results of sum -r don't match exactly what you see,
   something did not work correctly. You should copy /boot.orig back to
   [Table of Contents]
My emergency floppies don't have enough inodes

   The simplest change to this is to edit /usr/lib/mkdev/fd and increase
   the number of inodes created from the default. This may cause
   problems, though, as HTFS inodes consume 128 bytes each and a
   significant increase in the number of inodes would result in a
   significant drop in the number of data blocks available on the floppy.
   A better change would be to eliminate unnecessary device nodes from
   your emergency floppy. Look for a line in /usr/lib/mkdev/fd which sets
   a variable called NOTREQ (which, roughly, is a list of device drivers
   not required on an emergency diskette). Add to that list
   merge mpm spm svdsp svkbd vdsp vkbd mouse
   If you don't need pseudottys on your emergency diskettes, you might
   also want to add spt mpt. There is also a bug in this file; change the
   item ptspwr to pts pwr (by adding a space), and you will cut out a few
   more unnecessary devices.
   When editing /usr/lib/mkdev/fd, you should actually make a new copy
   (e.g. /usr/lib/mkdev/ and edit, and later use, that rather than
   /usr/lib/mkdev/fd. Otherwise, you may find your changes vanish at some
   time in the future.
   [Table of Contents]
I'm having trouble with licensing and registration

   First off, you may have up to three difference license
   number/activation key combinations to use. Please read the
   documentation and the COLA (Certificate Of License and Authenticity)
   card(s) carefully. If you are upgrading from an old release of an SCO
   product, you will be asked not only to type in your new SNAK (Serial
   Number and Activation Key), but also the old SNAK from your old
   release. Additionally, if you are upgrading to the Enterprise system,
   you must first install and license the Host system, and then perform
   an upgrade to Enterprise.
   Licensing and registration is a two-step process. The first step
   involves licensing, and this takes place when you enter the SNAK from
   your COLA. You then fill in a form, included with your software, and
   send it to SCO in any of a number of ways. SCO sends you a
   registration key, which you enter to complete the registration
   process. The registration key is dependent both on your serial number
   and on a number generated by the system when you install it; this
   latter half means that should you have to reinstall, you will need to
   re-register your system.
   One big problem many people have had is that in the case of an
   Enterprise upgrade, you must register the Host system before you can
   register the Enterprise system. If you do not, then you may end up
   with a system which will appear to accept your registration but which
   will subsequently complain that it has not been registered, and there
   is no elegant way out of this situation; SCO recommends reinstalling
   to cure this. SCO is working on a cure for this but it is not ready
   yet and it will probably not be able to rescue systems which have
   already experienced this problem.
   If you need to do an upgrade or install and cannot wait for the
   registration information to be sent back to you, there is a procedure
   you can follow to avoid this problem. Install the Host system, and
   then install the Enterprise system. Send SCO the registration
   information for _both_ systems. When you receive your registration
   keys, perform the following steps:
    1. Take the system to single-user (maintenance) mode
    2. Remove the Enterprise license. This does not mean removing the
       software - just the license.
    3. Register the Host system license.
    4. Register the Enterprise system license.
    5. Shut the system down (haltsys) - do not bring it back up to
       multi-user mode without shutting down first
   If you find yourself unregistering/unlicensing parts of your system
   and you have a PANIC, it's possible that you may have upset the kernel
   streams linker module. Try booting with the boot string defbootstr
   ksl.disable; if that gets the system running, finish up your licensing
   and registration work and then reboot with your usual boot string.
   [Table of Contents]
sysadmsh is missing

   OSR5 includes sysadmsh, but it's not installed by default. If you wish
   to use it, you will need to use custom (or SCOAdmin Software) to
   install it.
   [Table of Contents]
Will Release 5 run my older binaries?

   In general, yes; binaries from previous versions of SCO Unix or SCO
   Xenix will run on OSR5. The exceptions tend to be those which probe
   system internals, where such internals may have changed, or those
   coded with certain assumptions (e.g. "an inode number is always a
   16-bit quantity") which are not necessarily true on OSR5. Examples
   include programs which read directories from disk rather than using OS
   directory access routines, or those which look for kernel structures
   and variables.
   [Table of Contents]
I loaded a patch but it didn't take effect

   You probably forgot to apply it. Loading a patch places the contents
   of the patch on the hard drive, but does not activate the patch.
   Applying the patch does the necessary replacement of system files and
   whatever other adjustments are required to make the patch take effect.
   For more detailed information on the actual procedures, consult your
   You may wish to load a patch, but not apply it, for several reasons.
   Another machine on the network can apply a patch directly from your
   machine's hard drive if you've loaded the patch. Also, you may find
   that you will have to roll back several patches to replace or remove
   an earlier one, and then reapply the ones you rolled back; having
   loaded the patches first saves you from having to use the diskettes
   [Table of Contents]
What patches should I use?

   There is information in the file, including a list of
   currently applicable patches, and some quick summary information on
   which patches should not be used in conjunction with each other. For
   more detailed information, read the documentation files accompanying
   each specific patch.
   There's also a Web page,, with a minimum patch
   [Table of Contents]
What patches are on my system?

   To see which patches have been loaded, start SCOAdmin Software or
   custom and pick Software -> Patch Management -> View Loaded Patches
   Checking the list of patches which have been applied may be more of a
   problem; there is no simple way of doing this with SCOAdmin. You can
   pick Software -> Examine -> Applied Patches, and then pick each
   component in turn to see what patches have been applied to it. Yes,
   SCO is aware that this is a pain, so hopefully there will be a better
   way in a future release.
   If you are running OSR5.0.0 with the rs500d release supplement
   applied, or OSR5.0.2 or later, there is a command-line method,
   customquery listpatches, which will list what patches have been
   applied. This option to customquery did not exist prior to rs500d; if
   you do not have rs500d applied to your system, you should.
   [Table of Contents]
What's this free copy of SCO Unix I keep hearing about?

   On 19 August 1996, SCO announced that the single-user (desktop)
   configuration of OpenServer Release 5 would be available free of
   charge for noncommercial use. The package includes OSR5 Desktop, the
   development system (C/C++ compilers), SCO Doctor Lite, and SCO
   ARCserve/Open Lite.
   Since then, SCO has also released a free version of SCO UnixWare.
   For full details, including the license terms and on-line ordering
   information, see
   [Table of Contents]
I'm having trouble using my ATAPI CD-ROM

   The two most common problems are that your "IDE" CD-ROM drive may not
   follow the ATAPI spec, or that you are unsure of what parameters to
   enter when asked for the configuration of your drive. Check the
   drive's documentation, or consult the manufacturer, for the first
   The support for ATAPI CD-ROMs in OSR5 is done by using a driver which
   makes the drive appear to be a SCSI drive, and so you need to enter
   the same information as for a SCSI drive. The correct answers are as
     * Host Adapter Number (HA): 0 if your drive is connected to your
       primary IDE host adapter, and 1 if it's connected to a secondary.
     * SCSI ID: 0 if your drive is a master, and 1 if it's a slave
     * Logical Unit Number (LUN): Always 0
     * Bus number: Always 0
   If all of these have been done correctly and the drive still does not
   work, try changing its configuration. If it's the master on the
   secondary host adapter, try making it a slave on the primary, or vice
   Also, on some systems there is a conflict with the driver for the
   Western Digital/Future Domain 7000. If you don't have such a card, and
   your machine hangs at a line including wdhainit, boot with defbootstr
   disable=wdha to disable the wdha driver. There have also been reports
   of conflicts with the dptr and ncr drivers. For more information on
   disabling drivers, see the section entitled "My kernel locks up at
   boot time" in section 3.
   [Table of Contents]
My >2GB ATA hard drive doesn't work with OSR5

   See the documentation for oss451b to see if it applies to you. The two
   most commonly reported problems which are fixed by this patch are the
   system being unable to find the root filesystem, or aborting during
   installtion with a message similar to "NOTICE: ram: No space on device
   31/50", but there are other problems also fixed by it.
   [Table of Contents]
My floppy drive doesn't work reliably

   First things first - it may be a bad diskette, a bad floppy drive, or
   the cable connecting your floppy drive to its controller may be loose.
   However, if the problem gets worse if the system is under load
   (particularly, when anything is doing DMA - and that usually means a
   SCSI host adapter) and is particularly bad when trying to format a
   floppy, you may be running into a problem with the FIFO on the floppy
   Briefly, older floppy controllers have a one-byte buffer, and the
   system must grab that byte before the next byte is read from the drive
   or else you have a problem. If the DMA controller (floppies use DMA)
   is blocked long enough, usually by a SCSI host adapter, the buffer
   gets overwritten. Newer controllers generally have a 16-byte buffer,
   but it may or may not be turned on by your BIOS. SCO Unix doesn't
   program the buffer by default, but the floppy driver in OSR5 can be
   set to use the buffer if you wish.
   Make a backup of /etc/conf/pack.d/fd/space.c (just in case). Now edit
   the file. At the bottom you will see
int fd_enable_FIFO = 0;
int fd_FIFOthresh = 0;

   Change them to
int fd_enable_FIFO = 1;
int fd_FIFOthresh = 15;

   The first one simply enables or disables programming of the FIFO; the
   second one sets the FIFO's size if you've enabled it. There's probably
   no reason to set it to anything other than 15.
   Relink and reboot to activate the change.
   Making this change can actually be counterproductive if your system is
   working properly. Some floppy drive controllers will not work properly
   if you try enabling the FIFO, and you will end up with a system with
   floppy drives which do not work. Trust me on this one.
   [Table of Contents]
People log out but still show up in who

   This information is logged in /etc/utmp and /etc/utmpx. In 5.0.4, this
   information is cleared when the system reboots. For earlier releases,
   edit /etc/bcheckrc as follows. You will see the first of the following
   three lines already there; add the other two below it.
/bin/su bin -c "/etc/devnm / 2>/dev/null" | /etc/setmnt
[ -w /etc/utmp ] && > /etc/utmp
[ -w /etc/utmpx ] && > /etc/utmpx

   Also, "cwtmp" is a freely
   available utility that clears stale logins.
   [Table of Contents]
Can I perform an in-place upgrade?

   If you already have your package, consult the documentation (in
   particular, installation guide and release notes).
     * Can IPU from: 5.0.0 and 5.0.2
     * Cannot IPU from: Internet Faststart or ODT 3/Unix 3.2v4.2 or
     * Caveats: If you IPU, you cannot install Internet Manager; you must
       do a fresh install if you ever want it.
     * Can IPU from: ODT3/Unix 3.2v4.2
     * Cannot IPU from: 5.0.0, Internet Faststart, older Unix versions
     * Can IPU from: ODT3/Unix 3.2v4.2
     * Cannot IPU from: Older Unix versions
   Note that if you are doing an in-place upgrade from ODT3/Unix 3.2v4.2
   to OSR5, you will not get a separate boot filesystem, and you cannot
   upgrade your root filesystem to HTFS.
   For a brief table of upgrade possibilities, see
   For an article that explains why you wouldn't do an IPU, see
   [Table of Contents]
How do I access online docs from a browser?

   Point your browser at port 457, and ask for document dochome.html. For
   example, if your server is, use the URL
   You don't have access to the search tools this way, but you can
   simulate that with the following cgi-bin script.
# @(#) nftpsearch - wrapper for simple form access to scohelp search engine
# call without QUERY_STRING set html form, with QUERY_STRING for search
# relies on single Form search field called query
# Install as:  /var/scohttp/cgi-bin/  on OSR5.0.[024] systems.
# Access via:  URL:<http://localhost:457/cgi-bin/> (any browser)

if [ -z "$QUERY_STRING" ] ; then

HELP_SVR="http://localhost:457"            # YOUR HELP SERVER system
SCRIPT="$HELP_SVR/cgi-bin/"    # cgi-bin path of this script

cat <<EOF
    <TITLE> ScoHelp Search </TITLE>
    <LINK REV="made" HREF="">

    <BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFF0" TEXT="#000000">
    <H1>ScoHelp Search </H1>

    For scohelp searching from a non ScoHelp Browser <BR>
    <STRONG>Enter single word search term in search field Below</STRONG>
    <INPUT NAME="query" SIZE=30>
    <INPUT TYPE="submit" VALUE="Search">
    <INPUT TYPE="reset" VALUE="Clear">

    <A HREF="$HELP_SVR/dochome.html">ScoHelp DocHome </A>


exit 0





exec /var/scohttp/cgi-bin/ftsearch
   [Table of Contents]
Can I use the scohelp server as a Web server?

   Yes, although you'd probably be wiser to consider something like
   Apache (; it's also available as part of
   Skunkware). If you wish to use the scohelp server, follow the
   instructions in TA 482609 or at
   [Table of Contents]
Is there a packet sniffer (tcpdump) available?

   A collection of network tools, including the tcpdump packet sniffer,
   can be found at Pay
   particular attention to the requirements mentioned in the README file.
   For example, you will need a dedicated NIC to make this work.
   [Table of Contents]
What can I do about function keys not working?

   A new "recon" command in Open Server 5.0.6 can help solve the problem
   of escape sequences (function keys, line drawing characters, etc.)
   getting messed up because of timing issues- what happens is that the
   application gets confused if the sequences don't arrive together. The
   "recon" command watches for escape sequence and buffers them until
   they are complete, then sends them along. See
   [Table of Contents]
Can I have both IDE and SCSI Drives?

   Mixing SCSI and IDE drives can be a problem if you want the root disk
   to be scsi. The short answer is that you can if your BIOS lets you
   select which drive to boot (if not, you would have to boot from a
   floppy). Assuming everything else is in place, "defbootstr hd=Sdsk"
   should work. See SCSI for a full discussion of this.
   [Table of Contents]
Is there a DHCP client for OSR5?

   SCO doesn't currently have a DHCP client for OSR5 (modern releases do
   have a DHCP server) built in, but it's available as TLS711
   [Table of Contents]
Can OSR5 do NAT or ip filtering (function as a firewall)?

   Yes, with "ipfilter"- it's built into 5.0.6 and is available as a
   supplement for 5.0.4 and 5.0.5- TLS709 But
   note this Sept 14 2000 post from Kamal Mostafa:
   The 'ip' driver included in TLS709 needs the routine bcmp(), which
   didn't appear in the kernel until 5.0.4. After I discovered this
   problem, I fixed the 'ip' driver so that it no longer needs bcmp(). So
   the latest version of the 'ip' driver (e.g. from a 5.0.6 system) will
   work on 5.0.x systems. Eventually, I will update TLS709 with the newer
   version. In the meantime, replace the /etc/conf/pack.d/ip/Driver.o
   that TLS709 put there with a newer version. If anyone else is getting
   this problem, you can either lift the 'ip' driver from a 5.0.6 system,
   or contact me directly and I'll email you a replacement binary as
   well. Kamal A. Mostafa SCO Engineering
   See also IPFILTER firewalls for OSR5, ip sharing ipnat
   [Table of Contents]
How can I find my Activation Key?

   On modern releases, look in /var/adm/ISL/iqm_file.
   [Table of Contents]
Can OSR5 and Unixware run Linux binaries?

   Yes. The "lxrun" may already be installed; if not, get it from
   [Table of Contents]
Can Linux run OSR5 binaries?

   Generally, yes. It requires the ibcs2 module. Aside from library
   problems, you are apt to find directory structure problems (usually
   easy enough to fix with symbolic links) and, if the application calls
   OS commands, you may need to make appropriate links for some of those,
   [Table of Contents]
A Xenix or ODT application corrupts the screen

oldapp | cat -
oldapp | tee /dev/null

   See also the "mapchan" entry above.
   [Table of Contents]
How can I recreate my install floppy?

   The floppy image is available on the CDROM in the "images" directory.
   A "readme" file is also there that explains how to create the floppy.
   [Table of Contents]
I've added more ram, do I need to increase swap?

   Not necessarily. There is a detailed discussion of this at, but the main points are:
     * If you have enough RAM, you don't need ANY swap.
     * However, if you are concerned with saving panic dump information,
       you WILL need sufficient dump space.
     * You can add swap space without resizing divisions by using the
       "swap" command to swap to a file; see "man swap" and :
     How much swap space do I need?
     Can I add more swap space?
   [Table of Contents]
Why do I get "dynamic linker" errors or load failures?

   If you get an error like the following.
dynamic linker: svrmgrl: error opening

install_driver(program) failed: Can't load

PERL_MODULE::program: dynamic linker: perl: relocation error: symbol not
found: getrusage at....

   These messages all mean that you do not or have not setup
   LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable or Your Program isn't setting up
   LD_LIBRARY_PATH correctly, or your install of the program was faulty.
   This can be solved by adding the shell variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH or
   LIBPATH with the proper search path. For example if you are using
   bourne or korn shell


   From the man page on ld:
LD_LIBRARY_PATH is also used to specify library search directories to the
dynamic linker at run time. That is, if LD_LIBRARY_PATH exists in the
environment, the dynamic linker will search the directories it names
before its default directory for shared objects to be linked with the program
at execution.

   -- Boyd Gerber ZENEZ 3748 Valley Forge Road, Magna Utah 84044 Office
   801-250-0795 FAX 801-250-7975
   Thanks to: Boyd Lynn Gerber 
   [Table of Contents]
Why do I get "cronsched: no response from server" messages ?

   This is related to the Calendar server- see "man calendar" and "man
   scocalendar". Usually this means that something is broken, so if you
   aren't using calendar, and therefor don't care that it is broken, you
   can just comment out the "cronsched" entries from root's crontab.
   If you do care, see
   [Table of Contents]
How do I change the system's name or IP address?

   Start by running "netconfig". But, you may have a lot more work to do:
   [Table of Contents]
What does "ifor_pmd, failed to initialize policy manager" mean?

   The license manager is failing for some reason. There are a number of
   reasons why that could be, including having an incorrect date in your
   computer's BIOS or simply not having a /pmd directory. See for more detailed
   reasons and fixes.
   [Table of Contents]
What causes "No utmp entry, must login from lowest level shell"

   Probably corruption in one of the log files /etc/utmp, /etc/wtmp,
   /etc/utmpx, or /etc/wtmpx. You can zero them out by:

> /etc/utmp
> /etc/utmpx
> /etc/wtmp
> /etc/wtmpx

   and then rebooting.
   [Table of Contents]
How can I print from Netscape without a Postscript printer?

   If you don't have a Postscript printer, you might be able to use
   Ghostscript (available from SCO's Skunkware Page ) to get some
   functionality. Ghostscript is slow and has had a few problems now and
   then, but you might find that you can live with it.
   You can install ghostscript from the Skunkware CD; don't forget that
   you also need the Glib (Graphics Library) package.
   To see the printers that ghostscript supports, type
gs -?

   You may have to experiment a bit to find out what works best with your
   printer; for example I found that "ljet4" was good for my LaserJet 6L.
   I suggest that you create a simple Postscript file for testing:

echo "testing" | text2post > /tmp/

   so that you don't get page after page of junk if your first try
   doesn't work.
   My script looks like this:
/usr/local/bin/gs -q -sDEVICE=ljet4 -r600 -sPAPERSIZE=letter -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER
-sOutputFile="-" - | lp -dlaser -o raw

   I call that "webprint", and once you've told Netscape to use it
   instead of "lp",that's what continues to pop up in the Netscape print
   Or, you can get fancy and build gs support into your interface script,
   even to the point of automatically recognizing Postscript files. That
   can be a little tricky, and really has no advantage over the shell
   script, but some people like to do it that way.
   [Table of Contents]
What is the procedure for performing replicated OS5 installs ?
   Roberto Zini
   [Table of Contents]
Does SCO OpenServer5 support the 'undelete' feature?

   Yes, it does but unfortunately it's not active by default (see the
   online manual pages for details). To activate it: pre> - scoadmin ->
   Hardware/Kernel Manager - MAXVDEPTH = max number of versioned files -
   MINVTIME = seconds after which files get versioned relink+reboot To
   activate file versioning on a directory: - undelete -s
   Roberto Zini
   [Table of Contents]

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer: (Tony Lawrence)

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM