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Public Radio FAQ

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Archive-name: radio/public-radio-faq
Version: $Id:,v 1.42 2000/01/21 12:01:01 rsk Exp $

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Originally written by Rich Kulawiec,;
Copyright Rich Kulawiec 1994-2000.

[ January 2000 update: currently being rewriten. ]


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What's this about?

In the US, most radio stations are commercial: they are owned
by companies who are trying to make a profit from their operation.
The way that they generate income for themselves is to sell airtime
for commercials.  But there's another group of radio stations,
"public radio", which are not funded in this manner.  They are
almost always commercial-free, and get their money from (1) listeners,
who "subscribe" to the station (2) grants from various foundations,
and (3) other fundraisers, such as concerts.  There are even
radio networks (NPR, APR, etc.) which produce programming
shared by many of these stations in the same way that commercial
networks such as ABC or CBS produce programming for their stations.
Public radio (and public television) are often the only independent
sources of news information in many communities.

(The paragraph above was written in response to a query from
Roswitha Hahn-Drodofsky, who asked just what this "public radio"
thing is all about.  In my American-centrism, it had escaped me
that this article might confuse people elsewhere in the world.
Hopefully the short exposition above will clear it up a bit. ---Rsk )

Another view on what this is about:

I recently received a fascinating note from Michael Carraher,
providing another answer to the same question.  I've been
reading his note, re-reading mine, and then trying to figure
out a way to integrate the two into a coherent presentation
that's as accurate as I can make it.  Well, I haven't figure
that out -- but I do think he made some extremely insightful
observations, and I think that until I get a chance to meld
his work with mine, the best thing I can do is reprint it here
just as he sent it to me.  I hope that those of you who are
reading this will find the juxtaposition of his opinion with
mine to be useful, and that it will help you reach an understanding
of your own.

----------begin note from Michael
The distinction between commercial and noncommercial stations --
according to the FCC -- is commercials.  Most, but not all, commercial
stations are owned by corporations but some are community-based, or mom
and pop, or owned by nonprofit organizations (churches, colleges,
etc.).  Not all radio stations make a profit.  I am a bit uncomfortable
with your statement which implies the profit motive underlies commercial
broadcasting.  That may be true much of the time but I assert we don't
know the motives of the people who run commercial stations (or
noncommercial stations for that matter).

Sources of funding for public radio stations include:  Corporate
underwriting (currently the largest source for NPR/PRI stations),
Foundation grants, CPB/government funds, listener contributions and
other fund raisers.  It should be noted that "other fund-raisers"
includes businesses run by various public radio organizations on a for
profit basis (e.g., NPR sells satellite time to commercial broadcasters,
PRI runs a mail order catalog business, WHYY operates a TV production
facility).  The line between corporate underwriting and advertising is a
fine one.  The distinction appears to be that a corporate underwriting
announcement cannot make product comparisons nor ask people to buy. 
Many corporate underwriting announcements do extoll a product's
virtues.  Public radio "development" people do solicit corporate
underwriters, much as commercial broadcast "sales people" solicit
advertisers -- and they often cite audience research data to justify the
"use" of public radio as a promotional tool to underwriters.  And,
sometimes, public radio operations do show a surplus.  Surplus money is
invested, paid to staff/managers as bonuses, ploughed back into the
operation (anything except paid to stockholders as dividends).

The only "independent" source of news in many communities?  You need to
define terms here.  Independent of what/whom?  If you are suggesting
corporate ownership means a lack of independence -- or quality -- in
news presentation, I believe there are numerous examples to the
contrary.  There are also examples of public radio stations giving into
to government and political pressures.  Maybe by independent you mean
"locally-owned."  That term would be more accurate, but locally owned
does not necessarily mean better.  You are in Philadelphia.  KYW is
commercial, owned by a corporation and not locally owned.  Their news
presentation is different from WHYY, but I would not say it is in anyway
inferior nor compromised in its integrity.

Also your definition of public radio would include many religious
broadcasters (from whom contributions are their main -- sometimes only
-- source of income).  You might want to rework your definition to
distinguish NPR/PRI/Pacifica type public radio from -- what to call it?
-- "parochial radio."

BTW:  I've never been that thrilled with the name "public radio."  All
radio is public.  "Public" is better than "educational" (the name used
prior to the Carnegie Commission report in 1967).  It's almost 30 years
now, maybe these stations no longer need a generic name to distinguish
themselves from other broadcasters.

----------end note from Michael

Disclaimer: I don't work for NPR, or any public radio station at the
moment; I once worked for WCBU (Peoria) and am currently a member
of WHYY and WXPN (Philadelphia).  But I'm certainly an unabashed
supporter of public radio.

Questions answered (or at least asked!) within:

Q. What are the major NPR-carried shows and their contact info?
Q. What are the NPR affiliates around the country?
Q. How do you obtain a station list or programming schedule from NPR?
Q. What's the difference between National Public Radio, American Public Radio,
   Public Radio International, Pacifica Radio, and all that?
Q. How do I get my hands on general NPR info?
Q. How can I find out about books and albums mentioned on the air?
Q. How can I get my paws on some of the music I've heard on the air?
Q. Are there are books and articles about, or by NPR or NPR people?
Q. How about recordings made by NPR people?  (i.e. non-broadcast material)
Q. What's the relationship of NPR to PBS?
Q. How did NPR originally come about?
Q. Can I get NPR programming outside the US?
Q. I've heard listener commentary on ATC/ME; how do I send mine in?
Q. I like public radio so much I want to work for them; now what?
Q. Where else can I look for radio info?
Q. How is public radio funded?  
Q. Is anybody saving all this?
Q. Are there any other resources out there?
Q. Hey -- what about Mama Stamberg's Cranberry Relish recipe?

Several people have commented that this list is NPR-centric; that's
not intentional.  If you have information to share, NPR-related or
not, please send it along, and I'll try to incorporate it.

If you find errors, omissions, or whatnot, please drop me a line; and
remember that this is still mostly a draft document, with lots of work
to be done on it before it's truly useful.

Q. What are the major public radio shows and their contact info?

I've alphabetized the list of shows below, which should make it a
bit easier to deal with.  A general note: all NPR programs have
pages which can be found at; there's an NPR FAQ
there as well.

Afropop Worldwide:

	A mixture of African, pop, jazz, and rock musics.

	Host: Georges Collinet

All Things Considered

	Daily news magazine with basic national and international
	news, longer in-depth pieces, commentary, and whimsy.

	Producer: NPR News
	Hosts: Robert Siegel, Linda Wertheimer, Noah Adams

American Forum:


	American Forum
	School of Communication
	The American University
	Washington, DC   20016


Art Beat:

	Magazine show focusing on performing, visual, audio
	and other arts.

	Host: Marty Moss-Coane
	Producer: WHYY, Philadelphia


BBC World Service:

	UK, European, US and world news from the BBC's perspective.


Beyond Computers:

	Computer technology and its implications.

	Host: Gina Smith


	Live blues performances ranging from traditional to contemporary.


	Weekly call-in show with health/medical advice.

	Producer: Eriz Nuzum,


	Liberal and conservative points of view.

	Host: Larry Josephson

Car Talk:

	Auto advice with an attitude.	

	Hosts: Click and Clack (aka Tom & Ray Magliozzi)
	Producer: Dewey, Cheetham and Howe, and WBUR
	Phone: (800) 332-WBUR

Charlie Rose:

	Interviews with celebrities.

	Host: Charlie Rose

A Chef's Table:

	Curious culinary commentary. (sorry)

	Host: Jim Coleman
	Producer: WHYY, Philadelphia

The Derek McGinty Show

	An early afternoon call-in interview show on WAMU.  As of July 1996, 
	its second hour went national, following on the heels of Diane Rehm.
	The first hour is still heard only in Washington, and tends to
	focus more on local issues.


The Diane Rehm Show:

	For many years, a local morning call-in interview show on WAMU.
	It recently began syndication, and is now heard on affiliates
	in Arkansas, Texas, Oregon, Baltimore, and a few other places.


Do You Remember These?:

	Old-Time Radio program featuring some of the best comedy,
	drama, and variety shows of the 30's-50's.  Great stuff.
	Not sure about distribution.

	Producer: Frank Thomas, WCBU

Earth & Sky:
	Presents natural science in a way which is fun, interesting and
	easy-to-understand.  Broadcast each day on over 640 radio
	stations in the USA and Canada and around the world on various
	international radio networks; most stations at public radio.
	Listeners can visit Earth & Sky on the World Wide Web to
	listen to today's show, ask Earth & Sky a question, or research past
	programs.  Many of the scripts have hypertext links to background
	information, additional references, listener comments, and classroom
	discussion questions.

	Assoc. Producer: Chris Luther, Byrd & Block Communications, Austin, TX
	Mailing list server:
		(Send it a "help" request to find out how to use it.)




	recorded live in Boulder, Colorado

	PO Box 954
	Boulder,CO 80306
	fax: 303-443-4489


	Distributed throughout a number of cities through the
	Pacifica Network. The host is Dennis Bernstein; it's a
	political commentary show with a left-wing viewpoint 
	and it emphasizes world news and how the U.S. government
	responds to world events. 

Fresh Air

	FA is a one-on-one interview program; guests come
	from all walks of life, including politics, the arts,
	education, and medicine.

	Host: Terry Gross
	Producer: WHYY, Philadelphia

	Cassettes are now available for FRESH AIR (most of the programs
	from July 1993 on). The cost is $9.95 plus shipping and handling.
	Listeners can call 1-800-934-6000 to request tapes of Fresh Air.

Hearts of Space:

	HoS features electronic and atmospheric music. 


	Hearts of Space
	P.O. Box 31321
	San Francisco, CA 94131

	Playlist is a one-way mailing list, primarily for distribution
	of the weekly playlists from the nationally syndicated radio
	program, Music from the Hearts of Space.  The list will occasionally
	carry announcements about new releases on Hearts of Space Records,
	updated lists of the stations that carry the program, touring
	schedules of HOS artists, and other information of interest to
	HOS listeners.

	Hearts of Space playlists will continue to be posted in the
	USENET newsgroup,  Playlists and other HOS
	resources are being made available at, through gopher
	and the World-Wide Web.
	For current information about accessing these and other HOS
	resources send a message to
	subscribe to playlist, simply send the command
	in the body of an e-mail message to
	List Owner:  Eric S. Theise <>


	Producer: NPR

Jazz From the Four Queens:

Joe Frank - In the Dark:

	Producer: KCRW-FM, Santa Monica

	The KCRW Joe Frank Page "Somewhere Out There" is at:


	You can also find the Joe Frank FAQ in your favorite
	archives of Usenet's news.answers newsgroup (like where
	you found the FAQ you're reading right now); I'd suggest
	this one:

	But you can probably find quite a few by feeding "Joe Frank"
	to any web search engine.

Le Show:

	LS is a tongue-in-cheek variety show which showcases
	Harry Shearer's (Saturday Night Live, Spinal Tap) brand of humor.

	Host: Harry Shearer

Living on Earth

	LoE focuses on environmental issues, from a scientific and
	political perspective.

	Producer: (at WBUR, Boston)

Marketplace (PRI)

	Marketplace is a daily review of the business world,
	and includes interesting commentary.


Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz:


Monitor Radio:

	Similar to ME/ATC, but from another viewpoint.

	Producer: Christian Science Monitor (distributed by PRI)

Mountain Stage:

	Folk, Old-Time, Country and related music, live; surprisingly
	wide range of performers.  They've also issued a series of CD's
	containing some of the best performances; they are:

	Best of Mountain Stage Volume 1: Blue Plate BPM-001CD
		(Dr. John, Richard Thompson, Buckwheat Zydeco, others.)
	Best of Mountain Stage Volume 2: Blue Plate BPM-002CD
		(John Prine, REM, Robyn Hitchcock, Delbert McClinton, others.)
	Best of Mountain Stage Volume 3: Blue Plate BPM-003CD
		(Timbuk 3, Bruce Cockburn, Warren Zevon, others.)
	Best of Mountain Stage Volume 4: Blue Plate BPM-004CD
		(Duke Robillard, The Bobs, Pops Staples, Marcia Ball, others.)
	Best of Mountain Stage Volume 5: Blue Plate BPM-005CD
		(Los Lobos, subdudes, Steve Forbert, Indigo Girls, others.)
	Best of Mountain Stage Volume 6: Blue Plate BPM-006CD
		(Nanci Griffith, Iris Dement, Bruce Hornsby, others.)

	IMHO, this is an exceptionally well-chosen and well-produced series.

	Blue Plate is reachable at 33 Music Square West, #102A,
	Nashville, TN 37203 or (800) 521-2112.

	Producer: West Virginia Public Radio
	Email: (is forwarded to Don Wafer,
		stage manager for the show).

Morning Edition:

	Daily news magazine with basic news plus commentaries.

	Producer: NPR News
	Host: Bob Edwards
	Listener comments: (202) 842-5044

My Word:

	BBC-produced word game program.

My Music:

	Similar to My Word, a quiz program about (what else) music.

National Press Club:

NPR Playhouse:

	Radio plays in the dramatic tradition of old time radio,
	but with modern works and production techniques.  Close your
	eyes and imagine a time when radio ruled the airwaves.

	Producer: Various (BBC, Globe Radio, etc.)

On The Media:

	Discussion of media's influence on American society.

	Host: Brian Lehrer

Only A Game:

	Host: Bill Littlefield
	Producer: WBUR, Boston
	Executive Producer: David Greene
	Phone: (617) 353-2790 x121

	Sports, public radio style. 

	"Baseball, basketball, football, more,
	sack, shuffleboard, and lore
	of games I can't remember, or fit into rhyme."

			--Bill Littlefield

People's Pharmacy:

	Producer: WUNC, Chapel Hill, NC
	Hosts: Joe and Terry Graedon

Performance Today:

	Host: Martin Goldsmith


	Issues facing African-Americans.

	Host: Ken Walker

A Prairie Home Companion:

	APHC is a midwestern-flavored throwback which is not unlike
	the variety shows of 40's radio.  Distributed through PRI.

	Host: Garrison Keillor
	Producer: Minnesota Public Radio,
	Newsgroups: rec.arts.wobegon

Quirks & Quarks:

	I don't know what this is, but it's rumored to be produced
	in Canada and distributed by PRI.

Rabbit Ears Radio:

	Half-hour long adaptations of folk tales and classic 
	children's stories, narrated by famous actors and accompanied
	by famous musicians. 

	Hosts: Mel Gibson and Meg Ryan
	Web: ears

	(Yes, I believe there really is a space in that URL.)

	Early in 1996, Rabbit Ears Productions was acquired by
	Millennium Media Group of Philadelphia.  According to an article
	found by searching AltaVista, they have a web site at

	(Note: I've been unable to connect to either of these sites.
	Has anyone else had better luck?
		---Rsk 11/25/96)

Radio Times:

	Discussion of social, political and aesthetic issues with
	one or more guests, occasional call-in segments.

	Host: Marty Moss-Coane
	Producer: WHYY, Philadelphia

Remember This One?:

	Jazz from the 40's through the 80's.

	Host: Bob Perkins
	Producer: WHYY, Philadelphia

Rider's Radio Theater:

	Produced by WXVU, Xavier University, Cincinnati.

Riverwalk, Live From The Landing

	Classic and vintage jazz weekly hourly series on Public Radio
	International.  Now in its eighth year, the series is hosted by
	David Holt and features the Jim Cullum Jazz Band of San Antonio, TX.
	Guests and David Holt focus on topics and personalities in the world
	of pre-WWII small-band jazz artists and groups such as Louis Armstrong,
	WC handy, King Oliver, Bessie Smith, Bix Beiderbecke, Joe Venuti
	and many others.  Songwriter focus: Gershwin, Porter, Berlin,
	Mercer, and others.


Savvy Traveler:

	Tips on being a tourist.

	Host: Rudy Maxa

Science Friday:

	SF is the Friday segment of ToTN; features science guests
	in call-in format.

	Host: Ira Flatow

Schickele Mix:

  	Music program featuring Peter Schickele (originator of PDQ Bach);
	syndicated by PRI.  Musical analysis and exploration, sometimes
	features surprising juxtapositions of diverse musics.

Selected Shorts:

	Short stories (and excerpts from longer works) read aloud.

	Producer: Symphony Space/WNYC-FM

Software Hardtalk:

	News and views about the computer industry.  Unfortunately hosted
	by John Dvorak, who is so out of it that he still thinks VMS is
	a pretty neat idea, can't spell "UNIX", and who was last heard
	confusing listeners about the difference between uuencoding
	and the JPEG standard.  Fortunately, most of the guests are
	considerably more clueful.

Sound Money:

	Investment, tax, and real estate advice. Distributed by PRI. 

Sound and Spirit:

	Host: Ellen Kushner.

Sounds like Science:

	The week's top science news plus features.

	Host: Ira Flatow.


	Focuses on the work of independent radio producers.  Topics
	are usually social, historical, scientific, or ecological
	in nature.

	Producer: Soundprint
	Internet mailing list: send mail to with

		subscribe SNDPRNT

		in the body of the message.

St. Paul Sunday Morning:

Sunday Rounds:

	Medical issues.

	Host: John Stupak
	Producer: Michelle Stupak/Consultation Radio Network
	Internet: coming soon!
	Produced at: WJHU, Baltimore

Talk of the Nation:

	Call-in show with multiple guests, frequently political.

	Host: Ray Suarez

Tech Nation:

	Discusses issues of technology and society.

	Host: Dr. Moira Gunn

This American Life:

	Examination of different bits of Americana.

	Host: Ira Glass

To the Best of Our Knowledge:

	One-on-one interview/discussion show, often compared to
	"Fresh Air". Guests are less likely to be well known, and
	are chosen for their unusual viewpoints, rather than because
	they represent a particular "side" of an issue (many are authors).
	Interviewers often include their own comments, so it's more
	like a conversation than an interview. 

	Three one-hour shows are produced each week, and local stations may
	air them together or separately. Usually one hour deals with
	politics and social trends, one with science and technology,
	and one with arts and culture.  Each show consists of several
	one-one-one interviews by different interviewers, loosely
	based around a common topic. 

	Distributed by PRI, also heard on Armed Forces Radio

	Producer: Wisconsin Public Radio
	Host: Jim Fleming
	Interviewers: Jim Fleming, Steve Paulson,
		Judith Strasser, Anne Strainchamps
		(home page, author lists)
	Mailing List:
		(including advance program notes)

	Wisconsin Public Radio
	821 University Ave
	Madison  WI  53706

	Tapes are available, the phone number is announced at the end of
	the show. (Probably the same as Whad'ya Know).

Voices in the Family:

	Examines psychological and emotional issues.  Call-in segments.

	Host: Dan Gottlieb
	Producer: WHYY, Philadelphia

Wait, Wait...Don't Tell Me:

	A quiz show based on the week's news.

	Host: Dan Coffey

Weekend All Things Considered

	The weekend version of ATC.

	Producer: NPR News
	Host: Daniel Zwerdling (and Jackie Lyden on occasion)

Weekend Edition/Saturday:

	Saturday version of ME.

	Producer: NPR News
	Host: Scott Simon

Weekend Edition/Sunday:

	Sunday version of ME.

	Producer: NPR News
	Host: Liane Hansen
	Listener comments: (202) 371-1775, or 
	Puzzle entries:  (DO NOT send them to
	the "listener comments" address - they'll just be deleted).

Weekly Edition:

	Compilation of pieces that ran on All Things Considered and
	Morning Edition during the previous week.  Broadcast on the weekend,
	and not to be confused with Weekend Edition/Saturday or /Sunday.

West Coast Live:

	Variety show with California flavor.

	Host: Sedge Thompson
	Email: or
	Web: http://www.wclorg/wcl/

	Subscription Information:
	Reservations to Live Shows:
	Audience Adventures:
	(These last three may no longer be current.)

	Snail-mail address:
		West Coast Live
		915 Cole Street, Suite 124
		San Francisco, California 94117
	Phone:	(415) 664-9500
	Fax:	(415) 664-9596

	Additional information is available by sending a mail
	message to; put the following (only!)
	in the body of the message:

	INFO West_Coast_Live

Whad'ya Know?:

	WYK is a humorous, offbeat variety show featuring Michael
	Feldman's midwestern sense of humor as well as a great jazz duo.

	Host: Michael Feldman
	Producer: Wisconsin Public Radio
	Mailing list:


	(Following the URL above will get you a carriage list.)

	Features announcer Jim Packard and musicians John Thulin and
	Jeff Eckels, and occasionally Clyde Stubblefield on the drums.

	Cassette recordings of WYK? broadcasts are $15 each, and can be 
	ordered through The Radio Store.  To order by phone, call 
	1-800-747-7444.  Mail orders may be sent to:

	The Radio Store
	P.O. Box 5006
	Madison, WI 53705

	Shipping and handling charges will be added to your order.  Be sure 
	to specify the program you want by its original air date.

	Tickets for Madison broadcasts of WYK? are available free of charge. 
	Send a self-addressed, stamped envelope, along with a note 
	explaining when you're planning to be in Madison to:

	Whad'Ya Know? Studio Audience
	821 University Ave.
	Madison, WI 53706

	Most ticket requests are fulfilled within a week after we receive your 
	letter.  It's a good idea to ask for tickets at least six weeks in 

	If you're planning to visit Madison, but don't have tickets ahead of 
	time, you can always get in line on Saturday morning at 8:30 a.m.  
	At 9:30 a.m., after all ticket holders have been seated, any remaining 
	seats are turned over to those waiting in line.  Most of those waiting 
	in line get eventually get in.

	WYK? is broadcast from the Parliamentary Room on the 4th Fl. 
	(Terrace Level) of 821 University Ave., at the corner of University
	and Park.

	Wisconsin Public Radio is reachable at (608) 263-3970, and is on
	the web at

	Ron Bean tells me that Michael Feldman had a couple of earlier
	shows that were not nationally distributed, while he was still
	driving a cab in Madison.

The World:

	World news for American listeners.

World Update:

	News from around the world including interviews and features.

	Producer: BBC World Service

World Cafe:

	WXPN's flagship program, featuring a wide variety of
	pop/rock/blues/folk.  Distributed by PRI.

	Producer: David Dye

Need the following for each show:

	E-mail addresses
	Internet mailing lists/newsgroups
	Phone/snail-mail address 
	Staff for each show
	Commentators who frequently appear
	Anything else relevant :-)

Q. What are the NPR/PRI/public radio stations around the country?

There are lists of stations on NPR's home page at

and on PRI's home page at

There's a map called "WMPR" ("Where's My Public Radio?" that lists all
NPR/APR affiliates on a map; availability info here as soon as I get it.

Here's a state-by-state breakdown with locations, frequencies and URL's
where I have them.

		KSKA-FM, 91.1  (They also have repeaters throughout the
	state, in Eagle River, Palmer, Talkeetna, Barrow and Dutch Harbor.)
		KUAC-FM, 104.7
		KRBD-FM, 105.9
		KCHU-AM, 770

		WLRH-FM, 89.3
	Muscle Shoals
		WQPR-FM, 88.7
		WUAL-FM, 91.5

		KUAF-FM, 91.3
	Little Rock
		KUAR-FM, 89.1

		KJZZ-FM, 91.5
		KUAZ-FM, 89.1
		KUAT-AM, 1550

		KPFA-FM 94.1, Pacifica affiliate
		KFCF-FM, Pacifica affiliate
		KXSR-FM, 91.7
	Los Angeles
		KCRW-FM 89.9 (home of it's the Le Show! and others)
			1900 Pico Blvd, Santa Monica, CA 90405
		KPFK-FM, Pacifica affiliate
		KPCC-FM 89.3
		KXJZ-FM, 88.9
	San Diego
		KPBS-FM, 89.5
	San Francisco
		KALW-FM 91.7
		KQED-FM 88.5

	Colorado Springs
		KRCC-FM, 91.5
		KSJD-FM, 91.5

		WSHU-FM, 91.1
	New Haven
		WPKN (independent)

		WMFE-FM, 90.7

		WWGC-FM, 90.7

		WOI-AM, 640
	Cedar Falls
		KUNI-FM, 90.9
		KHKE-FM, 89.5
	Cedar Rapids
		KCCK-FM, 88.3
	Iowa City
		WSUI-AM, 910
	Mason City
		KRNI-AM, 1010
		KUNY-FM, 91.5

		KBSU-FM, 90.3
	McCall/Twin Falls
		KBSM-FM, 91.7

		WGLT-FM, 89.1
		WSIU-FM, 91.9
		WBEZ-FM, 91.5
		W???-FM, 89.9? (College of DuPage)
		WSIE-FM, 88.7 (Has a directional antenna aiming away from
			Missouri side of STL metro)
		WUSI-FM, 90.3
		WCBU-FM, 89.9 (NPR)
		WQUB-FM, 90.3
		WIPA-FM, 89.3
		WNIJ-FM, 90.5
		WSSU-FM, 91.9 (Sangamon State U.)
		WILL-AM 580 (mostly talk)
		WILL-FM 90.9 (mostly music)

		WFIU-FM, 103.7
		WVPE-FM, 88.1
		WFYI-FM, 90.1
	Lafayette/West Lafayete
		WBAA-AM, 920  (Purdue)
		WVXR-FM, 89.3
		WVUB-FM, 91.1

	Garden City
		KANZ-FM, 91.1
	Hill City/Hays
		KZNA-FM, 90.5
		KANU-FM, 91.5 (also heard in Topeka and Kansas City)
		KKSU-AM, 580 (12:30 pm - 5:30 pm weekdays)
		KRPS-FM, 89.9
		KMUW-FM, 89.1

	Bowling Green
		WKYU-FM, 88.9

		WKUE-FM, 90.9 (repeater for WKYU-FM)
		WEKH-FM, 90.9
		WKPB-FM, 89.5 (repeater for WKYU-FM)
		WFPL-FM, 89.3
		WMKY-FM, 90.3
		WEKU-FM, 88.9
		WDCL-FM, 89.7 (repeater for WKYU-FM)
		WUKY-FM, 91.3

		KEDM-FM, 90.3
	New Orleans
		WWOZ (independent)

	(All stations carry same programming, i.e. Maine Public Broadcasting

		WMEH-FM, 90.9
		WMED-FM, 89.7
	Ft. Kent
		WMEF-FM, 106.5
		WMEA-FM, 90.1
	Presque Isle
		WMEM-FM, 106.1
		WMEW-FM, 91.5

		WJHU-FM, 88.1 (Baltimore Public Radio, NPR/PRI)
		WEAA-FM, 88.9
		WSCL-FM, 89.5
		WETH-FM, (don't know frequency; repeater station
				of WETA, Washington, DC)

		WBUR-FM, 90.9 (617) 353-2790
			(Boston University Radio, has three repeaters on
			Cape Cod; they're high-school stations that
			carry WBUR most of the day.)
		WGBH-FM, 89.7 (617) 492-2777
			("Great Blue Hill", has a repeater in Cambridge
			at 96.3 FM)
		WMBR-FM, 88.1 (college station),;
			also has gopher/www server
		WUMB-FM, 91.9 (college station)
		WERS (Emerson College's station; may be independent)
		WFCR (Five College Radio) in an NPR/PRI affiliate.
	Great Barrington
		WAMQ-FM, 105.1 (repeater of WAMC in Albany, NY)

	(Some of this needs to be reformatted, but I wanted to get it
	out ASAP even though it's a bit raw. ---Rsk )
	Ann Arbor
		WUOM-FM, 91.7 Affliated with the University of Michigan.
		Recently left a largely classical format and switched to
		mostly-talk format with heavy NPR programming.
	Central Michigan University Public Radio Network
		WCMU-89.5 FM Mt. Pleasant
		WCML-91.7 FM Alpena
		WCMW-103.9 FM Harbor Springs
		WCMZ-98.3 FM Sault Ste. Marie
		WUCX-90.1 FM Bay City
		A wide variety of programming including ATC, Morning Edition,
		Car Talk, Afropop Worldwide, Echoes and locally produced
		jazz, folk, classical and blues shows.
		WDET-FM, 101.9 Affliated with Wayne State University.
		Great Lakes Consortium. Morning Edition, Car talk,
		ATC, Fresh Air.
	East Lansing
		WKAR-FM, 90.5
		WKAR-AM, 870 Affliated with Michigan State University.
		Talk of the Nation.   
		WFUM-FM, 91.1, affiliated with WUOM in Ann Arbor.
	Grand Rapids
		WGVU-AM, 1480
		WVGR-FM 104.1, affiliated with WUOM in Ann Arbor.
		Interlochen Arts Academy broadcasts from Interlochen,
		near Traverse City, from the following transmitters:

			WIAA-Interlochen 88.7 FM
			Traverse City 100.7 FM
			East Jordan 100.9 FM.

		The format is mostly classical along with ATC and
		Morning Edition. They also carry Car Talk.
		WNMU-FM, 90.1
		Carries NPR news but not sure what else.
		WEMU-FM, 89.1 Affliated with Eastern Michigan University.
		Format is largely blues and jazz with ATC and Morning Edition.

		KMSK-FM, 91.3
		KUMD-FM, 103.3
	Grand Rapids
		KAXE-FM, 91.7
		KMSU-FM, 89.7
	Northfield/Twin Cities
		WCAL-FM, 89.3
	Minneapolis/St. Paul
		KNOW-FM 91.1

		KRNW-FM, 88.9
		KBIA-FM, 91.3 (has repeater in Kirksville)
		KOPN-FM, 89.5 (alternative programming from KBIA)
	Kansas City
		KCUR-FM, 89.3.
		KXCV-FM, 90.5 (has repeated in Chillicothe) 
	Point Lookout
		KCOZ-FM, 90.5
		KUMR-FM, 88.5
		KSMU-FM, 91.1
	St. Louis
		KWMU-FM, 90.7
		(see also Edwardsville, IL)
		KCMW-FM, 90.9

		WMAH-FM, 90.3
		WMAE-FM, 89.5
		WMAU-FM, 88.9
		WMAO-FM, 90.9
		WMPN-FM, 91.3
		WMAW-FM, 88.1
	Mississippi State
		WMAB-FM, 89.9
		WMAV-FM, 90.3
		WKNA-FM, 88.9

		KEMC-FM, 91.7
		KBMC-FM, 102.1
		KNMC-FM, 90.1
	Miles City
		KECC-FM, 90.7

		KIOS-FM, 91.5

	Las Vegas

New Hampshire
		WEVO-FM, 89.1 (repeaters in Nashua and Dover)
		WEVH-FM, 91.3 (covers the Upper Valley of the
		Connecticut River) and repeats WEVO 100%.
		WEVN-FM, 90.7 (covers southwestern New Hampshire)

New Jersey
		WBGO-FM, 88.3 (NPR, jazz)
	East Orange
		WFMU-FM, 91.1 (independent, free-form radio)

New York
		WAMC-FM, 90.3
		WSKG-FM, 89.3, with repeaters: WSQG at 90.9 in Ithaca;
		WSQC at 91.7 in Oneonta/Cooperstown, and WSQE at 91.1
		in Corning/Elmira.  Carries NPR news and programs, PRI
		programs, as well as local classical music programming
		Has sister station WSQX in Binghamtom that airs NPR
		news and jazz.  You can contact these nice folks
		by phone at (607) 729-0100, or via email at
		WBFO-FM, 88.7
                (716) 829-2555
		WCAN-FM, 93.3
		WEOS-FM, 89.7
                WUBJ-FM, 88.1
                Repeater of WBFO-FM in Buffalo
		WAMK-FM, 90.9
		WOSR-FM, 91.7
	New York, NY
		WNYC-AM, 820 (almost all talk)
		WNYC-FM, 93.9 (includes classical music)
		????, Pacifica affiliate
                WOLN-FM, 91.3
                Repeater of WBFO-FM in Buffalo
		WXXI-AM 1370
		WAER-FM, 88.3 (Syracuse U.)
		WCNY-FM, 91.3
		WRVO-FM, 90.3 (tranlator)
		WANC-FM, 103.9
		WRVN-FM, 91.9 (repeater for WRVO Syracuse)
		WUNY-FM, 89.5 (repeater for WCNY Syracuse)
		WRVJ-FM, 91.7 (repeater for WRVO Syracuse)
                WJNY-FM, 90.5 (repeater for WCNY Syracuse)
                XLLATOR, 88.5 (translator for WSLU)

North Carolina
		WCQS-FM, 88.1
	Chapel Hill/Raleigh/Durham
		WUNC-FM, 91.5
		Phone (919) 966-5454
		WFQS-FM, 91.3
	Winston-Salem/Greensboro/High Point
		WFDD-FM, 88.5

North Dakota
		KCND-FM, 90.5
		KDPR-FM, 89.9
	Grand Forks
		KFJM-AM, 1370
		KPRJ-FM, 91.5
		KMPR-FM, 88.9
		KPPR-FM, 89.5

		WVXC-FM, 89.3
		WVXU-FM, 91.7
		WCPN-FM, 90.3
		WCBE-FM, 90.5
		WOSU-AM  820
		WKRJ-FM, 91.5
		WKSU-FM, 89.7
		WGLE-FM, 90.7
	Mount Gilead
		WVXG-FM, 95.1
		WGTE-FM, 91.3
	West Union
		WVXM-FM, 89.5
		WKRW-FM, 89.3
		WYSU-FM 88.5  (Youngstown State University,

		KCCU-FM, 89.3
		KGOU-FM, 106.3
		KOSU-FM, 91.7
		KWGS-FM, 89.5

		KOPB-FM 91.5 and 4 other stations (KOAC 550, Corvallis,
			KOAB Bend, etc) and 21 translators of
			Oregon Public Radio throughout Oregon. 
		KBPS-AM 1450 and KBPS-FM 89.9

		WITF-FM, 89.5
		WHYY-FM, 90.9 (NPR)
		WXPN-FM, 88.50 (independent)
		WDUQ-FM, 90.5

South Carolina
		WLJK-FM, 89.1
		WJWJ-FM, 89.9
		WSCI-FM, 89.3
		WLTR-FM, 91.3
		WHMC-FM, 90.1
		WEPR-FM, 90.1
	Rock Hill
		WNSC-FM, 88.9
		WRJA-FM, 88.1

South Dakota
		KDSD-FM, 90.9
		KESD-FM, 88.3
		KPSD-FM, 97.1
		KQSD-FM, 91.9
		KZSD-FM, 102.5
		KTSD-FM, 91.1
	Rapid City
		KBHE-FM, 89.3
	Sioux Falls
		KCSD-FM, 90.9
		KUSD-FM, 89.7
		KUSD-AM, 690  

		WKNQ-FM, 90.7
		WKNP-FM, 89.7
	Johnson City
		WETS-FM, 89.5
		WKNO-FM, 91.1

		KUT-FM, 90.5
	Dallas/Ft. Worth
		KERA-FM, 90.1
		????, Pacifica affiliate
		KUHF-FM, 88.7 (University of Houston, about half NPR)
	San Antonio
		KSTX-FM, 89.1

		WVTU-FM, 89.3
		WVTR-FM, 91.9
		WHRV-FM, 89.5
		WVTF-FM, 89.1

		WVPS-FM, 107.9
		WRVT-FM, 88.7
		WVPR-FM, 89.5

		KZAZ-FM, 91.3
		KWSU-AM, 1250
		KUOW-FM, 94.9 (NPR + classical)
		KPLU-FM, 88.5 (NPR + jazz)

Washington, DC
	WAMU-FM, 88.5, affiliated with American University.
	WETA-FM, 90.9 (WETA is now located across the river in 
		Arlington, VA.  They are planning to move their facilities 
		to Washington, where I think they will rent space from 
		George Washington University (but AFAIK will not be 
		affiliated with GWU).)
	WDCU-FM, 90.1
		Affiliated with the University of the District of Columbia
		Doesn't broadcast much NPR or PRI material.  (No longer
		carries Weekend Edition/Sunday.)

West Virginia
		WVPB-FM, 91.7
		WVPW-FM, 88.9
		WVPN-FM, 88.5
		WVWV-FM, 89.9
		WVEP-FM, 88.9
		WVPM-FM, 90.9
		WVPG-FM, 90.3
		WVNP-FM, 89.9
		WLFM-FM, 91.1
		WLBL-AM, 930
		WHAD-FM, 90.7
	Green Bay
		WGBW-FM, 91.5
		WHHI-FM, 91.3
		WGTD-FM, 91.1
		WHLA-FM, 90.3
		WHA-AM, 970
		WERN-FM 88.7 (same management as WHA-AM, mostly
			music + ATC, ME, WE)
		WUWM-FM, 89.9 (Run by UW-Milwaukee. NPR affiliate, but
			not directly onnected to other WPR stations. Listener
			area overlaps with WHAD)
		WHWC-FM, 88.3
	Park Falls
		WHBM-FM, 90.3
		KUWS-FM, 91.3

	(Interesting note on WPR stations from Ron Bean:

	The first station was WHA, which stood for "Wisconsin-- Heartland
	of America". Other stations were variations on this: WHAD (Delafield),
	WHHI (Highland), WHLA (LaCrosse) and WHRM (Rib Mountain). WLBL
	stood for "Land of Beautiful Lakes". Other stations had other
	origins and joined the network later. )

		KUWJ-FM, 90.3
		KUWR-FM, 91.9

Q. How do you obtain a station list or programming schedule from NPR?

As mentioned above, NPR does publish a station list.  Send SASE to 
Listener Services, 635 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC  20001 or 
become a member of your local station.

Q. What's the difference between National Public Radio, American Public Radio,
   Public Radio International, Pacifica Radio, and all that?

	Steve's comments:

	I think APR became PRI because it was beginning to be
	distributed internationally. PRI is an alternate network to NPR
	that is carried by some NPR stations.  Marketplace, Garrison
	Keilor's show are PRI shows- not NPR.  I think APR was
	originally formed when Keilor couldn't get backing from NPR.
	PRI now produces a number of programs.

	Randall's comments:

	American Public Radio has changed it's name to Public Radio 
	International.  This is a competitive organization to NPR.  In 
	the past they only distributed programming to affiliates for 
	re-broadcast; they recently announced that they will begin 
	producing programs as well.  NPR has always produced and 
	distributed programming.

	Rich Dean's comments:

	A separate division of NPR (actually a separate company) manages the
	public radio satellite system. NPR does not own the satellite and
	must rent time like everyone else...

	[which includes PRI.  In other words, NPR and PRI programming
	might wind up passing through the same transponders, but both
	of them have to rent the time.]

	Krishna's comments:

	During the late 70s and early 80s, Minnesota Public Radio wanted
	NPR to carry _A Prairie Home Companion_ nationally.  NPR was cool
	to the idea; and MPR and the public radio stations of 3 states
	adjoining Minnesota formed American Public Radio.

	The names NPR and APR were sufficiently alike that most people assume
	that the two were either the same, or they did not bother to
	distinguish between the abbreviations and the organizations
	behind them.
	During the summer of 1994, APR finally decided to adopt the name
	Public Radio International.  The "official" reason was that APR
	was starting to distribute BBC and CBC programs in the US, and
	was also distribution US programs to other countries, hence the
	"American" in its name is not very appropriate.  Most people
	think that the "real" reason was to distance their name from NPR
	as much as possible.
	APR/PRI does not produce programs on its own; it distributes
	programs produced by other public radio stations and uses the NPR
	satellite network for its feed.  WYK is one such program---
	produced by Wisconsin Public Radio and distributed by PRI.

	Of course, everyone knows that on WYK PRI should be known as the
	International House of Radio (... whose employees are lucky to be
	working at all, let alone tying up the office phones trying to
	play the quiz ...).
	For the contemporary historians among us, the history of NPR is
	fairly well documented in many books and articles.  The evolution
	of APR/PRI is less well documented.
	In any case, interested readers should check out the CPB and NPR
	Web pages for more information:

	Public Radio International has a web site at

	with program descriptions, carriage lists, a bit of history of
	the network, etc.

	As well as WPR's own web site:

	The CPB comment line is 1-800-CPB-2190 (1-800-272-2190).

	Pacifica Radio is another independent network, not a part of NPR.
	There are different levels of affiliation with Pacifica; there
	seem to be about half a dozen or so fully-affiliated stations
	around the country.  You can  find Pacifica on the web

	And you can find all of the Pacifica stations at
		http://www.<call letters>.org

	where the <call letters>" are KPFA, KPFK, KPFT, WBAI, and WPFW.
	Some of those stations have their own web sites; for example,
	WBAI is found at:, or at 99.5 FM if you
	happen to be in New York.  KPFT is at 90.1 FM is in Houston, Texas.

Q. How do I get my hands on general NPR info?

	To order transcripts online:  telnet - select
	Information Databases, select Journal Graphics.  For more info,
	e-mail to Include as much info as possible,
	including your credit card number and they'll e-mail you the
	transcript.  Don't feel safe throwing your credit card number
	thru unsecure (insecure?! :-)  ) e-mail, call 202-414-3232,
	which is NPR's Audience Services, or send $12.90 (plus
	2.50 shipping/handling) for cassettes of TALK programs (2 hours)
	to NPR Tapes, 635 Massachusetts Avenue N.W. Washington, DC 20001-3753
	-- please indicate the date of the broadcast. By the way,
	transcripts are $10.00 (plus $1.50 shipping/handling).

	In fact, anybody who wants to contact NPR should call Audience
	Services between 10 AM and 5 PM ET Monday through Friday.
	(Sorry, folks no 800 number.)

Q. How can I find out about books and albums mentioned on the air?

	The booklist and album list produced by Erika Grams at WUNC is
	posted weekly on and other appropriate
	news groups. They list books and albums reviewed or discussed
	recently on the NPR news programs. The booklists 6/93-Present
	are available via gopher under the NEWS! option
	or via anaonymous ftp

Q. How can I get my paws on some of the music I've heard on the air?

	PRMS 800 # to order music:

	You can order WBFO music (and the music of many public radio
	stations, and music mentioned in many NPR features) through the
	MAIL with PRMS (Public Radio Music Source).
	Order recordings (CDs & cassettes) heard on WBFO with the 800 #.

	Call   1-800-75-MUSIC
	That's 1-800-756-8742.
	Hours are 8am -- 1am.

	The # is toll free. CDs go for retail plus shipping/handling.
	Participating Public Radio stations, like WBFO, benefit from PRMS sales.
	PRMS tries to keep up-to-date with music heard on public radio as
	a service to public radio listeners.

Q. Are there are books and articles about, or by NPR or NPR people?

	"NPR - A Cast of Characters"

	Thomas Looker, "The Sound and the Story" 1995
	Anecdotal look at NPR's news programming

	Linda Wertheimer's new book collecting text of stories, 
	commentaries, etc. from ATC's first 25 years, entitled
	"Listening to America".

	Numerous books by Garrison Keillor

	"Car Talk" by Tom & Ray Magliozzi, with Terry Bisson,
	published by Dell, 1991.

	And really, really trivial:  Dan Zwerdling and his wife used to 
	write neighborhood restaurant reviews for the Virginia Weekly 	
	section of the Washington Post.  

	Noah Adams' book

	"Fridays With Red: A Radio Friendship" by Bob Edwards,
	about his relationship with Red Barber.  1993, Simon & Schuster,
	ISBN 0-671-87013-0.

	Dave Isay

	His book, "Holding On" (Norton, 1996) is based on a radio series
	he did for ATC.  There's also a companion CD on Shanachie.  If
	you can't find it, email him at or give him
	a call at his non-profit radio production office in NYC at
	(212) 353-2548.  He has another book. "A Way Out of Nowhere"
	(Scribner) based on radio documentaries he did with two kids
	growing up on South Side of Chicago, coming out in June '97.

	"The Puzzlemasters Presents" (Times Books) is a collection
	of 200 of Will's best mind twisters heard on NPR's Weekend
	Edition Sunday.

	Robert Siegel's "The NPR Interviews 1994	

	Susan Stamberg's bibliography (fragmentary, could use
		help fleshing this out):

		All Things Considered--10th anniversary 1981
		American Women, A Political Portrait. 1982
		April continental magazine 1983
		The Battle of Midway 1982
		The Best of All Things Considered 1985
    		Comedy journal 1982
   		A Conversation with Poet Laureate Rita D 1993
		A Decade of change the world's women gat 1985
		Dying, death and bereavement 1993
		Eleanor Roosevelt remembered 1984
		Elevators 1978
		Every night at five : Susan Stamberg's 1982
		Family and intergenerational relationships 1993
		FDR rememberedd 1982
		February continental magazine 1983
		The future of aging 1993
		Goodbye Saigon, hello Ho Chi Minh City 1985
		How the body ages 1993
		Hungary's "market socialism" 1981
		Illness and disability 1993
		Intellect, personality and mental health 1993
		January continental magazine 1983

Q. How about recordings made by NPR people?  (i.e. non-broadcast material)

	Bailey White's "First Words -- Dead on the Road" is available
	on cassette, and maybe CD, read by the author. Many other NPR
	commentators' works are also available...including Andre
	Codrescu, Tom Bodett, and Lynda Barry. I think the label
	("Dove") is an offshoot of the "Windham Hill" label.

Q. What's the relationship of NPR to PBS?

	See above.

Q. How did NPR originally come about?

	National Public Radio was founded in the early 1970s, soon after
	the creation of the CPB.  NPR owns and operates many
	geosynchronous communication satellites that are used to transmit
	not just NPR-produced programs, but also programs produced by CPB
	affiliated organizations.

Q. Can I get NPR programming outside the US?

	NPR and PRI (Public Radio Int'l, formerly APR) can be heard overseas
	via get the info you want, e-mail to:

	Be sure and tell the folks there where you are writing from, they are 
	trying to gauge what kind of listenership NPR (and PRI) have overseas,
	and what kind of interest there is in this service.

	--- (Daniel Atkinson) writes:

	All Things Considered can be heard on AFN in Europe on Mediumwave.
	The best signal is on 873khz, and 1107 and 1143 are also used. I
	think the morning edition is also aired too, most probably in
	our mornings if I correctly recall their ads for it. It's best
	just to listen around to find interesting programmes and note
	their time.  Around this time of year (December) AFN can propagate
	the best part of 24hrs on 873khz.  ATC is aired at about
	21/22 UTC or sometime around that. Reception isn't brilliant,
	but it's listenable. 

Q. I've heard listener commentary on ATC/ME; how do I send mine in?

	All Things Considered Commentary Guidelines
	(courtesy of Ori Hoffer, transcript guru)
	The following are guidelines for submitting commentaries for
	possible broadcast.
	- Send a sample tape on cassette.
	- Include up to three commentaries on the tape.
	- Each commentary should be between 2 to 3 minutes in length--
	approximately 250 words.  Occasionally we accept pieces that
	are shorter or longer.
	- The tape does not have to be broadcast quality.  If we
	decide to use your commentary, we will arrange to have it
	professionally recorded.
	- If the subject matter of your commentary is timely, please
	indicate this on your package.
	- Scripts should be included.

	- Tapes and manuscripts will be returned if you send us a
	self-addressed, stamped padded envelope.  Manuscripts will be
	returned if you include a self-addressed stamped envelope.
	- Payment for commentaries that air is $150.00.
	- Send your tapes to:  Commentaries, All Things Considered,
	National Public Radio, 635 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington,
	DC 20001
	- You will receive a response within approximately 6 weeks.
	Thanks for your interest in All Things Considered and please
	keep listening.

Q. I like public radio so much I want to work for them; now what?

	From Rich Dean of NPR:

	You can find the public radio Job Opportunities bulletin on NPR's 
	gopher and Web sites.... its a long file (~130k), but pretty 
	comprehensive and will save you $25/year in subscription costs if you 
	don't work at a public radio station!

Q. Where else can I look for radio info?

Besides the places already mentioned, try KZSU's (Stanford) web site
at  Also try Chuck Taggart's home page,
which lists non-commercial stations all over the country: it's
found at

Q. How is public radio funded?  

[ under construction ]

	-- listener contributions
	-- general-purpose grants
	-- directed grants
	-- state/federal funds

Q. Is anybody saving all this?

A. Yes.  Besides lots of radio show collectors who probably have switched
from reels of half-track tape to DAT :-), there is an official archive.
The National Public Broadcasting Archives are at the University
of Maryland, and are the official repository of NPR, PBS, CPB and some
other organizations.  You can find them on the web at:

Q. Are there any other resources out there?

A.  Yup.  Here's one that I think is quite interesting, even though
I've just started exploring it:

	This site has program listings for radio stations in the New York
	City area, as well as links to other sites.  It's maintained
	by Rob Chin,

Q. Hey -- what about Mama Stamberg's Cranberry Relish recipe?

	Mama Stamberg's cranberry relish

	Ingredients:			2 	cups cooked cranberries
					1 	small onion
					1/2	cup sugar
					3/4	cup sour cream
					2	tablespoons horseradish

	Grind onion and cranberries together.
	Add remaining ingredients and mix well.
	Put into plastic container and freeze.
	Thaw in refrigerator a few hours before serving.

	Makes 1 1/2 pints.

Acknowledgements: Chris Bannon, Richard Dean, David Benders, Mark Eckenwiler,
Erika Grams, Michael Faklis, Amy Forsberg, Dave Cooper, Clay Zambo,
Peter Copeland, Richard Chonak, Steve Stroh, Randall S. Benn, Terry Coffey,
Joe Russo, Dan Schaffer, Susanne Havelson, Esther Vail, Clarence Taylor,
John C. Burant, Bert Holland, William Jenks, Ben Parker, Chriss Koch,
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Ned Wharton, Naomi Lewin, Glen Hoag, Doran Barons, John Felton,, Eric Robert Jablow, Tim Horrigan, Frank Belvin, Ron Bean,
Michael Carraher, Daniel Atkinson.

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