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Personal Computer CHIPLIST 9.9.5 part 1 of 5

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 )
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Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/chiplist/part1
Last-modified: 1998/06/14
Version: 9.9.5

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
    CHIPLIST 9.9.5 by Aad Offerman, 1998/07/26.

                                                       A. Offerman
                                                       Bonnweg 40
                                                       3137NE Vlaardingen
                                                       The Netherlands

Since there are a lot of questions about the differences between the various
chips used in the IBM PC, IBM PC/XT, IBM PC/AT, IBM PS/2 and compatibles, this
list, containing their CPUs and NPXs, has been compiled for the benefit of
the net community. I hope it can answer some questions.

This list is the result of collecting many snippets of information from
USENET News and data books. Furthermore, various contributors and others have
helped to make this list to what it is today. Thank you all.

Any corrections, additions, or comments are welcome. Please reply by E-mail

This list is cross-posted about once every month to the following newsgroups:

The latest version of this list can also be obtained from:  /pub/usenet/news.answers/pc-hardware-faq/chiplist/  /pub/texts/chiplist/chiplist.asc

The WWW HTML version of the latest Chiplist is available at:

The complete Chiplist in a single WWW HTML document is available at:


1  Introduction
1.1  Identification
1.2  Packages
1.3  Semiconductor processes
1.4  JEDEC (Joint Electronic Device Engeneering Council)
1.5  Manufacturers
1.5.1  Intel
1.5.2  AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)
1.5.3  IBM (International Bussiness Machines)
1.5.4  Chips & Technologies
1.5.5  Cyrix
1.5.6  Texas Instruments
1.5.7  UMC
1.5.8  NexGen
1.5.9  IIT (Integrated Information Technology)
1.5.10  Motorola
1.5.11  Apple
1.5.12  HP
1.5.13  DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation)
1.5.14  Renaissance Microsystems Inc.
1.5.15  IDT (Integrated Device Technology)
1.6  References

2  CPU (Central Processing Unit)
2.1  Introduction
2.2  Intel i4004 CPU
2.3  Intel i4040 CPU
2.4  Intel i8008 CPU
2.5  Intel i8080/i8080A CPU
2.6  Zilog Z80 CPU
2.7  Intel i8085A/i8085AH CPU
2.8  Intel i8086A/i80C86A CPU, Intel i8088A/i80C88A CPU
2.8.1  Intel i8086A/i80C86A CPU
2.8.2  Intel i8088A/i80C88A CPU
2.9  AMD Am8086/Am80C86 CPU, AMD Am8088/Am80C88 CPU
2.9.1  AMD Am8086/Am80C86 CPU
2.9.2  AMD Am8088/Am80C88 CPU
2.10  Harris HS80C86/883 CPU, Harris HS80C88/883 CPU
2.10.1  Harris HS80C86/883 CPU
2.10.2  Harris HS80C88/883 CPU
2.11  Siemens SAB8086 CPU, Siemens SAB8088 CPU
2.11.1  Siemens SAB8086 CPU
2.11.2  Siemens SAB8088 CPU
2.12  Hitachi H80C88 CPU
2.13  Contemporary CPUs
2.14  Intel i80186/i80C186 CPU, Intel i80188/i80C188 CPU
2.14.1  Intel i80186/i80C186 CPU
2.14.2  Intel i80188/i80C188 CPU
2.15  AMD Am80186/Am80188 CPU
2.15.1  AMD Am80L186 CPU
2.15.2  AMD Am80L188 CPU
2.15.3  AMD Am186EM CPU
2.16  NEC V30/V20 CPU
2.16.1  NEC V30 CPU
2.16.2  NEC V20 CPU
2.17  Siemens SAB80186 CPU, Siemens SAB80188 CPU
2.17.1  Siemens SAB80186 CPU
2.17.2  Siemens SAB80188 CPU
2.18  Intel i80886 CPU
2.19  Intel i80286 CPU
2.20  AMD Am80286/Am80C286 CPU
2.21  Harris 80C286 CPU
2.22  Siemens SAB80286 CPU
2.23  Fujitsu 80286 CPU
2.24  Kruger 80286 CPU
2.25  Intel i80386 CPU
2.25.1  Intel i80386/i80386DX CPU
2.25.2  Intel i80386SX CPU
2.25.3  Intel i80386SL CPU
2.25.4  Intel RapidCAD CPU
2.25.5  Intel i80376 microprocessor
2.25.6  Intel i386SX microprocessor
2.25.7  Intel i386CX microprocessor
2.25.8  Intel i386EX microprocessor
2.26  AMD Am386 CPU
2.26.1  AMD Am386DX CPU
2.26.2  AMD Am386DXL CPU
2.26.3  AMD Am386DXLV CPU
2.26.4  AMD Am386SX CPU
2.26.5  AMD Am386SXL CPU
2.26.6  AMD Am386SXLV CPU
2.26.7  AMD Am386DE CPU
2.26.8  AMD Am386SE CPU
2.26.9  AMD Am386EM CPU
2.27  IBM 386 CPU
2.27.1  IBM 386SLC CPU
2.28  Chips & Technologies 386 CPU
2.28.1  Chips & Technologies Super386 38600DX CPU
2.28.2  Chips & Technologies 38605DX CPU
2.28.3  Chips & Technologies 38600SX CPU
2.29  IBM 386/486 hybrid CPU
2.29.1  IBM 486DLC CPU
2.29.2  IBM 486DLC2 CPU
2.29.3  IBM 486SLC CPU
2.29.4  IBM 486SLC2 CPU
2.29.5  IBM 486BLX CPU (Blue Lightning)
2.29.6  IBM 486BLX2 CPU (Blue Lightning)
2.29.7  IBM 486BLX3 CPU (Blue Lightning)
2.30  Cyrix 386/486 hybrid CPU
2.30.1  Cyrix Cx486DLC CPU
2.30.2  Cyrix Cx486SLC CPU
2.30.3  Cyrix Cx486SLC/e CPU
2.30.4  Cyrix Cx486SLC/e-V CPU
2.30.5  Cyrix Cx486DLC / Cx486SLC CPU incompatibilities
2.30.6  Cyrix Cx486DLC2 CPU
2.30.7  Cyrix Cx486SLC2 CPU
2.30.8  Cyrix Cx486DRx CPU
2.30.9  Cyrix Cx486SRx CPU
2.30.10  Cyrix Cx486DRx2 CPU
2.30.11  Cyrix Cx486SRx2 CPU
2.30.12  Cyrix Cx486DRu CPU
2.30.13  Cyrix Cx486SRu CPU
2.30.14  Cyrix Cx486DRu2 CPU
2.30.15  Cyrix Cx486SRu2 CPU
2.31  Texas Instruments 386/486 hybrid CPU
2.31.1  Texas Instruments TI486DLC CPU
2.31.2  Texas Instruments TI486SLC CPU
2.31.3  Texas Instruments TI486SXL-S-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.31.4  Texas Instruments TI486SXL-VS-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.31.5  Texas Instruments TI486SXL2-S-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.31.6  Texas Instruments TI486SXL2-VS-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.31.7  Texas Instruments TI486SXLC-PAF CPU (Potomac)
2.31.8  Texas Instruments TI486SXLC-V-PAF CPU (Potomac)
2.31.9  Texas Instruments TI486SXLC2-PAF CPU (Potomac)
2.31.10  Texas Instruments TI486SXLC2-V-PAF CPU (Potomac)
2.31.11  Texas Instruments announcements
2.32  Intel i80486 CPU
2.32.1  Intel i80486DX P4 CPU
2.32.2  Intel i80486SL CPU
2.32.3  Intel i80486DXL CPU
2.32.4  Intel i80486SX P23 CPU
2.32.5  Intel i80486SXL CPU
2.32.6  Intel i80486DX2 P24 CPU
2.32.7  Intel i80486DX4 P24C CPU
2.32.8  Intel i80486SX2 CPU
2.33  AMD Am486 CPU
2.33.1  AMD Am486DX CPU
2.33.2  AMD Am486DXL CPU
2.33.3  AMD Am486DXLV CPU
2.33.4  AMD Am486DX2 CPU
2.33.5  AMD Am486DXL2 CPU
2.33.6  AMD Am486DX4 CPU
2.33.7  AMD Am486SX CPU
2.33.8  AMD Am486SXLV CPU
2.33.9  AMD Am486SX2 CPU
2.33.10  AMD Am486SE CPU
2.33.11  AMD Am486DX4 SE CPU
2.33.12  AMD Am5x86 X5 CPU
2.34  IBM 80486 CPU
2.34.1  IBM 80486DX CPU
2.34.2  IBM 80486SX CPU
2.34.3  IBM 80486BLDX2 CPU (Blue Lightning)
2.35  IBM 5x86C CPU
2.36  Cyrix Cx486 CPU
2.36.1  Cyrix FasCache Cx486D CPU
2.36.2  Cyrix FasCache Cx486S CPU
2.36.3  Cyrix FasCache Cx486S/e CPU
2.36.4  Cyrix FasCache Cx486S-V CPU
2.36.5  Cyrix FasCache Cx486S2 CPU
2.36.6  Cyrix FasCache Cx486S2/e CPU
2.36.7  Cyrix FasCache Cx486S2-V CPU
2.36.8  Cyrix FasCache Cx486DX CPU
2.36.9  Cyrix FasCache Cx486DX-V33 CPU
2.36.10  Cyrix FasCache Cx486DX2 CPU
2.36.11  Cyrix FasCache Cx486DX2-V33 CPU
2.36.12  Cyrix FasCache Cx486DX2-V CPU
2.36.13  Cyrix FasCache Cx486DX4 CPU
2.36.14  Cyrix 5x86 CPU
2.37  Texas Instruments TI486 CPU
2.37.1  Texas Instruments TI486SXL-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.37.2  Texas Instruments TI486SXL-V-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.37.3  Texas Instruments TI486SXL2-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.37.4  Texas Instruments TI486SXL2-V-GA CPU (Potomac)
2.37.5  Texas Instruments TI486DX2 CPU
2.37.6  Texas Instruments TI486DX4 CPU
2.38 SGS-Thomson ST486 CPU
2.38.1  SGS-Thomson ST486DX2 CPU
2.39  UMC 486 CPU
2.39.1  UMC U5S CPU
2.39.2  UMC U5SD CPU
2.39.3  UMC U5SF CPU
2.39.4  UMC U5SLV CPU
2.39.5  UMC U5FLV CPU
2.39.6  UMC U486DX2 CPU
2.39.7  UMC U486SX2 CPU
2.40  Intel OverDrive CPU for Intel i80486 CPU
2.40.1  Intel i80486DX2 CPU for Intel i80486DX CPU (ODPR)
2.40.2  Intel i80486DX2 CPU for Intel i80486SX CPU (ODPR)
2.40.3  Intel i80486DX2 CPU for Intel i80486DX CPU (ODP)
2.40.4  Intel i80486DX2 CPU for Intel i80486SX CPU (ODP)
2.40.5  Intel i80486DX4 CPU for Intel i80486DX CPU, Intel i80486DX2 CPU (ODP)
2.40.6  Intel Pentium P24T CPU (ODP)
2.40.7  Intel Pentium P24CT CPU (ODP)
2.41  Cyrix Overdrive CPU
2.42  Intel Pentium CPU
2.42.1  Intel Pentium P5 CPU
2.42.2  Intel Pentium P54C CPU
2.43  Intel OverDrive CPU for Intel Pentium CPU
2.43.1  Intel Pentium P54M CPU
2.43.2  Intel Pentium OverDrive CPU
2.44  AMD K5 CPU (K86 series)
2.44.1  AMD 5k86 K5 CPU (K86 series)
2.44.2  AMD 5k86 SSA/5 CPU (K86 series)
2.45  Cyrix 586 CPU
2.45.1  Cyrix Cx5x86 CPU
2.46  NexGen Nx586/Nx587 CPU chipset
2.47  Intel Pentium Pro P6 CPU
2.47.1  Intel Pentium Pro P6L CPU
2.48  Intel OverDrive CPU
2.48.1  Intel OverDrive P6T CPU
2.49  IBM 6x86 CPU
2.49.1  IBM 6x86 CPU
2.49.2  IBM 6x86L CPU
2.50  Cyrix 6x86 CPU
2.51  NexGen Nx686 CPU
2.52  Intel MMX technology
2.53  Intel Pentium/MMX P55C CPU
2.54  Intel Mobile Pentium/MMX CPU
2.55  Intel Pentium/MMX OverDrive CPU
2.56  Intel Pentium II CPU
2.56.1  Intel Pentium II CPU
2.56.2  Intel Pentium II CPU
2.56.3  Intel Pentium Celeron CPU
2.56.4  Intel Mobile Pentium II CPU
2.56.5  Intel Pentium II Xeon CPU
2.56.6  Intel Katmai CPU
2.56.7  Intel announcements
2.57  AMD K6 CPU
2.57.1  AMD K6-2 CPU
2.57.2  AMD announcements
2.58  IBM 6x86MX CPU
2.59  Cyrix 6x86MX CPU
2.60  Centaur IDT WinChip C6 CPU
2.60.1  Centaur IDT WinChip C6+ CPU
2.60.1  Centaur IDT WinChip-2-3D C6+ CPU
2.61  Multi-Media CPU
2.61.1  Cyrix MediaGX CPU
2.62  DEC Alpha CPU
2.62.1  DEC DECchip-210 Alpha CPU
2.62.2  DEC DECchip-211 Alpha CPU
2.62.3  DEC DECchip-212 Alpha CPU
2.63  MIPS CPU
2.63.1  MIPS R4000 CPU
2.63.2  MIPS R4200 CPU
2.63.3  MIPS R4400 CPU
2.63.4  MIPS Orion R4600 CPU
2.63.5  MIPS R10000 CPU
2.63.6  MIPS announcements
2.64  IBM, Motorola PowerPC CPU
2.64.1  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 401 CPU
2.64.2  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 601 CPU
2.64.3  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 602 CPU
2.64.4  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 603 CPU
2.64.5  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 603e CPU
2.64.6  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 604 CPU
2.64.7  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 604e CPU
2.64.8  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 615 CPU
2.64.9  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 620 CPU
2.64.10  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 630 CPU
2.64.11  IBM, Motorola PowerPC 750 CPU
2.65  Sun Sparc CPU
2.66  HP PA CPU (Precision Architecture)
2.67  Java CPU
2.67.1  Sun microJava 701 CPU
2.68  Motorola CPU
2.68.1  Motorola MC6800 CPU
2.68.2  Motorola MC6802 CPU
2.68.3  Motorola MC68HC11 CPU
2.68.4  Motorola MC6809 CPU
2.68.5  Motorola MC68000 CPU
2.68.6  Motorola MC68008 CPU
2.68.7  Motorola MC68302 CPU
2.68.8  Motorola MC68010 CPU
2.68.9  Motorola MC68340 microprocessor
2.68.10  Motorola MC68020 CPU
2.68.11  Motorola MC68030 CPU
2.68.12  Motorola MC68040 CPU
2.68.13  Motorola MC68LC040 CPU
2.68.14  Motorola MC68040V CPU
2.68.15  Motorola MC68050 CPU
2.68.16  Motorola MC68060 CPU

3  NPX (Numerical Processor eXtension)
3.1 Introduction
3.2  Intel i8087 NPX
3.3  Intel i80287 NPX
3.4  AMD Am80287 NPX
3.4.1  AMD Am80C287 NPX
3.4.2  AMD Am80EC287 NPX
3.5  Cyrix Cx287 NPX
3.6  Intel i80187 NPX
3.7  Intel i80287XL NPX
3.8  Cyrix FasMath Cx82S87 NPX
3.9  IIT IIT-2C87 NPX
3.10  Intel i80387 NPX
3.10.1  Intel i80387 NPX
3.10.2  Intel i80387DX NPX
3.10.3  Intel i80387SX NPX
3.10.4  Intel i80387SL Mobile NPX
3.10.5  Intel i80X87SL Mobile NPX
3.11  Chips & Technologies SuperMath 38700 NPX
3.11.1  Chips & Technologies SuperMath 38700DX NPX
3.11.2  Chips & Technologies SuperMath 38700SX NPX
3.12  Cyrix 80387 NPX
3.12.1  Cyrix FasMath Cx83D87 NPX
3.12.2  Cyrix FasMath Cx387+ NPX
3.12.3  Cyrix FasMath EMC87 NPX
3.12.4  Cyrix FasMath 83S87 NPX
3.12.5  Cyrix Cx387DX NPX
3.12.6  Cyrix Cx387SX NPX
3.12.7  Cyrix Cx387 NPX announcements
3.13  IIT IIT-3C87 NPX
3.13.1  IIT IIT-3C87 NPX
3.13.2  IIT IIT-3C87SX NPX
3.13.3  IIT IIT-XC87DLX2 NPX
3.14  ULSI Math*Co 83C87 NPX
3.15  ULSI Math*Co 83S87 NPX
3.16  Weitek Abacus 1167 NPX
3.17  Weitek Abacus 3167 NPX
3.18  RISE 80387 NPX
3.19  Symphony Laboratories 80387 NPX
3.20  Cyrix Cx4C87DLC NPX
3.21  IIT IIT-4C87 NPX
3.21.1  IIT IIT-4C87DLC NPX
3.21.2  IIT IIT-4C87 NPX announcements
3.22  Intel i80487 NPX
3.22.1  Intel i80487SX P23N NPX
3.22.2  Intel i80487 NPX
3.23  Cyrix Cx487S NPX
3.24  Weitek Abacus 4167 NPX


    1  Introduction

    1.1  Identification

Manufacturer: name and/or logo.
Part number.
Revision number, step level.
Date: often the week number and the year of manufacturing.

Memory chips: capacity: 64, 256 kbit,
                        1, 4, 16, 64 Mbit,
              speed: 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 100, 120, 150 ns.

Orientation: indicated by a hole or a dot; from this indication the pin
             numbering starts contra clock-wise with number 1.

For microprocessors at boot the chip mask revision number is often left in one
of the control registers.

In the newer SL enhanced Intel i80486 CPUs (if bit 21 in EFLAGS can be
toggled) and the Intel Pentium CPUs a CPUID instruction is available:
  EAX=0: EAX: highest input value recognized by CPUID
         EBX-EDX: vendor ID string: Intel: "GenuineIntel"
                                    AMD: "AuthenticAMD"
                                    Cyrix: "CyrixInstead"
                                    NexGen: "NexGenDriven"
                                    UMC: "UMC UMC UMC "
  EAX=1: EAX: bit 0-3: step level
              bit 4-7: model
              bit 8-11: family: 4: 486,
                                5: Pentium
              bit 12-31: reserved
         EBX-ECX: reserved
         EDX (feature bits): bit 0: on-chip FPU
                             bit 1-6: I/O Breakpoints available
                                      Page Size extensions (single-level page
                                        table with 4 Mbyte pages)
                                      Time Stamp Counter available (RDTSC)
                                      Machine Specific Registers available
                             bit 7: Machine Check Exception
                             bit 8: CMPXCHG8B instruction
                             bit 9-31: reserved

    1.2  Packages

DIP (Dual In-line Package): o o o o o o o o

                            o o o o o o o o

CERDIP (CERamic Dual In-line Package).

PQFP (Plastic Quad Flat Package): surface mounted.
SQFP (Shrink Quad Flat Package): surface mounted, thermally enhanced.
MQFP (Metal Quad Flat Package).

PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier).

PGA (Pin Grid Array): o o o o o o o o
                      o o o o o o o o
                      o o         o o
                      o o         o o
                      o o         o o
                      o o         o o
                      o o o o o o o o
                      o o o o o o o o

SPGA (Pin Grid Array).
CPGA (Ceramic Pin Grid Array).
PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array).

SEC module (Single Edge Contact): consists of a PCB containing the processor
chip and the level 2 cache chips.

ZIF sockets (Zero Insertion Force) have a handle to fasten and loosen the chip
to and from its socket.

BGA (Ball Grid Array):
  The BGA system consists of balls on the chip package that fit into grips on
  the socket.
  Two new systems are developed by and available from Aries Electronics, Inc.:
  BallNest provides a four-fingered "nest" for each ball termination of the
  device to be socketed. On top of the BGA device a socket lid must be placed
  to hold it down. The BallLock system grips the balls of the BGA device,
  eliminating the need for a lid. A ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) version of the
  BGA socket is being worked on.

ZIP (Zigzag In-line Package): o o o o o o o o
                               o o o o o o o o

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory): 4116 16 k x 1 (1980),
                                     4164 64 k x 1 (1982),
                                     41256 256 k x 1 (1984),
                                     411000 1 M x 1 (1987, 1988).

SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module) (Wang): contains a complete RAM bank.
MAC SIMMs are only 8 bits wide; they don't contain a parity bit.
However, there are Personal Computers around in which parity checking can be
disabled, that can operate with 8 bit SIMMs.

  9-chip SIMM: 9 chips of 1 bit wide
  8-chip SIMM: 8 chips of 1 bit wide (MAC)
  3-chip SIMM: 2 chips of 4 bits wide and 1 chip of 1 bit wide
               3 chips of 3 bits wide
  2-chip SIMM: 2 chips of 4 bits wide (MAC)

If the correct refresh is supplied, SIMMs with a different number of chips and
different speed can be used together.

SIP (Single In-line Package): contains a complete RAM bank.

The orientation of SIMMs and SIPs is indicated by a hole. Starting from this
indication the numbering of the pins starts with number 1. Apart from the pins
there is no difference at all between SIMMs and SIPs.

The normal SIMMs and SIPs have 30 pads/pins. There are also 36 pin SIMMs and
SIPs. The extra pins are used for speed detection by the motherboard.

There are also 72 pin SIMMs. These are 32 bits and 4 parity bits wide. 4 pins
are assigned for speed detection. They are mostly used in 486 class and higher
Personal Computers.
Capacity: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Mbyte.

DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module): 64 bit memory module.
They have 168 pads. They can only be found in the newer Pentium class Personal

Memory banks, consisting of 1, 2, or 4 sockets, should always be filled
completely. The number of sockets in a bank depends on the width of the memory
module and the width of the processor's address bus. For example, a bank in a
486 class motherboard (32 bit address bus) might need four 8 bit SIMMs, or a
single 32 bit SIMM.

EDO RAM (Extended Data Output): faster access method.
This can only be found in the newer Pentium class Personal Computers.

SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM): clock synchronized with the CPU busses.
This can only be found in the newer Pentium class Personal Computers.

    1.3  Semiconductor processes

RTL (Resistor-Transistor Logic): SSI (Small Scale Integration).

DTL (Diode-Transistor Logic): SSI.

TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) (Texas Instruments, 1965): bipolar,
  SSI, MSI (Medium Scale Integration), LSI (Large Scale Integration).

  7400 series: 0 - 70 C.
  5400 series: -55 - 125 C (military).

  5400, 7400: 10 ns propagation time,
  54L00, 74L00: Low power: higher resistances, less dissipation: longer
                propagation time,
  54H00, 74H00: High power: lower resistances, more dissipation: less
                sensitivity for noise,
  54S00, 74S00: Schottky-clamped: faster switching by using Schottky diodes
                                  to prevent the transistors from saturation,
  54LS00, 74LS00: Low power, Schottky-clamped,
  54AS00, 74AS00: Advanced Schottky: faster switching, less dissipation,
  54ALS00, 74ALS00: Advanced Low power Schottky.

I2L (Integrated Injection Logic) (1972): bipolar,
  LSI, VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration).

  Vcc: 0.8 V.
  Propagation time: 20 - 50 ns.
  Speed-power: 0.5 pJ.

ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic, Current Mode Logic): bipolar.

  Propagation time: 0.5 - 2 ns.
  Dissipation: 3 - 10 times higher than TTL.

MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor): FET (Field-Effect Transistors).

  Maximum frequency: 25 MHz.

PMOS (Positive-channel MOS): LSI, VLSI.

NMOS (Negative-channel MOS): LSI, VLSI.

  Faster than PMOS.

HMOS (High performance n-channel MOS): LSI, VLSI.

CMOS (Complementary MOS): LSI, VLSI, ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration).

  Better current management combining n- and p-channels.
  Originally slower than NMOS.

CMOS-SOS (Silicon On Sapphire).

  Low capitance.
  100 MHz.

  Developed by military for radiation hardness in space and tactical/strategic
  nuclear warfare environments.

For a long time 0.6 micron geometries were thought to be a limit imposed by
the electron microscopes used for mask alignment, but then the X-ray
lithography was invented.
Now, the EUV LLC (EUV Limited Liability Company), consisting of Intel, AMD,
and Motorola, and the VNL (Virtual National Laboratory), are working on an
advanced lithography research project EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet), which will
allow industries to etch circuit lines smaller than 0.1 micron widths. The
EUV technology uses mirrors instead of lenses for the mask light exposure.

In September 1997 IBM started manufacturing chips with copper metal layers
instead of aluminium. Copper is a better conductor, and allows for circuit
lines smaller than 0.1 micron widths. Corrosion of the silicium by the copper
is avoided by using a fusion barrier sealer in between.

    1.4  JEDEC (Joint Electronic Device Engeneering Council)

JEDEC was first known for their DIP definitions for memory chips.

JEDEC has suggested a new standard of 3.3 V for all electronic components,
including CPUs. CPUs operating at 3.3 V consume less than 50 % of the power
of their 5 V equivalents. Intel currently uses a manufacturing process with a
resolution of 0.8 micron, but is starting production with a 0.6 micron
process. This produces chips that can only operate reliably at 3.3 V, which
means that all its future CPUs are likely to operate only at this lower

    1.5  Manufacturers

    1.5.1  Intel

In July 1997 Intel acquired Chips & Technologies.

Intel fax-back service: 1-800-628-2283.
European Centre: +44 (0) 1793-432509.

Intel WWW server:
Intel FTP site:

Intel European Centre: +44 (0) 1793-431155.
Resellers: +44 (0) 1793-432955.

    1.5.2  AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)

In 1996 AMD acquired NexGen.

AMD European Corporate Applications Technical Hot-Line Support:

AMD WWW server:
AMD FTP site:

    1.5.3  IBM (International Bussiness Machines)

IBM WWW server:

    1.5.4  Chips & Technologies

Chips & Technologies has dropped its development of X86 clones.

Acquired by Intel in July 1997.

    1.5.5  Cyrix

Acquired by National Semiconductor in July 1997.

Cyrix WWW server:

Cyrix fax-back service: 1-800-46-CYRIX (1-800-462-9749).

    1.5.6  Texas Instruments

TI FTP site:

    1.5.7  UMC

    1.5.8  NexGen

Acquired by AMD in 1996.

NexGen WWW server:

    1.5.9  IIT (Integrated Information Technology)

    1.5.10  Motorola

Motorola WWW server:

    1.5.11  Apple

Apple WWW server:

    1.5.12  HP

HP WWW server:
HP FTP server:

    1.5.13  DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation)

DEC WWW server:

    1.5.14  Renaissance Microsystems Inc.

Developping PowerPC clones.

    1.5.15  IDT (Integrated Device Technology)

IDT WWW server:
Centaur Technology WWW server:

    1.6  References

Andrew S. Tanenbaum: Structured Computer Organization (Prentice-Hall)
A.J. van de Goor: Computer Architecture and Design (Addison-Wesley)
William Stallings: Computer Organization and Architecture (MacMillan)
John L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson: Computer Architecture, a Quantitative
  Approach (Morgan Kaufman)
Norbert Juffa: Performance Comparison Intel 386DX, Intel RapidCAD, C&T 38600DX,
  Cyrix 486DLC (USENET News)
Norbert Juffa: Everything you always wanted to know about math coprocessors
  (USENET News)

Chip Directory, by Jaap van Ganswijk:

Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers, by Ken Polsson:

CPU Info Center:

Intel Secrets; What Intel doesn't want you to know, by Robert Collins:
  FTP: /pub/x86/

Internet Microcontroller/Microprocessor/CPU Directory:

MicroDesign Resources:

PC Hardware Links, by Chris Hare:

Tom's Hardware Guide:

Compiled, Copyright 1993 - 1998, by A. Offerman. Permission to use, copy, or
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