Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Internet FAQ Archives

PC 3D Graphics Accelerators FAQ (Part 1 of 2)

( Part1 - Part2 )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Houses ]
Posted-By: auto-faq
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/3dgraphics-cards/part1

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge

                       PC 3D Graphics Accelerators FAQ

                                    v 1.2
                                19 March 1996


Changes and additions to

This document provides a partial -- and not comprehensive -- list of 3D
graphics accelerators for PCs. In particular, I am interested in PCI-based
accelerators. You can help make it more comprehensive by sending me
additional information and/or updates. This information is abstracted and
condensed from the posts of many different contributors. No guarantees are
made regarding its accuracy.

The original motivation for this document came from a list of accelerators
compiled by Chris Hinch, Management Information Systems, Dunedin City
Council, PO Box 5045, Dunedin, New Zealand (

Here are some 3D accelerator related Web sites:

     "Web Page For 3D accelerator chipsets and graphics cards" by Tiitus Leo
     "Tommy's and Biff's 3D Accelerator Pages"

If you have or know of a 3D accelerator related site, please email it to me.


   * Changes since version 1.2
     New entries:
        o CS12) 3DLabs GLINTdelta
     Changed entries:
        o GLINT08) Changed the chipset details.
   * Changes since version 1.1
     Changed entries:
        o B10) Changed contact info.
   * Changes since version 0.95
     New entries:
        o B11) Matrox Millenium
        o B12) APD Free Dimension
        o B13) Arcobel Imagine
        o B14) Synthetic Images Reality Blaster
        o B15) S3 ViRGE and ViRGE/VX
        o NVIDIA02) Jazz Multimedia 3D Magic
        o NVIDIA03) Genoa Stratos 3D
        o CS09) 3Dfx Voodoo
        o CS10) TriTech Pyramid3D TR25201
        o CS11) VideoLogic PowerVR
     Changed entries:
        o B06) Added GLZ1T and pixel fix rate.
        o GLINT08) fixed typo in polygon rate, added note that PCI version
          will probably support OpenGL and might be based on the Rendition
          Verite instead of the PERMEDIA.
   * Older changes at the end


   * organize the information a bit better, remove some extraneous or
     duplicate info.
   * answer some frequently asked questions
   * get more hard data comparing the boards, such as the output of the
     OpenGL viewperf program. If any manufacturers want to send me a demo
     unit, or donate one to our group, my address is above.
   * add more info, as people request and provide it!


Contents of Part 1

   * Introduction
   * Disclaimer
   * Section I: Frequently Asked Questions
        o Q01) Are there any 3D graphics accelerators for PCs?
        o Q02) How does the performance of these cards compare to graphics
          workstations such as those produced by SGI, Sun, DEC, etc?
   * Section II: 3D Chipsets
        o CS01) 3DLabs GLINT 300SX
        o CS02) Lockheed Martin Real3D (not yet available)
        o CS03) S-MOS SPC1500 Geometry Processor
        o CS04) ARTIST Graphics 3GA Graphics Processor
        o CS05) NVidia/SGS-THOMSON NV1/STG-2000 Multimedia Accelerators
        o CS06) Rendition Vérité
        o CS07) Chromatic Research Mpact
        o CS08) 3DLabs Permedia
        o CS09) 3Dfx Voodoo
        o CS10) TriTech Pyramid3D TR25201
        o CS11) VideoLogic PowerVR
        o CS12) 3DLabs GLINTdelta
   * Section III: Boards using Chips in Section II
        o GLINT01) Omnicomp 3DEMON
        o GLINT02) Fujitsu Sapphire 2SX
        o GLINT03) ELSA GLoria
        o GLINT04) Omnicomp 3Demon VR (was Media Labs Inc. 3DMedia)
        o GLINT05) SPEA FireGL
        o GLINT06) Force Inc. 3DE-300SX
        o GLINT07) Densan PCI-300SX
        o GLINT08) Creative Labs' 3D Blaster
        o GLINT09) Microstep AGC-3D
        o R3D01) Lockheed Martin R3D/100 (not yet available)
        o ARTIST01) ARTIST Graphics 2000 Series
        o NVIDIA01) Diamond Edge 3D Accelerators
        o NVIDIA02) Jazz Multimedia 3D Magic
        o NVIDIA03) Genoa Stratos 3D

Contents of Part 2

   * Section V: Other boards
        o B01) AccelGraphics AG300 and AG500
        o B02) ISC PowerGL
        o B03) Evans & Sutherland Freedom
        o B04) Matrox Impression Plus
        o B05) Oki TrianGL
        o B06) Intergraph GLZ Series
        o B07) Division's VPX Image Generator and ProVision Systems
        o B08) Reality Simulation Systems Little Squirt
        o B09) Western Digital Tasmania 3D
        o B10) Dynamic Pictures V192
        o B11) Matrox Millenium
        o B12) APD Free Dimension
        o B13) Arcobel Imagine
        o B14) Synthetic Images Reality Blaster
        o B15) S3 ViRGE and ViRGE/VX



The original motivation for compiling this list was to compare the features
of various 3D graphics accelerators becoming available for microcomputers.
In particular, I am interested in PCI-based cards which support OpenGL under
Windows NT, Linux, Solaris x86 (none yet!), etc. and support stereo head
mounted displays. (In fact, of the currently available boards, only one
qualifies. See if you can figure out which one.)

Information which falls in that category will obviously be more complete.
Other information will be included if someone sends it to me, but I won't be
actively researching it myself. As such, there is little or no information
right now about 3D accelerators for high-end machines such as those produced
by SGI, Sun, HP, DEC, etc, except as the ones listed may also work in those


I haven't seen or used many of these cards, and all figures are the
manufacturers own, as near as I can verify. I am not promoting any one card
or company over any other. Any anecdotes, speed comparisons, etc., that I
collect will be included on a purely informational level. USE AT YOUR OWN
RISK. Of course, I will not include anything I do not believe or know to be

No representation is made as to the accuracy of these figures/technical
specs. If you are going to buy/bet the farm/otherwise invest in one of these
products, CONTACT THE MANUFACTURER first and make sure that what you want is
what you'll get!!!

                              CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!

All trademarks etc are copyright of their respective owners etc. etc.

Furthermore, many of these boards are not yet available, so you should find
out delivery dates before getting your heart set on any given one.

Section I: Frequently Asked Questions

[return to index]

Q01) Are there any 3D graphics accelerators for PCs?

I'm glad you asked. There are quite a few, with more coming out all the
time. See the rest of this document for more information.

(Ok, it's a stupid question, but I needed something in the FAQ section)

Q02) How does the performance of these cards compare to graphics
workstations such as those produced by SGI, Sun, DEC, etc?

This question is difficult to answer because there are so many factors
affecting the overall 3D performance on a PC. Most importantly, while many
of the boards listed below have impressive numbers in terms of maximum
number of polygons/second, most only accelerate rendering. What this means
is that you are still bounded by the speed at which your processor can
transform a 3D data stream to a 2D perspective with lighting and material
effects and then ship these numbers over the bus to the graphics card. So,
the processor, processor speed, bus type and speed, software design, etc.,
all effect the final throughput. Thus, a board may perform differently on
two different machines that have the same "specs" (ie. 90Mhz Pentium, PCI
bus) if the bus was designed differently, or if there are other cards on the
bus taking up bandwidth.

What is really needed is a set of comprehensive benchmarks that give some
more realistic numbers about the various combinations of hardware. The NCGA
(National Computer Graphics Association) GPC (Graphics Performance
Committee) (comprised of the major vendors along with UNC and SDSC) is an
organization primarily concerned with developing benchmark standards and
performance characterizations for graphics hardware.

Check out

for information about the GPC activities.

Unfortunately, the GPC Quarterly is about US$200/year, which is beyond my
budget. Thus, to get their benchmark results, you'll have to talk to them.
However, the benchmarking tool they use to measure OpenGL performance,
called Viewperf, is available for free. From the README that comes with

    What is this Thing Called 'Viewperf'
    Rob Putney, OPC Vice Chairman

    Viewperf is a portable OpenGL performance benchmark program
    written in C. It was developed by IBM.  Viewperf provides a vast amount of
    flexibility in benchmarking OpenGL performance.  At the current time,
    the program runs on most implementations of UNIX, Windows NT, and OS/2.
    The OpenGL Performance Characterization (OPC) Committee has endorsed
    Viewperf as its first OpenGL benchmark and results
    were first published using it in 4Q94 version of The GPC Quarterly.

    OPC member companies have ported the Viewperf code to their operating
    system and window environments.  The OPC Committee maintains a single
    source code version of the Viewperf code that is available to the

In future versions of this FAQ, performance measurements will be added in
another section at the end. Stay tuned. If you have any measurements using
Viewperf, please send them to me (

Viewperf can currently be obtained from

If that directory does not work, try looking on the OpenGL home page at
which should contain a pointer to ViewPerf.

Q03) What are all the features, anyway?

Many of the features discussed in the 3D graphics card brochures may not be
meaningful to people not already familiar with 3D graphics. Z-buffering,
quadratic texture mapping, gouraud shading, fog, etc., are new to many
people. However, in the interest of time and space, I am not going to
discuss them here. For a comprehensive introduction, refer to a 3D graphics
textbook, such as "Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice" by Foley, van
Dam, Feiner and Hughes.

Section II: 3D Chipsets available now or in the near future.

There are numerous 3D chipsets being worked on, but these 2 happen to be the
ones I have detailed information both on the chips and on boards built using
them. If I get more information on other chips, I will include them here.

[return to index]

CS01) 3DLabs GLINT 300SX

First, a comment about the GLINT 300SX chip, which I will make because it
was not clear to me when I first read their specs. They mention texture
mapping acceleration, but on the 300SX texture maps are held in host memory
and per pixel information is sent to the chip which performs the necessary
interpolations and applications. For the upcoming 300TX, the texture maps
are held in local memory on the graphics card (the "localbuffer") and the
host just sends per vertex information to the chip which performs all the
texture mapping calculations.

Information on the 300SX can be obtained from the 3DLabs home page at
or by sending email to

The technical specs below were copied directly from the page

GLINT 300SX Overview

The GLINT 300SX high performance graphics processor combines workstation
class 3D graphics acceleration and state-of-the-art 2D performance in a
single chip.

GLINT is capable of processing 300,000 shaded, depth buffered and
anti-aliased polygons/second. The chip provides complete 32-bit color, 2D
and 3D acceleration, an on-chip PCI-compliant local bus interface and
integrated LUT-DAC control, making a complete graphics subsystem possible
with minimal chip count.

All the rendering operations of OpenGL are accelerated by the GLINT 300SX,
including Gouraud shading, depth buffering, anti-aliasing, alpha blending,
and texture mapping.


   * 100% OpenGL compliant rendering operations in hardware
   * Point, line, rectangle and polygon primitives
   * Gouraud shading, depth buffering, anti-aliasing, dithering, depth
     cueing, texture map filtering and alpha blending
   * 2.5 Giga operations per second
   * 300K Gouraud shaded, depth buffered triangles/sec


   * True color acceleration of window systems such as Win32 and X11
   * Accelerated bitBLT, line drawing, fills, text and window clipping


   * 64-bit hyper-pipelined architecture
   * Vertex level interface
   * 112-bit pixel datapath to memory
   * High quality 16 and 8-bpp dithering of 24-bit graphics images
   * Fast frame and depth buffer clears
   * Shared framebuffer interface for easy multimedia integration
   * VRAM block fill and bit masking
   * Anti-aliasing for high quality images at 4x4 and 8x8 sub-pixel


   * Resolutions up to 2560x2048
   * 8, 16 or 32-bits per pixel RGBA and 4 or 8-bit color indexed
   * Packed 8, 16 and 32-bit pixels
   * Supports advanced modes: double buffering, stereo and overlays

GLINT 300SX Graphics Architecture

The GLINT 300SX delivers 3D and GUI rendering functionality to improve the
performance and quality of graphics applications and APIs.

   * Gouraud shading
   * Depth buffering
   * Anti-aliasing
   * Dithering
   * Depth cueing and fog
   * Texture mapping
   * Scissor and stipple masking
   * Alpha blending
   * Logical Operations (e.g. XOR)

The unique hyper-pipelined architecture and 112-bit memory datapath ensure
that multiple rendering operations can be combined with no performance
penalty - allowing a Gouraud shaded polygon to be processed just as fast
when depth buffering, dithering and anti-aliasing are enabled.


The 64/32-bit framebuffer controller directly interfaces to VRAM or DRAM
framebuffers and supports a wide range of pixel depths, resolutions and
memory sizes - enabling systems to be tuned to meet specific
price/performance targets.

   * 1-32 MBytes VRAM or DRAM
   * 8,16 or 32-bit RGBA color
   * 4 or 8-bit color indexed
   * 2, 4, 8 pixels per 64-bit word
   * 640x480 to 2560x2048
   * VRAM arbitrary shape block fill
   * VRAM bit masking
   * Framebuffer bypass mode


The localbuffer holds optional off-screen information for each pixel
including; depth (Z) values, stencil data, arbitrary window clip planes,
plus a control field for fast window clearing. The format for each field is
user defined, up to a maximum of 48 bits.

   * 0-48 MBytes DRAM
   * 0-48-bits wide
     Depth: 0, 16, 24, 32-bit
     Stencil: 0, 4, 8-bit
     Window clipping: 0, 4-bit
     Fast depth clear: 4, 8-bit
   * Localbuffer bypass mode


An internal timing generator and VRAM transfer controller are incorporated
into the GLINT 300SX processor. Advanced systems requiring overlays, stereo,
interlace or very large framebuffers can be supported using an external
timing generator.


The GLINT 300SX's on-chip shared framebuffer interface is a fully integrated
implementation of S3's interface, allowing GLINT to use video and multimedia
co-processors, or for the GLINT to be used as a 3D coprocessor to an S3


The GLINT 300SX is the first of a family of GLINT graphics processors that
are designed to meet the demands of the graphics designer. The GLINT300TX,
is a second generation pin compatible processor that enhances the SX's
texture capabilities - supporting local texture storage and pixel address
generation for all OpenGL texturing modes.

NOTICE: 3Dlabs reserves the right to change the above specifications without

From looking at the various boards, it appears that typical performance
quotes are in the following range:

   * 3D Gouraud shaded, depth buffered, window clipped, stippled, dithered,
     and alpha tested rendering performance with 24-bit RGB color depth is
     the following:
        o 300K 25 pixel triangles/sec
        o 500K 10 pixel vectors/sec
        o 8M independent points/second
        o 500K 9x13 pixels characters/second
   * 2D Graphics performance
        o 1M 10 pixel vectors/sec
        o 500K 10x10 pixel, flat shaded rectangles/sec
        o 500K 9x13 pixels characters/second
        o Scroll Rate 48M pixels/second - 8 bits/pixel

[return to index]

CS02) Lockheed Martin Real3D

Information on the Lockheed Martin Read3D chipset was obtained from their
WWW server at the following URL:

Check there for more information, or call 1-800-393-7730, or send email to

The following is taken from a press release found at that site:

The REAL3D(tm) chipset is based on real-time computer image generation
technology that gives a combination of dynamic response and realism
previously available only on dedicated graphics workstations and high end
custom image generators.

The first product will be the R3D/100 graphics accelerator. Key performance
attributes of the new chip set include an embedded 100 MFLOPS geometry
processor, pixel write rates of up to 33 million pixels per second, up to
750,000 polygons per second, line processing up to 1.5 million per second,
and provides up to 192 color texture maps (128 x 128 mipmapped) in

The new product is an outgrowth of Lockheed Martin's proprietary computer
graphics technology previously used in high performance military simulation,
engineering research and training applications first developed for astronaut
training and military flight simulators.

The chip set provides faster processing through its patented hardware design
which incorporates geometry processing, rasterization and texture mapping.
The R3D/100 embedded floating point geometry processor removes significant
processing burden from the host CPU. The patented texture processor applies
color mipmapped texture to polygons in true 3D corrected perspective.

Designed as a true polygon processor with texture processing and scaleable
texture memory from the outset, the R3D/100 chip set includes dedicated
hardware acceleration of mipmapped texturing that provides continuous high
fidelity image quality. This chip set simulates spotlights, fog and
realistic curved surfaces. Additionally, improved image quality is provided
with multi-pass anti-aliasing.

The R3D/100 chip set directly interfaces with Microsoft 3D/DDI and supports
all 3D/DDI-compliant APIs, such as OpenGL(tm) and comes with device driver
software and a device driver kit.

[return to index]

CS03) S-MOS SPC1500 3D Graphics Geometry Processor

S-MOS Systems is offering the industry's first commercially available single
chip 3D geometry accelerator for the PC marketplace.

The SPC1500 will work together with any 3D rendering processors to
accelerate 3D graphics up to 300K+ lighted triangles per second.

Why is geometry processing acceleration important?
Rendering processors alone, even on Pentium class machines, can not deliver
true workstation class performance. This is because even the fastest CPUs
today are quickly overcome by the amount of algorithmic processing necessary
to transform a 3D data stream to a 2D perspective with lighting and material

The SPC1500 integrates a 150Mflop dual floating point engine, an on-chip DMA
processor, on-chip ROM to store the algorithm instruction set, and an
on-chip RAM cache to store customer instructions in a single 223 pin PGA

Easy integration
S-MOS Systems provides a complete design package for the system integrator
and board vendor.....

PCI Reference Designs
S-MOS Systems provides reference designs and evaluation kits showing the
capabilities of the SPC1500 running OpenGL on the WindowsNT platform. Full
technical manuals, electronic gerber files, and applications notes are

WindowsNT and OS/2 Support
S-MOS Systems provides OpenGL compliant software and system utilities for
the WindowsNT platform. This software supports any rendering board (2D or
3D) that supports 3D DDI. It will also supports direct data transfer to the
leading 3D rendering board vendors.

MacOS Support
S-MOS Systems will will support software drivers and system utilities for

An Acrobat version of the SPC1500 Datasheet is available via their page at

For more information contact Giri Venkat, Product Marketing Engineer, S-MOS
Systems (E-Mail:

CS04) ARTIST Graphics 3GA Graphics Processor

The 3GA is a 2D and 3D graphics coprocessor with a fast VGA core which means
that boards designed around the 3GA will not only run the next generation of
software, but will run the software programs of today faster than ever
before. Bus support for PCI, ISA, and MicroChannel means that the 3GA is one
of the most flexible graphics chips available, as well as the most powerful.

The 3GA's features include built-in Windows acceleration, 2D and 3D lines,
flat-shading, Gouraud-shading, and texture-mapping. Initial benchmarks show
that the 3GA is significantly faster than the S3 968 Windows accelerator.

Technical information about the chip design is also available, and if you
have Acrobat, you can view the full 24 page datasheet.

Information on the 3GA can be obtained from the ARTIST Graphics home page at


The technical specs below were copied directly from that page.


High performance 3D graphics processor

   * 16 bit Z-buffer for automatic hidden surface removal
   * Secondary 16 bit Z-buffer for arbitrary frontal Z clipping
   * Gouraud shading for realistic 3D rendering
   * Dithering for superior shading at 8 and 16 bits per pixel
   * Texture mapping to map 2D textures onto 3D surfaces
   * Six arithmetic raster operations (Add, Add with Saturation, Sub, Sub
     with Saturation, Min, Max)

Powerful 2D GUI accelerator

   * Accelerated drawing at 8, 16, 24 and 32 bits per pixel
   * 256 Microsoft Windows raster operations in hardware
   * Color expanding BitBLTs provide extremely fast text
   * On-chip 8 x 8 color expanding pattern
   * Variable sized color pattern up to 64 x 64 pixels
   * Rectangular and arbitrary region clipping
   * Multicolored "styled" lines and polylines
   * Eight stencil modes

Display controller

   * VRAM based display controller for maximum performance
   * Supports displays up to 2048 x 2048 pixels
   * Refresh rates up to 90Hz at 1600 x 1200 resolution
   * VESA DPMS support for green applications

Video interface

   * Shared frame buffer interface for multimedia
   * Supports S3 Vision/VA full video with a shared frame buffer

Flexible local memory

   * 64 bit wide memory bus
   * VRAM block write support
   * Supports 1 to 4 megabytes VRAM display memory
   * Supports 0 to 8 megabytes of off screen DRAM for Z-buffers, fonts, etc.

Single chip accelerator

   * On-chip 32 bit VGA for fast DOS performance
   * Support for Microsoft Plug & Play ISA specification
   * Interfaces directly to VESA VL-Bus and PCI with no glue logic
   * Interfaces to ISA bus with two 74F245 buffers
   * 128 byte host FIFO for passing data and commands
   * 240 pin plastic quad flat pack
   * 50 MHz clock frequency

Software drivers

   * Windows 3.1, Windows NT, Windows '95, OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 Warp
   * AutoCAD
   * Hoops
   * OpenGL
   * 3D APIs: Argonaut BRender, Criterion Software RenderWare, Rendermorphic
     Reality Lab, Inter 3DR

System Overview

A graphics system designed around the 3GA graphics accelerator requires only
VRAM, a video DAC, clock generator, and a small number of external buffers.
The 3GA graphics accelerator supports a 64 bit wide data path to its local
memory array and contains interfaces to an external clock generator, DAC,


Estimated performance, based on 8 bits per pixel, 10 pixel lines, 50 pixel
triangles, 90 MHz Pentium CPU, PCI bus.

2D lines........................................1,600,000 lines/second
3D lines (shades, Z-buffered).....................280,000 lines/second
2D texture mapped triangles........................75,000 triangles/second
3D texture mapped triangles (Z-buffered)...........65,000 triangles/second
3D Gouraud shaded triangles (Z-buffered)..........110,000 triangles/second
Screen-to-screen BitBLTs.......................80,000,000 pixels/second
Memory-to-screen BitBLTs (color expanding)....245,000,000 pixels/second
Fill rate...................................1,100,000,000 pixels/second


You can contact the ARTIST Sales Team on the Web, or by phone at:

   Tel: (800) 627 8478
        (612) 631 7800
   Fax: (612) 631 7802

or by sending email to

There is OpenGL support under NT.

[return to index]

CS05) NVidia/SGS-THOMSON NV1/STG-2000 Multimedia Accelerators

The information I currently have is from the press releases on the NVIDIA
Home page at

NVIDIA Corporation and SGS-THOMSON, today announced the introduction of the
NV1 and STG2000 Multimedia Accelerators. The first complete multimedia
accelerators, the NV1 and STG2000 represent the culmination of a strategic
partnership that began over a year ago. The technology will deliver powerful
multimedia capabilities exceeding that of next generation game consoles,
while preserving the versatility of the personal computer. Available now,
they are single-chip Multimedia Accelerators that delivers the power of
real-time photorealistic 3D graphics, full-motion video and special effects,
and concurrent high-fidelity audio for interactive multimedia.

They feature stunning 3D graphics capabilities with texture-mapping,
lighting effects, and a special feature called video texturing. This unique
feature allows developers to texture a 3D object with full- motion video,
creating new levels of realism never before possible in a PC application. In
addition, they deliver concurrent high-fidelity wave-table audio,
full-motion video acceleration, world-class GUI acceleration, enhanced
digital game port, and an internal synchronization timer for multimedia.

Market coverage will be provided by two versions of the multimedia
accelerator. NVIDIA will market and sell the NV1 (VRAM version) while
SGS-THOMSON will market and sell the STG2000 (DRAM version). Both products
are available with PCI and VL bus interfaces. The NV1 or STG2000 allow
leading-edge adapter card and PC OEMs to offer a multimedia sub-system with
dazzling 3D, wave-table audio, GUI acceleration, enhanced game port
performance, and video acceleration -- on a single-card with a street price
of around $200.

Information Contacts:

Bruce Brough, PR Contact
NVIDIA Corporation
Tel : (408) 438-0204
Fax : (408) 438-0204

J.P. Rossomme, PR Contact
Tel : (617)259-2534
Fax : (617)259-9423

There are no current plans to do an NT driver, or OpenGL, although some
third parties have expressed interest. They don't think consumers will be
running applications on OpenGL or NT. The chips does not support texture
memory. They do forward texture mapping: specify the control points (4 for
bilinear, 9 for quadratic surface), specify the subdivision of the texture,
then write texels. As you write each texel the chip computes its location
on-screen, optionally computes a blend value for it, and it shows up

I'm not sure, but it doesn't not appear to have a Z-buffer, either.

[return to index]

CS06) Rendition Vérité

The information I currently have is from the Rendition home page at

Rendition's first product, the Vérité(tm), is a single chip 3D graphics
engine, GUI accelerator, digital video accelerator and VGA engine for the
personal computer market designed for add-in graphics cards and OEM
motherboard implementation.

Advanced Rendering Features
The Vérité(tm) supports texture mapping with correct perspective, bilinear
filtering, z-buffering, alpha blending, fog, and other advanced rendering
features. These features will enable game developers to deliver the most
engaging, realistic interactive entertainment to date.

Sustainable High Performance
Design decisions were made with input of many game developers to ensure a
real performance advantage.

Embedded RISC Core
The Vérité(tm) employs a unique architecture, which combines a fully
programmable RISC core with a hard-wired pixel pipeline.

Optimized Memory Controller
In the cost-sensitive markets which Rendition will compete, it is imperative
to focus on total solution cost for the OEM customer. It uses low cost EDO

Support for Two Dimensional GUI and Multimedia Acceleration
The Vérité(tm) also provides conventional Windows acceleration, and
incorporates all control logic required for a standard graphics card. For
acceleration of digital video playback, e.g. MPEG and Indeo, the Vérité(tm)
provides YUV-to-RGB color space conversion and image scaling with bilinear
interpolation for smooth full-screen full-motion video playback.

VGA Compatibility
All of this advanced functionality will be of little value if users cannot
run their older applications. For this reason, Rendition has incorporated a
VGA-compatible core into the Vérité(tm).

[return to index]

CS07) Chromatic Research Mpact

The information I currently have is from the Mpact home page at

The Mpact media engine offers the complete multimedia solution for your PC.
For more information, go to their home page for complete technical specs and
white papers.

   * Vector processor optimized for video, graphics, audio and
     communications processing
   * VLIW architecture with single instruction multiple data (SIMD)
   * High performance (up to 2 billion operations/sec) for concurrent
     multimedia functions
   * PCI host interface with bus mastering capabilities
   * Interfaces to popular RAMDACs, video decoders and encoders, and audio
     and modem codecs
   * Interfaces to Rambus RDRAM; optimized for full operation with 2MB to
   * Loadable Mpact mediaware modules enable functions such as:
        o Video playback processing with color space conversion, scaling/
          interpolation, overlay and compositing
        o MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video, audio and system decoding
        o Real-time MPEG-1 video, audio and system encoding
        o JPEG encoding and decoding
        o Windows GUI acceleration (of all 256 ROPS)
        o Graphics output supporting display modes up to 1280 x 1024 x 18bpp
          at 75Hz
        o 3D graphics rendering with full shading, lighting, texture mapping
          and anti-aliasing support
        o Industry-standard sound card compatible audio (including FM
          synthesis and general MIDI)
        o Dolby AC-3 and MPEG audio; wavetable audio synthesis and waveguide
          physical modeling audio synthesis; 3D sound and effects
        o Modem and FAX communications up to 28,800 baud with telephony
          features such as speakerphone and simultaneous voice and data
        o H.320 and H.324 video conferencing
   * Optimized real-time multitasking kernel executes multiple Mpact
     mediaware modules concurrently

Contact Information:
Chromatic Research, Inc.
800A East Middlefield Road
Mountain View, CA 94043-4030

[return to index]

CS08) 3DLabs Permedia

The information I currently have is from the 3DLabs home page at

See section CS01 (3DLabs GLINT 300SX) for more pointers to 3DLabs.

PERMEDIA is a high performance graphics processor that balances high quality
3D texturing and graphics performance with leading edge Windows, Video and
SVGA acceleration. Based on a proven low-cost and scaleable architecture,
PERMEDIA pervasive 3D and multimedia applications, including: games,
animation, authoring, web browsing, design, visualization, publishing and
general multimedia applications.

PERMEDIA sets the standard for 3D and multimedia acceleration, making it the
ideal solution to meet the increasingly pervasive need for balanced 3D and
multimedia acceleration - and all in a single, low cost PCI device.

Pervasive 3D & Multimedia Features

   * 25M pixels/sec - textured, bilinear filtered with perspective
   * 500K polygons/sec - textured, bilinear filtered with perspective
   * Balanced 3D feature set
   * Ideal for games and pervasive 3D
        o High quality texture mapping
        o Smooth and Flat shading
        o Optional Z-buffer
        o Fog and depth cueing
        o Polygon based with sprites
   * Standard setting Windows acceleration
   * Accelerated video playback
   * Fast on-chip SVGA
   * Optimized software drivers
   * Register level interface
   * Low-cost PCI design

[return to index]

CS09) 3Dfx Voodoo

The information in this section was taken from various press releases about
the Voodoo Graphics chipset. I have no contact information for 3Dfx, and no
email to has yielded a response.

3Dfx Interactive, Inc. has released information on Voodoo Graphics™, a 3D
graphics accelerator specifically designed for 3D entertainment applications
in the coin-operated/arcade and home consumer markets. Designed to enable a
new class of realistic and highly interactive 3D games, Voodoo Graphics
offers expanded capabilities above and beyond the basic 3D functionality
that will be found in commodity Windows and multimedia accelerators. Major
consumer and coin-op OEMs and developers have announced support for the

3Dfx Interactive has announced that Orchid Technology and FMI Graphics
Products, a business unit of Fujitsu Microelectronics, Inc. have signed OEM
agreements to develop consumer 3D game boards based on Voodoo Graphics.

In addition to elementary 3D functionality, including perspective correct
polygons with point sampled texture mapping, Z- and double-buffering,
Gouraud shading capabilities and standard VGA resolution, 3Dfx Interactive
has also included level-of-detail (LOD) MIP mapping, bi-linear and advanced
filtering and SVGA resolution support. In addition, the chipset delivers
realistic imagery through sub-pixel correction, alpha blending, and
anti-aliasing. Most importantly however, unlike other multimedia
accelerators that suffer significant performance degradation when available
3D features are used, Voodoo Graphics was designed to simultaneously offer
all of these features at real-time frame rates.

Voodoo Graphics also support per-pixel effects such as fog, translucency,
and transparency, texture compositing, a variety of lighting techniques,
texture morphing, animated textures, and reflection mapping.

The Voodoo Graphics chipset supports full screen games under popular PC
operating systems including Microsoft Windows 95, MS DOS, and Microsoft
Windows 3.1 using 3D APIs including Microsoft's Direct3D, DirectDraw,
3D-DDI, and Reality Lab 2.0, as well as Intel's 3DR. The chipset also
supports embedded operating systems for coin-op/arcade platforms.
Development environments supported by the chipset include MS DOS, WindowsNT,
Windows95, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Important development tools and APIs
supported by Voodoo Graphics include Silicon Graphics' IRIS GL and OpenGL,
AutoDesk's 3D Studio, MultiGen's GameGen, and Gemini Technology's OpenGVS.

Packaged in a two-chip set, the Voodoo Graphics architecture is a PCI Bus
2.1 compliant device that operates transparently with existing VGA and
Windows accelerators via analog pass through or shared frame buffer
implementations on Intel or RISC-based PCI platforms. The Voodoo Graphics
chipset is priced at less than $75 in 20,000 piece quantities. On
perspective correct, texture mapped, Z-buffered, filtered, LOD MIP mapped,
fogged, alpha blended, 50-pixel triangles Voodoo Graphics delivers more than
45 megapixels per second fill rate and over 350,000 triangles per second
polygon rates on a Pentium 90. The first chip, pixelfx, is the primary
graphics controller and contains interfaces to the PCI bus and companion
texture processing unit, texelfx. The 3Dfx Interactive pixelfx graphics
controller is packaged in a 240-pin PQFP. texelfx, the advanced texture
processing unit, is packaged in a 208-pin PQFP.

For more information, contact:
3Dfx Interactive, Inc.

[return to index]

CS10) TriTech Pyramid3D TR25201

The information in the section was taken from the TriTech Microelectronics
International homepage at

The Pyramid3D family of 3D accelerator devices is designed for acceleration
of games, 3D applications and user interfaces. It offers full compatibility
with the new 3D standards (including Direct3D for Windows 95) and old
applications (built-in VGA support). In addition, Pyramid3D delivers the
performance you would expect from a serious 3D solution. It can render 800
000 z-buffered, textured, and Gouraud shaded 25 pixel triangles per second.
In addition to speed, the architecture also provides a wide range of
features, some of which have never been implemented in hardware before.

Pyramid3D Highlights:

   * Unified memory architecture for efficient memory utilization
   * Low host overhead because geometry can be stored in local memory
   * Perspective correction for both texture and true-color shading
   * Complex shading effects including bump mapping and specular lighting
   * Multiple simultaneous lighted textures with filtering
   * Object oriented scene storage in local memory
   * Programmable geometry engine
   * Programmable pixel pipeline

The family currently consists of TR25201 and TR25202. They are similar
except that only the TR25201 version contains the geometry engine. Both are
highly integrated single chip solutions for 3D graphics acceleration on the
PC. They combine high rendering quality and speed with an architecture that
makes building PCI based 3D Accelerator boards both easy and cost-effective.


   * Fixed point arithmetic optimized for 3D calculations
   * Upgradable microcode allows feature upgrades
   * Scene data can be stored in local memory
   * Scene data format programmable
   * Triangles, lines and 2D regions supported
   * Primitive rotation, projection and clipping supported
   * Programmable lighting modes with support for colored lights
   * Programmable atmospheric effects including volumetric fog


   * Programmable pixel pipeline
   * User specifiable blending
   * Perspective correct true-color Gouraud lighting
   * Perspective correct transparency
   * Perspective correct texture mapping
   * Multiple simultaneous textures
   * Environment mapping
   * Bump mapping
   * Stencil operations
   * Logic operations
   * Specular highlights
   * Properly handled lighted textures
   * Rasterized screen door transparency
   * Destination blending for transparency effects
   * Fog and depth cue with vertex level control


   * Texture magnification filtering with point sampling or bilinear
   * Texture minification filtering with point sampling or MIP mapping
   * Trilinear filtering possible
   * Texture sizes from 32x32 pixels to 1024x1024 pixels (nonrectangular
   * Amount of texture maps limited only by available memory
   * Texture can be looped, mirrored or have a solid color border
   * RGB map formats: 32 bit RGBA and 16 bit RGB and 16 bit RGBA
   * Indexed map formats: 8 bit and 4 bit
   * Indexed maps have an internal 256 color 32-bit palette (RGBA)
   * Full blending and filtering possible with indexed maps
   * Real time texture paging and animation
   * Rendering directly to texture maps possible


   * 2-32 Mbytes of SDRAM, SGRAM or EDO DRAM supported
   * Memory bus width 64 bits or 32 bits
   * Memory bandwidth up to 800 MBytes/sec with 64 bit bus
   * Unified memory architecture for frame buffer, geometry and textures


   * Virtual resolutions up to 2048 x 2048 pixels
   * 24 bit or 16 bit color (dithering supported)
   * 24 bit or 16 bit depth buffer
   * 1 bit stencil mask
   * Frame buffer can be accessed in RGB or YUV format.
   * Support for double and triple buffering and stereo imaging

Video refresh

   * Display resolutions from 320 x 200 to 1600 x 1200 pixels
   * Internal video refresh logic
   * Internal programmable clock generator (up to 135MHz)
   * Internal true-color DAC (up to 135MHz pixel clock)

Physical Characteristics

   * 304-pin BGA packaging
   * 100 MHz operation
   * I/O interface at 3.3V


   * Compatible VGA core
   * Drivers for Microsoft Windows 95
   * Drivers for DirectDraw and Direct3D (both immediate and retained modes)


   * 1 000 000 randomly rotated Gouraud shaded 25 pixel triangles per second
   * 800 000 randomly rotated textured Gouraud shaded 25 pixel triangles per
   * Pixel fill rate 50 000 000 pixels per second

Pyramid3D engineering samples will be available in summer 1996. Developer
kits will be made available along with the engineering samples.

For more information, contact:
Kok Chin Chang, Product Manager Graphics Prodcuts,

[return to index]

CS11) VideoLogic PowerVR

This information was taken from VideoLogic's home page at

PowerVR was developed jointly by VideoLogic and NEC. The system is fully
scalable, allowing multiple chips to be ganged together giving a linear
increase in speed as chips are added. It can be used in a wide range of 3D
applications and entertainment markets from games consoles, through PCs,
right up to high-end arcade machines. This also allows content producers to
target a range of different platforms without redesigning their titles.

PowerVR’s core 3D rendering algorithm is infinite plane (surface) based.
This approach allows the system to efficiently cater for polygons, polygon
meshes, infinite planes, and convex objects. Its polygon object rendering
allows the use of conventional, industry-standard APIs such as Microsoft’s®
Direct3D™, and the ability to directly process infinite planes and convex
objects allows PowerVR to provide advanced features such as full shadows and
searchlights in real-time. In addition to support for industry-standard
APIs, PowerVR has its own high-level object oriented API, called PowerVR
SGL, that provides full access to all the capabilities of the PowerVR

   * Real shadows can be cast from any object over any surface, and updated
     every frame
   * PowerVR’s equivalent 32-bit Z buffer makes solid outdoor objects a
   * Pixel perfect hidden surface removal
   * Anti-aliased textures using PowerVR’s mip mapping stops shimmering
   * Perspective-correct textures do not bend because PowerVR performs a
     division per pixel
   * Smooth shading does not change when rotated
   * Translucency can be applied to whole objects, polygons, or individual
     pixels for effects like dirty glass, fire, water, and even simulated
     lens flare and radiosity
   * True logarithmic colored fog calculated per pixel

The chipsets used in the PowerVR are the NEC ISP (Image Synthesis
Processor), TSP (Texture and Shading Processor) and MC (Memory Controller).
A single chip version, the PCX1 (PC Processor), has one ISP and one TSP on a
single chip, and is designed for low cost home markets.


   * Average polygon size: 100-1000 pixels
   * Low cost design - 257K mip mapped textured, smooth shaded
     triangles/second (one ISP or PCX1)
   * Arcade design - 1028K mip mapped textured, smooth shaded
     triangles/second (four ISPs)

NEC ISP: Image Synthesis Processor

   * 66 MHz processor
   * 32 processor elements
   * 32-bit depth precision
   * On-chip hidden-surface removal (no need for Z buffer memory)
   * 12k parameter cache for tile caching
   * Expansion bus for multiple ISPs
   * 0 to 2 MB external parameter cache
   * True shadow generation
   * Per pixel fogging

NEC TSP: Texture & Shading Processor

   * 66 MHz processor
   * Perspective correct texturing (division per pixel)
   * Anti-aliased texture mapping (linear Mip mapping)
   * 32 x 32 to 256 x 256 texture bitmap sizes
   * 4 to 16 MB texture memory
   * Texture flipping (horizontal and/or vertical)
   * Texture formats:
        o 8-bit (2,3,2) RGB
        o 16-bit (5,5,5) RGB
        o 16-bit (4,4,4,4) RGBT
   * Optimized architecture for low page break overhead
   * 4 KB internal parameter cache
   * 264 MB/sec peak texture memory bandwidth
   * Smooth shading
   * Smooth full shadows
   * Flat shading with offset highlight
   * 24-bit mixing of texture, lighting and shading
   * Exponential fogging - with programmable fog color
   * Accumulation buffer - allows multiple layers of translucency
   * Translucent textures - 16 levels per pixel
   * Global translucency allows objects to fade - 16 levels
   * 2D overlay: 4/8 bit packed double buffered
   * 2D scrolling
   * 3D data: 16/24 bit packed double buffered 1 to 4 MB frame buffer
   * Programmable SPG with sync master/slave (allows overlay)
   * 1024 x 1024 maximum resolution
   * 24/16 bit RGB modes

NEC MC: Memory Controller

   * Support for 4300, 4400 and the latest MIPS CPUs
   * SDRAM interface at 66 MHz
   * System Control (SC) Bus interface at 66 MHz
   * Master or Slave device

NEC PCX1: PC Processor

   * 66 MHz processor incorporating ISP and TSP function
   * 32 processing elements in ISP module
   * On-chip 12K ISP and 4K TSP parameter caches
   * Single SDRAM external interface for texture and parameter caching
   * PCI 2.1 interface
   * True shadow generation and per pixel fogging
   * Perspective-correct texturing and anti-aliased textures
   * 32 x 32 to 256 x 256 texture bitmap sizes
   * 1 to 4 MB texture memory
   * Texture formats:
        o 8-bit (2,3,2) RGB
        o 16-bit (5,5,5) RGB
        o 16-bit (4,4,4,4) RGBT
   * 264 MB/sec peak texture memory bandwidth
   * Smooth shading
   * Flat shading with offset highlights
   * 24-bit mixing of texture, lighting, and shading
   * Exponential fogging - with programmable fog color
   * Accumulation buffer - to allow multiple layers of translucency
   * Translucent textures - 16 levels per pixel
   * Global translucency allows objects to fade - 16 levels
   * 24/16 bit RGB and 16 bit dithered RGB modes


   * Microsoft Direct3D Support, PowerVR SGL 3D Graphics API and Library
   * Immediate mode and Retained mode, Display list hiearchy,Object
   * Features include: collision detection; level-of-detail management; full
     shadows; and lighting

For more information, contact:
NEC Electronics Literature Hotline
(800) 366 9782 phone
(800) 729 9288 fax

Press Contacts in the USA

Lili McGirr, VideoLogic, 415 875 0606,

Joany Winkler, NEC Electronics Inc., (415) 965 6495,

Press Contacts in the UK

Patrick Jubb, VideoLogic, 01923 260 511,

Sue Walder, NEC Electronic UK Ltd, 01908 837 238,

[return to index]

Section III: Boards using Chips in Section II

The descriptions of the boards in this section will attempt to give
information not common to all boards based on the chips in Section II.

[return to index]

CS12) 3DLabs GLINTdelta

The information in this section was taken from a press release provided by
Dave Baldwin (

The GLINT Delta is 3DLabs 3D Geometry Pipeline Processor. It accelerates
GLINT or PERMEDIA-based Graphics Boards up to three times by off-loading up
to 70% of the 3D geometry processing load into a hard-wired 100MFlop
processor that delivers 1 Million polygons/second for under $50.

3DLabs claims that when used on a high-performance PC, using a Pentium Pro
processor, GLINT Delta-based designs have been measured to deliver over 750K
polygons per second via OpenGL. For intensive 3D graphics applications,
GLINT Delta significantly improves overall system performance by freeing the
CPU from demanding 3D pipeline calculations -- providing more processor time
for application level processing.

The Delta is implemented as a PCI bridge with full PCI master capability. It
acts as a front-end processor to GLINT or PERMEDIA and processes the setup
calculations for 3D primitives such as lines and polygons. GLINT Delta's
advanced design includes support for texture-mapping, anti-aliasing and 16,
24 or 32 bit Z buffering - all with high-precision, sub-pixel accuracy.
GLINT Delta's processing throughput is up to 1 million texture-mapped,
Z-buffered polygons per second. GLINT Delta supports full byte-swapping and
is compatible with PC or Macintosh systems.

GLINT Delta provides a glueless, single-chip geometry solution for GLINT
300SX or PERMEDIA. GLINT Delta also supports multiple GLINT rendering
processors -- also without glue logic -- for high-end desktop, arcade and VR
applications seeking unmatched rendering performance. The combination of
GLINT Delta and two GLINT rendering processors enables board vendors to
provide dual- GLINT 3D acceleration on a single PCI board, seamlessly
combined with full Windows performance and functionality.

PERMEDIA does not require GLINT Delta to provide class-leading performance,
however the ability to combine the two devices in a low-cost designs enables
board vendors to provide a wide-range of price/performance options at
performance levels far beyond other 3D chip offerings.

GLINT Delta is software compatible with the GLINT and PERMEDIA families, and
3Dlabs' extensive range of software drivers is already available for GLINT
Delta-based boards. These drivers include: Windows NT, Windows 95, OpenGL on
Windows NT, OpenGL on Windows 95, Heidi from Autodesk, Direct3D from
Microsoft, CGL from Creative and QuickDraw 3D and QuickDraw 3D RAVE from
Apple. The drivers for Windows NT and OpenGL are available on Intel, Alpha,
MIPS and PowerPC processors.

Contact Info
3Dlabs Inc.
Neil Trevett,

[return to index]

GLINT01) Omnicomp 3DEMON


3DEMON 3-D Graphics Accelerator for PCI Local Bus Technical Brief

The 3DEMON provides workstation class 3-D graphics and high performance 2-D
acceleration using the GLINT (tm) 300SX 3-D processor from 3Dlabs.

Frame buffer:

   * 4 Mbyte high speed VRAM
   * 8,12,16, and 24/32 bits per pixel

Local buffer:

   * 4 or 8 Mbyte DRAM

3DEMON Model SX44

   * 4 MByte frame buffer, 4 MByte local buffer
   * Double Buffered Resolutions
     800x600 24/32-bit (3-D)
     1024x768 16-bit (3-D)
   * Single Buffered Resolutions
     1024x768 24/32-bit (3-D)
     1280x1024 16-bit (2-D)

3DEMON Model SX48

   * 4 MByte frame buffer, 8 MByte local buffer
   * Double Buffered Resolutions
     800x600 24/32-bit (3-D)
     1024x768 16-bit (3-D)
     1280x1024 8-bit (3-D)
   * Single Buffered Resolutions
     1024x768 24/32-bit (3-D)
     1280x1024 16-bit (3-D)

Software Compatibility

   * Microsoft's implementation of OpenGL under Windows NT (tm) 3.5 and
     Windows 95 (tm) (included)
   * 2-D drivers for Microsoft Windows 3.x, Windows 95, and Windows NT 3.5
   * HOOPS, 3DR, and other industry standard 3-D APIs
   * Reality Lab, RenderWare, BRender, and other 3-D games APIs
   * Accelerated-X drivers for The X-Window System by X-Inside
   * Specific applications such as AutoCAD, Microstation, CadKey, and 3D

Hardware Compatibility

   * Minimum OpenGL platform of Pentium processor, Windows NT 3.5, and 32MB
     RAM recommended
   * Windows NT 3.5 support for PowerPC and MIPS processors is under


Steve Gillaspy
Omnicomp Graphics Corp.
1734 W. Sam Houston Pkwy N.
Houston, TX. 77043
Phone: 713-464-2990
Fax: 713-827-7540

COMMENTS: From Chris Hinch (

     These guys are brilliant - they are responsive, and have been
     really helpful in my own research, often pointing me in the
     direction of other people and companies who can help, as well as
     showing a solid technical understanding of my requirements and
     making recommendations based on that understanding.

Here's some pricing information, as of Thursday, 30 March 1995.

List            US$2,170
Educational     US$1,995
Quantity 1-9    US$1,845
Quantity 10-24  US$1,715
Quantity 25-99  US$1,605

List            US$2,590
Educational     US$2,380
Quantity 1-9    US$2,200
Quantity 10-24  US$2,045
Quantity 25-99  US$1,915

[return to index]

GLINT02) Fujitsu Sapphire 2SX

The Sapphire 2SX from Fujitsu Microelectronics, Inc. integrates GLINT 300SX
technology with a 4MB framebuffer and a 4 MB localbuffer. The Sapphire 2SX
provides full 32-bit true color at 1024 x 768 resolution (maximum is 1600 x

Fujitsu Microelectronics has developed a proprietary technology called
PixelBus which offers unprecedented multi-channel capabilities. PixelBus
allows you to link multiple Sapphire cards together to get increased speed.
PixelBus also supports a synchronized output mode for panoramic and CAVE
display systems.

Highly optimized drivers for OpenGL, Windows NT, Autocad and 3D Studio are
currently available and many others are under development. The Sapphire 2SX
is compatible with Intel and DEC Alpha processors. Support for other
processors is under development

For more information contact:

Hiten Patel
Tel: (408) 922-9770
Fax: (408) 922-9857
3545 North First Street, MS 255, San Jose, CA 9513l
[return to index]



Based on the S3-Vision968 and 3Dlabs' GLINT 300SX. Has a 250Mhz RAMDAC with
built-in digital video acceleration provided by the S3 chip. Includes a DCI
driver. Comes with optimized Windows 3.X/NT/'95, OpenGL and OS/2 drivers and
utilities. Includes drivers for multi-screen support as well as Display List
Drivers for MicroStation and AutoCAD DOS/Windows for R12/R13/LT.

3D features are similar to all GLINT 300SX cards.


   * 8 MByte frame buffer, 8 MByte local buffer, 250Mhz pixel clock
   * Double Buffered Resolutions
     up to 1600x1200 at 32-bit per pixel
     1920x1080 at 16-bit


   * 4 MByte frame buffer, 8 MByte local buffer, 220Mhz pixel clock
   * Double Buffered Resolutions
     up to 1024x768 at 32-bit per pixel
     1280x1024 at 24 bpp
     1600x1200 at 16 bpp
     1920x1080 at 8 bpp

Joy Li
ELSA Inc. Graphics Corp.
2041 Mission College Blvd.
Suite 165
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone: 800-272-3572
Phone: 408-565-9669
Fax: 408-565-9650

[return to index]

GLINT04) Omnicomp 3Demon VR

(was Media Labs Inc. 3DMedia)

Formerly the Media Labs Inc. 3DMedia. The name changed when Media Labs was
aquired by Omnicomp. The former 3DMedia SR (which I'll call the 3Dmedia VR
(SR?)) is a true high performance 3D accelerator based on the 3DLabs GLINT
300SX chip.

The 3Demon VR (formerly the 3DMedia SX) provides the same features as the
SR, plus additional features such as genlocking to eliminate annoying
scrolling bars due to magnetic interference between two monitors in a
dual-headed configuration. Furthermore, in provides an on-board studio
quality encoder which outputs video in NTSC, PAL or S-Video formats.

3Demon VR (SR?)

3D Acceleration:

   * Similar to other GLINT 300SX boards

Flexible output:

   * Software selectable standard as well as custom display
   * formats, interlaced and non-interlaced, are available with a
   * maximum resolution of two million pixels.

Optimized Bandwidth

   * PCI local bus, rev 2.0.
   * Target and Read Master interface achieves 20M pixel/second sustained
     image download rate.
   * Refresh rates in excess of 200Hz.

Product Specification:

   * PCI Rev 2.0 Target and Read Master interface
   * 4M Byte framebuffer
   * 4 MByte localbuffer. Extra 4M available as an option.
   * Supports 64-bit/pixel, 8/8/8/8 for RGBA, 24-bit depth, 4-bit stencil,
     4-bit fast clear
   * Double buffering at all resolutions and depths.
   * ISO and VESA Display refresh rates.
   * Standard and custom resolutions up to 1280x1024.
   * Pseudo color, true color and direct color output.
   * Color depths of 4/8/12/15/24 bits with alpha channel for RGB color
   * VGA PAss-through at any VGA resolution and color depth.
   * RS-343A Graphics output level.
   * Sync-on-green and external TTL sync support.
   * FCC Class B certification.
   * Output Support:

             RGB Resolution    NI       Colors supported     Max Refresh
               in pixels             256     65K     16.7M      Rates
             1280x1024        yes    yes     yes                 76
             1152x900         yes    yes     yes     yes        100
             1024x768         yes    yes     yes     yes        125
             800x600          yes    yes     yes     yes        175
             640x480          yes    yes     yes     yes        250

3Demon VR

All of the features described above, plus:

More flexible output:

   * Support for stereoscopic, field sequential RGB and VR displays is
     implemented in hardware reducing host overhead.
   * Television and video tape recorders are driven by the studio quality
     encoder. Square pixel, CCIR and 4x video resolutions can be selected in
     NTSC, PAL or S-Video format.

Phase locking:

   * Line-lock to external sync signals, such as VGA or other sources,
     enables windowing and external video multiplexing.
   * An independent 3D window can be opened within the GUI display, such as
     VGA, by activating the line-locking feature.
   * Independent color depth between the GUI and 3D graphics is now
     possible, depending on the operating system used.

Product Specification additions:

   * Max 135MHz video clock.
   * Standard and custom resolutions up to 1600x1200
   * Supports standard, stereoscopic, field sequential RGB, VR Glasses and
     other display devices.
   * Programmable video clock.
   * Line-lock to external sync signals.
   * Studio quality encoder with support for different NTSC, PAL, and
     S-Video resolutions.
   * Output Support in addition to those above:

             RGB Resolution    NI       Colors supported     Max Refresh
               in pixels             256     65K     16.7M      Rates
             1920x1080               yes     yes                 45
             1600x1280               yes     yes                 50

Use the contact information for the 3Demon above. The former Contact
Media Labs, Inc.
806 Winbern Ste 1
Houston, TX 77002
Tel: (713) 942-0670
Fax: (713) 784-5144

From Blair MacIntyre:

     The SX is available now, the SR is not. The pricing is as follows
     (as of Feb 1, 95):

     3Demon VR44:                                    Quantity        Price
             4M VRAM, 4M DRAM, Encoder, Linelock     1-99            US$1895
                                                     100-999         US$1795
                                                     1000+           CALL
     3Demon VR48:
             4M VRAM, 8M DRAM, Encoder, Linelock     1-99            US$2295
                                                     100-999         US$2195
                                                     1000+           CALL

     3Demon VR (SR?):                                Quantity        Price
             4M VRAM, 4M DRAM                        1-99            US$1595
                                                     100-999         US$1495
                                                     1000+           CALL
     3Demon VR (SR8?):
             4M VRAM, 8M DRAM                        1-99            US$1995
                                                     100-999         US$1895
                                                     1000+           CALL

     One year warranty.

[return to index]


(Preliminary Product Information, as of Feb. 95)


   * Dual processor 2D and 3D Graphics System
   * PCI bus Support

Hardware - 3D Acceleration

   * 3Dlabs GLINT 300SX Rendering Processor
   * Supports advanced modes : double-buffering, stereo and overlays
   * Accelerates OpenGL, HOOPS, SP3D and other 3D API4s
   * 8 Mbyte local Memory - expandable to 12 Mbyte

Hardware - 2D Acceleration

   * 64-bit S3 Vision968 GUI Accelerator
   * 175 MHz Pixelclock
   * 8 Mbyte high speed Video memory (VRAM)
   * Multimedia ready through S3 Multimedia extensions
   * Integrated Video Acceleration

Software & Miscelleanous

   * 100 % OpenGL compatible
   * SPEA 3D Software drivers for AutoCAD and MicroStation
   * Third party applications based on SP3D, Criterion Renderware,
     RenderMorphics RL, Intel 3DR
   * GUI Support : Windows 3.1, Windows 95 and Windows NT
   * Multi-lingual documentation
   * Software Updates via SPEA BBS or CompuServe
   * 3 years warranty

Video Modes

Resolution Color depth (bit/pixel) Line Frequency (KHz) Refresh Rate (Hz)
---------- ----------------------- -------------------- -----------------
640 x 480        8, 16, 32             31,5 - 52,5        60 - 100
800 x 600        8, 16, 32             37,9  - 64,0       60 - 100
1024 x 768       8, 16, 32             48,4- 80,9         60 - 100
1280 x 1024      8, 16, (32)           64,0 - 100,0       60 - 95 (75)
1600 x 1200      8, 16                 74,5 - 84,6        60 - 68

Available now in Europe.


[return to index]

GLINT06) Force Inc. 3DE-300SX

The 3DE-300SX from Force Inc. combines the GLINT 300SX with 4 Mbytes of VRAM
and up to 8 Mbytes of DRAM. Both IBM PC-AT Japanese DOS/V and NEC PC98 are
supported plus Windows NT 3.5, OpenGL and RenderWare 1.4.

Available now in Japan. For more detailed information, please contact:

Kenyu Uema, Manabu Igarashi or Tatsuya Takagi
Tel: +81 3 3490 1172
Fax: +81 3 3490 2277
6-15-9-2F, NishiGotanda Shinagawa-ku,Tokyo 141, Japan

[return to index]

GLINT07) Densan PCI-300SX

The PCI-300SX is a GLINT based PCI card including 4 Mbytes of VRAM
framebuffer, 8 Mbytes of DRAM localbuffer, 64-bit IBM RGB525 RAMDAC and VGA
pass thru implementation. Optimized drivers are provided for Windows NT 3.5
and OpenGL.

The Densan PCI-300SX now shipping as part of NEC RISCstation 2200.

For more detailed information, please contact:

Tetsuya Kawamoto or Zhang Yuanli
Tel: +81 3 3329 3871
Fax: +81 3 3329 9266
5-42-1, Kamikitazawa Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo, Japan

[return to index]

GLINT08) Creative Labs' 3D Blaster

The information in this section is taken from the Creative Lab's page at:

and from the 3DLabs Press release at:

The VL-bus version of the 3D Blaster is based on a custom GLINT chip, which
is basically a scaled-down 300SX. The PCI version will supposedly be
initially based on the Rendition Vérité chipset, with a. possibility that
later versions will be based on the 3DLabs Permedia chip. Time will tell.


   * Made to run on Windows 95, Windows 3.x and DOS systems
   * Industry standard Plug and Play (PnP) support
   * True Texture, perspective-correct texture mapping
   * Pixel fill rates of 25,000,000 pixels/second
   * Processes of up to 200,000 polygons per second
   * Bit Blt rates of up to 40,000,000 pixels/second
   * 2 MB RAM onboard supports high-resolution, 3D graphics
   * Memory is upgradeable to 4MB total RAM
   * 16-bit hardware z buffering
   * Hardware double-buffering
   * Accelerates transparency, fogging and anti-aliased texturing
   * Bundled with five 3D games written specifically for 3D Blaster
     including Nascar, Rebel Moon, Magic Carpet Plus, Hi Octane and Flight



   * Depth Formats
        o 16 Bit Z
        o 16 Bit Z plus Stencil

   * Color and Texture Formats
        o 8 bit index
        o 8 bit RGB
        o 8 bit RGBA
        o 16 bit RGBA (5551)
        o 24 bit RBG (2D)


   * 0-2MB of texture memory
   * Texture Maps sizes from 32x32 to 1024x1024
   * Upgrade to 4MB texture memory


Standard Memory supports these common resolutions and others:

   * 320x200 8/16/24 bit double buffered
   * 640x200 8/16/24 bit double buffered
   * 640x350 8/16 bit double buffered
   * 640x480 bit double buffered
   * 640x400 bit double buffered
   * 800x600 bit double buffered
   * 800x600 16 bit single buffered
   * 1024x768 bit single buffered


   * BitBlt
   * Area and Pattern Fill
   * 256 Raster Ops
   * Hardware Cursor


   * Microsoft/RenderMorphics' Reality Lab
   * Criterion's RenderWare
   * Argonaut's BRender
   * 3DR
   * Creative Graphics Library (CGL)


   * IBM PC or 100% compatible
   * 486 DX 66MHz (486 DX4 100MHz recommended)
   * Open VL-Bus slot
   * Windows 3.1 or higher
   * DOS 5.0 or higher
   * Installed VGA
   * VGA monitor

The VL-bus version of 3D Blaster will be available in November, 1995, at an
estimated street price of about $349. A PCI version of 3D Blaster will be
available in the first quarter of 1996.

COMMENT: Apparently, the VL version of the 3D Blaster will probably not
support OpenGL, but the PCI version should.


Theresa Pulido                Lisa Kimura
Creative Labs, Inc.           Copithorne & Bellows
(408) 428-6600, ext. 6416     (415) 284-5200, ext. 209

[return to index]

GLINT09) Microstep AGC-3D

MicroStep, Inc., a California based company, specializes in the design and
manufacture of high performance computer graphics and imaging controllers.
Within 10 years, the company has developed a full line of graphics products,
including the world's highest resolution display controller.

AGC-3D is the first of MicroStep's 3D graphics accelerator family. Based on
the GLINT 300SX chip from 3Dlabs, AGC-3D delivers workstation class
performance for all 2D and 3D rendering operations, including Gouraud
shading, anti-aliasing, depth buffering, alpha blending and texture mapping

AGC-3D incorporate 4MB of VRAM for display memory, 4/8MB of DRAM for
Z-buffering, stencil, etc., and PCI local bus. The supported display modes
include 1280x1024x16, 1152x900x24 and 1024x768x16 double buffering, etc.

Availability: Q3, 1995

For more information contact:

Ping Hu
Tel: (818) 964 5048
Fax: (818) 964 6278
17800 Castleton Street, Suite 135, City of Industry, CA 91748.

[return to index]

R3D01) Lockheed Martin R3D/100

Based on the R3D/100 chipset described above. No other information

voice: 800-393-7730
fax: 407-826-3358

From Chris Hinch (

     Contact these people and ask for the glossy brochure - WOW!!!!
     (ok, so I'm not being objective...I like poring over glossy
     brochures as much as the next person...*grin*)

     Their staff were also really helpful and responsive.

     Apparently, application notes will be available in August of this
     year, with sample chipsets and reference boards available in
     November. Production quantities will be available in the first
     quarter of 1996. Price for the reference board is in the US$2,800

[return to index]

ARTIST01) ARTIST Graphics 2000 Series

These graphics boards have been specifically designed to accelerate PC CAD
programs. They contain the 3GA chipset:


This high speed, high power graphics controller accelerates all graphic
intensive programs including Windows and OS/2. See the 2000 Pro for details.

ARTIST 2000 Pro

This card is the ARTIST 2000 bundled with high-speed CAD drivers and
graphical application software designed to accelerate CAD development.
Supports PCI, VL and ISA buses.

The ARTIST 2000 Pro is available with two and four MB of VRAM. The
processor, memory and DAC were carefully selected and integrated with GT
Express Professional, ARTIST's CAD utility software, to create the ideal
controller for the CAD marketplace. You get ARTIST's legendary quality at a
remarkably competitive price, backed by a five-year warranty.

ARTIST 2000 Twin Pro

This card has dual monitor outputs each with resolutions up to 1600 x 1200
and refresh rates up to 85 Hz, allowing a total displayed image of up to
3200 x 1200 spread across two adjacent monitors. Supports PCI and ISA buses.
The ARTIST 2000 TwinPro comes with 4 MB of VRAM. Its processor, memory and
DAC were carefully selected and integrated with GT Express Professional,
ARTIST's CAD utility software, to create the ideal controller for the CAD
marketplace. You get ARTIST's legendary quality at a remarkably competitive
price, backed by a five-year warranty.

Technical Data

      Video Bandwidth:  to 250 MHz

 Horizontal Scan Rate:  31.5 - 106 KHz

         Video Output:  Analog RGB video output, separate horizontal and
                        vertical sync, 15 pin D-sub connector

       Maximum Colors:  True color

        Color Palette:  16.7 million

       Supported GUIs:  Windows 3.1, Windows NT, OS/2 2.1, OS/2 Warp,
                        Windows 95

   Supported Software:  Includes high performance drivers for Windows,
                        including Command View; AutoCAD for DOS and Windows
                        with Flexicon 30

    Technical Support:  End user assistance available through telephone,
                        mail, FAX, E-mail, BBS or World Wide Web

             Warranty:  Five-year limited warranty

Model           Resolution      Colors          Frequency

ARTIST 2000 Pro 1600 x 1280     256             60 - 80 Hz
2 MB VRAM       1600 x 1200     256             60 - 85 Hz
                1280 x 1024     256             60 - 120 Hz
                1152 x 870      256/6KK         60 - 150 Hz
                1024 x 768      256/65K         60 - 200 Hz
                 800 x 600      256/65K/16.7M   60 - 300 Hz
                 640 x 480      256/65K/16.7M   60 - 500 Hz

ARTIST 2000 Pro 1600 x 1280     256/65,000      60 - 80 Hz
4 MB VRAM       1600 x 1200     256/65,000      60 - 85 Hz
                1280 x 1024     256/65,000      60 - 120 Hz
                1152 x 870      256/16.7M       60 - 150 Hz
                1024 x 768      256/16.7M       60 - 200 Hz
                 800 x 600      256/65 /16.7M   60 - 300 Hz
                 640 x 480      256/65K/16.7M   60 - 500 Hz

ARTIST 2000     1600 x 1280     256             60 - 80 Hz
TwinPro         1600 x 1200     256             60 - 85 Hz
4 MB VRAM       1280 x 1024     256             60 - 120 Hz
                1152 x 870      256/65K         60 - 150 Hz
                1024 x 768      256/65K         60 - 200 Hz
                 800 x 600      256/65K/16.7M   60 - 300 Hz
                 640 x 480      256/65K/16.7M   60 - 500 Hz


Board Model     VRAM    Bus      Max. Resolution        Retail Price

ARTIST 2000     2 MB    PCI      1280 x 1024 @ 75 Hz    $395

ARTIST 2000i    2 MB    PCI      1600 x 1280 @ 80 Hz    $595
                2 MB    ISA      1600 x 1200 @ 85 Hz    $595

ARTIST 2000i    4 MB    PCI      1800 x 1440 @ 70 Hz    $895
                4 MB    ISA      1800 x 1350 @ 75 Hz    $895

ARTIST 2000i    4 MB    PCI      1600 x 1200 @ 85 Hz    $1095
TwinPro                 ISA      1600 x 1200 @ 85 Hz    $1095

[return to index]

NVIDIA01) Diamond Edge 3D Accelerators

The information on these boards were obtained from Diamond Multimedia
Systems home page at

They contain the NVidia/SGS-THOMSON NV1/STG-2000 chipset.

The boards are PCI-based and sport a digital gameport for precise joystick
control, as well as two video gameports that allow specialized, multi-player
versions of Sega Saturn titles, such as the arcade hit Virtua Fighter Remix,
to be played on Windows 95 PCs. It is expected to be initially shipped in
late October at consumer prices starting from $249 - $299.

With Diamond Edge 3D accelerators, game developers can support resolutions
as high as 1024x768 with 65,000 colors while still achieving fast, realistic
action. In the past, this type of technology was available only to engineers
and designers with prices topping $2,000.

The 3D functions of the Diamond Edge 3D were designed specifically for the
consumer multimedia market where the primary application is interactive
entertainment. Traditionally, 3D graphics were created by drawing large
numbers of successive polygons using the CPU, which resulted in a tradeoff
between detailed graphics and speed of interactivity. With the Diamond Edge
3D, the hardware engine accelerates polygon rendering of real-time,
texture-mapped 3D images at the highest possible frame rates without unduly
slowing the CPU. In addition, the Diamond Edge 3D can create realistic 3D
graphics by using nine control points to create a curved surface, called
quadratic texture mapping (QTM).

Features of the Diamond Edge 3D engine include fast polygon rendering,
texture-mapping for photo-realism, quadratic texture-mapping for perspective
correction and rendering of curved surfaces, as well as special effects
including diffused lighting, specular highlights, reflection mapping and
alpha blending for fog, smoke and transparency.

High Performance 2D Acceleration

The Diamond Edge 3D delivers fast 2D Windows acceleration at resolutions as
high as 1280x1024, color depths to 1 billion and refresh rates of up to

The DRAM version of the Diamond Edge 3D, based on SGS Thomson's STG2000
multimedia accelerator chip, is available for PCI-bus in 1MB upgradable to
2MB (the Diamond Edge 3D 2120XL) or 2MB standard (the Diamond Edge 3D
2200XL.) The VRAM configuration, based on NVIDIA Corp.'s NV1 multimedia
accelerator chip, is available for PCI in 2MB upgradable to 4MB (the Diamond
Edge 3D 3240XL) or 4MB standard (the Diamond Edge 3D 3400XL.) Both chips are
based on NVIDIA's NV1 technology. Diamond estimates pricing for the 2000
series to start at $249 to $299 and for the 3000 series to start at $399 to

How to Contact Diamond Multimedia

There are many ways to reach Diamond for sales support, technical
assistance, driver updates and general information:

The Main Phone Number is  408-325-7000; Fax:  408-325-7070
Product Support Voice:  408-325-7100; Product Support Fax:  408-325-7171
24-Hour Fax On Demand Service: 1-800-380-0030
America OnLine (Keyword: DIAMOND)
CompuServe (GO DMNDONLINE or GO GRAPHBVEN) [75300,3673]
Microsoft Network:  GOTO DIAMONDONLINE
Internet Web Site:
FTP Site:
For information on Diamond products: 1-800-468-5846
BBS numbers at 408-325-7080 (to 14.4K baud) or 408-325-7175 (to 28.8K baud)

[return to index]

NVIDIA02) Jazz Multimedia 3D Magic

The information in this section was taken from the Jazz Multimedia 3D Magic
Press release.

The 3D Magic multimedia accelerators are based on the NVidia/SGS-THOMSON
NV1/STG-2000 chipset. 3D Magic doubles as a Windows 95 graphics accelerator,
provides wavetable music synthesis and MPEG playback acceleration, on one

The PCI product line sports a digital gameport for precise control as well
as two Sega gameports that allow specialized, multi-player versions of Sega
Saturn titles, to be played on Windows 95 PC's. Jazz will offer 1MB and 2MB
DRAM versions and 2MB and 4MB VRAM versions. It includes built-in SRS™ 3D
sound and the availability of a Jazz Output to TV Projection Card option.

There are two DRAM versions of 3-D Magic, based on SGS THOMSON'S STG2000
multimedia accelerator chip, with 1MB and 2MB of of DRAM. Two VRAM
configurations, based on nVIDIA Corp's NV1 multimedia accelerator chip, are
also available for PCI in 2MB and 4MB versions.

As an option, 3D Magic also provides a Jazz Output to TV Projection Card
with capabilities up to 16.7 million colors in composite and S-Video. It
allows 3D game titles to be played on TV's and big-screens for total family
entertainment and game play.

A high-fidelity hardware wavetable audio engine is integrated into 3D Magic.
3D Magic uses the computer's main memory to hold wavetable samples.

Contact Information:
Jazz Multimedia corporate headquarters are located at 1040 Richard Avenue,
Santa Clara, California 95050, telephone: 408-727-8900; fax: 408-727-9092.
Corporate contact is Michael Yang, 408-727-8900, Ext. 21.

[return to index]

NVIDIA03) Genoa Stratos 3D

The information in this section was taken from Genoa Systems home page at:

The Stratos 3D is Genoa’s PC gaming accelerator. Based on the
NVidia/SGS-THOMSON NV1/STG-2000 chipset, the Stratos 3D delivers true three
dimensional imaging for the latest video games. There is also a Sega Saturn
game port supporting up to two players for such games as “Virtua Fighter™

3D Sound

The Stratos 3D offers a complete “3Dx3D” experience using Surround Sound™
technology from SRS® with Wavetable synthesis. All game sound effects, CD
music and digital audio files are spatially referenced to envelope the
listener in a three dimensional sound environment!


The Stratos 3D delivers vivid 2D graphics acceleration with enhanced full
motion digital video playback, providing complete multimedia support for
Microsoft® Windows and Windows 95™. Entertainment, reference and educational
CD titles also come alive through the Stratos 3D!

Product Features


   * Acceleration for Windows 95
   * Quadratic texture mapping for 3D rendering and display
   * CD-quality 3D sound using SRS® technology
   * 1MB EDO DRAM standard; 2MB version available
   * VRAM versions available Q3/96

Video Playback Features

   * Supports Indeo™ 3.2, Indeo Video Interactive, Cinepak™ and MPEG
   * Supports Windows 95 Direct Draw drivers
   * Full screen full motion MPEG playback
   * YUV to RGB color space conversion
   * Hardware scaling of the video window
   * Hardware vertical and horizontal interpolation

3D Sound

   * SRS® surround sound technology
   * Supports Windows 95 DirectSound API for the latest entertainment titles
   * 16-bit stereo recording/playback with sampling up to 48KHz
   * Phase shifting and other special effects for reverb, echo, etc.
   * Sound Blaster compatible
   * General MIDI compatible

Hardware Configuration

GENITRONtm; Technology

   * Hardware level video amplification
   * Brightens and sharpens video colors

Physical Properties

   * Bus Interface: PCI ver. 2.
   * VGA connector: DB-15
   * CD Audio In: MPC3 compliant
   * External Audio In: RCA phono
   * Audio Out: RCA phono
   * Microphone: RCA phono
   * SEGA Saturntm; Game Port: 20-pin, dual row
   * Output to TV: connector for RGB to NTSC/PAL module (optional)
   * IBM Digital Game Port: RJ-45*

*Joystick adapter cable included Interfaces and Compatibility

   * 100% register/BIOS compatible with IBM VGA, SVGA
   * Supports VGA, SuperVGA, multifrequency and analog monitors
   * Supports VESA Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS)

SEGA Game Support

   * Port for up to 2 SEGA Saturntm; game pads
   * Supports any SEGA title ported to the NV1/STG2000 platform

System Requirements

   * Intel® Pentiumtm 75 or above with one available PCI bus slot
   * Microsoft® Windows 95
   * CD-ROM drive (minimum 2x)


   * Two year limited warranty on parts and labor


Display Mode Tables (UNDER CONSTRUCTION!)


 Resolution 16/256 colors 65,000 colors 16.8 Million colors
   640x480  Hz            Hz            Hz
   800x600  Hz            Hz            Hz
  1024x768  Hz            Hz
  1280x1024 Hz
  1600x1200 Hz


 Resolution 16/256 colors 65,000 colors 16.8 Million colors
   640x480  Hz            Hz            Hz
   800x600  Hz            Hz            Hz
  1024x768  Hz            Hz            Hz
  1280x1024 Hz            Hz            Hz
  1600x1200 Hz            Hz

NOTE: actual display modes available to user will depend on the monitor

For more information please contact:
Genoa Marketing (

[return to index]
Blair MacIntyre (, Graduate Student (Graphics and UI Lab)

smail: Dept. of Computer Science, 450 Computer Science Building, 500 W 120 St.
       Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

Part1 - Part2

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer: (Blair MacIntyre)

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM