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[soc.culture.pakistan] FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS


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Archive-name: pakistan-faq
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 1997/02/14
Version: 2.3
Organization: Alumni Association, Caltech, Pasadena, California. U.S.A.
X-URL: http://alumni.caltech.edu/~mughal/pakistan/pakistan.html

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
                     Copyright 1993-94-95-96-97
                  Asim Mughal (mughal@caltech.edu)
 
	Redistribution for profit, or in altered content /format
	prohibited without permission of the authors.  Any other
	redistribution  must include this copyright  notice  and
	attribution.




*****  ANSWERS    TO    FREQUENTLY   ASKED   QUESTIONS  *********

READ THIS BEFORE YOU POST A QUERY.

This message is automatically posted once a month to provide 
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Soc.Culture.Pakistan  FAQ Maintainer

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Contents:

1) 	History & Charter of Soc.Culture.Pakistan
2) 	Info on Pakistan	
3)	Addresses of Pakistan Embassy & Consulates  in  US  
4)*     Pakistan Government Listing 
5)	Information on Remitting Money to Pakistan
6) 	Pictures of Pakistan [FTP sites w/ gifs, info etc]
7)	Pakistani Newspapers / Magazine Subscriptions	
8) 	Pakistan News Service [News & Info on Pakistan]
9)	Electronic Services & Network Domains In Pakistan	
10)*	Books on Pakistan 
11) 	National Anthem of Pakistan (with English Translation)
12)     Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah  - The Founder of Pakistan 
13)     Allama Iqbal 			  - The National Poet of Pakistan
14) 	Telephone Area Codes for All Cities
15)  	Currency Exchange Rates for Pakistani Rupees 
16)*	Mailings Lists: "Pak-scholars", "Pak-students"  &  EML 
17) 	U.S. Immigration Info 
18) 	U.S. Embassy/Consulates In Pakistan & Pakistan Visa Info
19) 	H-1 Visa Info: Mexico & Canada + H-4 Visa Info
20)     Baby Names!
21)     World Wide Web Home Pages on Pakistan
22) 	USENET Statistics on Soc.Culture.Pakistan.
23)* 	Info on soc.culture.pakistan Reorganization
24)*	Berkeley Language Urdu Program
25)*    Urdu - Dictionary/Fonts/Software
26)*  	This FAQ: Archive Info, History & Credits	

* New or updated in this revision of FAQ.	
************************************************************************
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Subject: 1) History & Charter of Soc.Culture.Pakistan


	A- Call for Discussion: By: Ali Raja
				    (araja@smu!ti-csl!m2.ti.com) 
			        Posted: 6 Feb '90

	B- Call for Votes:	By: Junaid Ahmed Zubairi
				    (jzubairi@rodan.acs.syr.edu)
				Posted: 1 Mar '90 
				Voting Period: 26 Feb '90 - 18 Mar '90	

______________________________________________________________________________
CALL FOR DISCUSSION: [Original Text]
____________________________________

Newsgroups: soc.culture.indian,soc.culture.turkish,soc.culture.arabic,talk.polit
ics.mideast,news.announce.newgroups
Subject: Call for discussion -- soc.culture.pakistan
Date: 6 Feb 90 21:24:33 GMT
Sender: news@smu!ti-csl!ti-csl.ti.com
Lines: 20


This is a formal call for discussion for the creation of the newsgroup
soc.culture.pakistan.

Discussions related to Pakistani issues are usually carried out in
soc.culture.indian.  However, there are a number of issues that are
relevant to Pakistan that are not relevant to soc.culture.indian.
I feel that the number of articles seems to justify the creation of
this newsgroup.

I am making a formal call for discussion for the newsgroup.  The
discussion period will extend for two weeks until at least, 21st
Feburary 1990.  A call for votes, if it is deemed suitable will
them be issued after that point.

Please post all discussion articles to news.groups, where such discussions
usually take place, and/or soc.culture.indian, which has seen more than
its fair share of such discussions.

_____________________________________________________________________________
CALL FOR VOTES: [Original Text] INCLUDES CHARTER
________________________________________________

From jzubairi@rodan.acs.syr.edu Tue Feb 18 00:21:38 1992
Date: Thu, 1 Mar 90 11:24:52 EST
From: jzubairi@rodan.acs.syr.edu (Junaid Ahmed Zubairi)
Newsgroups: news.announce.newgroups,news.groups
Subject: CALL FOR VOTES: soc.culture.pakistan
Organization: Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY


 This is the formal "call for votes" for the creation of a world-wide,
 UNMODERATED Soc.Culture.Pakistan newsgroup on USENET.

 The discussion period for creation of soc.culture.pakistan has already
 ended and a lot of interest was observed during the discussion period.

  The proposed newsgroup is intended to generally provide a medium for those
 interested to express, share, and exchange their views, ideas, and feelings
 about Pakistan and Pakistani culture.

 Possible discussion issues include aspects of Pakistani
   - culture, history, philosophy, ideology, geography;
   - societies, traditions, customs;
   - literature, poetry, art, folklore;
   - languages, books;
   - science, technology;
   - food, cookery;
   - local events, news, programs, economy;
   - communities abroad, problems, needs; and
   - *things* normally discussed in the "soc.culture" newsgroups.

 To Vote, send an e-mail to:
   jzubairi@rodan.acs.syr.edu
   OR simply reply to this message.

 Voting period will last from Feb 26th, until Midnight, March 18th, 1990.

 As per USENET newsgroup creation guidelines,
   - Votes MUST be explicit; they should be of the form "I vote (YES) for
     the creation of newsgroup soc.culture.Pakistan as proposed" or "I vote
     against (NO for) the creation of newsgroup soc.culture.Pakistan as
     proposed". The wording doesn't have to be exact, it just needs to be
     unambiguous.
     In particular, statements of the form "I would vote for this group
     if..." are considered COMMENTS and will NOT be counted as votes.
   - Only votes that arrive DURING the voting period will be counted.
   - ONLY votes E-MAILED to the vote-taker will count.
   - Votes POSTED to the net for any reason (including inability to get
     mail to the vote-taker) and proxy votes (such as having a mailing
     list maintainer claim a vote for each member of the list) will NOT
     be counted.
   - At the end of the voting period, if 100 more YES/create votes are
     received than NO/don't create votes AND at least 2/3 of the total
     number of valid votes received are in favor of the creation, a
     newgroup control message will be sent out. If the 100 vote margin
     or 2/3 portion is not met, the newsgroup will not be created.

 Junaid Zubairi
 Vote-taker



************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 2) Info on Pakistan 



    PAKISTAN GEOGRAPHY: 

    Total area: 803,940 km2 

    Land area: 778,720 km2 

    Land boundaries: 6,774 km  total;  Afghanistan  2,430  km, China 523 km,
    India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km 

    Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north 

    Environment: frequent  earthquakes,  occasionally  severe  especially in
    north and west; flooding along  the  Indus  after  heavy rains (July and
    August); deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water logging 


    PAKISTAN PEOPLE: 

    Population: 121,664,539 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (199222) 

    Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1992) 

    Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1992) 

    Net migration rate: -1 migrant/1,000 population (1992) 

    Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) 

    Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 57 years female (1992) 

    Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1992) 

    Nationality: noun - Pakistani(s); adjective - Pakistani 

    Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir 

    Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni  77%,  Shi`a  20%),  Christian,  Hindu, and
    other 3% 

    Languages: Urdu and English (both  official);  total  spoken languages -
    Punjabi 64%, Sindhi  12%,  Pashtu  8%,  Urdu  7%,  Balochi and other 9%;
    English is  lingua  franca  of  Pakistani   elite  and  most  government
    ministries, but official policies are  promoting its gradual replacement
    by Urdu 

    Literacy: 35% (male 47%, female 21%)  age 15 and over can read and write
    (1990 est.) 

    Labor force: 28,900,000; agriculture  54%, mining and manufacturing 13%,
    services 33%; extensive export of labor (1987 est.) 

    Organized labor: about 10% of industrial work force 

    PAKISTAN GOVERNMENT: 

    Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan 

    Type: Parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic 

    Capital: Islamabad 

    Administrative  divisions:  4  provinces,  1  territory*,  and 1 capital
    territory**;   Balochistan,   Federally   Administered   Tribal  Areas*,
    Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West  Frontier, Punjab, Sindh; note
    - the Pakistani-administered  portion  of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir
    region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas 

    Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan) 

    Constitution: 10  April  1973,  suspended  5  July  1977,  restored with
    amendments, 30 December 1985 

    Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate
    Pakistan's  stature  as  an  Islamic   state;   accepts  compulsory  ICJ
    jurisdiction, with reservations 

    National holiday: Pakistan Resolution Day (proclamation  of the republic), 
		      23 March (1956)            

    Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet 

    Legislative branch: bicameral  Parliament  (Majlis-e-Shoora) consists of
    an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly 

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari`at) Court 

    Flag: 

    Green with a vertical  white  band  on  the  hoist  side;  a large white
    crescent and star are centered in  the  green field; the crescent, star,
    and color green are traditional symbols of Islam 


    PAKISTAN ECONOMY: 

    GNP: exchange rate conversion  -  $45.4  billion,  per capita $380; real
    growth rate 4.8% (FY91 est.) 

    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.3% (FY91) 

    Unemployment rate: 10% (FY91 est.) 

    Budget: revenues  $6.4  billion;  expenditures  $10  billion,  including
    capital expenditures of $2.6 billion (FY92 est.) 

    Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim 

    Airports: 112 total, 104 usable;  75  with  permanent-surface runways; 1
    with runways over 3,659 m;  31  with  runways  2,440-3,659  m;  43  with
    runways 1,220-2,439 m 

    Telecommunications:  good   international   communication  service  over
    microwave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic  communications poor; 813,000
    telephones (1990); broadcast service good; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 8
    FM, 29 TV; satellite earth  stations  -  1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2
    Indian Ocean INTELS 


    ADDITIONAL INFO (A.J.Shah) 
	
	
 	National game :  Hockey
 	National flower : Jasmin
 	National dress : Shalwar Qameez
 	National poet : Allama Iqbal

 	Baluchistan with capital Quetta.
 	NWFP with capital Peshawar.
 	Punjab with capital Lahore.
 	Sind with capital Karachi.



************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 3) Addresses of Pakistan Embassy & Consulates in U.S.


                Telephone           FAX                 Address
 
CHANCERY    (202)939-6200    (202)387-0484    2315 Massachusetts Ave. N.W.
                                                  Washington DC. 20008
 
ANNEXE:     (202)939-6205    (202)387-0578    2201 "R" St., NW
        A) Education Division                     Washington, DC. 20008
        B) Finance & Accounts
        C) Food & Agriculture
 
COMMERCIAL  (202)939-6585    (202)939-6587    1825 Connecticut Ave. N.W.
                                                  Suite-217
                                                  Washington, DC. 20009
 
CONSULATE GENERAL (New York)
    Mr. Iqbal Ahmad Khan ( Consul General )
 
                (212)879-5800   (212)517-6987     12 East 65th St.
                                                  New York, N.Y. 10021
 
CONSULATE GENERAL (Los Angeles)
    Mr. Aziz Ahmad Khan  ( Consul General )
 
                (310)-441-5114  (310)-441-9256    10850 Wilshire Blvd.
                                                  Suite - 1100
                                                  Los Angeles, CA. 90024
 
Courtesy: Pakistan News Service


************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 4) Pakistan Government Listing 

	[As of Feb 3, '97, general elections were held in Pakistan,
	 new government has not been formed yet. Hence, the info is
         being left blank at this time.]

The following is an official list of the Government of Pakistan:


PRESIDENT
Mr. Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari

PRIME MINISTER

MINISTERS

MINISTERS OF STATE

ADVISER TO THE PRIME MINISTER

SPECIAL ASSISTANTS

    Courtesy: Pakistan News Service PAKISTAN@ASUACAD.BITnet 

************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 5) Information on Remitting Money to Pakistan


    Money may be sent through a Bank Draft  written or a wire transfer. Fees
    vary depending on your local bank. Average  Bank Draft $15, Average Wire
    Transfer $ 35. Wire Transfer takes  five  working days as opposed to two
    months for a bank draft. 


************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 6) Pictures of Pakistan [FTP sites w/ gifs, info etc]


    Pictures of Pakistan in gif format & general info on Pakistan is kept on
    the following FTP site: 

    ftp.ugcs.caltech.edu 

    IP # (131.215.139.82, 131.215.134.135) 

    Login: anonymous Password: anything 

    directory: cd /pub/gifs/Pakistan 


    Courtesy: Pakistan News Service PAKISTAN@ASUACAD.BITnet 


************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 7) Pakistani Newspapers / Magazine Subscriptions	


    Pakistani Newspapers  &  Magazines  including  The  Dawn,  Jang, Nation,
    Herald etc are available by: 


    Asian Publications
    P.O. Box 580
    Elmsford, N.Y. 10523
    Tel: 914-429-5577
    

    Courtesy: Pakistan News Service PAKISTAN @ ASUACAD.BITnet 


************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 8) Pakistan News Service [News & Info on Pakistan]


    The latest News & Information on  Pakistan  is provided by Pakistan News
    Service (PNS), an independent volunteer  effort. The variety of services
    vary from news bulletin  to  receipes  of  Pakistani food to database on
    Pakistanis. 

    The news compiled in a newsletter form  is distributed through LISTSERVs
    in Arizona & Pennsylvania on average thrice a week. 

    The informational files are available  on LISTSERV at ASUACAD and on FTP
    site at ftp.ugcs.caltech.edu. 

    PNS CONTACT ADDRESS: PAKISTAN @ ASUACAD.BITnet 

    The following is a reference guide on services provided by Pakistan News
    Service. 



	T H E   P A K I S T A N   N E W S   S E R V I C E 
	__________________________________________________________________


		   A QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE
		   _______________________


BASIC CONCEPTS:                     

a. Email addresses of Pakistan News Service are:

	PAKISTAN@ASUACAD.BITnet 
	pakistan@asuvm.inre.asu.edu

	PAKISTAN@PSUVM.BITnet	
	pakistan@psuvm.psu.edu

	Any contributions of News/Articles/comments may be sent to any 
	of the above email addresses.

b. A number of services are handled automagically by the LISTSERV.

c. These services include:

   SUB PAKISTAN name -        Subscribe to Pakistan News Service (PNS)
   SIGNOFF PAKISTAN  -        Cancel Subscription to PNS
   SET PAKISTAN NOMAIL -      Put subscription on hold
   SET PAKISTAN MAIL   -      Re-activate subscription 
   INDEX PAKISTAN      -      Get listing of files available thorough PNS 
   GET PAKISTAN filename -    Get a copy of available file named 'filename'

d. To use the LISTSERV services: 

	Step 1: Send email to: LISTSERV@ASUACAD.BITnet
	Step 2: 'Subject' field is optional (can be left blank)
	Step 3: List the appropriate service (listed in 'c') as text of 
                your email. 

e. Example: To subscribe from a unix machine my screen should look as 
            follows:
 
      __________________________________________________________________

	% mail listserv@asuacad.bitnet 
        Subject: subscription to PNS
   
        SUB PAKISTAN Asim Mughal
  	 
	<CTRL-D>
	%
	_________________________________________________________________

f. Accessing Pakistan News Service forums thru USENET.

	As of Oct 1, '93. PNS forums are available thru usenet as:

	bit.listserv.pakistan
	bit.listserv.pns-l
	bit.listserv.muslims

   To access: On Unix machines: type: 'rn' or 'trn'   
				      go <name>

	      On VAX/VMS      : type: 'VNEWS'

   If USENET is not available on your site or your site doesn't get PNS
   forums, please contact your system administrator and request for PNS
   forums to be available. 




************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 9) Electronic Services & Network Domains In Pakistan	

     NETWORK DOMAINS IN PAKISTAN

     Top Level domains for Pakistan. 	imran.pk 
					   ar.pk

     Contancts: ashar@ar.pk & anwar@panix.com

     ELECTRONIC SERVICES: A number of services are available to date.
     Including email, ftp, telnet, www through different providers. 
     Pakistan Telecommunications is also officially live on Internet 
     as of Nov 23, 1995. 

     Email services are provided by numerous provides, and more are 
     opening up daily. Please look at the web pages on Pakistan to 
     find an uptodated list of providers.
	

************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 10) Books on Pakistan


From: murtaza@uclink.berkeley.edu (Niaz Murtaza)
There is a bibliography on Pakistan which has been compiled by David 
Taylor called "Pakistan". It was published in 1990 by Clio Press and has 
a lot of references on each of the topics that you mentioned above.

FOUNDERS OF PAKISTAN by Safdar Mahmood & Javaid Zafar. 
Publishers United Ltd. 176, Anarkali, Lahore

CREATION OF PAKISTAN by Jamil Uddin Ahmad. 
Publishers United Ltd. 176, Anarkali, Lahore

IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN by Prof. Saeeduddin Ahmad Dar. 
Islamic Book Foundation, Faisal Masjid, PO 1453, Islamabad

PAKISTAN AFFAIRS- past & present by Tariq Mahmood Dogar
Dogarsons, Al-Karim Market, 15-Urdu Bazar, Lahore

POLITICS AND POLICIES OF QUAID-I-AZAM by Dr. K.F.Yusuf
National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, Islamabad

HAD THERE BEEN NO JINNAH by Salahuddin Khan
PanGraphics Ltd. Islamabad 

THE MODERN MOSES - A brief biography of M.A.Jinnah by E.H. Enver
Jinnah Memorial Institute, Karachi

PERSPECTIVES ON KASHMIR (Editor) Dr. K.F.Yusuf
Pakistan Forum, Islamabad

MY VERSION - India-Pakistan War 1965 by Gen (retd) Mohammad Musa. H.J.
Publishers United Ltd. 176, Anarkali, Lahore



************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 11) National Anthem of Pakistan (with English Translation)
 
Pakistan National Anthem was adopted in August 1954. An open competition
was held among all highly competitive entries the entry of Hafeez
Jallundhary was approved by the jury. Cabinet adopted the anthem proposed
by Hafeez Jallundhari a couple of days before independence day in 1954.
The National anthem of Pakistan is one of the most prestigious ones in
the world and is very short. It's duration is only one minute and eight
seconds.
 
Following is the Pakistan national anthem:
 
 
Pak sarzameen shad bad              Kishwar-e-Haseen shad bad
Tou Nishaan-e-Azm-e-aali shan       Arz-e-Pakistan
                     Markaz-e-yaqeen Shad bad
 
Pak sarzameen ka nizaam             Qouwat-e-Akhouwat-e-Awam
Qaum mulk saltanat                  Painda tabinda bad
                     Shad bad Manzil-e-murad
 
Parcham-e-Sitara-o-Hilal            Rahbar-e-Tarakkeey-o-Kamal
Tarjumaan-e-mazee-shaan-e-Hal       Jan-e-Istaqbal
                     Saaya-e-Khuda-e-zuljalal
____________________________________________________________________________
English Translation of Pakistan National Anthem:................ Asim Mughal
 
Blessed be the sacred land              Happy be the bounteous realm
Symbol of high resolve                  Land of Pakistan
 
        Blessed be thou of faith
 
The Order of this sacred land is     the might of the brotherhood of the people
May the nation, the country, and the state      Shine in glory everlasting
 
        Blessed be the goal of our ambition
 
This flag of Crescent and Star       Leads the way to progress and perfection
Interpreter of our past glory of our present    Inspiration of our future,
 
        Symbol of Almighty's protection
 
 
Courtesy: Text: Pakistan News Service (Pakistan@Asuacad)
Included per request of Amjad Shah.


************************************************************************
************************************************************************
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Subject: 12) Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah  - The Founder of Pakistan 


    QUAID-E-AZAM  --  The Founder of Pakistan.
    Amjad Shah <S.A.H.S.Shah1@lut.ac.uk>


    Baba-e Qaum, Quaid-e Azam  Muhammad  Ali  Jinah  was  born in Karachi on
    December the 25th, 1876, in a  building  known  as Wazir Mansion. He got
    his early education at Karachi and  Bombay.  He  did his barristery from
    England. He saw the name of  Hazrat  Muhammad  (PBUH)  on the top of the
    gate of Lincoln's Inn. So he  decided  to study there. After his return,
    Jinah started his practice in  barristery.  He joined All India National
    Congress in 1906. He attended for the  first time a meeting of All India
    Muslim League in 1912. Later he Joined  All India Muslim League in 1913.
    The third political party he joined was the Home Rule League.

    He was member of both the Congress  and  Muslim League at the same time.
    Initially he remained working with the Hindu leaders of Congress. He was
    given the title of  "Ambassador  of  Hindu  Muslim  Unity"  by prominent
    politicians. With the passage of time he realised that the Hindu leaders
    of Congress have a different  agenda.  He left Congress and became fully
    involved with Muslim League.

    Jinah was a man of principles. He was probably the only person among all
    the big leaders of the  subcontinent,  who never went to jail. His motto
    was: Unity, Faith and Discipline.

    When Muslim League  finally  decided  to  have  a  separate  country for
    Muslims of the subcontinent, it  was  the  leadership of Jinah which led
    the nation to achieve this goal.  Because  of these leadership qualities
    and his firm stand on the issue,  Britishers  found no way to reject the
    demand of Muslims of the  subcontinent  for a separate homeland. He took
    charge as the first Governor General  of Pakistan on 14th of August 1947
    in a ceremony at Karachi.

    India never took risk of invading Hyderabad or Junagarh in his life.

    Jinah died on September the 11th,  1948,  at  Ziarat near Quetta. He was
    buried in Karachi. His tomb is a beautiful  piece of architecture and is
    worth visiting.


************************************************************************
************************************************************************
-------
Subject: 13) Allama Iqbal - The National Poet of Pakistan


    ALLAMA IQBAL ---
    by Amjad Shah

    Hakeem-ul-Ummat Shaair-e-Mashriq Dr.  Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born
    in Sialkot on November the  9th,  1877.  He  got  his school and college
    education from Sialkot. He got his B.A. and M.A. from Government College
    Lahore. He got Gold Medal in  M.A.  Philosophy  from  University  of the
    Punjab. During his studies, his personality was influenced by Maulvi Mir
    Hasan (one of his school  teachers)  and  Prof.  Arnold  (his teacher of
    philosophy at Government College Lahore and later at Cambridge). 

    Iqbal  started  his  career  as   Reader   (a   teaching   grade  below
    professorship) in Arabic at Government  College Lahore. During this time
    he wrote a first ever book on islamic  economics in Urdu. By the time he
    was a popular poet in the literary circles of Lahore. 

    Iqbal Stayed in Europe from 1903 to  1907 for higher studies. He studied
    at Cambridge (England) and  Munich  (Germany).  Finally  he  got his PhD
    degree from  Munich  University.  The  title  of  his  thesis  was  "The
    Development of Metaphysics in  Persia".  Once, during his stay in Europe
    Iqbal decided to stop saying poetry in Urdu at all and to say in Persian
    only. Because there were ready made compound words in Persian and it was
    much easier to describe one's thoughts in Persian as compared with Urdu.
    On the request of some Muslim  Scholars,  he refrain from doing so. They
    told him that his audience is  hindi,  so he must write in Urdu as well,
    so that maximum people can benefit from  his visualizations. He also did
    barristery during his stay at Europe. 

    After his return to Lahore, he was an advocate at Lahore High Court. Now
    he was a very popular poet. In the  fund  raising public meetings of the
    charity Anjuman-e  Himaeyat-e  Islam,  his  poems like "Naala-e Yateem",
    "Shikwah" and "Jawab-e Shikwah" were sold as high as Rs. 50/- per copy. 

    Iqbal in his political career,  joined  All India Muslim League. He also
    participated two out of three round table conferences at London. In 1930
    he presided over the  Annual  Convention  of  All India Muslim League in
    Allah Abad. In his famous  presidential  address he told the nation that
    he is seeing a muslim rule  in  the  muslim  majority  areas  soon to be
    established. This is also known  as  the  dream  of  Iqbal, which became
    reality as Pakistan in 1947. 

    Iqbal died in Lahore on April the 21st,  1938, after an illness of about
    four months. He is buried near  the  footsteps  of  the  Badshahi Mosque
    Lahore. His desire was that his  age  should not be more than the age of
    Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). 


    His poetry books are: 

    Urdu -- Baal-e Jibreel, Baang-e  Dara,  Zarb-e  Kaleem, Armaghan-e Hijaz
    (This book is both in Urdu and Persian) 

    Persian -- Asrar-e Khudi, Ramooz-e Be-khudi, Piyaam-e Mashriq, P'as Cheh
    Baa-eyad Kard ai Aqwaam-e Sharq, Javed Nameh, Armaghan-e Hijaz. 


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Subject: 14) Telephone Area Codes for All Cities

From: al369@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Ayub Gaya)
 
92  Pakistan
        21   Karachi
        221  Hyderabad
        221  Tando Adam
        224  Tando Mohammad Khan
        229  Dadu
        23   Mirpur Hkas
        241  Nawab-Shah
        27   Uthal
        29   Thatta
        411  Faisalabad
        42   Lahore
        431  Gujranwala
        432  Sialkot
        4331 Gujrat
        441  Sahiwal
        442  Okara
        448  Main Channu
        451  Sargodha
        459  Mianwali
        47   Jhang
        492  Kasur
        4931 Qila Shiekhupura
        51   Islamabad
        51   Rawalpindi
        521  Peshawar
        522  Kohat
        5231 Noshera
        528  Bannu
        529  Khan D.I.
        531  Mardan
        536  Mingora
        536  Saidu Sharif, Swat
        572  Gilgit
        58   Muzaffarabad
        5921 Abbottabad
        593  Murree
        5941 Jhelum
        595  Haripur
        596  Taxila
        61   Multan
        621  Bahawalpur
        631  Bahawainagar
        64   Khan D.G.
        692  Khanewal
        71   Sukkur
        721  Jacobabad
        731  Rahimyar Khan
        741  Larkana
        752  Moro
        792  Kaipur
        81   Quetta
        83   Sibi
        87   Khuzdar

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Subject: 15) Currency Exchange Rates for Pakistani Rupees 

Dated: Wed, 02 Mar 1994


  Australia dlr       .7130   .7133  1.4025  1.4019
  China yuan          .1149   .1148  8.7046  8.7046
  HongKong dlr        .1294   .1294  7.7287  7.7263
  India rupee         .0322   .0321   31.09   31.09
  Indo'sa rupia     .000466 .000466 2144.04 2144.04
  Japan yen         .009565 .009569  104.55  104.50
  Japan 1-mo        .009575 .009579  104.44  104.39
  Japan 3-mo        .009600 .009603  104.17  104.14
  Japan 6-mo        .009646 .009647  103.67  103.65
  N.Zealand dlr       .5759   .5758  1.7365  1.7367
  Pakistn rupee       .0330   .0330   30.33   30.33
  P'pnes peso         .0367   .0367   27.25   27.25
  Singapore dlr       .6317   .6323  1.5830  1.5815
  S.Africa rand       .2896   .2879  3.4525  3.4738
  S.Korea won       .001238 .001237  808.00  808.00
  Taiwan dollar       .0378   .0377   26.49   25.29


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Subject: 16) Mailing Lists: "Pak-scholars", "Pak-students" &  EML  

PAK-STUDENTS:
-------------

	By: Ihsan Khan <I.Khan@cs.ucl.ac.uk> June 25, 1994
	Subject: up_date_for SCP FAQ
	Date: Fri, 06 Sep 1996 17:56:11 +0100


Dear fellow Pakistani Student/Scholar,

        Assalam'alaikom

We are pleased to inform you that a mailing lists  PAK-STUDENTS has
been setup. The purpose this lists is to provide an educational forum
to the Pakistani students  on  which they  can cooperate and help each
other on academic matters, such as, technical subject advise, information  
about  admission  and funding, etc.

In order o subscribe to  the  list,  please  send  a  request to

		pak-students-request@info.com.pk


with Subject :	Subscribe PAK-STUDENTS

and provide the following details in the message:


Full Name          :
Email Address      :
Name of Univ.      :
Course             :
Year of Study      :
Home Institute     : 


EDUCATION MAILING LIST (EML)
---------------------------
	A mailing list for Pakistani educator or anyone interested in
	Education Reform in Pakistan. To be included, send email to:
	
	Tariq Cheema <tcheema@sunflowr.usd.edu>


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Subject: 17) U.S. Immigration Info 

	GENERAL INFO

	Newsgroup: alt.visa.us
	Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) are very helpful. There are 
	several parts to it. These documents may be obtained from any
	of the following sites.
	
        Anonymous FTP:

        1. SITE:        rtfm.mit.edu
           Directory:   /pub/usenet/news.answers/us-visa-faq

        2. SITE:        ftp.uu.net
           Directory:   /pub/usenet/news.answers/us-visa-faq

	Files: part1  part2  part3  part4  part5  part6

	

	DV-1 Lottery: Deadline  - June 30 1994
	
	Information may be obtained by sending a request to Pakistan 
	News Service (Pakistan@asuacad.bitnet)

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Subject: 18) U.S. Embassy/Consulates in Pakistan &  Pakistan Visa Info
 
<fahmy@cats.ucsc.edu (Fahmy F Qazi)>

This section is from the document '/Internet Resources/US-State-Department-Travel-Advisories/Current-Advisories/pakistan'.

STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL INFORMATION - Pakistan
============================================================
Pakistan - Consular Information Sheet
 January 8, 1993

Embassy Location:  The U.S. Embassy is located in Islamabad, 
Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, telephone (92-51) 826-161.  The 
Consular Section is located separately in the USAID building, 18 
Sixth Avenue, Ramna 5.  In Karachi, the U.S. Consulate General is 
located at 8 Abdullah Haroon Road, telephone (92-21) 568-5170.  In 
Lahore, the U.S. Consulate General is located on Sharah-E-Abdul 
Hamid Bin Badees (50 Empress Road), New Simla Hills, telephone 
(92-42) 365-530.  In Peshawar, the U.S. Consulate is located at 11 
Hospital Road, Peshawar Cantonment, telephone (92-521) 279-801/2/3. 


Entry Requirements:  A passport and visa are required.  The visa 
must be obtained from a Pakistani embassy or consulate before 
arrival at the point of entry.  Information on entry requirements 
can be obtained from the Embassy of Pakistan, 2315 Massachusetts 
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20008; telephone (202) 939-6200.  
Travelers can  also contact the Pakistani Consulate General, 12 East 
65th St., New York, NY 10021; telephone (212) 879-5800. 

## NEW (Nov 94) ## 

Effective September 1, 1986 ALL US citizens require visa to visit 
Pakistan. This includes tourists. 

Pakistan Visa Fee is: $20.00 

## ##

Medical Facilities:  Adequate medical care is available in major 
cities in Pakistan, but may be limited in rural areas.  U.S. medical 
insurance is not always valid outside the United States.  Doctors 
and hospitals often expect immediate payment in cash for treatment.  
Supplemental health insurance which specifically covers overseas 
treatment has proved to be useful.  Additional information on health 
problems can be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control's 
international travelers hotline at (404) 332-4559.

Safe Trip Abroad" contains information on safeguarding valuables and 
protection of personal security which may be of use.  It is 
available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

Drug Penalties:  Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in 
illegal drugs are strictly enforced.  Convicted offenders can expect 
jail sentences and fines.

Tips For Travelers:  The Department of State publication "Tips for 
Travelers to South Asia" contains general information on the area.  
It is available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402. 

Registration:  U.S. citizens who register at the U.S. Embassy in 
Islamabad or the Consulates General in Karachi, Lahore or Peshawar 
can obtain updated information on travel and security in Pakistan.

 No. 93-008


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Subject: 19) H-1 Visa Info: Mexico & Canada + H-4 Visa Info

H-1 VISA INFO: (Juarez Mexico)
------------------------------

By:qqazi@nmsu.edu (Qadeer Ahmed Qazi) 23 May 1994 

Information on getting visa in Juarez, Mexico
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Jurez, Mexico is twin city of El Paso, 	Texas.  Reach in El Paso in the
evening and in the early morning go to Juarez, Mexico.  It is one day
project so you can plan to come back in the evening.

Juarez is kind of part of USA, you can always come back with valid I-94 if
some reason visa is rejected. Mostly not.

Be at the consulate at 6:00 AM, take following documents with you:

	1)	Valid passport
	2)	One photograph (if color then background should be white)
	3)	$ 100.00 fee if from India (No fee for Pakistanis)
	4)	Valid I-20
	5)	Documents for financial aid
	6)	Bank statement
	7)	Transcripts (of last semester)

Please do not say that you need visa to go to your home country, because
the answer would be simple "go and get new visa from there."  Mostly you 
would be done by 1:00 PM. If you are driving than stay in El Paso and go 
to Juarez in the morning.There is a secure parking beside consulate with
parking fee of $3.00.  If you are flying into El Paso, then reach  early 
and you can find a motel in Juarez.

An experience from a fellow is cited below:
------------------------------------------
1. a. Juarez time = El Paso time (Mountain) (April - October)
   b. Juarez time = CST( 1 hour ahead of El Paso time in the other months
      of the year)
Lot of people there thought Juarez was 1 hour ahead as this was mentioned
so in the  old stories.

2. They processed and gave us the visas by 12.30 PM. The old story said
visas  will be given only after 3.30PM. That could be the case also. So
make flight arrangements so that you will have time to kill rather than
hurry and/or miss the flight.

3. It might be a good idea to carry an umbrella. There is no shelter outside the
consulate. Also, pack your papers in waterproof material. 

4. At the now famous 'Econo Lodge' they have a little discount for AAA members.

5. Econo Lodge number is 778 3311. Call from airport and they will pick you up. 

6. It is cheap but conveniently located.

7. You can talk to the front desk and they will arrange the transport to
the consulate. In fact, the lady at the front desk called and arranged a
pickup at 3.30 am in the  morning, without my haveing to enquire!!

In any case you can call Victor Garcia at 525 5341 and make arrangements.
He even has  a cellular phone. He charged $10/- apiece for 5 of us. 

8. Tips about filling application:

   a. Leave blank what you are not sure about:
	i. What is the purpose of your visit?
       ii. How long do you intend to stay in USA?
      iii. Do you intend to work in the USA(This is NA for H1 applicants)?
            etc.
   b. Put your home country address in the applicant's home address.

9. Opposite to the consulate there is are couple of stores which will let
you put your stuff in. 

10. Yesterday, at the least, the consulate security let us bring in our
briefcases or  small bags.

11. While coming back ask the Mexican cab to drop you at Mexican side of
border post. >From there walk for 5 mts to the INS visa center. 

Once you get your I-94 go ahead the USA side of the border and cabs will be
waiting.

12. Questions asked:
	a. What is your work?
        b. Where did you study?


H-1 VISA INFO (Canada)
----------------------

By: ajay@albali.cs.buffalo.edu Dec 3, 1993

Having obtained an H1 from Quebec yesterday, I guess I can jot down my
experiences here.

I have dealt with 3 consulates (Toronto, Ottawa and Quebec) in the past
few weeks, and my experiences with each are given below:
	- Toronto. Effective 15th Nov 1993, the Toronto Consulate will
	  take *5* WORKING days to process your application. So, unless
	  you have friends in Toronto, and don't mind a week's vacation 
	  there, avoid Toronto!! 

	- Ottawa. They don't take walk-in applicants. You simply have
	  to fix up an appointment over the phone, and when I called
	  in the early November, they gave me a date for Dec 7th.
	  I'm not sure, but I think they take atleast a day to process
	  your application.

	- Montreal. I haven't dealt with the Montreal consulate, but
	  rumor has it that they take 3-5 working days also.

	- Quebec City. They take 48 hours to process your app.
          They accept applications only on MWF, 9-11AM. Don't bother 
	  lining up at 6AM; the consulate opens at 9, and as long as
	  you get in before 11, it should be OK. The aren't that many
	  people waiting to get in anyways. The consulate is located
	  near the end of "Terrasse Dufferin" (the end further away
	  from Chateau Frontenac), and you can see the flag poles sticking
	  out at an angle above the doorways. (No flags on them at nite).
	       I went on a Monday, and there were about 12 people requesting
	  visas that day. However, when I went to pick up my passport
	  on wednesday, I saw only 1 guy handing in his passport. BTW: they
	  simply ignore your pleas to hand back the passport the same day;
	  don't bother even trying unless there are just a couple of people 
	  applying for visas.
	       If you are planning a trip to Quebec, I suggest you download
	  the file "StampingH1inNearAbroad" from the alt.visa.us FTP archives,
	  and read the post in there on how to get a visa at Quebec.


H-4 Visa Info:
-------------

	H-4 visa is for the spouse of H-1 Visa Holder. There is no delay 
	or hold in this category. Spouse may apply any time after the 
	marriage, the whole process does not take more than couple of hours.

	Spouse need to take the following documents along to the consulate.

	a) His/Her own valid passport
	b) Nikah Nama (Marriage Certificate - English trans prefered)
	c) Two passport size pictures
	d) Other Spouse's passport with H-1 Visa already stamped on it.
	e) Letter from other spouse's employer confirming the empolyment
	   is current.
	f) Don't forget to take original H-1 letter along.



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Subject: 20) Baby Names!


Female: Razia,RabiaRukhi,ruksana,zeba,shamimara,Rubina,Rabia,Sara,Fouzia,
        Shumaila,Shazia,Shela,Hafza,Fara,Iram,Nadia
Male  :  AMIR,ASIM,ASLAM,ZAKI,ZUBAIR,SULEMAN,SALEM,FARAZ,ASAD,FARHAN
	 Nadir Sohail Shafiq Sohrab Shumail Noor Qarin


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Subject: 21) World Wide Web Home Pages on Pakistan  

I have put most of the home pages listed earlier under one home page
after checking to make sure they still exist. Please send your home
page URL on Pakistan for listing. Thanks.

Combined HOME Pages URL:

	http://alumni.caltech.edu/~mughal/pakistan/pakistan.html


--- Previously Listed Home pages ---

A- http://www.egr.uh.edu/~escco/Pakistan.html
   By Fazia Rizvi (st156@jetson.uh.edu)

B- http://www.rpi.edu/~ansars/paksa_locker/pak_mosaic/pakistan.html
   By Salman Ansari (ansars@rpi.edu)

C- http://www.wam.umd.edu/~ghori/
   By Ghanzanfar Khan Gori (ghori@wam.umd.edu)

D- http://cuda3.me.mtu.edu:8023/home/maxwell-a.ee/kmushtaq/.mosaic/pakistan/pakistan.html
   By Kamran Mushtaq (kmushtaq@mtu.edu)



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Subject: 22) USENET Statistics on Soc.Culture.Pakistan

	Per May '94 USENET statistics: Ranking:			316/3135
			  Estimated Readership:			 100,000

	April '94: 283/3190 ; 110,000 readership

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Subject: 23) Info on soc.culture.pakistan Reorganization

	[This is intended as a brief summary. Please read the separate FAQ 
	 on newly created soc.culture.pakistan.* newsgroups for details]

	After a year or so discussion on 'PakNet' mailing list and initial
proposal for open discussion. A proposal to expand soc.culture.pakistan with 
the addition of six subnewsgroups was presented on Nov 21, 1995. 

	A formal 'Call for Votes' was issued on Dec 13, 1995. The vote 
closed on Jan 2, 1996. After a second 'Call for Votes', all following
groups passed and have been created:

	Moderated:
 			soc.culture.pakistan.education
			soc.culture.pakistan.history
			soc.culture.pakistan.moderated

	UnModerated:
			soc.culture.pakistan.politics
			soc.culture.pakistan.religion
			soc.culture.pakistan.sports

More info on proposed newsgroups is as follows:

NEWSGROUP LINES:
soc.culture.pakistan.education	Education in Pakistan. (Moderated)
soc.culture.pakistan.history	History of Pakistan. (Moderated)
soc.culture.pakistan.moderated	Discussions on Pakistan. (Moderated)
soc.culture.pakistan.politics	Political discussions on Pakistan.
soc.culture.pakistan.religion	Religious discussions related to Pakistan.
soc.culture.pakistan.sports	Sports in Pakistan.

RATIONALE: all groups

The reorganization is being proposed to better address the diversity
of subjects and the needs of the readers which currently not being
served by unmoderated soc.culture.pakistan newsgroup.

The traffic on the unmoderated newsgroup soc.culture.pakistan has been
increasing steadily.  It has reached the point where any meaningful
discussion on any topic related to Pakistan is lost in the high
traffic & noise. Thus rendering the newsgroup inoperable & unusable
for serious readership. This situation is also driving serious
readership away from the newsgroup.  Current proposal is to rectify
this situation by proposing to reorganize the newsgroup into to a
number of moderated & unmoderated newsgroup based upon specific topics
of discussion.

In addition to the current traffic of over 200+ messages per day. In the
next few months, more usenet readers are coming on-line from Pakistan,
estimated 100,000+.

The current proposal is the essence of discussions held independently
by at least three separate groups of scp readers. All of them arrived
at the conclusion to split the newsgroup soc.culture.pakistan.

The proposed hierarchy is intented to provide a foundation for
subgroups under the hierarchy. The proposed subsgroups will focus on
specific topics on Pakistan and Pakistani culture.  This provides
medium to express and share ideas, in addition learn from others
experiences & knowledge.

MODERATION POLICIES: For all three moderated newsgroups:

        Namely, soc.culture.pakistan.education
                soc.culture.pakistan.history
                soc.culture.pakistan.moderated

The newsgroups in soc.culture.pakistan.hierarchy slated for moderation
will be moderated by one group of moderators.  The moderators
submission address & multiple moderation tools are in the process of
being setup.

The moderation will not be censorship, it is solely for:

		1.  keeping the discussion relevant to the topics
		2.  Keeping personal comments out.
		3.  keeping flame/flamebaits out
		4.  keeping discussion civilized.

Further, moderators will enforce standard USENET guidelines for
postings, that is,

		i)   No test messages
		ii)  No commercial messages
		iii) No anonymous postings
		iv)  Postings to be legible
		v)   Postings to be in proper format: (not more than
                     80 characters per line)
		vi)  Less than 50% quote text.


The moderators may resign at their own will or by unanimous vote of
other moderators if 1. They have no valid email address 2. Have been
inactive for over six months.  Additional moderators may be added by
unanimous vote of active moderators.

Changes in moderation team & calls for new moderators will be posted on
the newsgroups.

FACILITATORS: For all three moderated newsgroups:

        Namely, soc.culture.pakistan.education
                soc.culture.pakistan.history
                soc.culture.pakistan.moderated

Facilitators are advisors to moderators. Readers interested in advising
moderators and active in discussing moderation issues.  Unlike moderators
Facilitators will not have posting rights. Facilitators are nominated
by moderators by mutual agreement.


TECHNICAL MODERATOR: For proposed moderated newsgroups. Solely responsible
for technical aspects, including maintaining submission addresses, updating
moderators' lists, posting announcements on technical issues. Does not
review/post regular incoming articles.

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Subject: 24) Berkeley Urdu Language Program  

BERKELEY URDU LANGUAGE PROGRAM IN PAKISTAN 1997-1998

Background
The 25th Berkeley Urdu Language Program in Pakistan will provide 30 weeks
of Urdu instruction in two 15-week terms, with winter and spring breaks,
from September, 1997 through May, 1998.  Particularly well-qualified
persons unable to spend the entire academic year may apply for one term.
Independent scholars and faculty members who wish to improve their
knowledge of Urdu in conjunction with ongoing or planned research are
encouraged to apply.  This is strictly a language program.

Eligibility
Applicants must be citizens or permanent residents of the United States.

     Plan A:  Before beginning the program, applicants must have
completed at least two years of Urdu and/or Hindi, or the equivalent, and
should have a good knowledge of the Urdu script.  Students having completed
one year of Urdu and/or Hindi by June 1997 are eligible to apply if they
intend to take an intensive second-year summer Urdu/Hindi course at the
University of Washington, Seattle, or at the University of Wisconsin,
Madison during the summer of 1997.

     Plan B:  Urdu language instruction will be offered to a  limited
number of U.S. scholars conducting research in Pakistan.  We can
accommodate all levels of ability; private tuition may be secured on a
contingency basis.  We encourage American Institute of Pakistan Studies
fellows to use the BULPIP facilities.

Cost
The costs to all participants are a $25 application fee and a program fee of
$2,000 for the full academic year, or $1,300 for one term.  Other fees for
tuition, housing, round-trip air transportation, health insurance, and
other living expenses may be paid in the following ways:

     Plan A:  Intensive advanced language students may fund their
participation in one of three ways:

USIA/NMERTA funding:  Contingent upon funding by USIA, a number of full
fellowships will be awarded to US citizens enrolled in graduate degree
programs.  These will cover tuition, housing, round-trip
transportation to Pakistan, a maintenance allowance, and health insurance.
No provision is made for dependents.   The Center for South Asia Studies
awards the fellowships upon acceptance into the program.

FLAS fellowships:  If your home institution is a Title VI National Resource
Center, ask about Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowships.

Private funding.  Students may participate on the program using their own
funds.  Ask us about total costs. You must pay all expenses in the United
States before departing for Pakistan.

     Plan B:  Those interested in language training other than the
advanced program should contact us, giving specifics of the level and
degree of training required.  You must pay all expenses in the United
States, prior to departure for Pakistan.

Deadline
The application deadline is March 1, 1997.  Request applications and
additional information from

Berkeley Urdu Language Program in Pakistan
Center for South Asia Studies
University of California, Berkeley
10 Stephens Hall # 2310
Berkeley, CA  94720-2310

Tel: (510) 642-3608
Fax: (510) 643-5793
Email: udrebba@uclink4.berkeley.edu

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Subject: 25)    Urdu - Dictionary/Fonts/Software

DICTIONARY:
From: zia@dstos3.dsto.gov.au (Zia Ahmed)
Subject: Urdu Dictionary (Part 1)
Date: 3 Dec 1993 01:24:25 GMT

				    Alphabet
				    --------
Vowel Pronunciation Key
-----------------------
a  : "u" in "but"
aa : "a" in "far"
e  : "e" in "bed"
i  : "i" in "fit"
ee : "ee" in "feet"
o  : "o" in "code"
u  : "u" in "put"
oo : "oo" in "booed"
au : "ow" in "how"
ai : "ei" in "neighbor"
Notes:  1. ' indicates a glottal stop (pronounced like "uh") in very careful
-----      speech. Normally, however, it is not pronounced at the beginning
	   of a word and in other positions it represents 'aa'.
	2. The combination 'ah' at the end of a word is pronounced like 'aa'
	   or 'e'. For example: 'jagah' could be 'jagaa' or 'jage', i.e., the
	   h is silent.
	3. The combination 'ah' or 'aH' in the middle of a word is pronounced
	   like 'e'.
	4. n. (n period) indicates nasalization.
	5. a - is used to distinguish between sh and s+h, kh and k+h, etc.
 
Letter	  Transcription				Remarks
------	  -------------				------- 
'alif	 :	a	   Could also stand for an unspecified initial vowel
be	 :	b
pe	 :	p	   Does not occur in Arabic
te	 :	t	   Used in native words
Te	 :	T	   Does not occur in Arabic and Persian
se	 :	s	   Used in loan words
jeem	 :	j
che	 :	ch	   Does not occur in Arabic
baRi he  :	H	   Used in loan words
khe	 :	kh
daal	 :	d
Daal	 :	D	   Does not occur in Arabic and Persian
zaal	 :	z	   Used in loan words
re	 :	r
Re	 :	R	   Does not occur in Arabic and Persian
ze	 :	z	   Used in native words
zhe	 :	zh	   Does not occur in Arabic
seen	 :	s
sheen	 :	sh
saad	 :	s	   Used in loan words
zaad	 :	z	   Used in loan words
to-e	 :	t	   Used in loan words
zo-e	 :	z	   Used in loan words
ain	 :	'	   Could also stand for an unspecified initial vowel
ghain	 :	gh
fe	 :	f
qaaf	 :	q
kaaf	 :	k
gaaf	 :	g	   Does not occur in Arabic
laam	 :	l
meem	 :	m
noon	 :	n
vaa-o	 :	w	   Stands for oo/o/au at the end of a word. In the
			   middle it could stand for w/oo/o/au
chhoTi he:	h	   Used in native words
chhoTi ye:	y	   Stand for ee/e/ai at the end of a word. In the
			   middle it could stand for y/ee/e/ai
baRi ye	 :	y	   Occurs only at the end of a word and stands for
			   e or ai

URDU FONTS:
----------

Date: Mon, 06 Nov 1995 13:12:05 -0500 (EST)
From: ABBASS SYED AKBAR <93abbass@wave.scar.utoronto.ca>

You can find urdu/persian fonts at the following site ;

	http://tehran.stanford.edu 

and look under PERSIAN EDITORS. There is one called PARSNEGAR. You can 
even download a demo. In addition if you browse around through the WEB 
pages on that site you


URDU SOFTWARE:
---------------

Subject: Urdu Software call 800-308-8883
Date: 28 Sep 1994 14:04:36 GMT

Yes call this # if u are looking for an Urdu software. 1-800-308-8883.

 


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Subject: 26) This FAQ: Archive Info, History & Credits 

ARCHIVE INFO:
	This FAQ is archived & availble thru anonymous FTP & world-wide web.

        Anonymous FTP:

        1. SITE:        rtfm.mit.edu
           Directory:   /pub/usenet/news.answers/pakistan/faq

        2. SITE:        ftp.uu.net
           Directory:   /pub/usenet/news.answers/pakistan/faq


        Word-Wide Web:
        -------------

URL for USENET FAQs:
http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/top.html

URL for this FAQ:
www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/pakistan/faq


HISTORY:

V 1.0	Released Dec 25, 1993
V 1.1   Released Jan 31, 1994  Expanded to 11 Items, new items: #3,#9,#10,#11
V 1.2   Released Feb 18, 1994  New items in # 11, # 12  Total items 13 
V 1.3 	Released Mar 10, 1994  New Items in # 11, # 13. Total items 15 
V 1.4   Released Apr 04, 1994  New item # 14, 		Total items 16
V 1.5   Released Apr 29, 1994  Format Touchups
V 1.6   Released May 06  1994  New items # 1 & # 17 [Auto posting]
V 1.7   Released May 06  1994  
V 1.8   Released Jun 26  1994  New item #16,#17,#18.Addtions to #21.
V 1.9   Released July 04 1994  New item # 18 & #21, #22 updated 
V 2.0   Released Nov  18 1994  Expanded # 10, #18, New # 22
V 2.1   Released Oct  05 1995  Updated WWW entry. 
V 2.2 	Released Mar  26 1996  Updated #10, #19 & #25. New #23 & #24
V 2.3   Released Feb  14 1997  Updated headers,

CREDITS:

As noted by each item.


End of Soc.Culture.Pakistan  FAQ
********************************
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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM