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Comp.Object FAQ Version 1.0.9 (04-02) Part 4/13

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Archive-name: object-faq/part4
Last-Modified: 04/02/96
Version: 1.0.9

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This is a summary of resources on the Testing of Object-Oriented
Programming that have been mentioned to me over the net, in email,
or other means.  Sections include Written Material, Courses, and
Software.  It is kind of like an FAQ, though it isn't organized 
that way.

> Who?

I work for a Unix software house, Qualix Group, in the US.   Here is
my sig:
 - Doug Shaker
	voice:	415/572-0200
	fax:	415/572-1300
	mail:	Qualix Group
		1900 S. Norfolk St., #224
		San Mateo, CA 94403
I am NOT a researcher on the testing of object-oriented programming.
I just collate the stuff that is sent to me by people who REALLY know
something.  See the section "ACKs" at the end.

I just think it is important.

> Why?

Why is this important? If classes are really to be reused in
confidence, they must be blatantly correct.  The classes must be easily
testable during initial evaluation by the client programmer.  They must
also be testable under different OS configurations, different compiler
optimizations, etc.  This means that testing modules must be
constructed in a way which is recognized as correct and the modules
must be shipped with the class libraries.  

As soon as one major class library vendor starts to ship real test code
with their libraries, all of the other vendors will be forced, by
market pressure, to do so as well, or face market share erosion.  Think
about it.  If you had to recommend a class library to a committee that
was choosing a basis for the next five years of work, wouldn't you feel
safer with a class library that could be auto-tested in your

> Written Material

Berard, Edward.  Essays on Object-Oriented Software Engineering.  
	Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. $35.
	This book has two chapters on testing of object-oriented software, 
	focusing on how to do it.

Berard, Edward.  Project Management Handbook.  Must be purchased
	direct from Berard Software Engineering, Ltd., 902 Wind River
	Lane, Suite 203, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878.  $225.
	The book focuses on the management of OOP projects.  It
	includes one chapter on testing OO software and one chapter
	on quality assurance.

Bezier, Boris, "Software Testing Techniques", 2nd edition, Van Nostrand
	Reinhold, 1990, 503pp, $43, ISBN 0-442-20672-0.  While this is
	not specifically about testing of OOP, it is mentioned so often
	by so many people as a definitive software testing work, that
	I have to mention it anyway.

Cheatham Thomas J., and Lee Mellinger, "Testing Object-Oriented
	Software Systems",  Proceedings of the 18th ACM Annual Computer
	Science Conference, ACM, Inc., New York, NY, 1990, pp. 161-165.

Doong, Roong-Ko and Phyllis G. Frankl, "Case Studies on Testing 
	Object-Oriented Programs", Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on
	Testing, Analysis, and Verification (TAV4), 1991, ACM, Inc.,
	New York, NY, 1991, pp. 165-177.

Fiedler, Steven P., "Object-Oriented Unit Testing", Hewlett-Packard 
	Journal, April, 1989, pp. 69-74.

Firesmith, D.G., "Testing Object-Oriented Software", Proceedings 
	of 11th. TOOLS USA Conference, Santa Barbara, Aug 1993, pp 407-426.

Frankl, Phyllis G. and Roong-Ko Doong, "Tools for Testing 
	Object-Oriented Programs", Proceedings of the 8th Pacific
	Northwest Conference on Software Quality, 1990, pp. 309-324.
	One author can be reached at

Graham, J.A., Drakeford, A.C.T., Turner, C.D. 1993. The Verification, 
	Validation and Testing of Object Oriented Systems, BT Technol
	J.  Vol 11, No 3. One author's email address is

Harrold, Mary Jean, John D. McGregor, and Kevin J. Fitzpatrick, 
	"Incremental Testing of Object-Oriented Class Structures",
	International Conference on Software Engineering, May, 1992,
	ACM, Inc., pp. 68 - 80.

Hoffman, Daniel and Paul Strooper.  A Case Study in Class Testing.
	To be Presented at the IBM Center for Advanced Studies Fall
	Conference, October 1993, Toronto.  Email addresses for authors
	are and  Describes an
	approach to testing which the authors call Testgraphs.  An
	example is worked out in C++ which tests a commercial class.

Hoffman, D. M.  A CASE Study in Module Testing.  In Proc. Conf. Software
	Maintenance, pp. 100-105. IEEE Computer Society, October 1989.

Hoffman, D.M. and P.A. Strooper.  Graph-Based Class Testing.  In 
	7th Australian Software Engineering Conference (to appear), 1993.

Klimas, Edward "Quality Assurance Issues for Smalltalk Based Applications", 
	The Smalltalk Report, Vol. 1, No. 9, pp.3-7.  The author's
	email address is "".

Lakos, John S.  "Designing-In Quality in Large C++ Projects" Presented
	at the 10th Annual Pacific Northwest Software Quality Conference,
	Portland, Oregon, October 21, 1993.  Abstract:
		The focus of this paper is on ensuring quality by
		designing software that avoids acyclic component
		dependencies.  This in-turn permits incremental,
		hierarchical testing.  The importance of good physical
		design becomes a key factor only for large and very
		large projects.  Intuition gained from smaller projects
		leads to errors in large designs.  Compile-coupling
		("Insulation") is also discussed.
	Copies of the postscript file can be obtained by sending email
	to "".

Leavens, G. T., "Modular Specification and Verification of 
	Object-Oriented Programs", IEEE Software, July 1991, pp. 72-80.

Love, Tom.  Object Lessons.  SIGS Books, 588 Broadway #604, New York, NY 
	10012. $49.
	This book eloquently elucidates the need for testing of object-
	oriented code and has a chapter on how it was done at Stepstone
	during the first release of their initial class library.

Marick, Brian.  The Craft of Software Testing, Prentice-Hall, in press.
	Makes the argument that testing of object-oriented software is
	simply a special case of testing software which retains state
	and which is reused.  The author can be reached at

Narick, Brian. "Testing Software that Reuses", Technical Note 2, Testing
	Foundations, Champaign, Illinois, 1992. Copies may be obtainable 
	via email. The author can be reached at

Murphy, G.C., Wong, P. 1992, Towards a Testing Methodology for 
	Object Oriented Systems, M.P.R Teltech Ltd. A poster at the
	Conference on Object Oriented Programming Systems, Languages
	and Applications ACM. Copies of this paper can be obtained

Murphy, G. and P. Wong.  Object-Oriented Systems Testing Methodology: An
	Overview.  Techical Report TR92-0656, MPR Teltech Ltd., October 

Perry, D.E. and G.E. Kaiser, "Adequate Testing and Object-Oriented 
	Programming", Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, 
	2(5):13-19, Jan/Feb 1990.

Purchase, Jan A. and Russel L. Winder, "Debugging tools for 
	object-oriented programming", Journal of Object-Oriented 
	Programming, June, 1991, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 10 - 27.

Smith, M. D. and D. J. Robson, " A Framework for Testing Object-Oriented 
	Programs", JOOP, 5(3):45-53, June 1992.
	Describes ways in which the usual approach to software testing
	could be adapted for object-oriented software.
	This paper, or one with the same title and authors, is
	available by anonymous ftp from as

Smith, M. D. and D. J. Robson, "Object-Oriented Programming - the 
	Problems of Validation",  Proceedings of the 6th International 
	Conference on Software Maintenance 1990, IEEE Computer Society 
	Press, Los Alamitos, CA., pp. 272-281.

Taylor, David. "A quality-first program for object technology", Object 
	Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, July-August 1992, pp17-18. SIGs
	Publications.  The article talks some about why testing is
	important for OOP and describes one quality program.

Theilen, David.  "No Bugs.  Delivering error free code in C and C++.",
	Addison-Wesley, 1992, ISBN:0-201-60890-1.

Turner, C. D. and D. J. Robson, "The Testing of Object-Oriented Programs",
	Technical Report TR-13/92, Computer Science Division, School of
	Engineering and Computer Sciences (SECS), University of Durham,
	Includes a survey of existing literature on testing of OO
	programs.  Testing of OOP is compared with traditional software
	testing.  A state-based approach is described.
	This paper is available by anonymous ftp from in
	/pub/papers. Get "" for A4 paper and "" for
	US letter paper formatting.

Turner, C. D. and D. J. Robson, "A Suite of Tools for the State-Based
	Testing of Object-Oriented Programs", Technical Report
	TR-14/92, Computer Science Division, School of Engineering and
	Computer Science (SECS), University of Durham, Durham,
	England.  Describes a series of tools for the generation and
	execution of test cases for OOP.  These tools assume a
	state-based testing approach.
	This paper is available by anonymous ftp from in
	/pub/papers.  Get "" for A4 paper formatting or get
	"" for US letter formatting.

Turner, C. D. and D. J. Robson, "Guidance for the Testing of Object-
	Oriented Programs", Technical Report TR-2/93, Computer Science
	Division, School of Engineering and Computer Science (SECS),
	University of Durham, Durham, England.  Discusses different
	methods of making class declarations and the implications of
	those methods for testing.
	This paper is available by anonymous ftp from in
	/pub/papers.  Get "" for A4 paper formatting or get
	"" for US letter formatting.

Turner, C. D. and D. J. Robson, "State-Based Testing and Inheritance",
	Technical Report TR-1/93, Computer Science Division, School of
	Engineering and Computer Science (SECS), University of Durham,
	Durham, England.
	Discusses the implications of inheritance for testing,
	particularily incremental testing.
	This paper is available by anonymous ftp from in
	/pub/papers.  Get" for A4 paper formatting or get
	"" for US letter formatting.

Wong, P. Automated Class Exerciser (ACE) User's Guide.  Technical
	Report TR92-0655, MPR Teltech Ltd., September 1992.
> Courses

Berard Software Engineering, Inc. teaches a seminar on Testing of
Object-Oriented Software (TOOS).  The next one scheduled that I know of
is November 8-12, in Washington.  Call 301-417-9884 for details.

Quality Fractals, Inc. has a course called "Testing Object-Oriented
Software".  Contact: 508-359-7273 (Box 337, Medfield, MA 02052).  The
course is taught by Shel Siegel of YESS!, Inc.  Contact: 916-944-1032.

> Software

There is a smalltalk class library in the Univ. of Illinois archives
which includes a simple Tester class written by Bruce Samuelson
( It is a general superclass for application
specific classes that test non-interactive objects such as trees,
collections, or numbers. It is not suitable for testing user interface
components such as windows, cursors, or scroll bars. The filein
includes Tree classes, Tester itself, and subclasses of Tester that are
used to validate the Tree classes. For ParcPlace Smalltalk (ObjectWorks
4.1 and VisualWorks 1.0). To get it ftp the file
"/pub/st80_vw/TreeLW1.1" from

IPL Ltd. (in the UK) has a testing tool called Cantata which allows for
testing C++, but as far as I am able to determine, it has no special
features for C++ testing.  From the product literature:
	Cantata allows testing to be performed in an intuitive way
	making the tool exceptionally easy to use and productive in
	operation. Cantata is suitable for testing software written in
	either C or C++.

	Cantata provides comprehensive facilities for all forms of
	dynamic testing, including: functional testing, structural
	testing, unit testing and integration testing. Cantata has been
	specifically designed to operate in both host and target
	systems and so allow full portability of tests between these
For more information contact IPL:
	IPL Ltd.
	Eveleigh House, Grove Street, 
	Bath  BA1 5LR
	(0225) 444888
	(0225) 444400 (FAX)

TestCenter from CenterLine will do coverage testing of C++ (and C)
code.  Also does some memory debugging (similar to Purify) and regression
testing.  Highlights from CenterLine literature:
  *Automatic run-time error-checking on executables to enhance quality 
  *Automatic memory leak detection on executables to optimize memory use
  *Graphical test coverage to highlight any code not executed during test runs
  *Intuitive GUI for easy test analysis 
  *Programmatic interface to output files and cumulative code coverage 
   to support batch-mode and regression testing
  *No recompilation needed, resulting in quick turnaround
  *Complete C and C++ language support
  *Integration with leading programming tools for maximum productivity gains

MicroTech Pacific Research ( has a C++ class testing tool called
ACE (Automated Class Exerciser) which is available under non-disclosure
agreement.  It is not currently for sale.  If you are interested,
contact Paul Townsend,

Software Research Inc. (625 Third St, San Francisco, CA 94107-1997,
voice: 1-415-957-1441, email: has a coverage tool for C++
that is called tcat++.  It is an extension of SRI's tcat program.

Quality Assured Software Engineering (938 Willowleaf Dr., Suite 2806,
San Jose, CA 95128, voice: 1-408-298-3824 ) has a coverage tool for
C and C++ called MetaC.  It also dones some syntax checking and memory
allocation checking.

A group of volunteers is building a C++ test harness for the automated
testing of C++, C and Perl programs.  The system is called ETET (Extended
Test Environment Toolkit).  To join the group of volunteers, send email to
The software is available via anonymous FTP from
( as "/pub/etet/etet1.10.1.tar.Z".  They are looking for
other FTP sites - sned email to the above address if you can provide
one.  This is a beta release and _should_ compile on any POSIX.1 system.
As much of this work is being done by SunSoft, my guess is that the
software will have the fewest problems on SunOS or Solaris releases.

> ACKs

Thanks to the following for helping assemble this list:
	Benjamin C. Cohen,
	Brian Marick,
	Bruce Samuleson,
	Daniel M. Hoffman,
	Edward Klimas,
	John Graham,
	Jim Youlio,
	Jeffery Brown,
	Lars Jonsson,
	Manfred Scheifert,
	Mark Swanson,
	Mary L. Schweizer,
	Michael Einkauf,
	Paul Townsend,
	Phyllis G. Frankl,
	Rachel Harrison,
	Risto Hakli,
	Russ Hopler,
	Stephane Barbey,
	Tony Reis,
	Yawar Ali,

3.12) What Distributed Systems Are Available?

The following post helps to provide some answers with at least a partial list.
See also Appendix E.

From: (Bob Marcus)
Newsgroups: comp.object,comp.client-server
Subject: Distributed Computing Products Overview
Date: 17 Sep 93 00:02:40 GMT
Organization: Boeing Computer Services

  There was a recent posting concerning the relationship between OMG's CORBA
 and Distributed Transaction Processing Monitors. In general, there is a lot of
 uncertainty as to how the various distributed computing tools, products and
 environments might work together.  Below is the outline of an eight-page
 posting to the Corporate Facilitators of  Object-Oriented Technology (CFOOT)
 mailing list addressing these issues. Let me know if you would like a copy
 of the posting and/or to be added to the CFOOT mailing list. 
                                          Bob Marcus 

  Peer Logic (PIPES)
  ATT (Transport Layer Interface) 

  Chorus Systems (Chorus)
  Microsoft (NT)

  NobleNet (EZ-RPC)
  Netwise (Netwise-RPC) 
  ATT/Sun (TI-RPC)

  IBM(Common Programming Interface-Communications)

  System Strategies/IBM (MQ Series)
  Horizon Strategies (Message Express) 
  Covia Systems(Communications Integrator)
  Momentum Software(X-IPC)
  Creative System Interface (AAI)
  Digital (DECmessageQ)
  HP (Sockets)(BMS)
  IBM (DataTrade)(DAE)
  Suite Software (SuiteTalk)
  Symbiotics (Networks)
  Teknekron (Teknekron Information Bus)
  ISIS(Distributed News)
  Expert Database Systems (Rnet)

  ISIS(Distributed Toolkit)

  Unix Systems Lab (Tuxedo) 
  Information Management Company (Open TransPort) 
  NCR (TopEnd)
  Transarc (Encina)
  IBM/HP/Transarc (Open CICS)

  Aggregate Systems (NetShare)
  Platform Computing(Utopia)
  ISIS(Resource Manager)

  Hyperdesk (Distributed Object Manager)
  IBM Distributed System Object Model(DSOM)
  Microsoft (Distributed OLE)
  Iona Technologies Ltd. (Orbix) 
  BBN (Cronus)
  Qualix (NetClasses)
  Symbiotics (Networks!)
  Digital(ACA Services) 
  Object-Oriented Technologies (SuiteDOME)

  OSF (Distributed Management Environment)
  Digital Analysis (HyperManagement)

  Texas Instruments (Information Engineering Facility)
  HP (SoftBench)
  Digital (COHESIONworX) 

  Independence Technologies (iTRAN)
  ISIS Distributed Systems (RDOM) 
  Early, Cloud & Company (Message Driven processor)
  Cooperative Solutions(Ellipse)

3.13) What Is The MVC Framework?

MVC stands for Model-View-Controller.  This framework was originally adopted
in Smalltalk to support Graphical User Interfaces.  Views support graphical
interfacing, controllers handle interaction, and models are the application
objects.  See [Krasner 88] and [LaLonde 90b].

From: Carl Petter Swensson <>
  Prof. Trygve Reenskaug is generally cited as being the creator of
  the MVC concept. He worked with the Smalltalk group at Xerox PARC
  as a visiting scientist in 78/79. During this stay at Xerox PARC 
  he developed the MVC. I know him well and have talked to him about
  this. He confirms it, although stating that it was a collaborative
  effort at Xerox PARC.

  The implementation of MVC in Smalltalk-80 has since been further
  developed by ParcPlace Systems.

  He has worked with Smalltalk in a commercial and research
  environments since then. His group at the Centre for Industral
  Research in Oslo (now part of the SINTEF group) had the only
  Smalltalk-78 implementation outside Xerox PARC.  He is now working
  with Taskon AS.

  The ideas that initially gave MVC has been developed further and 
  is the basis of the work Trygve is currently doing on the
  OOram methodology.

3.14) What is Real-Time?

Real-time is our linear extrapolation/perception of imaginary time (along the
quantum wave function (OTU) in ten dimensions, of course).

[This section is YTBI]

3.15) What Is Available on OO Metrics?

This section is still building.

[Berard 93] contains an elaborate bibliography and section on OO metrics.
[Booch 94] also contains some coverage.

Object Oriented Software development
Mark Lorenz ISBN 0-13-726928-5
Prentice Hall

Software Metrics
Grady-Caswell ISBN 0-13-821844-7
Prentice Hall

Measuring Software Design Quality
Card-Glass ISBN 0-13-568593-1
Prentice Hall

From: (Joern Trilk)
Newsgroups: comp.object,comp.lang.c++,comp.lang.smalltalk,comp.databases.object
Subject: Re: In search of OO Metrics
Date: 20 Jun 1994 14:29:27 GMT
Organization: Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany

Here are some references:

    author  = {G. Michael Barnes and Bradley R. Swim},
    title   = {Inheriting software metrics},
    journal = {JOOP},
    year    = {1993},
    month   = {Nov./Dec.},
    volume  = {6},
    number  = {7},
    pages   = {27-34}

    author  = {J.-Y. Chen and J.-F. Lu},
    title   = {A new metric for object-oriented design},
    journal = {Information and Software Technology},
    year    = {1993},
    month   = apr,
    volume  = {35},
    number  = {4},
    pages   = {232-240}

    author  = {Shyam R. Chidamber and Chris F. Kemerer},
    title   = {Towards a Metrics Suite for Object Oriented Design},
    booktitle = {OOPSLA '91 Proceeedings},
    year    = {1991},
    pages   = {197-211}

    author  = {J. Chris Coppick and Thomas J. Cheatham},
    title   = {Software Metrics for Object-Oriented Systems},
    booktitle = {CSC '92 Proceedings},
    year    = {1992},
    pages   = {317-322}

    author  = {B. Henderson-Sellers},
    title   = {Some metrics for object-oriented software engineering},
    booktitle = {TOOLS Proceedings},
    year    = {1991},
    pages   = {131-139}

    author  = {Wei Li and Sallie Henry},
    title   = {Object-Oriented Metrics that Predict Maintainability},
    journal = {J. Systems Software},
    year    = {1993},
    volume  = {23},
    pages   = {111-122}

    author  = {Teri Roberts},
    title   = {Workshop Report - Metrics for Object-Oriented Software Development},
    booktitle = {OOPSLA '92 (Addendum to the Proceedings)},
    year    = {1992},
    pages   = {97-100}

    author  = {A. Buth},
    title   = {Softwaremetriken f{\"u}r objekt-orientierte Programmiersprachen},    institution = {Gesellschaft f{\"u}r Mathematik und 
    year    = {1991},
    month   = jun,
    number  = {545},
    type    = {Arbeitspapiere der GMD}

The Software Engineering FAQ lists the following references concerning
metrics for object-oriented systems:

Date: 26 Jan 1993 Originally collected by:
(Horst Zuse) 

a. Morris Kenneth L.  Metrics for Object-Oriented Software Development
   Environments (master's thesis). 1989, MIT.
b. Rocacher, Daniel: Metrics Definitions for Smalltalk.  Project ESPRIT 1257,
   MUSE WP9A, 1988.
c. Rocacher, Daniel: Smalltalk Measure Analysis Manual.  Project ESPRIT 1257,
   MUSE WP9A, 1989.
d. Lake, Al: A Software Complexity Metric for C++.  Annual Oregon Workshop on
   Software Metrics, March 22-24, 1992, Silver Falls, Oregon, USA.
e. Bieman, J.M.: Deriving Measures of Software Reuse in Object Oriented
   Systems.  Technical Report #CS91-112, July 1991, Colorado State Universty,
   Fort Collins/ Colorado, USA.

Hope this helps,

Joern Trilk			Phone: ++49-89-2105-2391
Institut fuer Informatik (H1)	Fax:   ++49-89-2105-5296
TU Muenchen			Email:
80290 Muenchen                    

From: (Scott A. Whitmire)
Subject: Re: Any good OO metrics?
Organization: Advanced Systems Research
Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 05:58:29 GMT

In <3baqhn$>, (Cjdavies) writes:
>Has anyone come up with metrics that work realistically for OO
>development?  The old lines of code, cyclomatic complexity and Halstead
>metrics don't work so well with OO languages such as Smalltalk (or any
>language that facilitates reuse).  Also, has anyone adapted function
>points to OO languages?  Any ideas would be most welcome.
>Colin Davies.

Several people have been working in metrics for oo development.  For a quick
synopsis, check out my article in the "Encyclopedia of Software Engineering"
edited by John Marciniak and published by John Wiley & Sons.  The article
gives an overview of the work being done in the field, and what needs to be
done.  It is a couple of years old now, but there really isn't that much going

I did run into one book called "Object-Oriented Software Metrics" (I forget the
authors), but I didn't think much of it.

Your assessment of LOC, cyclomatic complexity, and Halsted are right on the

As for function points and OO, I think you'll find two papers useful.  The first
is a chapter I wrote for the "Software Engineering Productivity Handbook" edited
by Jessica Keyes and published by McGraw-Hill.  It applies standard function points
to OO software.  I suspect you'll find standard function points wanting.  I use
an extension I developed a couple of years ago called 3D function points.  I have
an electronic (plain text) version of the paper I can send if you like.

Metrics and OO development are fairly new to each other.  I am working on ways to
measure such design characteristics as cohesion, coupling, complexity, similarity
and the like.  I haven't been too thrilled with the work that has been done so far.
Much of it has serious theoretical and technical flaws.

Scott A. Whitmire   
Advanced Systems Research     
25238 127th Avenue SE         tel:(206)631-7868
Kent Washington 98031         fax:(206)630-2238

Consultants in networking, network-based applications, and software metrics.

3.16) What Are Visual Object-Oriented Programming Systems?

See also
There is also a comp.lang.visual and FAQ, similar to the www html above.

Visual programming is the use of graphics and graphical techniques in
computer programming.  It is becoming more common to see many
approaches to visual/graphical programming languages emerging that
incorporate the object-oriented programming philisophy.  Toward this
end, developers of new programming languages and programming
environments are exploring how to combine visual programming with
object-oriented programming by investigating how the basic concepts of
OOP -- data abstraction, instantiation, composition, and
specialization -- create new opportunities for programming using
visual means of construction.

A workshop on this topic was conducted at the 1993 OOPSLA, and a
workshop summary appeared as part of the 1993 OOPSLA Addendum.  Several
of the presenters at the workshop developed full versions of their
presentations, which are available in book form:

	Visual Object-Oriented Programming: Concepts and Environments,
	Margaret Burnett, Adele Goldberg, and Ted Lewis, editors,
	Prentice-Hall/Manning Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.

Margaret Burnett        .       e-mail:
Assistant Professor       .       WWW page:
Computer Science Dept.      .        
Oregon State University       .
Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA     .

3.17) What Tutorials Are Available On Object-Oriented Concepts and Languages?

Date: Thu, 25 May 95 17:31:21 EDT
From: (David Wheeler)

A list of C/C++ tutorials, including online tutorials, is maintained at:

Note that C and C++ are treated together.  One of the tutorials listed is the
course: "Introduction to Object Oriented Programming Using C++", a self-paced
class within the Globewide Network Academy [GNA]; this course may be found at:

Another course listed is the Coronado Enterprises C++ Tutorial, which assumes
that the user is already familiar with C (not necessarily ANSI C).  It may be
downloaded from:

One Ada 95 on-line tutorial is Lovelace, which is intended for those who are
already familiar with other algorithmic programming languages and are somewhat
familiar with object orientation.  Lovelace is available at:

Other Ada tutorials are listed in:

The Sather home page includes a list of Sather tutorials in its "Getting
Started" section:

The BETA language is introduced in:

A large list of SELF-related papers available electronically is at:

The Booch design method is briefly described in

For a list of many different resources of computer-language-specific
information, see the YAHOO list of computer languages at:


4.1)  What is Downcasting?

Downcasting is the term used in C++ for casting a pointer or reference to
a base class to a derived class.  This should usually be checked with an
embedded dynamic typing scheme if such a scheme is not present in the
language, such as with a typecase (Modula-3) or inspect (Simula) construct.
In C++, it is even possible to use conversion functions to perform some
checks, although the proposed RTTI will perform checked downcasting as
its primary ability.

4.2)  What are Virtual Functions?

Look under "Dynamic Binding" and "Polymorphism".

4.3)  Can I Use Multiple-Polymorphism Or Multi-Methods In C++?

Yes, but you'll need to embed a dynamic typing scheme to do it.  With dynamic
types in place, an overriding method in a derived class can explicitly check
argument types in a switch statement and invoke the desired method emulating
multiple-polymorphism [See Coplien 92].  

For true CLOS multi-methods, the above technique implemented as a base function
(CLOS defgeneric), switching to specialized functions (CLOS methods, made
friends of all arguments) will provide the functional calling syntax, multiple-
polymorphism and access to parameters found in CLOS.  This can require some
complex switching, which is somewhat mitigated when multiple-polymorphism
is implemented with virtual functions.

Future FAQs should contain more detail.

4.4)  Can I Use Dynamic Inheritance In C++?

Yes, [Coplien 92] describes a scheme where a class can contain a pointer to
a base class that can switch between its derived classes, providing a limited
form.  Earlier chapters contain entries on bypassing C++'s message system and
even bypassing static linking.

Future FAQs should contain more detail.


[Agrawal 91]  R. Agrawal et al.  "Static Type Checking of Multi-Methods".
 OOPSLA 91.  Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications.  
 ACM Press.  Addison Wesley.

  Compile-time checking and optimizations for multi-methods.

[Aho 86] Alfred V. Aho, Ravi Sethi, and Jeffrey D. Ullman.  Compilers:
 Principles, Techniques, and Tools. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1986.

  Authoritative, classic book on compilers and optimizations.  Type chapter
  contains section on type inferencing (using ML as an example).

[Berard 93]  Edward V. Berard.  Essays on Object-Oriented Software
  Engineering.  Prentice Hall.

  Many topics on OOSE, includes coverage of OO domain and requirements

[Black 86] A. Black et al.  Object-Structure in the Emerald System.  OOPSLA
 '86 Conference Proceedings, SIGPLAN Notices (Special Issue), Vol. 21, n0. 11,
 pp 78-86.    [I believe there is a more recent article, YTBI]

  The original article on Emerald.  OO language without inheritance but with
  abstract types and static subtype polymorphism.  Also designed for
  distributed programming and reuse.  See article for references: Jade on
  reuse [Raj 89]) and Distr. Prog.

[Black 87] A. Black, N. Hutchinson, E. Jul, H. Levyand L. Carter.  Distribution
 and Abstract Types in Emerald, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol.
 SE13, no. 1 Jam., pp 65-76.
  Subtype polymorphism for distributed programming in Emerald [Black 86].

[Blair 89] "Genericity vs Inheritance vs Delegation vs Conformance vs ..."
 Gordon Blair, John Gallagher and Javad Malik, Journal of Object Oriented
 Programming, Sept/Oct 1989, pp11-17.

  Recommended by a reader, but the Author has yet to review this article.

[Boehm 86] B.W. Boehm. A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement.
 Software Engineering Notes, Aug., vol. 11 (4), p 22.

 Presents an alternative evolutionary approach to the strict waterfall software
 engineering life-cycle.  Now a classic, most OO methodologies now emphasize
 the iterative or evolutionary approach to software development.

[Booch 87] Grady Booch.  Software Engineering with Ada.  2nd Ed.  Benjamin

  Booch in his early years.  Mostly object-based programming with Ada.

[Booch 87b] Grady Booch.  Software Components With Ada, Structures, Tools,
 and Subsystems.  Benjamin Cummings.

  A taxonomy and collection of object-based components in Ada (includes code).
  Has many examples with generics.

[Booch 91] Booch, Grady. Object-Oriented Design With Applications.  Benjamin

  The often referred to book on OOD.  Offers design notation and methodology.
  Brief coverage of OOA and elaborate OOD/P coverage in the applications.
  Good on basic principles and has case studies in Smalltalk, Object Pascal, 
  C++, CLOS and Ada.

  Also contains an *elaborate* classified bibliography on many areas of OO.

[Booch 94]  Grady Booch.  Object-Oriented Analysis And Design With
 Applications, 2nd Ed. Benjamin Cummings.  ISBN 0-8053-5340-2.

  The next FAQ should be updated to the second edition.  All examples are now
  in C++.  Booch incorporates several other major methodologies including
  Wirf-Brock's CRC (Class-Responsibility-Collaboration) and Jacobson's Use-

[Cardelli 85]  L. Cardelli and P. Wegner.  On Understanding Types, Data
 Abstraction, and Polymorphism.  ACM Computing Surveys vol. 17 (4).

 Long, classic article on Object-Oriented Types, Data Abstraction and
 Polymorphism.  Formal coverage with a type system analysis model as well.

[Chambers 92]  Craig Chambers.  The Design and Implementation of the SELF
 Compiler, an Optimizing Compiler for Object-Oriented Programming Languages.
 Dept of Computer Science, Stanford University, March 1992.

  Covers type optimizations for OO compilers.  See Appendix E, PAPERS.

[Chambers 93]  Craig Chambers.  Predicate Classes.  Proceedings ECOOP '93
  O. Nierstrasz, LNCS 707. Springer-Verlag, Kaiserslautern, Germany
  July 1993 pp 268-296

   "... an object is automatically an instance of a predicate class whenever
   it satisfies a predicate expression associated with the predicate class.
   The predicate expression can test the value or state of the object, thus
   supporting a form of implicit property-based classification that augments
   the explicit type-based classification provided by normal classes.  By
   associating methods with predicate classes, method lookup can depend not
   only on the dynamic class of an argument but also on its dynamic value or
   state. [...] A version of predicate classes has been designed and
   implemented in the context of the Cecil language.

  See Appendix E, PAPERS.

[de Champeaux 93] Dennis de Champeaux, Doug Lea, Penelope Faure.
 Object-Oriented System Development.  Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-56355-X.

  Covers an integrated treatment of OOA and OOD.  Takes serious the
  computational model of one thread per object.  Gives more than usual
  attention to the OOA&D micro process.  Presents a unique OOD language.

[Coad 91]  Peter Coad and Edward Yourdon. Object-Oriented Analysis, 2nd ed.
 Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice Hall.

  Coad and Yourdon's OO analysis method.

[Coad 91b]  Peter Coad and Edward Yourdon. Object-Oriented Design.  Englewood
 Cliffs, NJ. Prentice Hall.

  Coad and Yourdon's OO design method.

[Coleman 94] Derek Coleman, et. al.  Object-Oriented Development - The Fusion
 Method.  Prentice-Hall Object-Oriented Series. ISBN 0-13-338823-9

  Fusion is considered to be a second generation OOAD method in that it builds
  on successful components of a number of first generation methods (OMT, Booch,
  CRC, Objectory, etc).  However, this has been done with the requirements of
  industrial software developers in mind. And so issues of traceability,
  management etc. have been taken into consideration and the Method provides
  full coverage from requirements through to code.

[Cook 90] W.R. Cook, W.L.Hill, P.S. Canning. Inheritance Is Not Subtyping.
  Appeared in [Hudak 90] and Gunter 94].

    Theoretical article on the separation between type and class, or as the
    authors state between implementation inheritance and subtyping.

[Coplien 92] James O. Coplien.  Advanced C++ Programming Styles and Idioms.
  Addison Wesley.

  Covers advanced C++ programming and performing other more advanced and
  dynamic styles of OO in C++.

[Colbert 89]  E. Colbert.  The Object-Oriented Software Development Method: a
 practical approach to object-oriented development.  Tri-Ada Proc., New York.

  Presents the Object-Oriented Software development method.  Has emphasis on

[Cox 86,91] Cox, Brad J.  Object-Oriented Programming, An Evolutionary
 Approach.  Addison Wesley.

  The original book on Objective-C.  Coverage on object-oriented design and
  programming.  Also covers Objective-C implementation, even into object code.
  Objective-C... '91 AW by Pinson and Wiener provide another good text.

[Embley 92]  D.W. Embley, B.D. Kurtz, S.N. Woodfield.  Object-Oriented Systems
 Analysis, A Model-Driven Approach. Yourdon Press/Prentice Hall, Englewood
 Cliffs, NJ.

  Presents the Embley and Kurtz OO methodology.

[Garfinkel 93]  Simson L. Garfinkel and Michael K. Mahoney.  NeXTSTEP
 PROGRAMMING  STEP ONE: Object-Oriented Applications.  Springer-Verlag.

  Introduction to the NextStep environment and applications development.
[Goldberg 83] Adele Goldberg and David Robson. Smalltalk-80 The Language and
 Its Implementation.  Addison Wesley.

  The original book on Smalltalk.  Covers implementation.  Also known as "the
  Blue Book".  Out of print.  Superceded by [Goldberg ??].

[Goldberg ??] Adele Goldberg and David Robson. Smalltalk-80: The Language.

  The "Purple Book".  Omits the obsolete abstract virtual machine description
  from the Blue Book.

[Gunter 94] Carl A. Gunter and John C. Mitchell. Theoretical Aspects of Object-
 Oriented Programming. MIT Press.  ISBN 0-262-07155-X.

  Highly mathematical, formal coverage of object-oriented programming;
  primarily on typing.

[Harmon 93] Paul Harmon.  Objects In Action: Commercial Applications Of Object-
 Oriented Technologies.  Jan, 1993.  A-W ISBN 0-201-63336-1.

  Sponsored by the OMG to summarize the use of OO technology in industry and
  business, contains a brief history and summary of OO and many case studies.

[HOOD 89] HOOD Working Group.  HOOD Reference Manual Issue 3.0.  WME/89-173/JB.
 Hood User Manual Issue 3.0. WME/89-353/JB.  European Space Agency.

  Presnets the HOOD (Hierarchical Object-Oriented Design) OOSE methodology.
  From the European Space Agency.  Based on Ada and object-based.

[Hudak 90] P. Hudak. Principles of Programming Languages.  ACM Press, pp 125

  Contains several articles, including [Cook 90].

[Hudak 92] Paul Hudak and Simon Peyton Jones.  Haskell Report. SIGPLAN Notices.
 1992, vol 27, no 5.

  Haskell reference.

[Humphrey 89]  Watts Humphrey.  Managing the Software Process.  Addison Wesley.
  ISBN 0-201-18095-2

  Sponsored by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), the presented project
  management model is inspired by the work of Boehm, Brooks, Deming and Juran
  and represents a strong step in the direction of achieving 6 sigma defect
  rate prevention and optimizing the software development process for quality,
  productivity, and reliability.  Presents the CMM, see section 1.21.

[Humphrey 95]  Watts S. Humphrey - "A Discipline for Software Engineering",
 816 pp., $47.50, 1995, Addison-Wesley (1-800-824-7799) ISBN 0-201-54610-8

  A scaled down version of [Humphrey 89] for individual software engineers.
  A new classic.  See section 1.21.

[IBM 90,91]  Various Documents from the IBM International Technical Centers:
 GG24-3647-00, GG24-3641-00, GG24-3566-00, GG24-3580-00.

  Present IBM's OOSE methodology.

[ISO] ISO Standards Compendium - ISO 9000 Quality Management, 5th edition. Switzerland.
  ISBN 92-67-10206-0. 

  The complete standard. 9000-3 discusses software and 9004 is a quality management

[Jacobson 92]  Ivar Jacobson, et al.  Object-Oriented Software Engineering - A
 Use Case Driven Approach. ACM Press/Addison Wesley.

  Presents Jacobson's new OOSE methodology based on use cases.

[Jacobson 94]  Ivar Jacobson.  Toward Mature Object Technology. ROAD, Vol. 1,
 No. 1, May-June.  SIGS Publications.

  Overview of OOSE's object-oriented approach.  Includes specialized objects
  and layering for complexity management.

[Jones 92]  Rick Jones. Extended type checking in Eiffel. Journal of Object-
 Oriented Programming, May 1992 issue, pp.59-62.

  Presents subtype polymorphic extension to Eiffel (static typing only).

[Jurik 92] John A. Jurik, Roger S. Schemenaur, "Experiences in Object Oriented
 Development," ACM 0-89791-529-1/92/0011-0189.

  Presents the EVB OOSE methodology.  Also: Barbara McAllister, Business
  Development, EVB Software Engineering, Inc., (301)695-6960,

[Kiczales 92] Gregor Kiczales, Jim des Rivieres, Daniel G. Bobrow.  The Art
 of the Metaobject Protocol.  The MIT Press.

  Reflection and Metaobject Protocols (MOPs).  Uses a CLOS subset, Clossette,
  as a foundation.

[Kim 89]  Won Kim and Frederick Lochovsky Editors.  Object-Oriented Concepts,
 Applications, and Databases.

  Collection of articles on advanced OO and research systems.

[Krasner 88] G. E. Krasner and S. T. Pope. A Cookbook for Using the Model-View-
 Controller User Interface Paradigm in Smalltalk-80. JOOP, vol 1, no 3, August/
 September, 1988, pp 26-49,

  An early paper published on MVC.

[Lakoff 87] George Lakoff.  Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories
  Reveal About The Mind.  UOC Press.

  An almost formal view of classification/categorization by the noted cognitive
  scientist, George Lakoff.  His view blasts objectivism and contends to
  replace it with a subjectivist view, based on a study of humans, natural
  language, and concept formation.

[LaLonde 90]  Wilf R. LaLonde and John R. Pugh.  Inside Smalltalk: Volume 1.
 Prentice Hall.

  Good introduction to Smalltalk.

[LaLonde 90b]  Wilf R. LaLonde and John R. Pugh.  Inside Smalltalk: Volume 2.
 Prentice Hall.

  Excellent coverage of MVC. However, it's based on ParcPlace Smalltalk-80,
  version 2.5, which is obsolete.

[Liskov 93] Barbara Liskov and Jeannette M. Wing.  Specifications and Their use
 in Defining Subtypes.  OOPSLA 93, pp 16-28.  ASM SIGPLAN Notices, V 28, No 10,
 Oct. 1993.  A-W ISBN 0-201-58895-1.

  Specifications on Subtype hierarchies.  Helps to insure the semantic
  integrity of a separate subtype system.  See section 2.7.

[Madsen 93] Ole Lehrmann  Madsen, Birger Moller-Pedersen, Kristen Nygaard:
 Object-oriented programming in the BETA programming language.  Addison-Wesley,
 June 1993. ISBN 0 201 62430 3

  The new and authoritative book on BETA, by the original designers.  They
  are some of the same designers of the Simula languages, originating OO.
  Also just announced:
	Object-Oriented Environments: The Mjolner Approach
	Editors: Jorgen Lindskov Knudsen, Mats Lofgren, Ole Lehrmann Madsen,
		 Boris Magnusson
	Prentice Hall: The Object-Oriented Series
	ISBN: 0-13-009291-6 (hbk)

[Martin 92] James Martin and James J. Odell. Object-Oriented Analysis and
 Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.  

  Its primary purpose is to indicate how information engineering (IE) can be 
  evolved to accommodate OO.  The analysis portion (starting at Chapter 15) 
  attempts to go back to 'first principles' and is based on a formal foundation.
  Therefore, the IE aspect is not required.  Emphasis is more on analysis than 

[Meyer 88] Bertrand Meyer. Object-Oriented Software Construction.  Prentice
 Hall.  [Is there a new edition out?]

  The original book on Eiffel.  Coverage on object-oriented design and
  programming.  Also:

[Meyer 92] Bertrand Meyer. Eiffel: The Language. Prentice Hall. Englewood
 Cliffs, NJ. 1992.

  The definitive book on Eiffel by its author.

[Meyer 94] Bertrand Meyer. Reusable Software: The Base Object-Oriented
 Components Libraries.

  The new Eiffel class Libraries.

[Mugridge 91] Warwick B. Mugridge et al.  Multi-Methods in a Statically-Typed
 Programming Language. Proc. ECOOP.

  Efficient implementation of Multi-Methods.

[Murray 93] Robert B. Murray.  C++ Strategies and Tactics.  Addison Wesley.

  C++, has template examples.

[Nerson 92] Jean-Marc Nerson.  Applying Object-Oriented Analysis and Design.
 CACM, 9/92.

  Demonstrates the basics of the BON method/notation.  Nerson:

[Paepcke 93] Andreas Paepcke.  Object-Oriented Programming: The CLOS
 Perspective.  MIT Press.  ISBN 0-262-16136-2.

  CLOS, readable introduction to its metaobject protocol, comparisons with
  other languages, uses and methodology, and implementation.  Develops a
  persistent object metaclass example.

[Raj 89] R.K. Raj and H.M. Levy.  A Compositional Model for Software Reuse.
 The Computer Journal, Vol 32, No. 4, 1989. 

  A novel approach aading reuse to Emerald [Black 86] without inheritance.

[Reenskaug 91] T. Reenskaug, et al.  OORASS: seamless support for the creation
 and maintenance of object-oriented systems. Journal of Object-Oriented
 Programming, 5(6).

  Presents the Object-Oriented Role Analysis, synthesis, and Structuring
  OOSE methodology.

[Reenskaug 95] T. Reenskaug, et al. WORKING WITH OBJECTS: The OOram Software
 Engineering Method Manning ISBN: 1-884777-10-4, PH ISBN: 0-13-452930-8.
  "...the authors take you on a journey through object techniques filled with
  examples. You will come away from this book enriched, with a sound
  understanding of OT-based abstractions for modeling programs."
                                Richard Mark Soley, OMG
  "The first method that deals realistically with reuse, and one of the few
 that comes close to describing what I do when I design."
                                Ralph Johnson, University of Illinois
 "...the first complete account of role-based methods that have proven to be
  a step forward in OO design and development."

[Rout 95] T.T. Rout. Ed. Software Process Assessment: Theory and Practice. Proceedings, 2nd
  International SPICE Symposium. Australian Software Quality Research Institute, Brisbane,
  Australia., June 1 - 2, 1995. ISBN 0 86857 676 X. 

  Excellent coverage of the new SPICE standard: history, present details, goals.

[Royce 70] W. W. Royce. Managing the Development of Large Software Systems.
 Proceedings of IEEE WESCON, August 1970.

 Introduces the Waterfall Process Model.

[Rumbaugh 91] Rumbaugh James, et al.  Object-Oriented Modeling and Design.
 Prentice Hall.

  The often referred to book on OOA/OOD.  Introduces the Object Modeling
  Technique (OMT) OOA/D notation and methodology.  Has case studies.

[Sciore 89] Edward Sciore.  Object Specialization. ACM Transactions on
 Information Systems, Vol. 7, No. 2, April 1989, p 103.

  A hybrid approach between delegation and classical OO.

[Selic 94] Bran Selic, Garth Gullekson, and Paul T. Ward. Real-Time
 Object-Oriented Modeling. Published by John Wiley & Sons. 
 ISBN 0-471-59917-4

  OO method addresses complete lifecycle needs of real-time systems. Emphasizes
  executable models for early validation of requirements, architecture, and
  design combined with techniques for automatic generation of implementations.
  Specifically real-time with iterative and incremental development process.
  Single consistent graphical modeling concepts apply uniformly to OOA/D/I.

[Shlaer 88] Sally Shlaer and Stephen J. Mellor.  Object-Oriented Systems
 Analysis: Modeling the World in Data.

  Credited as the first book proposing an OOA method.

[Shlaer 92] Sally Shlaer and Stephen J. Mellor.  Object Lifecycles: Modeling
  the World in States.

  An addition to [Shlaer 88], provides dynamic modeling with a state-
  transition driven approach.

[Strachey 67]  C. Strachey.  Fundamental Concepts in programming languages.
 Lecture Notes for International Summer School in Computer Programming,
 Copenhagen, Aug.

  Contains original, classical definition of polymorphism.

[Stroustrup 90] Ellis, M.A., Stroustrup. The Annotated C++ Reference Manual.
 Addison Wesley.

  The ARM; the original and definitive book on C++.  Serves as the ANSI
  base document for C++.  Also covers C++ implementation.  It is meant as 
  a reference (including for compiler writers), not as a tutorial for
  beginners.  Perhaps a better ref is [Stroustrup 91].

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