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Nordic FAQ - 7 of 7 - SWEDEN
Section - 7.6 Scania

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   <This section by Malte Lewan>
   Malte Lewan also maintains a list over
   links to Scanian pages (most in Swedish).
  7.6.1 Skåne and Skåneland
          die Schonen,
          la Scanie
   "Skåne" is old Danish/Scanian and means "the dangerous beach". It is
   possibly the same word as the contemporary "skada" / "skade" in
   Swedish and Danish respectively which mean "damage".
   Skåne is the most southern of the provinces in Sweden. Together with
   Blekinge, Halland and Danish Bornholm, it has a unique history while
   it was an integral part of Denmark all the years before 1658 except
   1332-1360 when Denmark had no king and was in chaos and Scania had
   status as country under the Swedish king.
   "Skåneland" in Swedish or "Skånelandene" in Danish is a name used for
   the four provinces together. In Latin and English it is "Scania". In
   1658, they all became Swedish, but Bornholm was returned to Denmark in
   1660 while the other provinces remained Swedish.
   "Scania" is used for representing "Skåneland" in the text below but
   not in a strict sense. Sometimes, the meaning might be closer to the
   province of Skåne. And Bornholm will in this use often not be
   included. When emphasizing that it is only the southern province that
   is referred to, "Skåne" is used, but when emphasizing that all
   provinces are referred to, "Skåneland" will be used.
  7.6.2 Miscellaneous facts
   <This section by Malte Lewan>

   The populations of the four provinces are today:
Skåne:         1,110,000
Halland:         270,000
Blekinge:        160,000
Bornholm:         50,000

   The big cities in Skåne are:
Malmö:           250,000
Helsingborg:     110,000
Lund:             90,000
Kristianstad:     70,000

   Some rural parts of Scania are well known as separate parts also by
   many non-Scanians: Kullabygden, Göinge, Mellanskåne, Söderslätt and
   Österlen. The borders of these local provinces are very much disputed
   though. As a rule, the historic areas were smaller than how the terms
   are used today. Particularly Österlen covers so many positive
   connotations as a nice vacation resort that the traditional borders
   often get transgressed when trying to sell real estates for example!
   The traditional definition of Söderslätt is "south of the highway"
   (today highway 101) between Malmö and Ystad.
   The biggest newspaper is "Sydsvenska Dagbladet" that has its base in
   Malmö but covers southwestern Skåne equally well. It is independently
   liberal. In the same area, there are Social Democratic "Arbetet" and
   Centre Party "Skånska Dagbladet". Several other local papers exist
   like for example Helsingborgs Dagblad and Nordvästra Skånes Tidningar.
   The only university in Scania is Lund University. Other schools for
   higher education in the same official university area of southern
   Sweden are situated in Växjö, Kalmar, Karlskrona/Ronneby, Kristianstad
   and Halmstad. There are also quite big university independent schools
   in Malmö, and Lund University offers some courses in Helsingborg and
   Jönköping (the later outside Scania) as well.
   There are ferries between Copenhagen and Malmö, Helsingborg-Helsingør,
   Landskrona-Tuborg (close to Copenhagen) and of course to the islands
   Ven and Bornholm. There are also ferries to Germany (Travemünde and
   Saßnitz) and Poland and sometimes to Lithuania. A few other ones exist
   There are no original ethnic minorities living in Scania but there are
   a few dozens of thousand of Danes that have moved in after World War
   II. Some live in Landskrona and others have houses in Northern Skåne.
   Of foreign citizens, there are 9,800 Danes, 8,700 ex-Yugoslavs and
   3,150 Finlanders in Skåne. (These are the three biggest groups.)

[ the sections above are available at the www-page ]

  7.6.3 Some marks in history
   See also the history sections for Denmark and Sweden. Until 1360
   Scania was, without doubts, a Danish land, in the sense that Scanians
   were Danes, however not always under a united King of the Danes. After
   1360 Denmark's kings had a firm grip of Scania until the province was
   ceeded to Sweden in 1658.
          King Olav Tryggvesson lands in Scania and wins a battle.
          (circa) In the naval battle at Svolder (probably the island
          Hven or Saltholm) King Svend Tveskæg is allied with King Olof
          Skötkonung. They defeat Olav Tryggvesson's ships.
          The border between Scania and Sweden is marked by six raised
          stones between Halland & Västergötland; Scania proper &
          Småland; and between Blekinge & Småland.
          During early 11th century the town of Lund is made to a center
          of the eastern half of King Canut the Great's realm.
          (circa) Canute the Great defeats the attacking allies King
          Amund Jakob from Sweden and King Olav ("the Saint") from Norway
          at a big naval battle at the Helge Å estuary.
          As the Danes lose the realm in England Denmark is split under
          different kings until 1047 when Svend Estridsen from Scania
          ascends to the throne.
          King Svend Estridsen lets build a church in Dalby (the oldest
          remaining stone church on the Scandinavian peninsula), and
          Scania is divided in two bishoprics: Lund and Dalby. However,
          in 1067 the bishoprics are united under bishop Egino in Dalby,
          who after some years move the see to Lund.
          The Bishop in Bremen and the Bishop in Canterbury have fought
          for the dominance over Denmark, and as a move in this
          complicated fight rich funds are donated by the king for a
          cathedral in Lund. The cathedral school is opened in 1086. The
          school has been in function ever since.
          With the first arch-bishop of Lund, Scandinavia was made a
          separate church province, no longer belonging to Hamburg.
          King Sigurd Jorsalafarare ("Jerusalem traveler") of Norway
          pesters eastern Scania and put the town Tumathorp to fire.
          A Danish Civil War culminates in the battle at Fotevik, close
          to Skanör. Lund is made residence of the victor King Erik
          Emune. After he has been assassinated Scania is again for some
          years separated from Denmark, until 1142 when King Erik Lam of
          Zealand and Jutland defeats King Oluf Haraldsen of Scania.
          A peasant rebellion ends in defeat in the battle at Dösjöbro.
          Two years later the Scanians are again defeated in the battle
          at Höje Å, as the newly elected king of Jutland and Zealand
          (Knud VI "King of the Wends") defeats the Scanian King Harald
          Estonians (pirates or vikings) pesters Blekinge.
          The Scanian Law is written down. 50 years later it's also
          transcribed to runes.
          A peasant rebellion against the "plough-tax" is successful. The
          Scanians are exempted from the tax.
          The Swedish King Magnus Ladulås pesters Halland and northern
          Scania proper. In the following four hundred years Scania will
          endure at least two dozens war.
          The Scanian nobility (alternatively the Thing in Lund) had in
          the beginning of the 1330s chosen the young Magnus Eriksson to
          be king also for the Scanian provinces, as also Gotland had
          done, after his regents had promised to pay Count Johan of
          Holstein to whom Scania was pawned. At that time Magnus
          Eriksson was the under-age king of both Norway and Sweden.
          During conflicts between King Magnus and his son Prince Erik
          Scania is again pestered by war and plundering which ends as
          King Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark re-conquests Scania in 1360.
          The Swedish King Albrecht of Mecklenburg will however launch
          several attacks on Scania in the hope to regain the land.
          After this the Thing in Lund didn't cause more disturbance in
          the kingdom of Denmark.
          Sort of a proto-University, a Studium Generale, is founded at a
          Franciscan Convent in Lund. It disappears, however, at the
          King Karl Knutsson (Bonde) of Sweden pesters Scania with the
          largest army Sweden yet had raised.
          Grevefejden: Civil War between pro-Lutherans and
          anti-Lutherans. The mayors of Malmö and Copenhagen come out on
          the losing end together with the Hanseatic town of Lübeck.
          Reformation follows in 1536.
          When Erik XIV ascends on the Swedish throne the attacks on
          Scania with massacres and burned towns are intensified.
          Tycho Brahe publishes the book "De nova stella" and becomes
          famous. In 1576 he is entfeofed with the island Hven where he
          erects the observatory Uranienborg.
          As Sweden has gained much prestige during the 30-years' War
          - and Denmark has lost some. Sweden attacks in 1644, and
          Halland is lost to the Swedes (on thirty years). As Denmark try
          to take revenge the result is disastrous. The Swedes reach
          Zealand via Jutland and the islands, and Denmark is threatened
          by eradication. In the peace Scania is ceded to Sweden (despite
          Scania being the only part of Denmark proper free from Swedish
          The university in Lund is founded.
          The Scanians (not the least the Snapphanar - i.e. guerilla
          units) and the Danish Army make several attempts to re-unite
          Scania with Denmark. The mission in 1676-1680 was military well
          prepared, however without support from the Great Powers of
          Europe (France in particular) why Denmark was forced to peace
          without territorial gains - despite a good position on the
          battle field.
          The Swedish policy is a strict Swedification, in conflict with
          the peace treaties which guarantee Scania to keep her laws and
          nationality. Part by part is Scania incorporated in the Swedish
          realm. De jure this was accomplished in 1721, however certain
          legal and cultural differences between Scania and the rest of
          Sweden would remain for centuries.
   1811, June 15th
          After a year of unrest among the Scanian peasants a thousand
          peasants had arrived at Klågerup's castle in western Scania to
          protest against the cruel noble master and against the calling
          up of new troops for the attack on Norway (with the failed wars
          of 1808/1809 in fresh memory, when the hastily summoned and
          barely trained soldiers died from hunger and freezing due to
          bad supply of food and tents). The threatening mob was driven
          away from the manor by military troops, and thereby 29 peasants
          were killed ( - this is the official figure, rumors say that
          most corpses had been taken care of by friends and relatives
          before the rest was counted by the military).
          The prohibition of books in Danish (or Scanian) is abolished.
          The flag used by the Arch-bishop during medieval times is
          re-invented and introduced as the National Flag of Scania.
  7.6.4 The flag
   <This section by Malte Lewan>
   The Scanian flag is red with yellow ribbons and is more square than
   both the Danish and Swedish ones. The measurements are based on the
   old (1748-1926) Danish measures for its flag. They are 3-1-4.5 in
   length and 3-1-3 in height.
   The flag is most likely (though not proved) from the archbishop in
   Lund Andreas Sunesen (1201-1228) who then was archbishop for all of
   Norden. (But the country diocese ("landestiftet") where the Scanian
   law was in force was Skåneland). He got the flag pattern from (and
   used it on) a crusade in Latvia and a stay in Riga. The fact that the
   flag is like a Danish-Swedish combination with what could have been
   borrowed colors from these flags is a coincidence. The Swedish flag is
   The Scanian flag itself was probably pretty much forgotten (though
   other yellow-red symbols existed) until Mathias and Martin Weibull
   "reinvented" it around the end of the last century. First, it was used
   very sparingly but the use has grown and does so even today. But only
   outside one of the Scanian town halls, in Ystad, is the Scanian flag
   flying so far. It is more frequently used by the common people,
   depending on area in Scania. The Swedish flag is still more common in
   the province.
   As late as in March 1992, the flag was registered in the Scandinavian
   Roll of Armor. At the same time, the Scanian coat of arms was
   registered: a golden panther on red background with hind legs like a
   lion and front legs like an eagle. The day of the Scanian flag is the
   third Sunday in July.

Sources: "Skånelands flagga", Sven-Olle R Olsson, 1993
         Newspaper articles from "Sydsvenska Dagbladet", 1992-95

[ the sections above are available at the www-page ]

  7.6.6 Culture
<This section by Malte Lewan>

   Scania is associated (mostly nationally) with certain hallmarks like
   some types of food: the goose, the smoked eel ("røgad åol") and
   "spettkaka" (Swedish spelling) that is a type of cake. Other
   associations many people get (and also used in the tourist business)
   are the clogs a lot of people wear even today and the folk costumes
   containing a certain distinctive pale yellow color, with the men
   wearing pants reaching just below the knee followed by white socks.
   The women have kerchiefs instead of hats when they are married. The
   colors of the dresses are dark. The would-be "jacket" of the dress is
   one part with the skirt and not separate. The clothings mark richness
   with silver and many visible skirts. The folk costumes are based on
   the farmers' rather than for example the fishers' Sunday dresses. They
   differ of course from hundred ("härad") to hundred but keep certain
   characteristics in common.
   Lately, the Danish red sausage, the "pølse", has made it into the
   outdoor food commerce. It was for a long time not allowed in Sweden
   due to the added ingredients making the sausage red. When it finally
   became allowed, this was looked upon like a great success of the local
   politicians. Maybe because of the Scanian habit of eating this sausage
   when visiting København, it has now become very popular in Scania too.
   In Lund, there is another sausage called "lundaknake" that has reached
   fame, at least locally.
   The willows that edges many Scanian roads give the landscape a
   characteristic outlook. Scania is like Denmark very flat and without
   much of forests except in the north (in fact, this was the natural
   divider before 1658 between Denmark and Sweden). The willows are
   supposed to shelter against the wind in an environment where no other
   natural shelters exist. Also, the Scanian mills ("möllor") are typical
   for the province. Often situated on hills, they too characterize the
   horizon in the Scanian scenery.
   Being a region containing one eighth of the population in Sweden,
   there exist of course a great number of nationally famous Scanians,
   some of these comedians and singers. There will not be a list here,
   but the maybe most famous Scanian, the most Scanian Scanian will be
   mentioned. His name was Edward Persson and was the main character and
   very much dominating personality in a number of film comedies taken
   place on some farm in south western Skåne, in Söderslätt. He more or
   less established the image of the Scanian person: fat (!), slow,
   content with life, feeling secure and of course having the accent
   considered strong in those days of television. He's dead since some
   years now.
   Scanians have often got a bad reputation in Sjælland for going there
   to get drunk. The background is different state policies when it comes
   to the selling of alcohol. While this is harshly regulated in Sweden
   and only sold in certain stores with high prices, it's cheaper and
   much more easily accessible in Denmark. The result is irritation
   between the former fellow countrymen.
  7.6.7 Language
<This section by Malte Lewan>

   The old language of the province has many resemblences to Danish but
   has also many unique features that would make it problematic to simply
   call it a Danish dialect. In the very south west, the language could
   be said to be Danish but the heart land is filled with unparalleled
   features and related words so different from both Danish and Swedish
   that they ordinarily aren't recognizable to either group of speakers.
   Until the 19th century, the language was unaltered by significant
   influence of both Danish (until 1658) and Swedish (from that year and
   onwards). But in the middle and end of that century, the Swedish
   language started to persuade vital parts of the population. In the
   beginning of the 20th century most people still spoke the old
   language, but that majority diminished faster and faster. Today, the
   percentage is probably in the one digits and this group of inhabitants
   consists mainly of older people though there are some young bilingual
   people as well. The language these persons speak is even usually
   softly Swedified (where for example the most Swedish of two
   alternatives in the old language regularly gets chosen) and examples
   of folks today speaking an untouched old Scanian is probably very
   What is spoken by most today is a dialect of Swedish, but many
   speakers show differences that are more or less noticable depending on
   the person. For example:
     * Intonation
     * Pronunciation of the "r" is made by the root of the tongue in the
       "French way". Like the Danes do it.
     * When Swedes use t, k and p, Scanians often use d, g, and b. Like
       the Danes.
     * Like in Danish, t and k are pronounced very hard in beginning of
       words whereas in Swedish, they are softer.
     * None of the vowels are pronounced exactly in the same place of the
       mouth they are in Swedish, and you could say that standard Swedish
       "o" and "u" simply do not exist.
     * Every long vowel in Swedish is a diphthong in Scanian. The Swedish
       language lacks diphthongs entirely.
   The type of widely spread strongly dialectal Scanian that there exists
   today can be quite difficult even for Swedish speakers to understand.
   It's probably as commonly used among young people as among older ones.
   It's alive to another extent than the old language and is a Swedish
   influenced version of it, with the many parts sensitive to external
   domination left out. Even in this dialect, there are several examples
   of grammatical differences and there are a few hundreds of local words
   still in use all over the province by many people. Just ten examples:
Scanian     English         Swedish
hutta     = throw            (Sw: kasta)
klyddig   = complicated      (Sw: besvärlig)
lässa     = load, put up     (Sw: lasta, lägga upp)
mölla     = mill             (Sw: kvarn)
nimm      = neat             (Sw: praktisk, lätt)
påg       = boy              (Sw: pojke)
rälig     = ugly, mean       (Sw: ful, stygg, otäck)
sammedant = likewise         (Sw: likadant)
titt      = often            (Sw: ofta)
töj       = clothes          (Sw: kläder)

Sources: Newspaper articles from "Sydsvenska Dagbladet", 1992-95

[ the sections above are available at the www-page ]

   There are probably three things that are a salient for the Scanian
   development today: membership in the European Union, the bridge over
   Öresund (the sea between Sjælland and Skåne) to Denmark/regional
   cooperation with Sjælland and Skåne becoming one region politically.
   These things are in contrast to much of that of history and culture
   openly discussed and many times pushed forward by local Scanian
  7.6.8 Membership in the European Union
<This section by Malte Lewan>

   In October 1995, Sweden voted a slight yes to become a member of the
   European Union. In Skåne, the decision was very clear though. It was
   the region the most favorable to membership in all of Sweden.
   There is hope that Scania being a member of the EU can have positive
   implications for reasons of regional strength. There is talk about a
   Europe of the regions where the regions are getting more
   responsibility of conducting their own affairs and acting
   independently. The EU will probably to a certain degree result in the
   removal of administrative and political borders to neighbouring
   regions in other countries surrounding Scania. That is at least the
   explicit goal of the EU. In the long term, an abolition of customs
   controls and a common currency are discussed. This will especially
   benefit border regions.
   The EU membership resulted in that Sweden needed to be divided into so
   called NUTS regions. These are regions that the EU use for socio-
   economic calculations, for example when determining distribution of
   subsidies from the EU structural funds. Of three levels 1-3, NUTS 2 is
   the most important, often called the "basic region". It's necessary
   that it has some sort of political controlling unit, a council or
   parliament. As a result of these demands for NUTS regions, Sweden and
   the EU agreed in 1995 on a division of NUTS 2 in Sweden into 8
   regions. Skåne and Blekinge became one. Halland was decided to belong
   to another region. This EU NUTS 2 division has been made a business
   separate from the _internal_ regional one described late in 7.6.9
   where Skåne _alone_ will constitute one region). Some people are not
   so happy with this that the boundaries had to be different, thereby
   splitting the regional focus.
   The EU subsidizes the Interreg II program that supports border
   regional cooperation within the EU. For the Öresund region - that is:
   Greater København and all of Skåne - it will cover the years
   1995-1999. The sum will be 13 million ECU for the whole project and
   0.2 of these are used for a specific cooperation between south eastern
   Skåne and Bornholm. The same amount that the EU gives must be invested
   from the two states, thereby doubling the amount of money available.
   Scania is also represented in the EU Committee of Regions in which the
   member states' regions have representatives. 2 of the 12 Swedish
   representatives are Scanians but that is not the result of any fixed
   quota granted to Skåne. The Committee of Regions has no decisional,
   but only advisory, powers in the EU. Still, in some EU countries,
   regional top politicians are members and have high hopes for the
   future of the institution before the EU intergovernmental congress in
   that started in Mars 1996.
  7.6.9 Cooperation with Sjælland and the bridge over Öresund
<This section by Malte Lewan>

   There is since a few years a lot of talk in all kinds of sectors in
   Skåne public life about the prospect of a cooperative region involving
   Sjælland and Copenhagen. That's a goal every local politician seems to
   acknowledge nowadays. There are for example ideas about common
   transportation cards, a common TV channel, all kinds of cooperation
   projects in science, sports etc, a common labor market, and there has
   even been spoken of common Olympic Games in the year of 2008. Skåne
   was supposed to be a part of Copenhagen's arrangements as cultural
   capital of Europe in 1996, but in the end, the Scanian politicians
   decided to avoid some of its costs.
   But maybe the most discussed project for better communications between
   Scania and Sjælland is the bridge over Öresund:
   A bridge is being built between a point just south of Malmö and the
   airport of Copenhagen "Kastrup" which is the biggest airport in
   northern Europe. The bridge will be 16.5 km long and will carry cars
   as well as trains but not bikes. The current regional trains in Skåne
   and in Sjælland (the island on which Copenhagen lies) will be
   connected. It will take 28 min to go from Copenhagen to Malmö and 41
   min to go to Lund. The university town of Roskilde will be on the same
   connection (26 min west of Copenhagen).
   The bridge was planned to be finished 1999, but is not on schedule so
   current predictions are mentioning the year after. It will be financed
   by the car (and of course truck) traffic whose drivers will pay a few
   hundred SEK for a single trip, just below the prices of today's
   ferries. Train passengers will only pay the normal price of 50 SEK in
   today's money. The Swedish and Danish states will act as guarantors
   for the project.
   The bridge was debated a lot because people were worried about hurting
   environmental effects. The flow of water between the Baltic Sea and
   the North Sea was one of the problems since it could be altered with
   damaging effects. The current solution is supposed to make sure there
   is no change at all in the water transportation. Other questions
   raised involved the increased car traffic and its environmental
  7.6.10 A politically united region
<This section by Malte Lewan>

   In Skåne, there is a certain amount of dissatisfaction with the
   centralization of a lot of cultural and administrative activities
   around the capital Stockholm. For example,there has been a famous
   research that showed that Stockholm gets six times higher cultural
   subsidies than Malmö per inhabitant. The editorial offices of national
   radio and TV stations are usually located in Stockholm which many, not
   only Scanians, are worried give a particular Stockholm perspective in
   produced programs.
   But Sweden is slowly in a process of getting a new division into
   regions. For the moment there are 24 smaller administrative provinces,
   "län", whose borders date back to the 1630's. In the future, there
   might be less than ten regions. What was long discussed (not a very
   loud debate though) was which areas would belong together and many
   different alternatives came up. Finally it was determined that Skåne
   and Western Sweden (including the second Swedish city Göteborg) would
   start out reuniting their respective län into two big regions (while
   the other Swedish län not involved would be left intact for the
   moment). The Scanian politicians were probably the most eager for this
   project and pushed rather strongly for it. (Already in 1992, did the
   main political organisations in Skåne submit a request to the
   government for a Skåne political region.) In this building of regions,
   the other parts of Skåneland - Blekinge and Halland - were omitted
   from being part of the new region. For now, they will continue being
   ordinary län.
   So, a state official report in 1995 proposed that Skåne politically
   should become one region and that a directly elected regional council
   should be formed. The date was in a government proposition in 1996
   specified to Jan 1, 1997. When this proposal will be carried through,
   today's two län councils will disappear and be substituted by the
   regional council. Some of the state administrative powers (concerning
   regional development) will be transferred to the region. The Swedish
   parliament will make a decision concerning this in 1996.
   This report also suggested that the site of state administration would
   be Kristianstad in northern Skåne and this soon became a heated issue
   where the "capital of Skåne" would be. Malmö politicians were upset
   about making Kristianstad the administrative site and the positions
   seemed to be locked. Finally, this position was given to Malmö, a fact
   which of course angered the Kristianstad politicians much and who
   threatened to leave the project entirely.
   Parallel to having this new common political institution, there is
   also already a will from the regional politicians to coordinate and
   integrate regional decision making. Many different political domains
   (eg communications, economic life, education, tourism) are examined
   one by one by selected teams on how to improve the way those decisions
   that concerns all of Skåne are made. This will be made with or without
   the help of a regional parliament. It seems, the theme is always one
   Skåne institution or organisation for different activities. This is
   not least visible in the names being used.
  7.6.11 International status
<This section by Malte Lewan>

   Scania is a member of the national minority organization FUEV
   (Föderalistische Union Europäischer Volksgruppen [German]) which is
   located in Flensburg, Germany. Only regions with their own language,
   clearly defined border and a history to go back to, are accepted in
   the FUEV.
   It is also a recent member of UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples
   Organization). UNPO is an alternative to the UN for minorities of the
   world, which are not represented in there. UNPO is located in Haag,
   Netherlands where the Scanian flag now is flying.

Sources: Newspaper articles from "Sydsvenska Dagbladet", 1992-95
         Brochures by SVEDAB (Svensk-Danska Broförbindelsen AB), 1993-94
         Ett enat Skåne:, Öresundskomiteens:

[ the sections above are available at the www-page ]


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