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Electronic and Computer Music Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQ)


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Archive-name: music/netjam-faq
Last-modified: 1994/10/17
Version: 5.5

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
***


	This is an electronic and computer music frequently-asked
questions (FAQ) document, distributed by NetJam. It is probably of
interest to readers of the USENET newsgroups:

	ucb.becmug
	rec.music.makers
	rec.music.makers.synth
	rec.music.synth
	rec.music.compose
	comp.music

and anyone else interested in the applications of computers to music
(and vice-versa).
	It is posted fortnightly to the above-mentioned groups, as
well as news.answers. It is also available as
ftp://XCF.Berkeley.EDU/pub/misc/netjam/doc/FAQ/ECMFAQ. Finally, it can be
obtained by emailing NetJam-request@XCF with the subject line "request
for ECM FAQ". The machine XCF.Berkeley.EDU has IP address
128.32.138.1.

	You may do anything you like with this document, except sell
it.

	Please send contributions and comments to
NetJam@XCF.Berkeley.EDU.

	For general info about NetJam, email
NetJam-request@XCF.Berkeley.EDU, with the phrase "request for info" in
the subject line.

	
	Thanks,

-C


***

---

	New items are marked with a '+'. Modified existing items are
marked with a '*'.

	Short contents:

0.0) 	[Meta-issues]

1.0)    [Newcomer questions]

2.0)    [Connectivity issues]
2.1.0) 		[Groups]
2.2.0) 		[Archives]
2.3.0)		[Making CDs]

3.0) 	[Software]
3.1.0) 		[Software by role]
3.1.1.0) 		["Environments"]
3.1.1.3.0) 			[Max]
3.1.2.0) 		[Notation software]
3.1.3.0) 		[Composition software]
3.1.3.1.0)			[CSound]
3.1.4.0) 		[Recorded music]
3.1.5.0) 		[Conversion software]
3.1.6.0) 		[Editing and mixing software]
3.1.7.0) 		[Sound synthesis software]
3.2.0) 		[Software by platform]
3.2.3.0) 		[NeXT software]
3.2.4.0) 		[DOS/Windows software]

4.0)    [Hardware]
4.1.0)          [Multi-platform hardware]
4.2.0)          [UNIX hardware]
4.3.0)          [NeXT hardware]
4.4.0)          [DOS/Windows hardware]
4.5.0)          [Macintosh hardware]

5.0)    [Reference material]


	Long contents:

0.0) 	[Meta issues]
0.1) 		How can I browse ftp sites and their data without 
			using my own disk space (unless I want to keep
			data), and locate files on ftp sites, given
			pathname fragments?
0.2) 		What other FAQs might be of interest?
0.3)		How do I ask for advice on a topic of interest from
			the Net?
0.4) 		What are the future plans for your FAQs?

1.0) 	[Newcomer questions]
1.1)		What keyboard should I buy?
1.2)		Where can I get patches for my keyboard?
1.3)		What is MIDI?
1.4)		What are definitions for the following things?
1.5)		Where can I get price lists?
1.6)		Where can I get a USA music store list?

2.0)  	[Connectivity issues]
2.1.0) 		[Groups]
2.1.1)			What is Netjam?
2.1.2)			How do I subscribe to EMUSIC-D and EMUSIC-L,
				and what other BITNET lists are of
				interest?
2.1.3)			What are some other emailing lists relating to
				electronic and computer music?
2.1.4)			How do I contact the editorial staff of
				Electronic Musician magazine?
2.1.5)			Is there a group for Roland U20 and U220
				synthesizer users?
2.1.6)			What Yamaha synthesizer groups are there?
2.2.0) 		[Archives]
2.2.1)			What are some other midi-file/software
				archives on the	Internet?
2.2.2)			Is there a archive for the K2000 synthesizer?
2.3.0) 		[Making CDs]
2.3.1) 			What constitutes a CD master?
2.3.2) 			Who and how much?
2.4)		How do I transfer patches, data files, MFF files from
			a Mac to a PC and back?

3.0)  	[Software]
3.1.0) 		[Software by role]
3.1.1.0) 		["Environments"]
3.1.1.1)			What is Smallmusic? What is the MODE?
3.1.1.3.0) 			[Max]
3.1.1.3.1) 				What is Max?
3.1.1.3.2)				Which glove interfaces with
						the Max 'glove'
						object?
3.1.1.4) 			What is DMIX and how can I get it?
3.1.2.0) 		[Notation software]
3.1.2.1)			Is there PostScript code available for
					generating guitar scales?
3.1.2.2)			Where can I get online guitar tablature?
3.1.2.3) 			What is MusicTeX, and how can I get it?
3.1.2.4) 			What is Finale? How can I get a demo?
3.1.2.5) 			What is Lime and how can I get it?
3.1.2.6) 			What is cmn and how can I get it?
3.1.2.7)			What is Nutation and... well, you know.
3.1.3.0) 		[Composition software]
3.1.3.1.0)			[CSound]
3.1.3.1.1)				What is CSound?
3.1.3.1.2) 				What are the requirements of CSound?
3.1.3.1.3)				Is there a tutorial on CSound?
3.1.3.2) 			What is Deluxe Music Construction Set
					(DMCS)?
3.1.4.0) 		[Recorded music]
3.1.4.1) 			Where can I get recordings of
					electronic music? 
3.1.5.0) 		[Conversion software]
3.1.5.1) 			Are there programs to convert back and
					forth between
					human/filter-readable text and
					MIDI files? How do I get them?
3.1.5.2)			What is Midi2TeX, and how can I get it?
3.1.5.3)	 		What is Hyperupic, and how can I get it?
3.1.5.4) 			What is SoundHack and how can I get it?
3.1.5.5) 			What is the Copyist Companion, and how
					can I get it? 
3.1.6.0) 		[Editing software]
3.1.6.1)			What are tclm and xdrum, and how can I
					get them?
3.1.6.2)			What is MixView, and how can I get it?
3.1.6.3)			What is DU, and how can I get it?
3.1.6.4)			What is RT, and how can I get it?
3.1.6.5)			What is RTLisp, and how can I get it?
3.1.6.6)			What is Cmix and how can I get it?
3.1.7.0) 		[Sound synthesis software]
3.1.7.1)			What are Patchmix and StochGran and
					how can I get them?
3.2.0) 		[Software by platform]
3.2.1) 			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and its
				children work on multiple platforms?
3.2.2) 			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and its
				children work on UNIX platforms?
3.2.3.0) 		[NeXT software]
3.2.3.1)			What are some currently available
					sound editors for the NeXT?
3.2.3.2) 			Which software packages in section
					3.1.0 [Software by role] and
					its children work on NeXT
					platforms?
3.2.3.3)			Where can I find information about the
					NeXT MIDI driver?
3.3.3.4)			What is the status of the Music Kit on
					NeXT machines?
3.2.3.5) 			What ear-training software is there
					for the NeXT?
3.2.4.0) 		[DOS/Windows software]
3.2.4.1) 			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and its
				children work on DOS/Windows platforms?
3.2.4.2)		What are some public-domain (or nearly so)
				sample-editing programs for IBM-PC
				compatibles?
3.2.5) 			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and its
				children work on Macintosh platforms?
3.2.6) 			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and its
				children work on Amiga platforms?

4.0) 	[Hardware]
4.1.0) 		[Multi-platform hardware]
4.1.1)			What are some good things with which to whack
				MIDI drum triggers?
4.1.2) 			How do I get MIDI working with my analog
				synth?
4.2.0) 		[UNIX hardware]
4.2.1)			What are some MIDI interfaces for 386 UNIX boxes?
4.3.0) 		[NeXT hardware]
4.4.0) 		[DOS/Windows hardware]
4.4.1)*			How do I do MIDI with my laptop PC? What is 
				the Key Electronics Midiator?
4.4.2)			I'm just starting on MIDI and want to know how
				to send	MIDI from my SCO UNIX box (and
				who do I buy a card from? Are there
				device drivers available?)
4.4.3)			How can I adapt my IBM-PC parallel port to be
				a MIDI interface?
4.5.0) 		[Macintosh hardware]
4.5.1)			What's all this about problems with
				Macintosh Powerbooks and MIDI?
4.5.2)			How can I build my own MIDI interface for the
				Macintosh?

5.0) 	[Reference Material]
5.1)		Is an overview of "General MIDI" available?
5.2)		What are the names and address of various gear manufacturers?
5.3)		Where may I find an electronic music bibliography?
5.4)		Where can I find out all about MIDI?
5.5)		What are the details behind current sound formats?


---

0.0)	[Meta issues]

---

0.1) 		How can I browse ftp sites and their data without
			using my own disk space (unless I want to keep
			data), and locate files on ftp sites, given
			pathname fragments?


Answer:

	There is a set of Emacs-Lisp ("elisp") code, called
"ange-ftp.el", which makes 'ftp' use transparent within GNU Emacs (GNU
Emacs is available via anonymous ftp from prep.ai.mit.EDU). This
package attempts to make accessing files and directories using FTP
from within GNU Emacs as simple and transparent as possible.  A subset
of the common file-handling routines are extended to interact with
FTP. Using these routines, I can read remote files as I would any
local file, without having to write it locally to disk. This is is
especially useful since the document is dynamic (hopefully
increasingly so).
	The routines are available via anonymous ftp (naturally!) as
ftp://tut.cis.ohio-state.EDU/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/as-is/,
(incidentally, if you already had "ange-ftp.el", you could paste the
above line in response to Emacs' 'copy-file', stick "/anonyous@" in
front of it, and copy the file.) My current version is dated 22
October 1991.
	Another useful bit of elisp is "context.el". It saves the
Emacs buffer list and window configuration between editing sessions.
So, one can have several buffers, with several files open (as I
usually do), quit and restart Emacs, and have the state preserved,
cursor locations and windows included. Happily, it works well with
"ange-ftp.el", so that even remote files are restored (after possibly
having to prompt for passwords). "context.el" is also available via
anonymous ftp from tut.cis.ohio-state.EDU, as
/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/as-is/context.el.Z. Also look for
"tree-dired.el" which provides for hierarchical directory editing.
	Incidentally, it was very easy to produce references for the
above tools, thanks to another tool called "archie", developed at
McGill University. Dubbed a "resource discovery tool" by its authors,
it comes in very handy when one knows what tools are needed but not
their availability. Archie consists of a server for this information
(basically from a database of directory trees from "all known"
anonymous ftp sites, updated once per month), and a client, which may
be run via 'telnet' from the server machine itself (frowned upon...),
or from a standalone client available from that machine (...highly
encouraged, for the considerable host load win). Some clients even
perform ftp tasks based on user response to search results. There are
clients available for dumb and X terminals, and, of course, Emacs.
Poke around archie.mcgill.ca for a client and documentation.

---

0.2)		What other FAQs might be of interest?

Answer:

	You can get nearly every FAQ known to USENETkind from the
newsgroup news.answers. 

	I also edit two other FAQs which may be of interest:

	If you are interested in composing music, you may want to look
at the music composition FAQ. It is posted fortnightly to the
above-mentioned group, as well as to news.answers. It is also
available via ftp as
anonymous@XCF.Berkeley.EDU:misc/netjam/doc/FAQ/composition/\
compositionFAQ.entire, and in pieces as .../split/*. Finally, it can
be obtained by emailing netjam-request@XCF with the subject line
"request for composition FAQ". The machine XCF.Berkeley.EDU has IP
address 128.32.138.1.

	If you are interested in Smalltalk programming, you may want
to look at the Smalltalk FAQ, which is posted fortnightly to
comp.lang.smalltalk. It is also available via ftp as
anoymous@xcf.berkeley.edu:misc/smalltalk/FAQ/SmalltalkFAQ.entire.

---

0.3)		How do I ask for advice on a topic of interest from
			others on the Net?

Answer:

	[see also the many fine recurring articles in
		news.announce.newusers --crl]


From: Karl Haberl (khaberl@bbn.com)
Date: Mon, 17 Aug 92


  "The Beginner's Guide to Asking the Net Gods for [Musical] Advice"


    The net can be a powerful resource for information and advice, as
well as being a lively and sometimes fun-filled forum for the exchange
of views.  One of the most common mistakes beginners make when asking
for advice is that they do not put enough information in their posts
to allow a more experienced "net veteran" to provide a concise,
focused reply to their request. Questions like "Which keyboard is best
X or Y ?" can only really be answered in the context of knowing
something about the individual who is asking the question.

    Below are some suggestions for info that would be helpful to
include in any articles requesting advice on various topics. By
including this info in your post, you will be accomplishing two
important things: (1) you will be explicitly demonstrating to the net
community that you are not lazy, and that you have taken some time
yourself to think about the subject and identify the precise areas
where you need help, and (2) you will be providing essential
background info that will help focus and tailor any responses to your
particular problem. Here, then are the categories (feel free to
augment these with any other information that you think might be
appropriate):


(1) EXPERIENCE LEVEL - 

	Indicate how much experience you have that is appropriate for
the subject.
	This will help focus advice at the right level of detail.

    "I've played classical piano for twelve years, never touched a synth."
    "I've been using Vision for two years now, and while I would not call
	myself a power user, I think I am quite competent with basic
	operations."

(2) INFORMATION SOURCES ALREADY EXPLORED -

	Asking basic questions without indicating what kind of reading
or other investigations you may have already done yourself is likely
to cause one of two things to happen: either the reader will skip over
your message completely, or will fire off a response like "pick up
Keyboard and Electronic Musician, and get a copy of Mix Bookshelf."
Tell the net what sources of info you have tried - this gives a
baseline for giving advice and/or suggesting further sources of info.

    "I read the Buyer's Guide issue of Keyboard."
    "I have Anderton's recording book, but I still don't understand
	reverb."
    "I've only talked to my local salesman about this, he says ..."

(3) CURRENT EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION -

	With equipment-related questions, it is helpful for the
respondent to know how any suggested new equipment will complement an
existing setup.

    "I own two rusty cans and 100 yds of twine."
    "I own a JX-3P, M1, and D70 for synths, and a Tascam PortaPotty
	4-track."

(4) WHAT YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH - 

	Defining what your particular goals are is *critical* for any
respondent to give personalized advice. Besides, goal-definition also
happens to be the most critical activity that *you* can do to focus
your search through the the maze of information and equipment that is
out there.

   "I want to just have fun in my basement studio, writing pop tunes
	for my own enjoyment and distributing them to my friends."
   "I want to write soundtracks for local TV productions."
   "I want to produce demo tapes of my band and send them to record
	companies."
   "I want to optimize my rig for live performance of industrial music."

(5) BUDGET -

	For most of the people on this planet, budget is a key
constraint. If you have a precise figure in mind, give it. If you're
trying to get a more general sense of what things cost versus their
capabilities, that's O.K.  too, but you should still be able to
provide a *range* of $$ figures that you would be willing to consider.
Obviously, defining your budget goal will help respondents restrict
the range of products considered and discussed.  And if you're close
to a boundary, they will often say "of course, with just $X more you
could step up to a ..."

   "I have between $300-500 bucks to spend on a reverb unit."
   "I am willing to spend up to $2000 on a new keyboard if it will
	allow me to do X,Y, and Z; but I'd prefer to keep it under
	$1500."


---

0.4)		What are the future plans for your FAQs?

Answer:

	I'm working on a FAQ generator in Smalltalk which manages
hierarchical groups of questions and answers, and generates FAQs in
flat text (like this one) and hypertext (e.g., HTML).  Volunteers
welcome.

---

1.0) 	[Newcomer questions]

---

1.1)		What keyboard should I buy?

Answer:

From: xrjdm@calvin.gsfc.nasa.gov (Joseph D. McMahon)
Subject: Re: That zany FAQ thing
Date: Mon, 10 Aug 92 11:01:10 EDT


The most frequently asked question on EMUSIC-L and on rec.music.synth is
probably "What keyboard should I buy?"

Before you do anything else, indulge in some self-analysis of what you want 
to do, how committed you are to doing it, and how much money you have to 
spend on it. If you plan just to play your keyboard every once in a while for 
fun, you will have a different set of requirements from someone who is looking 
for the first piece of equipment along the road to establishing a professional 
set of gear as the nucleus of a studio.  Persons who are going to be performing 
contemporary popular music or who wish to imitate traditional instruments will 
probably find any number of keyboards which will fit their needs. 
Experimentalists, or persons wishing to do sonic exploration, with the sound 
being the primary concern, will have a harder time. In general, keyboard which 
feature extensive modulation sources and routings (such as the Oberheim 
Xpander, Kurzweil K2000, or Ensoniq SD-1) will be more useful for synthesis 
than less complex machines.

Set your musical priorities:  must-have, highly-desirable, nice, don't care, 
etc.  Acoustic sounds?  Synth sounds?  Multi-timbral?  Built-in sequencer?  
Built-in effects (reverb, etc)?  After-touch?  # of keys? You'll probably need 
to get more familiar with the terminology before you can make any decisions 
here. A few terms for those new to this:
	a) Multi-timbrality means that the keyboard can produce more
	   than one sound at a time. For most people who will be 
           purchasing only one synth the first time out, this is 
	   very important. A monotimbral (one-sound-at-a-time)
	   machine will require the use of multi-track tape to
	   simulate multi-timbrality. Commonly available used
	   synths which are mono-timbral are the Yamaha DX7 and the
	   Roland D50. You will not be able to make these keyboards 
	   sound like more than one thing at once.
	b) A built-in sequencer (on modern machines) means
	   that the keyboard has the equivalent of a built-in 
	   multi-track tape machine; it records the events that 
	   occur and allows you to play them back. It is *not* an
	   audio device; it simply records the actions you take to
	   produce a piece of music and then plays them back again,
	   like a player-piano. If you have a computer, you may
	   want to purchase a MIDI (see below) interface and a 
	   software sequencer instead.
	d) Most synthetic sounds are more pleasing with at least a little
	   bit of effects (echo, reverberation, etc.). Some keyboards
	   have built-in effects; others require external ones. Note that
	   built-in effects usually require that all voices go through the
	   same effect; if there is an alternative, it is usually "no effects".
	   This means that is you have a distorted guitar, an organ with a
	   rotating speaker effect, and a lead with just a touch of reverb,
	   you are going to have to choose which two of the three effects
	   you are going to be able to live without, because only one will
	   be available at a time.
	e) After-touch is a means of controlling the sound after you've
	   pressed the key. For most keyboards, pressing on any one
	   key while holding a chord will cause all of the sounding 
	   notes to act as if they too had been pressed harder; this
	   is called "channel aftertouch". Other let you control this 
	   individually for each key; this is called "key aftertouch
	   and is not seen as often.
	f) The number of keys varies. In general, most have 61 keys
	   (5 octaves), but others have more, all the way up to a full 88.
	   People who already play the piano will probably be more 
	   comfortable on a larger keyboard. The feel also varies, 
	   from weighted actions which feel very piano-like, through
	   mushy, unweighted ones are more common.
	f) MIDI is short for "musical instrument digital interface". It
	   is an international standard, and almost all machines built
	   after the Yamaha DX7 have it. (Nit-picky note: some built 
           before to,, but the DX7 is a good reference point.) You can 
	   buy a MIDI interface for your home computer and run software 
	   to control your keyboards from there. MIDI is often used to 
	   build a studio in much the same way that you can build a 
	   stereo system: by choosing individual components and combining 
	   them into a whole.

A good basic checklist for "pro-quality" keyboards:

	- Sound quality. If it sounds lousy at the store, it'll sound
	  bad at home. If you're having trouble hearing because of the
	  57 guitar heroes flailing Strats nearby, see if you can take
	  it "on approval". Most dealers are willing to work with you 
	  on such things. If all else fails, rent one. Spending $40 to find 
	  out that the $2500 you were going to spend would have been
	  a waste is a good investment. 
	
	- Usability. If the interface confuses you, if you don't like
	  the layout of the modulators, if you really hate that joystick
	  and want a wheel instead, or you think the operating system
	  really sucks, don't commit to such a keyboard unless you're 
	  willing to deal with this. Small dissatisfactions can turn what 
	  you thought was "okay" into "unusable" after repeated fighting 
	  with them. Software that locks up or crashes falls into this 
	  category.

	- Feel. If you're already a keyboard player, you probably
	  have an ideal "good keyboard" feel in your "muscle memory".
	  Try playing something you already know on the keyboard to
	  see if it suits you. Keyboard feel ranges from organ-like,
	  mushier feels to weighted, piano-like actions. If the keyboard 
	  has aftertouch, try it out and see if it's intuitive enough
	  for you. Try out the modulation controllers (joystick, 
	  mod wheel, pedals, what have you) and see if they feel
	  sturdy enough to stand up to some abuse. Try the buttons
	  and sliders (and knobs and switches, if the keyboard has
	  them) to make sure that they feel solid and dependable.
	  If you're buying a used keyboard, check buttons to make
	  sure they all work, and check sliders and knobs to make 
          sure they track evenly through their full range.

	- Price. I waited to mention this here because if you hate the way 
	  it sounds, or can't stand to use it, it doesn't matter how much 
	  how much you saved. Don't talk yourself into a keyboard that 
	  doesn't satisfy you purely on monetary grounds. If you have to, 
	  wait. 

	- Quality of manuals. Be sure to inquire if there are 
	  third-party books on programming or using the keyboard.
	  You may want to buy a copy of the keyboard's documentation
	  to review at home before making your final decision.

	- Number of voices and multitimbrality. This is essentially
	  the number of simultaneous noises that your keyboard can
	  make. In the case of a keyboard, polyphony (as interpreted by 
	  the marketing department) means "the number of different waveforms 
	  which can be produced at once". This is an important distinction 
	  to remember; many current keyboards will actually use more than 
	  one waveform simultaneously to produce the sound (usually called 
	  a "patch", referring to how older synthesizers were programmed 
	  with "patch cords"), which you hear when a single key is struck.  
	  For instance, if a keyboard has 32-voice polyphony and uses four 
	  simultaneous waveforms to produce a single note, the effective 
	  polyphony (in the first sense, "more than one note at once") is 
	  now only eight (eight notes * 4 waveforms/voice = 32 waveforms).

	  This problem can be even worse for a multitimbral keyboard; these
	  are commonly touted as being a complete composing and performing
	  solution in a single box. However, attempting to produce an entire
	  arrangement of a piece at once may very well exceed the effective
	  polyphony very quickly. Multitimbral synths may be able to play 
	  several patches at once, but each note being played on a patch 
	  reduces the number of waveforms left to produce another note on 
	  any of the patches.  For example, a standard drum track will
	  typically use at least four (and possibly more) waveforms at 
	  some point: bass drum, snare, hi-hat, and ride cymbal. Remember
	  that even if they all only come together at one sixteenth note,
	  all of the voices will be required at once. Add in piano and 
	  several other voices, and you will be getting close to or 
	  exceeding the effective polyphony very quickly. 

	  When you exceed the number of waveforms that can be produced
	  simultaneously, the keyboard will do one of two things: old 
	  (already-sounding) voices will have to be silenced to get 
	  waveforms for the new ones (this is called "voice stealing"),
	  or the new notes simply won't sound until the old ones are 
	  released (this is less common). Some keyboards allow you to 
	  assign "priorities" to voices to determine which ones
	  can be stolen from first. Others simply take the oldest voice 
	  and give its waveforms to the new note.

	  You will have to determine the effective polyphony to decide 
	  whether a given keyboard has enough voices for you. This can be
	  somewhat difficult. It is essential that you check this out 
	  hands-on.  Play the sounds available in the store with as many 
	  fingers on the keys as you will use in normal playing for those 
	  sounds.  If you like fat two-handed minor 11ths, you'll need a lot 
	  more polyphony than players who only play one or two notes at a time.
	  If your playing isn't quite up to the challenge, try choosing a
	  patch and paying a number of notes with the sustain pedal held 
	  down. See how the keyboard handles it when the polyphony is
	  exceeded. Another good test is to hit a high note and then see 
	  how many low notes you can play before the high note disappears.

	- Many newer synths include built-in effects processing. 
	  See if it's possible to turn this off, or to route the
	  signals so that they aren't processed. You may want to be
	  able to process the sounds differently at a later date, so
	  being able to not process them internally is useful. Try out
	  the different effects and see if you like what they do. Again,
	  remember that multitimbral keyboards will usually force you
	  to choose a single effect (or none at all) for all of the 
	  voices.

	- Built-in sequencer. If you don't have a computer at home,
	  or you'd prefer to spend more money on the keyboard and
	  less on other things, consider a keyboard with a built-in
	  sequencer. You should sit down and actually try to use it
	  before springing for a keyboard on this basis; some are
	  very difficult to use and fairly limited in function.

	- Availability of additional sounds. This may or may not be
	  important to you. If you want to make your own sounds, look
	  into the keyboard's voice architecture and programming. Get
	  the salesperson to demonstrate if possible. If you find it 
	  confusing, you may find it difficult to program. If you want 
	  to purchase third-party sounds, talk to the dealer about what's 
	  available, and check out the ads in Keyboard magazine.


You should never buy any keyboard without trying it. Ways to do this:
talk to friends who own keyboards and get them to let you try them.
Ask as many questions as you can think of. If a local junior or 
community college has a music lab, see what they've got and take some
classes. Or go to a local dealer. It's better to at least see a 
keyboard once before asking about it on the discussion groups (SYNTH-L
or rec.music.synth), simply because there are a lot of personal 
decisions to get out of the way first. 

Certainly, the music store is a good place to at least try keyboards.
Try to hit the store when fewer people are likely to be there, like late 
afternoon around dinnertime, or early in the morning. A good salesperson 
won't be afraid to tell you that they don't have what you need, and won't
push something on you as "really hot" without justification. He or she
will also spend time talking to you about what you want to do and help
steer you toward features on different machines that will be useful
to you.

Never let yourself be stampeded into buying X as soon as you walk in.
If it's a legitimate deal, you will be able to come back later after
you check with the competition. For this reason, it's usually not a
good idea to buy a synth at a clearance sale or a "one-day-only"
special unless you're already sure that it's what you want.

Don't buy what it'll do "real soon now". Manufacturers are famous for
advertising upgrades, new patches, and lots of other things that you
can get right now that will "make it the most powerful synth available".
Always treat any keyboard purchase as if the company were going to 
vanish tomorrow. You can only count on getting what you bought today
(Metlay's Law). Sometimes you can't even count on that (Rothwell's
Observation on Metlay's Law).

There are lots of variations on the "promise", some more subtle than others.
"Famous person X uses this," implying that you'll sound like X. Another one
is the inflated specs game: "16-bit sounds!" "32-voice polyphony!". None of
this makes the slightest bit of difference. If the sounds (or the potential)
of this keyboard right here, right now, don't make you want to sit down and
start writing music, the keyboard is worthless for you.

If your committment to keyboard playing is low, you may want to either
get a used keyboard, or to get a "consumer" multi-feature keyboard with
built-in accompaniment, etc. If you're unsure as to whether you'll want 
to keep playing or not, you might want to consider purchasing a keyboard
which has been on the market for a year or so, but which is still very 
popular. This will give you the chance to unload it used without taking
a complete bath on the money you spent.

If you are highly committed and motivated, and are planning to build a
studio over a period of time, you should carefully review *all* of the
synths available before making a choice. You may decide that a keyboard 
which you can't currently afford would be a better long-term choice than
a different keyboard which doesn't meet your needs as well. Don't be
afraid to wait and save up some money; if for no other reason than the
heavy dependence on the music industry on them, electronic keyboards 
are not likely to suddenly disappear like video games did in the '80's.

Once you've done the basic groundwork, and have narrowed the field a bit,
post a message to one of the discussion groups and ask for experiences, 
and read reviews in Keyboard or Electronic Musician. Keyboard's reviews
tend to gloss over problems less. In many cases, you will get conflicting 
recommendations; you will have to weigh these and your own experiences to 
come to a final decision.

The final arbiter of your decision should always be you. You're the one
who'll be spending a significant piece of cash and a lot of your time on this 
machine; it's to your advantage to find out as much as possible and to 
make sure that the machine you're buying is really one that you want and
enjoy playing.

(Thanks to Bob Crispen, Ross C., Kraig Eno, and Alan W. Kerr for suggestions.)

 --- Joe M. (xrjdm@twinpeaks.gsfc.nasa.gov)


---

1.2)		Where can I get patches for my keyboard?

Answer:

  Use anonymous ftp to
	ucsd.EDU -- /midi/patches
	  (current offerings include the Roland D10, D5, D50, D70, U20
	   Yamaha DX7, FB01, TX81Z, SY22, SY55, SY77, Ensoniq ESQ1, SQ1,
	   Kawai K1, K4, K5, Korg M1, T3, WS, Casio CZ-1, CZ-2)

	louie.udel.EDU -- /pub/midi/patches
	  (has patches for most of the above and several more,
	   including E-mu Proteus, Korg 01/W, Ensoniq VFX, etc.)

---

1.3)		What is MIDI?

Answer:
    (adapted from xrjdm@twinpeaks.gsfc.nasa.gov (Joseph D. McMahon)):
    MIDI stands for "Musical Instrument Digital Interface". It is an
    international standard which allows electronic keyboards, sound modules,
    effects boxes, and other equipment to send information to one another.
    Possibly the simplest use of the feature is when the MIDI OUT jack of
    one synthesizer is connected to the MIDI IN jack of another, allowing you
    to play both at the same time using just one keyboard.

    MIDI can carry much more than just notes, however; most MIDI-capable
    equipment will produce and respond to a variety of messages on the MIDI
    bus.  Also, the proper interface hardware will allow a computer to
    control the musical equipment (see "EDITOR/LIBRARIAN" and "SEQUENCER"). 

    MIDI is often used to build a studio in much the same way that you can
    build a stereo system: by choosing individual components and combining
    them into a whole.

    The standard was instituted in 1982, and most keyboards after the Yamaha
    DX7 have it. (Nit-picky note: some built before do, too, but the DX7 is a
    good reference point.)  It includes both a hardware standard (it's a
    5 mA current loop carried on 3 wires, with 5-pin DIN connectors) and a
    serial communications protocol based on byte-oriented message packets
    running at 31.25 Kbaud.

	[for a more complete treatment of MIDI, see the item "Where
		can I find out all about MIDI?"  -- Craig]

---

1.4) 		What are definitions for the following things?
	   		- aftertouch, envelope, FM, LFO, module,
			multitimbral, polyphony, pressure, sampler,
			sequencer, synthesizer,	velocity

Answer:

"AFTERTOUCH" -- same as "pressure"

"ENVELOPE"

Date: Thu, 17 Jun 93 15:42:55 +0200
From: styri@balder.nta.no

	A set of parameters to shape (envelope) the sound with
	reference to key press and key release, or rather note
	on and note off. Envelopes have a varying number of
	parameters, and they may be used for different purposes
	like volume or filter control.

	There are many different implementations of envelopes,
	but most of them will have the following 4 properties:
	Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release.

	At "note on" the control signal described by the
	envelope will grow at a specified rate. This is the
	`attack' and it's usually limited by a time frame.
	At this instance the signal will `decay' at a
	specified rate (it may, however, continue to grow
	though we still call it decay). When the decay stops,
	eg. specified by another time frame, the signal will
	be `sustained' until "note off". At this instance the
	control signal will decrease at a specified rate.

---
Haakon Styri		styri@nta.no

"FM" -- frequency modulation

"LAYERING" -- see "MULTITIMBRAL"

"LFO" -- Low-Frequency Oscillator

"MIDI" -- Musical Instrument Digital Interface

    An international standard which allows communication between electronic
    music and lighting equipment from various manufacturers.

"MODULE"

"MULTITIMBRAL" -- capable of playing two or more timbres simultaneously
  From: awkerr@zia.aoc.nrao.EDU (Alan Kerr)   (edited by K. Eno)
  Date: 5 Aug 92
    It means that there are multiple *timbres* on the machine: more than one
    different sound can play simultaneously.  A machine that is mulitimbral
    *usually* will let you play those different sounds on different MIDI
    channels.  "Layering" causes the synth to produce more than one sound when
    you press a single key.  A "keyboard split" (or just "split") allows you
    to play one patch (a piano, perhaps) on one range of keys while you play
    a different sound (the bass) on another part of the keyboard.  A 
    "velocity split" allows you to play different patches at different
    velocities.  For example, you could have "mellow brass" at low velocities,
    "brass" at medium velocities and "screaming brass" at high velocities 
    played on the same keys.

"POLYPHONY" -- number of simultaneously playable voices
  From: crispen <crispen@EFFTOO.BOEING.COM>
  Date: 4 Aug 92

    - Polyphony and multi-timbrality.  The "polyphony" of a
    keyboard is the number of simultaneous notes that it can
    play.  However, the polyphony advertised by the manufacturer
    is usually greater than the polyphony you'll actually get,
    especially with multi-timbral keyboards.

    Imagine that you have a 16-note polyphonic multi-timbral synth.
    If you have a multi-timbral sound that has two "raw" voices that
    sound simultaneously, you're down to 8 different notes that can
    sound at the same time (16 notes of polyphony divided by two
    voices).  This is true even if the two voices are the same raw
    voice, but doubled to give a thicker sound.  If you have four
    voices in the multi-timbral sound, you're down to four notes
    that can sound at once.

    The real question, then, is how many voices (on the average)
    this keyboard requires to make up a multi-voice sound that's
    useful.  This will vary from one to four or more.  A sampler,
    for example, may only require one voice to produce exactly the
    sound you want, while some kinds of synthesizer will take three
    or more voices before the sound is halfway decent.

    When you exceed the polyphony limit (and the rule is that you
    never have as much as you want) different keyboards handle the
    overflow differently; most turn off the "oldest" voice first;
    some allow you to set the way overflow is handled.  Some quiet
    down the voice that's been turned off very subtly; others are
    noisy.  Many newer keyboards have "dynamic voice allocation"
    (DVA) which allows you to guarantee a certain number of notes
    on each raw voice; when you exceed the polyphony limit, the
    keyboard will steal from other voices with lower guarantee
    numbers so that you get more notes, but each note sounds a
    little thinner because not all the voices are sounding.

    You *must* check this out hands-on.  Play the multi-timbral
    sounds in the store with as many fingers on the keys
    as you will use in normal playing for those sounds.  If you
    like fat two-handed minor 11ths, you'll need a lot more
    polyphony than players who only play one or two notes at a time.

"PRESSURE" -- keyboard feature for sensing continuous key pressure

    Keyboards which are pressure-sensitive (or have "aftertouch", which
    is the same thing) can detect the amount of pressure on a key AFTER
    it has reached the end of its initial travel; this data can be used
    to vary the loudness or other characteristic of the sound, and usually
    sent as MIDI continuous controller messages as well.

    MONO pressure, also called "channel" pressure, detects the key that's
    pressed hardest; POLY pressure senses the individual amount for each
    separate key.

"SAMPLER" -- a device for recording and playing back digitally
	recorded sounds (I know, I know, the Mellotron)
	
"SEQUENCER" -- a musical event recorder

"SPLIT" -- see "MULTITIMBRAL"

"SYNTHESIZER" -- device for producing sound through analog or algorithmic means

    As generally used, a musical instrument which produces a sound signal
    by means of either analog electronics or real-time, algorithmic generation
    of a digital waveform.  A variety of techniques are used:

    Additive synthesis
    Subtractive synthesis
    Ring Modulation synthesis
    Frequency Modulation synthesis
    Phase Distortion synthesis

  (But is a pipe organ a synthesizer?  How about "real" instruments"?)

"VELOCITY" -- keyboard feature for sensing how hard you initially play a note

    Velocity-sensitive keyboards detect how hard you play.  Usually they do
    this by measuring how FAST a note is played -- that is, by measuring the
    delay between the initial strike and the time the key reaches the end of
    its travel.

    The information is usually used to determine the loudness of the note,
    but can also cause effects such as a faster attack or a shorter overall
    envelope, depending on the internal architecture of the sound generator.


---

1.5)		Where can I get price lists?

Answer:

	Ken Shirriff (shirriff@sprite.Berkeley.EDU) posts a price list
every two weeks in rec.music.synth. It is also available by anonymous
ftp to sprite.Berkeley.EDU in the file synth_prices.


---

1.6)		Where can I get a USA music store list?

Answer:

	William J. Sequeira (pixel@ihlpe.att.com) posts such a list
monthly to rec.music.synth.

		--crl

---

2.0)  	[Connectivity issues]

---

2.1.0) 		[Groups]

---

2.1.1)			What is Netjam?

Answer:

	Netjam provides a means for people to collaborate on musical
compositions, by sending Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
and other files (such as MAX patchers and notated scores) to each
other, mucking about with them, and resending them.  All those with
MIDI-compatible (and other interesting) equipment, access to emailing
and compression facilities and to the Internet (send mail as below for
details), and who are interested in making music are encouraged to
participate.

	All participant and composition information is documented, and
the most actions, such as subscription, submission, translation, and
information distribution, are automated. Netjam is
platform-independent, so users of Macintoshes, PCs, Amigas, Ataris,
and machines running UNIX-variants may all communicate with each
other. There are currently 134 participants, from all over the world.

	Netjam has branched out from its initial incarnation to
support {soft/hard}ware other than sequencers. For example, many
participants have access to several interesting sound synthesis
programs, like CSound for the NeXT. In addition, Netjam archives
sampler and MAX patcher data. Any data relating to art and music is
fair game.

	Most Netjam activity takes place via email, in which
participants collaborate at their own pace on works. Recently,
however, a Wide-Area MIDI Network was implemented, so real-time
interaction is now possible.

	Submissions, participant info, and other data is archived on
XCF.Berkeley.EDU (128.32.138.1), where it is available via anonymous
ftp.  To receive the document from which this blurb is extracted (and
which explains Netjam at length) send mail to netjam-request@XCF, with
a subject line containing "request for info". Articles about Netjam
have also appeared in the Computer Music Journal (15/3), and the
Leonardo Music Journal (1/1).

	We look forward to hearing from you.


	Craig Latta
	musician and moderator
	latta@XCF.Berkeley.EDU

---

2.1.2)			How do I subscribe to EMUSIC-D and EMUSIC-L,
				and what other BITNET lists are of
				interest?

Answer: 

Date: Mon, 17 Aug 92 12:00:09 +0200
From: Martin Roth <roth@ips.id.ethz.ch>
Organization: ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology)


	You send a mail to listserv@auvm.bitnet (NOT to emusic-l!!)
containing the line:

SUB EMUSIC-L <Your real name>

That's all. In a few days (this seems to be done manually, so be
patient!), you will get an intro mail and then all the discussion
mails. To contribute, you can send a mail to emusic-l@auvm.bitnet,
which is then automatically sent to all the subscribed people.

	To get removed from the list, again, do not send to the list,
but to listserv@auvm.bitnet

UNSUB EMUSIC-L

Again, allow up to one week processing time (this is also done
manually).  By the way, your mail address is taken automatically from
the return address of your mail, so be sure you don't have any fancy
format there (user@machine.org.dom or something in that form will do
well).

If you want to know more, just ask listserv@auvm.bitnet (send mail):

HELP

Simple. Just try. EMUSIC-D should be similar, I suppose... listserv serves lot
of other lists, too. Ah, yes, and you can get a list of the lists by sending
a simple

LIST

in a mail, guess where... YES! to listserv@auvm.bitnet !

-Martin 

_______________________________________________________________________
      _   Martin Roth                Martin Roth    ETHZ, ips, RZ F16
|\  /|_)  Mail: roth@ips.id.ethz.ch  Sandacker 14   g 01/256 55 68
| \/ | \  (Student of Computer    CH-8154 Oberglatt p 01/850 32 75
          Science / Engineering)     Switzerland    (F-)emails welcome!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

---

2.1.3)			What are some other emailing lists relating to
				electronic and computer music?

Answer:

	The nextmusic list discusses NeXT-related topics, contact
nextmusic-request@wri.com for subscription information.

	There are the EMUSIC-L and EMUSIC-D lists; unfortunately, I've
forgotten their subscription info. All I know is I'm subscribed...
don't you hate that? I just know I would embarrass myself in front of
millions of BITNETters if I tried to ask...  --crl
	
---

2.1.4)			How do I contact the editorial staff of
				Electronic Musician magazine?

Answer: 

Date:         Thu, 19 Dec 1991 09:28:35 EST
From: Brian Adamson <adamson%ITD.NRL.NAVY.MIL@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU>
Subject:      contacting Electronic Musician magazine
To: Multiple recipients of list EMUSIC-L <EMUSIC-L@AUVM>

   The Jan 1992 issue of Electronic Musician magazine tells
how to submit questions to the magazine via e-mail from
Internet.  (These questions are sometimes published in their
letters to the editor column).

   Simply e-mail to:

		EMEDITORIAL@PAN.COM      (their address on PAN)
--

		         Brian Adamson
      	                 NRL Code 5523
		         adamson@itd.nrl.navy.mil

---

2.1.5)			Is there a group for Roland U20 and U220
				synthesizer users?

Answer:

	Yes. James Choi has started one. Everything is handled by
phantom@nwu.EDU

---

2.1.6)			What Yamaha synthesizer groups are there?

Answer:

	Here's one:

From: doug.ramsay@his.com (Doug Ramsay)
Subject: YAMAHA Users
Date: Sat, 17 Apr 1993 16:18:02

All you Yamaha synth users, theres a mailing list you can subscribe to: The
YAMAHA Synthesizer Mailing List.

Send your administrative requests (additions, deletions and gripes) to

     sy-request@chorus.fr (send SUBSCRIBE <your name> in the body of the msg)

Send your contributions to

     sy-list@chorus.fr

Cheers!

---

---

2.2.0) 		Archives

---

2.2.1)			What are some other midi-file/software
				archives on the	Internet?

Answer:

	Piet van Oostrum (piet@cs.ruu.nl) keeps a list of Internet
MIDI-related archives, available via ftp as
anonymous@ftp.cs.ruu.nl:MIDI/DOC/archives, and via a mail-server -
send mail to mail-server@cs.ruu.nl with the following contents: 

BEGIN
PATH <a valid mail address to you>
HELP send MIDI/INDEX
END 

Note: specify a correct address (e.g. user@host.univ.EDU or
user@host.BITNET)

---

2.2.2)			Is there a archive for the K2000 synthesizer?

Answer:

	Why, yes!

From: S. Patel <spatel@hpclbis.cup.hp.com>
Date: Thu, 15 Jul 93 10:13:46 PDT

  You can ftp the following site:  ftp.uwp.edu
  The K2000 archives is listed under the directory /pub/music/lists/kurzweil.

  Shailesh

---

2.3.0) 		Making CDs

---

2.3.1) 			What constitutes a CD master?

From: kls30@cd.amdahl.com (Kent L. Shephard)
Newsgroups: comp.music,rec.audio.pro,rec.music.synth
Subject: Re: Questions about CD mastering
Date: 17 Nov 92 16:54:20 GMT
Organization: Amdahl Corporation, Sunnyvale CA

In article <1e9i9uINN4g7@calvin.usc.EDU>, alves@calvin.usc.EDU (William
Alves) writes:

>	I would like to talk to anyone who has had some experience
> mastering and pressing a CD. I assume that one sends the company that
> does the pressing a DAT, but what are the other details? I assume each
> track is marked by a DAT id that corresponds to the track number, but
> what about the time between tracks? First, how much time is usually
> put between tracks?
> 
>	Second, I have seen that CDs have a countdown time between the
> end of a track and the start of another - how is this represented on
> the DAT? Finally, does anyone have the names of and experiences with
> CD manufacturers? What are some typical costs and how easy are they to
> deal with? Thanks for any info.
> 
> Bill

	Typical time between tracks varies from about 2-4 seconds.  A
DAT is sent to the pressing house.  With the DAT you also need to send
a play sheet that lists the absolute start time and length of each
song.  You need 15 seconds at the beginning and end of the date that
is completely blank.  You need no test tones on the tape since the
transfer will be digital.

	Your DAT will need to be "level corrected" either before you
send it to the pressing house or after.  Before is better since they
charge lots of cash for mastering.  The level correction is actually
called normalization.  All this does is make the peak of every song
the same level so a person doesn't have to play with the volume on
their stereo for each song.  Also make sure you record at 44.1KHz vs
48KHz since sample rate conversion would have to be done or an analog
step would be needed to get the sample rate to 44.1KHz.

	The pressing plant will charge a slight amount to convert from
DAT to Sony 1630 format which the disk is cut from.  The more you do
on your end as far as prep goes the less you will wind up paying.

	I do all my mastering and mastering for other folks on a NeXT
and they take the tape with the times and length of songs to the
pressing plant they use.


	There are quite a few pressing plants.  Disc Makers in
Pittsburg,Pa. and New York have a policy of satisfaction or they
refund your money.  They als have a 1 week turn around for cassette.


-- 
/*  What me, speak for Amdahl?  Get real.  These opinions and statements  */
/*  belong to me and me only.   If something I said offends you, it's     */
/*  either you got a thin skin or that I'm just offensive.  Who cares.    */
/*                                                                        */
/* kls30@cd.amdahl.com  -  Don't send NeXTmail!!                          */

---

2.3.2) 			Who and how much?


Answer:

From: sklower@diva.Berkeley.EDU (Keith Sklower)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.misc,rec.audio.pro,rec.music.cd,rec.music.makers.synth
Subject: Re: Cost of producing music CD's
Date: 6 Feb 93 00:44:28 GMT
Organization: University of California, Berkeley

In article <1krfvbINNpvg@rave.larc.nasa.gov> kludge@grissom.larc.nasa.gov (Scott Dorsey) writes:
}In article <C1wsF4.53B@irvine.com> billy@irvine.com (*** Bouncer **) writes:
}>
}>Does anyone know the name of a manufacturer of music CD's, and and what would
}>be the minimum production costs for say 200-500 CDs?
}
}I recommend Nimbus.  Expect to pay about $2500 for a thousand CDs, including
}mastering costs from an analogue or DAT master.  If you get the PCM 630
}transfer done elsewhere, you can save some money.
}
}Lots of places are cheaper than Nimbus, but I like their service and their
}sound quality.
}--scott

Well, Scott, says Keith spoiling for a bit of a flame fest, do you believe
that the same 1630 master tape sent to different CD factories will result
in CD's that sound different under careful test conditions?

Lest I be accused of favoritism, here is a list of other manufacturers
(or reps):

Discovery Systems, Dublin Ohio
Digital Audio Disc Corporation (SONY), Terre Haute Indiana
Optical Media International, Los Gatos CA
Compact Disc Services (Rick Goldman) (818) 241 9103

You can obtain the other missing phone numbers for the ones I listed
by calling up directory assistance in the cities mentioned; I don't
have them handy with me.

When I talked to Nimbus, they wouldn't deal with me directly, they
wanted me to go through a representative.

The most favorable pricing I've found is through Sony or CDS.
Both of them will accept CD-WORM media in lieu of a 1630 tape,
and you can find people listed in EQ or MIX or Electronic Musician
who will do a DAT->CD-WORM transfer for $100.

Fantasy Studios (in Berkeley CA) will charge $350 for a DAT->1630
transfer.

Discovery Systems will do 350 disks for about $1100, but you have
to send them a 1630 tape; however, they were much friendlier to me than
the Nimbus people were over the phone.

Sony will do 500 disks for $1225 (including mastering charges) or 1000+
disks for $1.25 a disk (mastering charges waived if you order at least
1000; this is **not** true of data CD-ROMs !).  Sony charges $.35 for a
jewel case and shrink wrapping.  Sony will accept graphics for the
silk-screening on the CD itself on a Mac floppy in several formats
(e.g. adobe illustrator, MacDraw II,....)  (So, if you really only
wanted 200, you have to order 500 disks, but only 200 jewel cases,
running you $1295, + shipping).

CDS charges a little less per disk but a little more for the
jewel case so the total is the same.  They also will do
custom graphics for you for the inserts, and take care of getting
it printed, etc, for a fee.  Rick is also a really nice guy,
and the quality of his life would be improved more by your business
than that of the Sony stockholders ;-).

You should also include in your cost estimate royalties to
be paid to ASCAP.  (Call up directory information in manhattan
to obtain the phone number of the Harry Fox Agency,
call them up  and ask for the ``mechanicals'' department)
The formula was somewhat complicated ($.065 minimum for a song
+ $00125 for each minute over 5), but worked out in the 
two cases I know of about $.80/60 minute disk.


From: kludge@grissom.larc.nasa.gov (Scott Dorsey)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.misc,rec.audio.pro,rec.music.cd,rec.music.makers.synth
Subject: Re: Cost of producing music CD's
Date: 6 Feb 1993 03:14:34 GMT
Organization: NASA Langley Research Center and Reptile Farm
NNTP-Posting-Host: grissom.larc.nasa.gov

In article <45151@ucbvax.BERKELEY.EDU> sklower@diva.Berkeley.EDU (Keith Sklower) writes:
>}Lots of places are cheaper than Nimbus, but I like their service and their
>}sound quality.
>}--scott
>
>Well, Scott, says Keith spoiling for a bit of a flame fest, do you believe
>that the same 1630 master tape sent to different CD factories will result
>in CD's that sound different under careful test conditions?

Yup.  One of the CDs will have some tracks missing, while another one will
never be made because they will "lose" your master tape.  Another one won't
sound like anything at all, because the company will go out of business 
shortly after receiving your tape.  I have seen all three of these things
happen and I don't want to see them happen again.

In the mastering process to make the 1630 tape, though, all kinds of things
can go wrong.  If you send them a DAT that has to be resampled, quality
can be lost in the resampling process (and some outfits just have a DAT
analogue output connected to the analogue input...).  If you send them an
analogue tape, you are putting yourself in even more danger, since so many
of the outfits don't deal with analogue source material much and don't know
how to treat it.  I have heard altogether too many CDs with obvious sounds
of azimuth error, and there is no excuse in the world for this.

What you want from a pressing plant is good service.  What you want from
a mastering lab is good service and good sound quality.  I recommend 
getting the mastering and pressing done by the same outfit (unless you
happen to have a 1630 in your back room and can do it yourself).  It just
makes for a lot less coordination on your part, and when things go wrong
there won't be the finger pointing.
--scott

>Lest I be accused of favoritism, here is a list of other manufacturers
>(or reps):
>
>Discovery Systems, Dublin Ohio
>Digital Audio Disc Corporation (SONY), Terre Haute Indiana
>Optical Media International, Los Gatos CA
>Compact Disc Services (Rick Goldman) (818) 241 9103

Discovery does a rotten mastering job from analogue media, and I can say
the same of Sony.  Beyond that I haven't much experience with the outfits.

---

2.4)		How do I transfer patches, data files, MFF files from
			a Mac to a PC and back?

Answer:

Date: Wed, 21 Apr 1993 12:56:39 -0400 (EDT)
From: idealord <idealord@dorsai.dorsai.org>

This works for any data files - of course it will not work for executables.

IBM->Mac

Process the file, (unzip, unlharc it), download it and then use Apple File 
Transfer in the binary mode (not text mode) to "translate" it to the Mac.  
Mac files have a processing fork which is added to the front end of any file; 
it tells the Mac what application the file was designed for.
Apple File Transfer (it should be in your System or Utilities folder) adds this 
to the front of the file.  Now - you have to use ResEdit to add the
appropriate file header info.  For MFF files you change the "File Type" to
MIDI - make sure to use caps - some apps won't accept "midi."  Now you should
be able to load it into Performer, whatever, as a MIDI file.

If it is a sysex dump or other kind of data file -> take a look at the file
type of a previously saved data file created by the program with which you wish
to use the IBM data file with ResEdit.  The file type is always 4 letters, be
sure you use the appropriate cap or small letter combination and change the 
type of the IBM data file from "text" (Apple File Transfer changes all of its
files to the "text" file type) to the type expected by your application of
choice. 

Mac->IBM 

Process the file (unsit, etc.) and use Apple File Transfer in the binary mode
(not text mode) to translate it to IBM format.  Apple File Transfer will allow
you to format IBM disks, too.  The process from Mac->IBM is basically
stripping the Mac header off of the data file.  There is no further
processing.  Of course, be sure you've de-archived the data file appropriately
- although there are un-stuffit programs available for the IBM - they don't
seem to be very reliable.  

I've used these processes to transfer MFF files, EPS files and other kinds of
files successfully between Macs and IBM's.

Jeff Harrington
idealord@dorsai.dorsai.org

---

3.0) 	[Software]

---

3.1.0)		[Software by role]

---

3.1.1.0)		["Environments"]

---

3.1.1.1)			What is Smallmusic? What is the MODE?

Answer:

	Smallmusic is an abstract, object-oriented music
representation. An environment implementing it, called the Music
Object Development Environment (MODE) is available. It features
several novel and portable interfaces to musical structures and
hardware. It is written in ParcPlace Smalltalk, and is thus portable
between many platforms, including Suns, DECstations, HPs, IBM PCs, and
Macintoshes. It was designed and written by Stephen Pope
(stp@ccrma.stanford.EDU) and several others.

	You can obtain the MODE via ftp as
anonymous@ccrma-ftp.stanford.EDU:pub/st80/MODE/.

	A work group has formed to discuss and develop this
object-oriented software system for music. The email address for the
group is smallmusic@XCF.Berkeley.EDU.  If you are interested in
joining the discussion, email smallmusic-request@XCF.Berkeley.EDU,
with the subject line "add me".


	Thanks,

	Craig Latta
	latta@XCF.Berkeley.EDU

***

	Smallmusic abstract
 
	This document describes an abstract object-oriented
representation for musical parameters, events and structures known as
the MODE music representation. In object-oriented software terms, the
representation is described in terms of software class hierarchies of
objects that share state and behavior and implement the description
language as their protocol. The author (and his collaborators by
implication) believe this representation, and its proposed linear
ASCII description in Smalltalk-80 syntax, to be well-suited as a basis
for concrete description languages in other syntaces, specially-
designed binary storage and interchange formats, and use within and
between interactive multi-media, hyper-media applications in several
possible domains.



---

3.1.1.3.0)			[Max]

---

3.1.1.3.1)				What is Max?

Answer:

	(in progress)

---

3.1.1.3.2)				Which glove interfaces with
						the Max 'glove'
						object?


Answer:

Date: Thu, 20 Feb 92 16:03:49 CST
From: James McCartney <james@astro.as.utexas.EDU>
To: max@dcs.edinburgh.ac.uk
Subject: power glove

	The glove object uses the Gold Brick ADB interface from
Transfinite Systems. (617) 969-9570 The cost is $169 for a user system
or $245 for the developer model which provides LEDs for monitoring ADB
activity and other stuff.


	More about the powerGlove...

Date: Wed, 01 Sep 1993 08:08:51 -0500 (EST)
From: SHRINER@Butler.EDU
Subject: Re: From netjam-max: Nintendo Power Glove.  Can it still be got?


I got my powerglove -manual and all- for $50.00 from Fringeware.
Here's the info. Tell Paco Charles from Mr. Presto says hello.
I'm also including some info concerning interfaces.
Enjoy.........
______________________________________________________________________
charles shriner                             Music Composition
ccps@mindvox.phantom.com                            &
VOX:317.254.0739                           Sound Design Studio
FAX:317.283.9930 ATT Woodruff                  Indpls., IN
______________________________________________________________________
fringeware@wixer.cactus.org

FringeWare Inc.
PO Box 49921
Austin, TX 78765

Attention : Paco Xander Nathan
*****************************************************************************
........a company called Transfinite Systems (TS) has introduced a
little ADB device called Gold Brick, which provides
translations between a Mac or Apple IIgs and various
Nintendo-compatible controller devices. (Luckily, Transfinite
Systems sent us the Gold Brick manual, because the concept of a
controller interface is not one that is inherently obvious.)
Nintendo-controller compatibility is an interesting ability,
because some Nintendo games support 2D and 3D motion using a
number of different controllers............I haven't seen any of
these devices, but Gold Brick can translate controller input
from the Broderbund UForce, the Nintendo Power Pad, the
Enteractive Roll&Rocker and the Mattel Power Glove. (Game
companies are very serious about trademarks, as you can tell.) 
Of these, the only one I know anything about is the Power
Glove, because it is a commercial version of the Data Glove
used in the virtual reality experiments. With the Data Glove
(or presumably the Power Glove), you can move virtual objects
around in a virtual space (viewed through a head-mounted
display system).
 
Transfinite Systems has chosen an interesting method of
marketing Gold Brick. By designing it to work with inexpensive
and commercially available controllers, Transfinite is using an
existing market to create a potentially new one. The first
applications of Gold Brick will no doubt be ports of Nintendo
games or even communications between the game deck and the Mac
through Gold Brick. However, after some games have broken the
ground, we expect that drivers for the 3D graphics applications
like Swivel 3D and Super 3D will be written. Rotating a 3D
solid with a Power Glove should be a lot easier than doing the
same thing with the mouse. After that, our imagination is the
limit for new methods of controlling virtual objects. Gold
Brick's sub-title is "The Cyberspace Interface," which hints at
the cyberspace environment of William Gibson's "Neuromancer"
and "Mona Lisa Overdrive." For standard applications of today,
though, the user can specify 2D motions or keystrokes for the
Gold Brick translations, allowing people to explore and design
alternate forms of interface manipulators. One way or another,
Gold Brick sounds like it might help introduce the next
generation of controllers.
 
Transfinite Systems * 617-969-9570
 
TidBITS#64/03-Jun-91
 
Way back when in September of 1990 (i.e. the good old days :-)),
I wrote about a controller interface device called the Gold
Brick. The Gold Brick is an interesting idea - it acts as an
interface between the Mac's ADB and a variety of 2-D and 3-D
controllers made for Nintendo games. Back then, the Gold Brick
was relative vapor, but it now appears that Transfinite Systems
is shipping an upgraded version of the Gold Brick along with a
cheaper interface for users, called the Nugget. The Gold Brick
sells for $245 and the Nugget for $169, and although you could
buy the Nintendo controllers from the company, they encourage
users to look for cheaper prices in toy and electronics stores.
 
The main upgrade to the Gold Brick is the ability to accept more
in the way of 3-D input, so the device can now accept 3-D
forward and backward signals, as well as roll controls.
Needless to say, such ability greatly increases the
controller's utility for interactive use with simulated 3-D
objects. The other upgrade to the Gold Brick is the ability to
work with the Nintendo Power Pad, which I've never seen, but
which I gather is kind of like a game of Twister with
electronic sensors built in. Such a device would be extremely
useful for architects and engineers working with programs like
Virtus WalkThrough, although you might need a lot of processing
power to take advantage of the combination. The main Nintendo
device that I would like to try with the Gold Brick is the
Power Glove. It's a slightly scaled down version of the glove
used by the virtual reality people, but is definitely a step in
the right direction as far as computer controls go. I suspect
that it wouldn't even be all that hard to combine the Power
Glove technology with the Infogrip's chord keyboard technology
so you could type on a virtual keyboard. I suppose that would
produce a whole slew of hypochondriacs complaining of virtual
repetitive strain injuries. :-)
 
As much as the Gold Brick is impressive, Vivid Effects of
Toronto has an even better idea. In Mandala, they've made the
controller itself virtual by using a video camera attached to
an Amiga and some custom hardware. The camera films you and can
insert you into an animation from a paint program or into a
laserdisc, at which point you can interact with the other
entities in the reality to the extent the software allows.
Currently, Vivid Effects has two versions, a high-end version
that interfaces with a laserdisc and a low-end version that
only requires a video camera and a digitizing board and is much
cheaper, but can't work with the laserdisc.
 
Using the virtual controller gives Mandala a number of
advantages over current controller schemes. You don't have to
wear goggles or a body suit or a glove or anything like that,
and other people can join in the same reality with ease. In
addition, the Mandala technology makes it easier to mix virtual
controls with real ones, if for instance, you were in a cockpit
simulation. Vivid Effects said that Mandala is quite popular,
especially with science museums and the like because they could
set up a virtual reality and let lots of visitors play with it.
They expect a significant increase in popularity when they port
the hardware to the Mac and the PC, since the Amiga, for all
its features, is still a fairly limited market.
 
Transfinite Systems * 617/969-9570
Vivid Effects * 416/340-9290

---

3.1.1.4)			What is DMIX and how can I get it?

Answer:

	DMIX is a Smalltalk environment for music written by Dan
Oppenheim. It's available via anonymous FTP from ccrma.stanford.edu as
dmix/*. 

---

3.1.2.0)		[Notation software]

---

3.1.2.1)			Is there PostScript code available for
					generating guitar scales?

Answer:

	Yes, via ftp as:

	anonymous@XCF.Berkeley.EDU:misc/netjam/lib/scales.ps.mail

---

3.1.2.2)			Where can I get online guitar tablature?

Answer:

	James Bender (jamesb@nevada.EDU) maintains an ftp archive of
guitar tablature, at ftp.nevada.EDU(131.216.1.11).

---

3.1.2.3) 			What is MusicTeX, and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Mon, 5 Oct 1992 14:35:00 +0100
From: Werner Icking <Werner.Icking@gmd.de>

	MusicTeX is a TeX-based music typesetter. It consists of
TeX-macros and special music-fonts for 300dpi printers (100dpi, 240dpi
are available, too); the MetaFont-source is included. It's capable of
printing scores of up to nine voices. The documentation contains a
ready-to-print dvi-file musicdoc.dvi and a lot of examples, most of
them by Daniel Taupin, the author of MusicTeX.

	MusicTeX is available at a lot of servers ('archie musictex'
-- see entry on archie for details) but at most sites you will find
out-of-date versions because Daniel Taupin continuously enhances
MusicTeX :-). Actual versions can be found at:
  ftp.gmd.de [129.26.8.90]: music/musictex/musictex.zip ... musicpk.zip
  rsovax.ups.circe.fr [130.84.128.100]: anonymous.musictex musictex.zip ...
The latter is the author's ftp-site. 

Good TeX-knowledge is a good basis for using MusicTeX with it's own fonts.

Werner (icking@gmd.de)                MusicTeX-author: taupin@frups51.bitnet



Date: Tue, 27 Oct 92 15:51:55-0100
From: vanroose@esat.kuleuven.ac.be

TeX (and LaTeX) is a Public Domain typesetting system written by
D. Knuth, that has been implemented on `almost all' operating systems
(including DOS and OS/2: namely emTeX).  Refer to the FAQ posting in
comp.text.tex for the necessary info for those who are not yet familiar
with TeX.

MusicTeX actually consists of a set of macros on top of TeX.
It is written by D. Taupin (taupin@frups51.bitnet), who is a
professional musician.  It enables you to write music scores
having a very professional look.  It is available via anonymous
ftp from rsovax.ups.circe.fr (130.84.128.100) [.musictex]
and also from many archive sites distributing TeX.

MusicTeX provides for practically all possible situations, including
multiple instruments each with multiple bars, and also for transposition.

TeX is definitely NOT a WYSIWYG (WhatYouSeeIsWhatYouGet) text processor;
this also applies to MusicTeX.  Consequently, typing in the music can be
rather painful, especially when you are a beginner.
An example: to typeset (quarter)e (eighth)c (eighth)d (bar),
you have to type \Notes \qu e\cu c\cu d\enotes\barre

For people having Midi, the program Midi2TeX (see Q: What is Midi2TeX)
is probably very useful, because it converts Midi output files to
MusicTeX syntax.

To use MusicTeX, you need a TeX implementation.  For DOS, this is freely
available via anonymous ftp from rusinfo.rus.uni-stuttgart.de (129.69.1.12)
in ./soft/tex/machines/pc/emtex and also from other ftp servers.
Documentation is available in both German and English.
You can also request the package from the author, Eberhard Mattes;
send eMail to him (mattes@azu.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de) for more info.

Finally, I should also mention the existence of MuTeX, written by
Andrea Steinbach and Angelika Schofer. It is less powerful than MusicTeX.
It is available via anonymous ftp from, e.g., ymir.claremont.EDU
(134.173.4.23) in [anonymous.tex.music.mtex].

Hope this is of any use to the musicians on the net.


                                 Peter Vanroose
                                 Electrotechnical Department, ESAT
                                 K.U. Leuven, Belgium.
                                 VANROOSE@esat.kuleuven.ac.be
                                 tel.    +32 16 220931

---

3.1.2.4)			What is Finale? How can I get a demo?

Answer:

	From Nathan Torkington <gnat@kauri.vuw.ac.nz>:

	Finale is a Music Notation program for the Mac and PC,
available from CODA Music Software.  A demonstration system is
available by anonymous FTP from a number of sites:

        anonymous@louie.udel.edu:/pub/midi/software/ibm/FINALEdemo.exe
        anonymous@ftp://toklab.ics.osaka-u.ac.jp/mac/mnt/01-06/02/
        anonymous@ftp://ucsd.edu/midi/software/ibmpc/

3.1.2.5)			What is Lime and how can I get it?


	From Nathan Torkington <gnat@kauri.vuw.ac.nz>:

	Lime is a music notation program for the Macintosh.  You can
get a demo version of it by ftp from novamail.cerl.uiuc.edu.  The demo
is fully functional but pieces are limited to three pages.  (The demos
for Final and MusicProse could not print or save).  You can also pick
up the manual from here.  This was invaluable in trying out the
program - part of the problem with Finale and MusicProse was that it
was almost impossible to figure out how to do something because there
was almost no documentation included.  Although I found the user
interface of Lime much better, use of the manual is necessary.  The
manual itself is very readable; about half describes the menus and
associated functions, the rest consists of examples.  Sizewise, the
Lime manual is about 120 pages.  I believe the manuals for MusicProse
and Finale are 250 and 500 respectively.

	Interface: Lime splits the music into pages, rather than
having a continuous roll as some other programs do.  One window has
the page of music, the other has a little piano keyboard (for input)
and a selection of note lengths, annotations such as staccato dots,
accents etc.  The editor works in two main modes: notes and
annotations.  Annotations covers almost anything you would want to put
on in addition to the actual notes of the piece (dynamics, lyrics,
tempo directions, rehearsal marks, titles ...).  Two other modes cover
lines (as in hairpins) and curves (slurs and ties).  One possible
complaint would be that after a change, the screen redraws very
slowly.  However, this is only a big problem if you really need to see
the change just made before making the next edit, normally you can
just continue editing other parts of the music.

	I used ''The Mac Sound Bible''(?) as a aid in choosing between
the various packages.  The section on score editing software has
separate sections for each package giving details and pros and cons.
At the end there are several tables comparing features.  As far as
number of features goes, Finale has the most.  However, most users
will probably never need all those special features, and I think they
only serve to make the program more complicated for those people.
Lime came next, then MusicProse and DMCS.

	I run Lime on an LC II 4/40 linked up to a MIDI keyboard
printing on an HP Deskwriter.  Being able to input via the keyboard is
very convenient; Lime seems quite good at transcribing what is played,
ignoring slight deviations of tempo.  Print quality on the DeskWriter
is quite acceptable for most purposes.  I also tried a LaserWriter;
print quality was excellent (of course).  Lime comes with its own
fonts, but you can use other fonts if you have them, e.g. Sonata.

	Finally, Lime costs about 100 pounds, MusicProse 160 and Final
250 (these are very rough prices).

---

3.1.2.6)			What is cmn and how can I get it?

Answer: 

	From Nathan Torkington <gnat@kauri.vuw.ac.nz>:

	cmn is available free via anonymous ftp at
ccrma-ftp.stanford.edu as pub/cmn.tar.Z.  It's a lisp-based notation
package that needs either the Sonata or Petrucci fonts, Postscript,
and a version of Common Lisp with CLOS.  It currently runs on the NeXT
and SGI machines.

---

3.1.2.7)			What is Nutation and... well, you know.

Answer:

From: grd@cmn2.stanford.edu (glen diener)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.next.announce
Date: 24 Feb 1993 18:57:52 -0600
Organization: CCRMA, Stanford University


Version 3.0 of Nutation, a music notation program for
the NeXT machine, is available via anonymous ftp from
machine ccrma-ftp.stanford.edu as pub/Nu.pkg.tar.

Nutation is freeware.

Resource requirements

   . A NeXT machine
   . NextStep release 3.0 or higher
   . At least 3.8 megabytes of disk space
   . Adobe Sonata font installed (not provided;
      available commercially, ~ $100 US).
   . MusicKit 3.0 or higher installed (free, available 
     via anonymous ftp from ccrma-ftp.stanford.edu)
   
Features

   . Immediate playback of your inventions on the DSP
   . Highly interactive graphic user interface
   . (Fairly) extensive on-line NeXTStep-style help
   . Completely "customizable"...Nutation is
     actually a "visual programming environment" for
     music notation, built on top of ObjC. Programming
     features include rich text source code, class browsers,
     inspectors...in short, a complete incrementally-loading
     run-time development system loosely modelled after
     Smalltalk-80.


To install Nutation:

Installing Nutation takes 5-10 minutes.  

Obtain the file Nu.pkg.tar.  This file can be retrieved
via anonymous ftp from the /pub directory of ccrma-ftp.stanford.edu.
Be sure to specify binary transfer mode.

Unpack the contents of this file (it is a tar archive)
using any convenient facility. My preference is to execute

 tar xf Nu.pkg.tar

in a Terminal window.

    This will create a NeXT-style called Nu.pkg, together with
installation instructions in Nu.Install.Readme.rtfd. Open
Nu.Install.Readme.rtfd by clicking on its icon...it contains detailed
instructions on installing and running Nutation.

-glen diener
grd@ccrma.stanford.edu


	Cody Coggins <acoggins@phoenix.princeton.edu> says, "I've used
Nutation a bit myself, and I could answer some basic questions about
it or provide pointers to further documentation."

---

3.1.3.0)		[Composition software]

---

3.1.3.1.0)			[CSound]

---

3.1.3.1.1)				What is CSound?


Answer:

Date:         Sat, 21 Mar 1992 10:36:00 LCL
From: DOWRJ%VAX1.COMPUTER-CENTRE.BIRMINGHAM.AC.UK@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU
Subject:      csound


	csound is a comprehensive synthesis and processing package
written by Barry Vercoe at the Media Lab, MIT. It is written in more
or less portable C (although it does make use of one or two functions
which are not ANSI such as open(), close()), and will certainly run
well on any UNIX box i.e.  SUNs, VAXen, etc. It also runs on the
Macintosh under ThinkC 4.0. At the University of Birmingham we have it
running on Apollo Workstations, our IBM3090 mainframe, and an old
version also comes as part of York University's CDP (Composer's
Desktop Project).

	The latest version of csound not only has the usual modules
for processing and synthesis but also has those for doing FOF
synthesis (cf. CHANT), and for phase vocoding. There is also the
ability to take in standard MIDI files as score files, or (on speedy
machines) the ability to run csound in real time, and trigger events
from a MIDI stream.

	csound can output sound-files in AIFF format to be read by Mac
type things such as Sound Designer, and also: 8-bit signed character
samples, alaw samples, ulaw samples, short integers, long integers,
floats, with or without IRCAM (1K) headers. It can output files for
the NeXT to play too.

	The package is available via anonymous ftp to
ems.media.mit.EDU in the /pub directory. Look at the README's for
details of what you need. The manaul is available as postscript.

	If anyone wants a copy of the IBM3090 version, they could
contact me directly.  Unfortunately the modified code is in a bit of a
mess at the moment as I am re-porting it for another version of C
(C370), but I have a running CSOUND MODULE.

	At Birmingham we run CSOUND on the IBM3090 for complex CPU
intensive stuff, and transfer it to an ATARI TT (30MHz) via an
ethernet connection. The ATARI runs CDP, and has a soundstreamer. We
are getting some more ethernet boards which will allow us to bring the
files into Sound Tools running on another ATARI (this will be a
massive kludge!). The transfer takes some time, but since something
which took a day to compute on a normal ATARI takes 20 minutes on the
IBM we're not complaining.

Robert Dow, Department of Music, Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Edgbaston,
            Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK

DOWRJ@uk.ac.bham.vax1        (JANET - address in uk order)


Date: Fri, 4 Jun 93 11:51:07 BST
From: John Fitch <jpff@maths.bath.ac.uk>
Subject: Csound for PC

...the PC version [of CSound] ... is available for 286, 386 or 486
[-based machines].  It is available by FTP from
ftp.bath.ac.uk:pub/jpff or from the info-server@maths.math.ac.uk with
a message body
	request: dream
	topic: index

==John


Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1992 19:16:10 -0500
From: NeXTmusic Mailing List <nextmusic@wri.com>
Subject:  Snd v1.2 released
Reply-To: pmy@klang.music.Virginia.EDU (Pete Yadlowsky)


Snd is a NeXTStep interface to an enhanced version of Vercoe's csound (v2.0).
Other audio-related applications are also supported, to the effect of providing
a general, integrated computer music production environment. Like its
forebears, v1.2 offers on-line documentation, easy access to and management of
the various file types, push-button control and execution of csound and other
applications, csound output signal scaling and remote-host csound execution.

Here's what's new:

	- inline signal limiting (csound); eliminates signal clipping
	  without having to post-scale an entire floating-pt soundfile
	  (linear post-scaling is still available)
	- internal speaker control
	- 'lisp' file type, knowledge of Paul Lansky's rt.driver
	- 'Windows' menu entry
	- simpler access to csound manual
	- various minor improvements and fixes
		
Where: ftp://uvaarpa.acc.virginia.EDU/pub/next/Apps/Snd/

	- Pete
	
	
Peter M. Yadlowsky              |         Laden e-mail runs
Academic Computing Center       | Bumbling, creaking through the net
University of Virginia          |         Sysadmins tremble.
pmy@Virginia.EDU                |                      - after Buson



---

3.1.3.1.2) 				What are the requirements of CSound?

Answer:

The requirements for CSound are somewhat flexible.  I actually compiled a
Mac + (MPW) version of CSound 2-3 years ago, but it took about 8 hours to
make 80 seconds worth of sound!  I suggest you use a system with hardware
floating point and a 32-bit processor (Any Mac II with FPU, a NeXT, Indigo).
As far as memory requirements, that depends on how big your gen function
tables will be.  The same with hard disk size.  If you want to make a
10 minute stereo piece at 44.1K sample rate, you will need 106 megabytes
of disk space.  (10.6 Megs per stereo minute at 44.1K, 11.6 at 48K).
So the answer is...  use as big of a system as you can buy or borrow.


---

3.1.3.1.3)				Is there a tutorial on CSound?

Answer:

Date: Fri, 7 Aug 92 10:41:46 GMT-0800
From: sandell@cnmat.cnmat.Berkeley.EDU
Subject: Re: ... Electronic and Computer Music FAQ ...

	Beyond the CSound manual, there is little to help you unless
you take a course in computer music (summer courses, at CCRMA, UIUC,
Brooklyn College, etc.)

--
Greg Sandell
Research Fellow, Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (CNMAT)
sandell@cnmat.cnmat.Berkeley.EDU or sandell@garnet.Berkeley.EDU


---

3.1.3.2)			What is Deluxe Music Construction Set
					(DMCS)?

Answer:

	From Nathan Torkington <gnat@kauri.vuw.ac.nz>:

	DMCS is available for Amiga & Macintosh and probably others.
Offers an easy way to play and print simple music.  It is more suited
to casual users than serious composers.  [more info, please -- price,
distributor, features]

---

3.1.4.0)		[Recorded music]

---

3.1.4.1) 			Where can I get recordings of 
					electronic music?

Answer:

Date:         Wed, 20 Nov 1991 13:37:30 EST
From: The Radio Gnome <V2002A%TEMPLEVM.bitnet@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU>
Subject:      Mail order sources for EM
To: Multiple recipients of list EMUSIC-L <EMUSIC-L@AUVM>

Hi,

     Below are some of the places I order/have ordered from along with
some short descriptions.

     Any word of new releases by Georges Boutz or Thom Brennan?


Alcazar              Heavier emphasis on the folk/newage end of things.
Box 429
South Main ST
Waterbury, VT 05676             800-541-9904

Wayside Music          Lots of rare/unusual stuff as well as some
Box 6517               pressings on their own Cuneiform label.
Wheaton, MD 20906-0517

Eurock Distribution    A one person show (Archie Patterson)
Box 13718
Portland, OR 97213

Lotus Records          Carried a lot of rarities.  Last ordered from them
23 High Street         in 1985.
Newcastle-under-Lyme
Staffordshire ST5 1QZ
Great Britain

Mirage Music           Martin Reeds venture.  Used to carry Mark
612 Southmead Road     Shreeves early cassette only releases.
Filton                 Also good cassettes by Ian Boddy and Steve Frost.
Bristol BS12 7RF
Great Britain

Backroads Distribution    More Newagey type stuff but extensive inventory.
417 Tamal Plaza           Also carry New Albion and Erdenklang Labels.
Corte Madera, CA 94925    800-825-4848

Generations Unlimited       They carry David Prescotts tapes and some
199 Strathmore #5           good stuff by Jorge Thomasios
Brighton, MA 02135-5210

The Music Suite Ltd       Carry the complete Adrian Wagner Collection.
Glanyrafon House          Also check out 3 Men Underground.
Cenarth - Newcastle Emyln
Dyfed SA38 9JN
Great Britain

Perry Thompson          He sent me his cassette Sleeping Giants for
70 Sproul Rd.           free.  Its very Burmer-esque.
Malvern, PA 19355

Charles Cohen       Ask about his "Darwin in Chains" cassette and
Box 181             the unreleased(?) "Swizzle Stick"
Riverton, NJ 08077

George Wallace  c/o         All three of his releases are MUSTS in
Larger than Life Music      any EM collection.  Start with Communion.
10 Belmont Sq.
Doylestown, PA 18901

Jesse Clark             His latest, Locked in Heaven is his best, but
710 Eton-Adelphia Rd.   earlier releases are also good, especially
Freehold, NJ 07728      "CAMELIA"

"She has learned that short ideas repeated massage the brain" - Robert Ashley


---

3.1.5.0)		[Conversion software]

---

3.1.5.1) 			Are there programs to convert back and
					forth between
					human/filter-readable text and
					MIDI files? How do I get them?

Answer:

From: Piet van Oostrum <piet%CS.RUU.NL@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU>
Subject:      Announcing MF2T/T2MF
To: Multiple recipients of list EMUSIC-L <EMUSIC-L@AUVM>

Two programs to manipulate standard midifiles.

mf2t is a program that reads a standard midifile (format 0 or 1) and
writes an ASCII representation of it that is both compact and easily parsable.

t2mf is the companion program that reparses the text representation
into a midifile.

Piet van Oostrum, Dept of Computer Science, Utrecht University,
P.O. Box 80.089, 2508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
email: piet@cs.ruu.nl

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
You can do with this program what you like, but if you think it is
useful I would appreciate if you send me some of your midifiles. Not
ones that I can find on the Internet. Please send them uu- or
btoa-encoded. Zoo and Arc archives (encoded) are also OK, Zip and
Lharc may be problematic.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

The text representation is chosen such that it is easily recognized and
manipulated by programs like sed, awk or perl. Yet it is also humanly
readable so that it can be manipulated with an ordianary text editor.

In this way you can make changes to your midifiles using these
powerful programs or even in Cobol :=). Or you can write
algorithmic compositions using a familiar programming language.

mf2t/t2mf is available via ftp at the sites returned by 'archie mf2t'
(see the entry on 'archie' above).

by mail-server:

send the following message to
mail-server@cs.ruu.nl (or uunet!mcsun!hp4nl!ruuinf!mail-server):

    begin
    path john@highbrow.EDU (PLEASE SUBSTITUTE *YOUR* ADDRESS)
    send MIDI/PROGRAMS/mf2t.zoo
    end

NOTE: *** PLEASE USE VALID INTERNET ADDRESSES IF POSSIBLE. DO NOT USE
ADDRESSES WITH ! and @ MIXED !!!! BITNETTERS USE USER@HOST.BITNET ***

The path command can be deleted if we receive a valid from address in your
message. If this is the first time you use our mail server, we suggest you
first issue the request:
    send HELP
--
Piet* van Oostrum, Dept of Computer Science, Utrecht University,
Padualaan 14, P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Telephone: +31 30 531806   Uucp:   uunet!mcsun!ruuinf!piet
Telefax:   +31 30 513791   Internet:  piet@cs.ruu.nl   (*`Pete')

---

3.1.5.2)			What is Midi2TeX, and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Wed, 5 Aug 92 10:47 MET
From: KUYKENS@amc.uva.nl
Subject: MIDI2TeX V 1.1 uploaded


     Recently I have finished version 1.1 of the MIDI2TeX translator.
Instead of sending it by e-mail to all users I now have uploaded the
complete package (PC and ST) on ftp site

                obelix.icce.rug.nl

directory :     pub/erikjan/MIDI2TeX

Download st_m2t11.arc for the ST and pc_m2t11.exe for the PC. The file
m2tex11.inf contains some general information about the package.

I encourage everybody to transfer the package to other (more general) ftp
sites. If you do, please inform me where you uploaded it and in what
directory.

For those of you who do not have ftp access I am still willing to send the
new version by e-mail. Please e-mail your request. It may take one or two
weeks before you receive the package by e-mail.


                                        Hans Kuykens

---

3.1.5.3)	 		What is Hyperupic, and how can I get 
					it?

Answer:

Date: Thu, 17 Sep 92 11:40:08 EDT
From: "Christopher Penrose" <penrose@silvertone.princeton.EDU>
To: latta@XCF.Berkeley.EDU
Subject: [Hyperupic released]


Hyperupic is an image to sound transducer implemented on a NeXT
workstation.  That's right, with Hyperupic you might be able to hear
Whistler's mother.  I think that he did all the whistling, actually.

Hyperupic is inspired by the Upic system conceived by Iannis Xenakis.
Feed Hyperupic a TIFF image, and Hyperupic will convert it into a
sound.  Hyperupic has the facility of using color has a sonic parameter.

Hyperupic is free.  Give it to your friends.  Show it to your mother.
I won't make you feel guilty (yet) for using my software.  You can
even claim that you wrote Hyperupic yourself!  If you do this though,
you might fall through the next subway grating that you trust will
hold your weight.

Hyperupic has on-line infotainment, including documentation.

It is available via ftp at:

princeton.EDU
cs.orst.EDU
nova.cc.purdue.EDU

or contact me:

Christopher Penrose
penrose@silvertone.princeton.EDU

---

3.1.5.4) 			What is SoundHack and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date:         Sat, 26 Oct 1991 16:25:22 -0700
From: Tom Erbe <tom%MILLS.EDU@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU>
Subject:      Soundfile header conversion program
To: Multiple recipients of list EMUSIC-L <EMUSIC-L@AUVM>

	I just wrote a little program for the Mac that does Soundfile
header conversion.  It translates between IRCAM, NeXT .snd, Sound
Designer II, AIFF and DSP Designer files.  It will open any file as a
16-bit linear soundfile, if you want.  I am making no attempt (at
least not yet) to support anything other than 16-bit linear.  You can
also change things in the header like sample rate and number of
channels.  This is my first program for the Mac, so it might have
bugs.  If you want a copy, you can get it through ftp to "mills.EDU",
it is "ccm/SoundHac.hqx".  Or I could mail it to you if you don't have
ftp.  Please send bug reports!


Tom Erbe * Technical Director * Center for Contemporary Music * Mills College
  tom@mills.EDU * Mills College, Oakland, CA  94613 * (510) 430-2191


Date: Tue, 1 Dec 92 10:15:21 -0800
From: tom@ella.mills.EDU (Tom Erbe)
To: latta@XCF.Berkeley.EDU
Subject: Re: Electronic and Computer Music Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQ)
Organization: Mills College, Oakland CA


	SoundHack now reads and writes the following formats:

Sound Designer II; 	8 bit linear and 16 bit linear
AIFF; 			8 bit linear and 16 bit linear
NeXT/Sun; 		8 bit linear, 16 bit linear, mulaw and 32 bit float
IRCAM;			8 bit linear, 16 bit linear and 32 bit float
DSP Designer;		16 bit linear
Text;			text formatted with a fixed point number on each line.

	It also has several signal processing modules added.  These
are: soundfile convolution, binaural spatialization, the phase
vocoder, varispeed, ring modulation (part of the convolution module).
Currently I am working on a spectral dynamics module and a spectral
mutation processor.  SoundHack runs only on Macs with FPUs.  It is
still available through anonymous ftp to mills.EDU (144.91.4.6), in
directory ccm.

-- 
tom erbe 
ccm - mills college
5000 macarthur blvd.
oakland, ca 94613
tom@mills.EDU

---

3.1.5.5)			What is the Copyist Companion,
					and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Mon, 24 Feb 92 15:29:58 -0800
From: Phil Burk <phil@mills.EDU>
Subject: DMCS -> Copyist files.

Many folks have asked about a conversion program that will read
DMCS files and convert them to something else.  The only program
I know of is Copyist Companion by Nick Didkovsky.  It converts
DMCS files to Dr. T's Copyist compatible files.  The main purpose
is for printing good scores from DMCS files.  Nick has talked about
converting DMCS to MIDIFiles or other formats so ask him and maybe
he will write it.  You can order Copyist Companion from Dr T
or from Nick directly.  Nick is at:
    
	72550.3313@compuserve.com

This program is for the Amiga.

---

3.1.6.0)		[Literal and symbolic editing software]

---

3.1.6.1)			What are tclm and xdrum, and how can I
					get them?

Answer:

Date: Fri, 7 May 93 14:03:41 -0600
From: Mike Durian <durian@advtech.uswest.com>
Subject: tclm-1.0


	I have just sent tclm-1.0 and xdrum-1.0 to comp.sources.misc
for posting.  Tclm-1.0 is based of John Ousterhout's tcl but has
extension for manipulating MIDI files.  Tclm provides a simple
languages that makes it easy to write your own MIDI programs.  It
should compile or just about anything UNIX.  There are even well
defined hooks for attaching your MIDI device to tclm.  If this is
done, you can then play and record MIDI files too.  Currrently the
only interface supplied is for the new BSD/386 midi driver, but I hear
there is one in the works for Linux.  It should not be too difficult
to write your own either.

	Tclm-1.0 also comes with a few scripts.  These include scripts
for converting MIDI files to human readable form and back again.
There is even a script that implements a simple sequencing language
for creating MIDI files from other smaller MIDI files.  As I mentioned
above there are also scripts to play and record MIDI files that will
run if you have a tclm/MIDI interfaces for your system.

	Xdrum-1.0 is a script that runs wishm, which in turn is John
Ousterhout's wish with tclm extensions plus a new widget.  The new
widget is designed to facilitate creating and editing drum patterns.
Wishm runs under X11 and the xdrum script provides an easy to use
interface for making drum rhythms.  Xdrum will run regardless of if
you compiled tclm with a deivice interface, but if tclm has the
ability to play MIDI files, you can play your patterns as you are
working on the undex xdrum.

	Both tclm-1.0 and xdrum-1.0 have been posted to
comp.sources.misc and should be at usenet archive sites near you.
They can also be found at harbor.ecn.purdue.EDU, which is the main
archive site for tcl extensions.  Tcl and tk can be picked up from
sprite.Berkeley.EDU.

	The tclm-device interface is much cleaner, the usage of
midiput and midiget is a lot better, you now say what you want instead
of figuring out all the bytes yourself.  There are also the added
scripts.  I'm hoping someone takes mseq and builds a more powerful
sequencer out of it.

mike
durian@advtech.uswest.com

---


3.1.6.2)			What is MixView, and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Mon, 16 Sep 91 15:39:51 PDT
From: doug@foxtrot.ccmrc.ucsb.EDU (Douglas Scott)
To: MixviewFans@foxtrot.ccmrc.ucsb.EDU
Subject: mixview version 3.2 now available

Greetings to you all on my mixview mailing list.  The
newest version of mixview, my X - based soundfile
editor/processor, is now available on a new anonymous
ftp site where I now work:  foxtrot.ccmrc.ucsb.EDU
(128.111.92.30), as pub/mixview-v3.2.tar.Z.  [Version 3.1
was withdrawn -- 3.0 was the most recent distribution].

The new version features a record command (for those of
you running it on NeXTs), plus a play command that allows
you to stop the play at any point.  As soon as I hear that
there is still interest, I will activate and debug the
record command for those of you working on
SparcStations.

Anyone who needs the source mailed via uucp, let me know.

As usual, please let me know if you wish to be removed from
my mailing list.


Douglas Scott                              (805)893-8352
Center for Computer Music Research and Composition
University of California, Santa Barbara
Internet: (NeXTMail ok)   <doug@foxtrot.ccmrc.ucsb.EDU>


---

3.1.6.3)			What is DU", and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Tue, 11 Jun 91 11:05:54 PDT
From: Robert_Poor@NeXT.COM
To: nextmusic@silvertone.Princeton.EDU
Subject: DUB: Mixing and overdubbing in real time

Comrades:

Let's make a deal.  I have written "DUB," an application that mixes  
together multiple sound files on the fly and overdubs (records) at  
the same time.  It's ugly but it works but it's UGLY.  I'm not proud  
of it.  The user interface is the worst thing I've written since I  
quit programming in BASIC over two decades ago.

The good things about DUB:  It mixes together N "playlists" on the  
fly.  A playlist is a sequence of non-overlapping sounds.  The  
DACPlayer object is pretty clean, the DSPRecorder object (and  
attendant dspRecorder.asm code) knows how to drive the Ariel digital  
mic at different sampling rates.  It records at the same time that it  
plays back.

The bad things about DUB:  There's no real user interface.  The sound  
file names that it opens to play are hardwired in the source code.   
The sound file that it records into is similarly hardwired.  You have  
to launch it from a shell (or more often a debugger) in the directory  
that contains the sound files "track1.snd," "track2.snd," etc.  There  
are features that the low level code supports (dynamic gain control,  
setting the duration of the sounds) that the user interface doesn't  
exploit.

DUB does useful things that many NeXT sound and music aficionados  
have asked about, but my pride prevents me from distributing it  
broadly in its current ugly state.  So let's make a deal: I will give  
the project folder (source code, IB.proj, etc) if you agree to the  
following:
	* You must be able to receive (and send) NeXT mail attachments.
	  (That's how we'll communicate.)
	* You will implement a "safe and sane" user interface for Dub.
	* You already know NeXTstep programming and won't ask me lots
	  of questions (I'm perpetually swamped at work, and I may not
	  have much time to answer your questions.)
	* You will send me the finished application in source form.
	* You will allow me to put the finished application in source
	  form on the archive servers.
	* Most importantly, you won't laugh at me or malign me in public
	  for writing such a mean user interface.

If you can agree to all the above, and you're interested in helping  
the rest of the NeXT community make beautiful music on the NeXT, I  
want to hear from you.

Thanks!

- Robert Poor
  NeXT Developer Marketing
  rpoor@next.com


---

3.1.6.4)			What is RT, and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Mon, 15 Jul 91 15:17:12 PDT
From: Conrad_Geiger@NeXT.COM
To: nextmusic@silvertone.Princeton.EDU
Subject: Real time sound mixer 

A new real time sound mixing program from Paul Lansky on the net...

conrad

From: paul@phoenix.Princeton.EDU (Paul Lansky)
Subject: Real time sound mixer
Date: 14 Jul 91 15:26:45 GMT

I have placed a real-time sound mixing program, RT,  in
pub/music/NeXTrt.tar.Z at princeton.EDU.  This was
written by me and Kent Dickey, and essentially allows you
to play arbitrary segments of up to 32 different soundfiles
in 8 tracks, as if they were notes, overlapping, panning,
enveloping and even pitchshifting them.  The limitation on 
the system is essentially disk throughput, which seems to 
allow you to do about 450k bytes per second.  This means 
you can mix two 44k stereo files, 2 22k stereo and one 44k
stereo, etc, at a time.  A really nice feature of the program
is that you can play different channel formats and different
sampling rates at the same time!  If you overload the system
there will be interruptions, but you can also write the mix out
to disk.  


I *think* it is fairly robust now, and easy to use.  I have 

not placed it in the archives since I want to keep tinkering
with it, and so want to keep it in reach. 


Future additions will include a signal editor, and perhaps some
sort of graphic display, although the latter would be tricky, given
that for my current work I often find myself lining up as many as
500 sound segments to play.

I am anxious for feedback and suggestions.  This program will not
work well on 030 machines.  Enjoy it.

Paul Lansky
Music Department
Princeton University
paul@princeton.EDU
paul@silvertone.princeton.EDU


---

3.1.6.5)			What is RTLisp, and how can I get it?

Answer:

Date: Tue, 28 Jan 92 17:14:51 GMT
From: Pete Yadlowsky <pmy@vivaldi.acc.Virginia.EDU>
Subject: new Lisp interface to Lansky's "rt"
Apparently-To: nextmusic@wri.com


RTLisp runs on David Betz's XLisp and is comprised of a set of object
class and function definitions which provide a Lisp interface to
Paul Lansky's NeXT-based, real-time audio mixing software,
`rt'. The rt user arranges audio material temporally,
dynamically and spatially by means of a relatively simple grammar
which is parsed and executed by rt's audio driver program. The 

simplicity of this grammar can make it rather tedious to use,
though, especially in the realization of complex `scores'. Also,
there is no  provision for the programmatic generation of audio
events, so every event must be specified in detail by hand. 


RTLisp was designed to facilitate the process of rt score
creation. It equips the composer with a powerful, interactive
high-level programming environment (Lisp), and lends some
intelligence to tasks such as temporal placement and grouping of
audio events, control of dynamics in the stereo field and rt
`track' assignment. 


RTLisp can be thought of as a sort of rt command compiler. It can run
standalone in a shell window, controlling the rt audio driver
directly, or it can run in conjunction with rt.app, Mr. Lansky's
NextStep interface to the driver. 


RTLisp is available in two different packages. The first, under
NeXTrt.tar, contains rtlisp binaries and scripts merged with a
new version of rt.app, along with an RTLisp chapter in rt.app's
online documentation. The second, rtlisp.tar, does not include
rt.app but does include binaries, lisp source, rt's audio driver
and XLisp and rtlisp documentation. 


anon ftp: ftp://uvaarpa.acc.virginia.EDU/pub/next/Apps/
          ftp://uvaarpa.acc.virginia.EDU/pub/next/bin/
          ftp://princeton.EDU/pub/music/
          ftp://princeton.EDU/pub/music/

---
Peter M. Yadlowsky		|         Laden e-mail runs
Academic Computing Center	| Bumbling, creaking through the net
University of Virginia		|         Sysadmins tremble.
pmy@Virginia.EDU		|			- after Buson


---

3.1.6.6)			What is Cmix and how can I get it?

	Cmix is a loosely connected group of utilities for maniplating
soundfiles.  The system is available by FTP.

	The following description is taken from the UNIX manual page.

	"Cmix is a package of routines for editting, processing, and
creating soundfiles.  It also includes a library of routines designed
to make it easier to write C programs which deal with soundfiles.

	Typically, the user prepares a file of calls to various cmix
routines, and then invokes them by saying something like:

	mix < my.data

	Consider the following example data file:

	 input("snd_directory/elvis")
	 output("snd_directory/elvis+industry")
	 setline(0,0,1,1,10,1,11,0)
	 mix(8.6,0,21,1,0)
	 input("snd_directory/industry")
	 setline(0,0,5,1,11,0)
	 mix(0,0,11,1,0)

	This first opens the file "snd_directory/elvis" for input, and
the file "snd_directory/elvis+industry" for the output of the new
mix.  Setline creates the amplitude envelope to be used for a
subsequent call to mix.  The arguments to setline are pairs of
time/amplitude values.  It interpolates linearly between these
points.  The next call is to mix and asks to start copying the current
input file to the current outputfile, starting at time 8.6 in the
input file, and time 0 in the output file.  It will mix until time 21
on the input file is reached.  The fourth argument to mix is the
relative amplitude of the current input file, and the final argument
is used to determine channel location (see man page on mix).

	Then, with a different envelope from the next call to setline
there is another call to mix "snd_directory_industry" into the same
output file.

	To cause this to happen, once this data file has been
prepared, the user should type:

	mix <my.data >&my.data.output &

	Note that the data file passes through the Minc preprocessor
before being passed to cmix.  Be sure to consult the manual page on
Minc for more information.

	This is the general procedure for using any of the various
cmix utilities -- creating a data file and then invoking the routines
with a cal to cmix.  User writtne subroutines which either augment or
replace those in cmix can be compiled in the users own filespace.  See
the manual pages on usersub and Minc for more information.

---

3.1.7.0)		[Sound synthesis software]

---

3.1.7.1)			What are Patchmix and StochGran and
					how can I get them?

Answer:

Date: Wed, 29 Jan 92 14:15:04 GMT-0500
From: mara helmuth <mara@silvertone.Princeton.EDU>
Subject: Patchmix and StochGran
Apparently-To: nextmusic@wri.com


I have put new versions of Patchmix and StochGran at the Princeton
archive (Princeton.EDU) in the "pub/music" directory.  These are
both NeXT interfaces.  Patchmix is a graphical front end to Cmix 
which allows you to create instruments by connecting a patch of unit
generator icons.  StochGran is a granular synthesis instrument.
The source code is there, and it is necessary to have Cmix installed
to compile them.  I'm still adding things, so let me know if you use 
them and have suggestions.

Mara Helmuth
mara@woof.columbia.EDU
mara@silvertone.princeton.EDU

---

3.2.0)		[Software by platform]

---

3.2.1)			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and
				its children work on multiple
				platforms?

Answer:

	(in progress)

	See the packages discussed above in 3.1.1.0, 3.1.3.1.0.

---

3.2.2)			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and
				its children work on UNIX
				platforms?

Answer:
	
	(in progress)

---

3.2.3.0)		[NeXT software]

---

3.2.3.1)			What are some currently available
					sound editors for the NeXT?

Answer:

Date: Sat, 21 Mar 1992 18:25:21 -0600
From: NeXTmusic Mailing List <nextmusic@wri.com>
Subject: Sound Editors
From: "Paul Lansky" <paul@silvertone.Princeton.EDU>


In a previous post there was some discussion of Soundworks
and a reference to some of the sound editors on the princeton
server.  I thought I would clear up some confusion by posting
a list of everything I know about available sound editors

1) Soundworks: available from Metaresearch.
	       Has some great features, but a new version
	      is forthcoming which should be much better

2) Edsnd: by Jamie pritchard, at pub/music at princeton.EDU
	      based on the original soundeditor by 
              lee boynton, with cut/paste, fft and spectral
              views added.

3) Edsnd2: by Jamey Pritchard, at princeton.EDU
              Comes up with a time-line instead of a soundview
              and you can then select any portion to view. 
              I added a marker system which can be saved
              as a simple ascii file, and can cue arbitrary
              sections of a soundfile.  Quite useful for 
	      parsing soundfiles.  I used this and RT
	      exclusively to prepare a 20 minute piece
	      by Steve Mackey for CD.  We never touched
	      his original soundfiles.

4) edsndP: by Stephen Master, at princeton.EDU
              This is a rewrite of the original edsnd using
              Metaresearch's dataController and dataView objects.
              It is very fast, and has lots of neat features.
              I think it is the best one so far, although it
              could use a marker system. The appended "P" is
	      a long story which I'll tell privately to anyone
	      who really wants to know.

5) SE: The IRCAM signal editor, available at ccrma-ftp.stanford.EDU
              This has some really incredible features.  It has to 
              be seen to be believed.  It is a different approach
              than all the others, but it can be quite useful.
              Its main drawback at the moment is that it only
              accepts mono files.

7 Spectro: by Perry cook, available at stanford
		does "waterfall plots" of spectra
		Emulates a Hewlett-Packard spectrum analyzer.

8) Sonogram: a very nice grey-scale spectral analyzer, available
		on most of the archive sites.

-------------------
sort of signal editors

9)Ein:	at Princeton, by me and Ken Steiglitz
		dsp scratch pad, with spectral, fft and soundviews

10) RT: 	at Princeton, by me and Kent Dickey
		real-time mixer and editor. Pete Yadlowsky
		added a very nice lisp front end.

-------------------
forthcoming commercial software

11) Holstein, from Stealth Technology. The Stealth DAI 2400 is the
digital audio interface, and the ADA1800 is the A-D-A plus digital
audio interface.  Don't know anything about it

12) Singular Solutions updates.  Don't know anything about it

-----------------------------

I'm sure I've left out a few. Someone please complete 
the list.  (I'd be glad to store all these at Princeton.)
While these programs do a lot, there are still a lot of
things we could use.  It would be interesting to discuss
these things here. (for example: it might be nice to have a
scrubbing routine that would allow you to rock back and forth
the way we used to do with tape-heads (ouch)) (I'd also love
a visual editor for RT).

Paul Lansky

---

3.2.3.2)			Which software packages in section
					3.1.0 [Software by role] and
					its children work on NeXT
					platforms?

Answer:

	(in progress)

---

3.2.3.3)			Where can I find information about the
					NeXT MIDI driver?

Answer:

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 91 16:59:46 PDT
From: Conrad_Geiger@NeXT.COM
To: nextmusic@silvertone.Princeton.EDU
Subject: MIDI driver documentation

Draft Documentation Available - MIDI driver documentation
NeXT Publications Group

A new document describing the MIDI driver is available on the
Internet archive servers.  This document is a revised and expanded
version of the Release 1.0  MIDI driver documentation, and is not
present in Release 2 or in the hard-copy technical documentation. 

 

The document is available by anonymous ftp (file transfer protocol)
from one of the following Internet archive servers:

________________________________________________________
     hostname                   Directory
________________________________________________________

cs.orst.EDU                  pub/next/documents/TechSupportNotes
sonata.cc.purdue.EDU         pub/next/submissions
etlport.etl.go.jp (Japan)    pub/NeXT/documents/MIDIDriver


The two files that make up this draft document are:

  MIDIDriver.tar.Z
  MIDIDriver_README

MIDIDriver.tar.Z is 54.2 kilobytes in size.  Unarchived, it's a
directory called MIDIDriver that occupyies 141 kilobytes and consists  
of:

Introduction.rtf -- An introduction for users of MIDI on NeXT
computers, including information on MIDI interfaces, the MIDI data
format, and whether to use the driver functions or the Music Kit.
DriverOverview.rtfd -- A conceptual overview of the NeXT MIDI driver.
CFunctions/ -- Specifications of the MIDI C functions

Your feedback on the document is welcome.  See the file
MIDIDriver_README for details.

Doug Keislar
NeXT Computer, Inc.


---

3.2.3.4)			What is the status of the Music Kit on
					NeXT machines?

Answer:

Date: Mon, 27 Jan 92 09:54:03 CST
To: nextmusic-list@wri.com
From: doug@foxtrot.ccmrc.ucsb.EDU (Douglas Scott)
Subject: Re: Sound and Music Kits in 3.0?

The Music Kit is no longer supported by NeXT under 3.0.  It will not be bundled
with the software.  Development and management of it will be handled from now
on by Stanford University.  This is happening because of a complete lack of
commercial interest in the Music Kit (as NeXT sees it).  They feel the need to
trim software support for things that will not directly contribute to the
financial success of their company.  They said they may re-introduce it at 
"some later time" once they have a chance to expand a bit.

I learned all this from a session on "NeXT on Campus" at the NeXT Expo.

Douglas Scott                              (805)893-8352
Center for Computer Music Research and Composition
University of California, Santa Barbara
Internet: (NeXTMail ok)   <doug@foxtrot.ccmrc.ucsb.EDU>

---

3.2.3.5) 			What ear-training software is there 
					for the NeXT?

Answer:

Date: Sun, 9 Feb 92 19:18:54 EST
From: tholland@pars.skidmore.EDU (Anthony Holland)
Subject: New Music Ear Training Software for NeXT - Audio Challenger 1.0

"Announcing the release of "AUDIO CHALLENGER 1.0"

"Audio Challenger 1.0"  is the first ear-training software released  
for the NeXT computer.  Audio Challenger randomly generates ascending  
and descending melodic musical intervals which can be used in  
assisting music students in trying to improve their ability to  
aurally identify musical intervals.   Audio Challenger features  
real-time synthesis on the DSP (digital signal processing) chip of  
the NeXT computer which gives it the advantage of a more natural and  
"lively" musical timbre than ear-training programs that currently  
exist on other platforms.  Audio Challenger is released as FREEware  
to the internet archives by the researchers and students of DREAMS:   
Digital Research (in) Electro-Acoustic Music (at) Skidmore College.

"Audio Challenger 1.0" is currently at the following archive sites:

*Archive Info:

 filenames: AudioChallenger.tar.Z
	            AudioChallengerREADME


1)  location: nova.cc.purdue.EDU
     directory: /pub/next/submissions (likely to move to
                                  /pub/next/2.0-release/binaries)
  


2)  location: cs.orst.EDU
     directory: /pub/next/submissions (likely to move to  
/pub/next/binaries)
     

     

3)   University of Maryland:  umd5.umd.EDU
              /pub
   

4)  ccrma-ftp.stanford.EDU
      /pub

After FTP'ing AudioChallenger.tar.Z, type: zcat AudioChallenger.tar.Z  
| tar xvf -
note: you may need your system administrator to uncompress and untar  
AudioChallenger.




Anthony G. Holland
Associate Professor of Music
NeXT Campus Support
Skidmore College
Saratoga Springs, NY 12866
tel: 518-584-5000 ext. 2606

next mail: tholland@pars.skidmore.EDU

---

3.2.4.0)		[DOS/Windows software]

---

3.2.4.1)			Which software packages in section
					3.1.0 [Software by role] and
					its children work on DOS/Windows
					platforms?

Answer:

		(in progress)

---

3.2.4.2)		What are some public-domain (or nearly so)
				sample-editing programs for IBM-PC
				compatibles?

Answer:

Date:         Wed, 15 Jan 1992 13:36:00 LCL
From: Achim Haag <UJ69%DKAUNI2.bitnet@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU>
Subject:      Re: Tetra compositor
To: Multiple recipients of list EMUSIC-L <EMUSIC-L@AUVM>

Hi,

	I don't know anything about the Tetra compositor, but I know
two public domain programs, that are quite similar to Soundtracker.
The first is called ScreamTracker (for PC). It has many functions:
play in background, peak level meter, oscilloscope...  Unfortunately
it's shareware and the autor wants some $100 before he will send you a
version that can SAVE your own created songs.  It can handle many
output devices (PC speaker via PCM, D/A- converter at an printer port,
SoundBlaster (I believe!!!)), but I don't think it's worth this much.

	The second one - MODEDIT - is not quite as comfortably as the
Scream- tracker, but it's public domain and therefore is worth it's
money...  Unfortunately it does *not* support SoundBlaster, but I've
build a simple D/A-converter and now I can listen to the sounds on my
stereo.

	[Nathan Torkington <gnat@kauri.vuw.ac.nz> says, on 18 August
1992, that "There is a program distributed with the later releases
called ModRes which allows ModEdit to play the modules using the
SoundBlaster, etc."]

	I've many samples from an amiga-user, so this shouldn't by a
problem.

	Hope this information is useful for you.


	Bye, 

Achim


---

3.2.5			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and
				its children work on Macintosh
				platforms?

Answer:

	(in progress)

---

3.2.6			Which software packages in section
				3.1.0 [Software by role] and
				its children work on Amiga
				platforms?

Answer:

	(in progress)

---

4.0) 	[Hardware]

---

4.1.0) 		[Multi-platform hardware]

---

4.1.1)			What are some good things with which to whack
				MIDI drum triggers?

Answer:

From: rich@cygnus.cygnus.com (K. Richard Pixley)
Newsgroups: rec.music.synth
Subject: great sticks for midi pads! (Wam-Rods)
Date: 29 Dec 91 16:44:35 GMT

If you use midi drum pads, run, don't walk, to your nearest phone book
and start calling drum and music stores.  You are looking for
something called "Wam-Rods".  They should run you $6-8 a pair.  They
are translucent softish plastic drum sticks, in several colors.  The
BIG win is that they do what they claim to do, which is put the bounce
back in plywood feeling midi drum pads.  They also seem to be a little
easier on the pads themselves.  I'm not really a drummer, but I don't
play my pads with anything else any more.

The only drawback I can see, is that unless you get the clear ones, or
one of the dark colors, they look awfully "pop"ish.

Disclaimer: I have no material connection to any of the commercial
organizations connected to Wam-Rods (tm) (patent pending) other than
as a happy materialistic consumer.

ps, I like the piss yellow ones best. :-).


---

4.1.2) 			How do I get MIDI working with my analog
				synth?

From: "Shiv (S.) Naimpally" <shiv@bnr.ca>
Subject: Re: Analog FAQ 

[Please direct inquiries to Shiv. He's sending updates to me. Thanks!
--crl]

Analog info. This posting has info on FAQs such as 'how do I MIDI
my ____ analog synth ?' etc.. There are 3 parts. The first is a listing
of places oferring MIDI retrofits for older keyboards. The second
is a listing of companies making MIDI to CV convertors. The third
is a list of places that stock parts, manuals, etc. for older keyboards.
If you have any corrections, additions, etc., please email me at
shiv@bnr.ca.

Oh, and you're most welcome !

What was that ? You don't actually have an analog synth ? Shame on you !
You can try the following used music dealers:

Analog Systems
Tel: 213-850-5216
fax: 213-850-1059
Have in stock Buchla, Moog, Serge, Emu modular systems, ARP 2500/2600,
Minimoog, OB8, etc..

Media Sonics
Tel: 918-451-0680
fax: 918-451-0671

Caruso Music
20 Bank St.
New London, CT 06320
tel: 203-442-9600
fax: 203-442-0463

Rogue Music
251 W. 30th
NY, NY 10001
tel: 212-629-3708
fax: 212-947-0027
Carry Moog, ARP, Oberheim, etc.. Get on their mailing list !

Analogics
5261 Maple Ave East
Geneva, OH 44041
tel: 216-466-6911

Daddy's Junky Music
P.O. Box 1018
Salem, NH 03079
tel: 603-894-6492
fax: 603-893-6710

Goldman's Gear Exchange
1620 Niagra Falls Blvd
Tonawanda, NY 14150
tel: 716-633-6111
fax: 716-832-6009

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

MIDI Retrofits
**************

Encore Electronics
30 Glenhill Court
Danville, CA94526
tel: 510-820-7551
MIDI Retrofits for: Oberheim OB8, OBX, OBXa, OBSX, Roland Jupiter 8,
                    Moog Source.

Analogics
5261 Maple Ave.
East Geneva
OH 44041
tel/fax: 216-466-6911
MIDI Retrofits for: Sequential Prophet 5, 10, and Pro 1, Oberheim OB8,
                    Korg Mono/Poly, Arp Odyssey & 2600.
MIDI->CV convertors: Have Roland MPU101 and Kenton Pro 1.

Wine Country Productions
1572 Park Crest Court, Suite #505
San Jose, CA 95118
tel: 408-265-2008
fax: 408-266-6591
MIDI Retrofits for: Over 35 models of synths from Sequential, ARP, Moog, 
                    Korg, Roland, and Yamaha.
MIDI->CV convertors: Have Kenton Pro 1.

Miditec
453 Darwin Crescent
ThunerBay, Ontario
Canada P7B 5W5
tel: 807-345-6434
MIDI Retrofits for: Hammond Organs, Korg BX-3 & CX-3 organs, 
                    Korg EPS-1 & SP80S e. pianos, Korg Poly 6 amd Poly 61,
                    Roland Juno-60, and Jupiter 8. Generic retrofit
                    available for most organs and accordians.

Kenton Electronics
137-165 Hook Road
Surbiton, Surrey KT6 5AR
tel: 081-974-2475
fax:081-974-2485
MIDI retrofits for numerous mono and poly synths and some drum machines.
I suspect Analogics and Wine Country are using these since they also carry
Kenton's MIDI->CV convertor.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

MIDI to CV Convertors
*********************

PAIA Electronics
3200 Teakwood Lane
Edmond, OK 73013
tel: 405-340-6300
MV-8 convertor is unique in that it will do MIDI->CV or CV->MIDI !
8 CV ins, 8 gate ins, 8 CV outs, and 8 gate outs. $300 kit, $400 assembled.

Clarity
Nelson Lane
Garrison, NY10524
tel: 914-424-4071
The Retro has 8 analog outputs. $600.

Kenton Electronics
137-165 Hook Road
Surbiton, Surrey KT6 5AR
tel: 081-974-2475
fax:081-974-2485
The Pro2 has 2 independent sections, each of which receives on its
own MIDI channel. Each section has 3 CV outs, gate, and s-trig out.
Optional Hz/V supports synths with linear (instead of exponential 1v/oct)
response such as early Korg and Yamaha gear. There is also a clock
out that will put out a trigger synced to the MIDI clock input. This
is suitable for driving an arpeggiator etc..
The Pro2 is sold in the U.S. by Analogics, Wine Country, and others.
I have written and faxed them several times from Canada and had NO
response at all.  

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Parts for vinatge synths
************************

ARP:
   Music Dealer Service
   4700 West Fullerton
   Chicago, IL 60639
   tel: 312-282-8171

Deltalab, Oberheim (parts):
   Magic Music Machines
   1207 Howard St.
   San Franisco, CA 94103
   tel: 415-864-3300

Oberheim manuals:
   Magic Parts
   1537 Fourth St., Suite 198
   San Rafael, CA 94901
   tel: 800-451-1922 
        800-525-0022 (in CA)

Moog:
   EJE Research
   20 French Road
   Buffalo, NY14227
   tel: 716-656-9607

Sequential:
   Wine Country Productions
   (see address & phone above)

---

4.2.0) 		[UNIX hardware]

---

4.2.1)			What are some MIDI interfaces for 386 UNIX boxes?

Answer:

To: nextmusic-list@wri.com
Date: Sat, 25 Jan 92 10:50:46 EST
Original-From: blink!tjt (Tim Thompson)
Subject: re: UNIX/Midi Interfaces


> From: Roberto Sierra <73557.2101@compuserve.com>
> interfaces exist for UNIX machines.  Does anyone know
> if anything is available for Unix on a 386 platform?

MPU-compatible interfaces work fine under UNIX on a 386.
A UNIX device driver called devmidi is available via FTP
(on ucsd.EDU and louie.udel.EDU).  There are changes to
this device driver (also on at least louie.udel.EDU)) that
allow it to work with VP/ix, so you can run DOS MIDI software
as well.

For software, there is glib, a free generic librarian/editor.
The glib2 version on louie.udel.EDU includes support for the
devmidi driver.

This may not appear relevant to "nextmusic", but when
NeXTStep becomes available on 386 machines, it may be much
easier to write MIDI software to run on both a 386 and NeXT.
Anyone know if the Music Kit will be enhanced on the 386
to include support for the MPU interface?     ...Tim...


Date: Tue, 16 Feb 93 10:03:26 MST
From: Mike Durian <durian@advtech.uswest.com>

	An MPU-401 compatible MIDI driver is included with BSDI's
BSD/386 product.  BSD/386 being a POSIX complient operating system for
386's and 486's based on the CSRG Net2 release.  If you build my tclm
[see item 3.2.2 --crl] package on a BSD/386 machine with an MPU-401
card, you can enable hooks to allow you to play as well as modify MIDI
files.


mike
durian@advtech.uswest.com

---

4.3.0) 		[NeXT hardware]

---

4.4.0) 		[DOS/Windows hardware]

---

4.4.1)*			How do I do MIDI with my laptop PC? What is 
				the Key Electronics Midiator?

Answer:

Date: Mon, 17 Aug 92 11:18:24 +0200
From: ruprecht@corse.informatik.uni-freiburg.de (Nick Ruprecht)
Organization: Institut fuer Informatik der Universitaet Freiburg
Address: Rheinstrasse 10-12, D-7800 Freiburg i. Br., Germany
Phone: +49-761-203 3884, fax: +49-761-203 3889


	The Key Electronics MIDIator is a good interface for portable
PCs.  warrant mention of the Key Electronics MIDIator under a separate
topic. I think that the MIDIator 101 will actually do the baud rate
transformation from 38.4 kBaud to 31.25 kBaud. The MIDIator 101 goes
for about $US 120. Key Electronics also distributes a sequencer for
MS-DOS PCs for it. The MS-DOS sequencer Cakewalk supports it as well.
Key Electronics' address is:
	Key Electronics, 7515 Chapel Avenue, Fort Worth, TX 76116
	Office: (817) 560-1912, FAX: (817) 560-9745
	Toll Free: 1-800-533-MIDI (1-800-533-6434)

**

Date: Mon, 9 May 94 08:02:08 PDT
From: tonyf@ims.com (Antonio Freixas)

There are several vendors providing both serial and parallel port
connections to MIDI which will work with a laptop.  The three vendors
I know about are:

        Key Electronics         1-800-533-6434
                7515 Chapel Avenue
                Fort Worth, TX 76116

        Midiman                 1-800-969-6434
                236 West Mountain St.
                Suite 108
                Pasadena, CA 91103

        Music Quest             1-800-876-1376
                1700 Alma Drive
                Suite 330
                Plano, TX 75075

I have both a Key MS-101 serial interface (also known as a MIDIator)
and a Midiman Portman PC/P parallel interface.

For DOS systems, you are dependent on the music software vendor to
support the particular device (some of the hardware vendors supply
drivers to Cakewalk with their products).

For Windows 3.1 systems, the hardware vendor supplies a Windows driver
and all Windows software vendors that I know of will use the driver
(there may be a few shareware programs that still assume you have an
MPU-401 which will not work with these MIDI devices).

The current Key Windows driver for the MIDIator loses bytes on some
systems.  I am one of those unlucky ones -- with the MS-101, I cannot
do reliable SysEx dumps.  Real-time recordings wind up with very long
notes as Note Off events are lost.  Key claims that the problem occurs
due to other Windows programs misusing the clock interrupt; they are
working on a fix but have not released one as of 7-23-93.

I have used the Key MS-101 under DOS without problems (using the
notation package SongWright).

I believe that each of the above vendors supplies BOTH serial and
parallel versions of their products.  If you have a laptop without a
mouse port separate from the serial port, the parallel versions are
the way to go, as you will be able to use the mouse and MIDI.  Windows
programs are easier to use with the mouse; some programs cannot be
fully used without a mouse.


                                                 -- tonyf@ims.com
                                               (503) 626-7117 x1349

---

4.4.2)			I'm just starting on MIDI and want to know how
				to send	MIDI from my SCO UNIX box (and
				who do I buy a card from? Are there
				device drivers available?)

Answer:

From: tjt@blink (Tim Thompson)
Newsgroups: rec.music.synth
Subject: Re: MIDI FAQ?
Date: 28 Dec 91 14:34:29 GMT

Andrew Beattie (tab@ibmpcug.co.uk) writes:
> I'm just starting on MIDI and want to know how to send MIDI from my SCO UNIX
> box.  (and who do I buy a card from? are there device drivers available?

If SCO UNIX implies you're using an AT-bus 386 of some sort, there
is a UNIX device driver available called devmidi that can be found in
the ucsd.EDU archive and elsewhere.  It supports any MPU-compatible
MIDI interface.  The glib librarian/editor, also found in
the ucsd.EDU archive, can use this driver (email me for the changes).
There is also a version of devmidi that allows it to be used with VP/IX,
so you can run DOS MIDI software under UNIX.

For any machine with a standard serial port, you can use the
Key Electronics (1-800-533-MIDI) MIDIATOR MS-114 interface - it goes
from standard RS232 to MIDI.  There's no buffering, so to avoid input
lossage you need to run the RS232 at 38.4Kbaud.  For MIDI output,
you can run the RS232 at lower rates and still get usable results.
For machines that can run their RS232 at the exact MIDI rate, you
can get by with a cheaper version of the MIDIATOR, I think, the MS-101.



    ...Tim Thompson...AT&T Bell Labs/Holmdel/NJ...tjt@blink.att.com...

---

4.4.3)			How can I adapt my IBM-PC parallel port to be
				a MIDI interface?

Answer:

From: cgd@ecmwf.co.uk (Dick Dixon)
Subject: 'Paramid' parallel-port MIDI interface
Date: Thu, 22 Jul 93 9:08:33 BST

This is a build-it-yourself MIDI interface adaptor for PC
parallel port.  So far as I know, it will work with any
PC (I have tried it with four; 286, 386 and portables).

MIDI in, out and thru are provided, with signal monitoring
LEDs.  The posted zip file includes a driver for DOS Cakewalk
standard, plus some 'C' code to test the interface.

Not recommended as a first project for previous non-techies,
but no particular snags in construction are anticipated.

It can be obtained thus:

Site:           ftp.cs.ruu.nl  [131.211.80.17]
Login:          "anonymous" or "ftp"
Password:       your own email address (you@your_domain)
File:           /pub/MIDI/DOC/paramida.zip

regards

Dick Dixon


[SEE ALSO: the June 1986 BYTE magazine article on building a MIDI
board for the IBM PC  --  crl]

---

4.5.0) 		[Macintosh hardware]

---

4.5.1)			What's all this about problems with
				Macintosh Powerbooks and MIDI?

Answer:

	See anonymous@xcf.berkeley.edu:misc/netjam/doc/PowerbookMIDI,
or email netjam-request@xcf.berkeley.edu with the subject 'request for
file: doc/PowerbookMIDI'.
	Comments welcome.

---

4.5.2)		How can I build my own MIDI interface for the Macintosh?

Answer:

From: henges@ingr.com. (John Hengesbach)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac,rec.music.synth
Subject: Re: DIY MIDI interface?
Keywords: MIDI
Date: 30 Dec 88 16:05:21 GMT

In article <817@ttrdf.UUCP> fjo@ttrdf.UUCP (Frank Owen ) writes:
>
>  Has anyone figured out how to kludge up a Do-It-Yourself MIDI interface
>for the Macintosh? It seems that the one Apple sells has practically no 
A reply...


			MINIMAL MAC--MIDI INTERFACE
			===========================



	Well, here it is all you MIDI fans.  THE ultimate in
	simplicity!!  This is a simple schematic for a serial
	to MIDI converter.

		There are two functions performed here.  One is the
	conversion from current loop to RS-422.  The second function
	is supplying the 1 MHz signal for the serial chip to sync
	up with the 31.5K baud rate of MIDI.


         >>>>>>> DATA FLOW >>> (MAC TO MIDI INSTRUMENT) >>>>>>>>>
               +-------+     +------+
To MAC   4   10|26LS32 |     |7407  |
Serial  >------+       |11  1|      |2    +------+    5
Port     5    9|       +-----+      +-----+R=220 +-----<  \
DB9 pin >-------       |     |      |     +------+         \  (5 pin DIN socket)
Numbers        |       |     |      |                       | MIDI OUT
               +-------+     +------+                      / (to instrument)
                +------+                  +------+    4   /
      +5 volts -+R=390 +--+     +5 volts -+R=220 +-----<
                +------+  |               +------+
               +-------+  |  +------+1    +------+    4
         8    6|26LS31 |  |  |MCT2  +-----+R=220 +-----< \
        >------+       |11| 5|      |     +------+        \  (5 pin DIN socket)
         9    5|       +--+--+      |                      | MIDI IN
        >-------       |    4|      |2                5   / (from instrument)
               |       |   +-+      +------------------< /
               +-------+   | +------+
                           |
                           v
                           Ground
         <<<<<<<<<<<<< DATA FLOW << (MIDI INSTRUMENT TO MAC ) <<<

               +-------+     +------+
         7   10|26LS31 |     |1 MHZ |
        >------+       |9   8| OSC  |
         3   11|       +-----+      |
        >-------       |     |      |
               |       |     +      |
               +-------+     +------+

	Power connections:

	  		GROUND	+5
			-----	--
	  7407		7	14
	  26LS31	8,12	4,16
	  26LS32	8,12	4,16
	  OSCILLATOR	7	14

Notes:

	The optical isolator MCT-2 above can probably be any relatively
fast optical coupler.  Note that the 390 ohm resistormay need to be
adjusted to make sure the output does not saturate.  Using a scope
while feeding a MIDI signal in should show you whether the signal
looks clean.

	The diagram has been drawn to show MAC signals on the left
and MIDI signals on the right.  There have also been allowances made
for the fact that 80 column ascii displays are not **exactly**
graphics terminals. Also note that the MAC pin numbers are for the
DB9 connector **NOT** the 8 pin mini-DIN connector!!

	The age old question of where to get power for this always
remains.  On the pre-MAC-PLUSs, there was power available from the
serial port connector.  I solved this problem by finding a 7 VDC
AC adapter at a parts store and using a 5 volt voltage regulator
IC to bring it down to 5 volts.  This is left as an exercise for
the student.....

	The 26LS31 and 26LS32 are the same type of chips which are
used in the MAC for RS-42? conversion.  I got them from a store in
Santa Clara California (Anchor Electronics  (408) 727-3693).  They
also have 1 Mhz Oscillators as well.

	I have built several variations of this over the last two
years and have had good success using a variety of music software
with them.


John Hengesbach
(205)772-1669

uunet!ingr!henges
Intergraph Corporation
Huntsville, AL 35807

---

5.0) 	[Reference Material]

---

5.1)		Is an overview of "General MIDI" available?

Answer:

	Yes, via ftp as:

	anonymous@XCF.Berkeley.EDU:misc/netjam/doc/midi/general_midi

---

5.2)		What are the names and address of various gear manufacturers?

Answer:

	Rich Kulawiec (rsk@gynko.circ.upenn.EDU) posts a monthly list
of manufacturer contact info to rec.music.makers, rec.music.synth,
alt.guitar, and news.answers.


---

5.3)		Where may I find an electronic music bibliography?


Answer:

	See the file:

	anonymous@ftp.cs.ruu.nl:MIDI/DOC/bibliography

or
	
	anonymous@131.211.80.17:MIDI/DOC/bibliography

---

5.4)		Where can I find out all about MIDI?

Answer:

	Email LISTSERV@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU, with the phrase GET MIDISPEC
PACKAGE in the message body. You will get the following message, as
well as the files to which it refers.


Date:         Tue, 26 Nov 1991 18:32:49 -0500
From: Revised List Processor (1.7a) <LISTSERV@AUVM.AMERICAN.EDU>
Subject:      File: "MIDISPEC $PACKAGE" being sent to you

*************************************************************************
*                                                                       *
* MIDISPEC Package                                                      *
*                                                                       *
* The following  series of  plain text  files are  the contents  of the *
* MIDISPEC PACKAGE. They are a reference resource compiled from several *
* sources, mostly by Greg at LEE@UHCCUX. The Primer, originally written *
* by Bob McQueer, is in constant  revision. The other files are subject *
* to periodic review and update. The package as a whole may be added to *
* as MIDI expands.                                                      *
*                                                                       *
* They have been placed here to  make it possible for users to retrieve *
* or subscribe to  the whole set of  documents as a "package"  so as to *
* automatically  get   the  updated  documentation  when   it  is  made *
* available.  Access  to  the  complete package  is  possible  via  GET *
* MIDISPEC PACKAGE.                                                     *
*                                                                       *
* You can subscribe to it with: AFD ADD MIDISPEC PACKAGE (note that you *
* will need to use the PW  command to define yourself a password before *
* you can  use the AFD command  -- see LISTAFD MEMO  for more details). *
* If you wish to only be informed when  the files are updated,  use the *
* FUI ADD MIDISPEC PACKAGE command.                                     *
*                                                                       *
*************************************************************************
* filename filetype Filelist File description
* -------- -------- -------- -----------------------
  MIDISPEC $PACKAGE EMUSIC   The Package Definition
  MIDI1_0  MIDISPEC EMUSIC   The MIDI Version 1.0 Specification
  PRIMER   MIDISPEC EMUSIC   A MIDI Tutorial
  MIDIBNF  MIDISPEC EMUSIC   MIDI Considered in Backus-Naur Form
  CTRLTAB  MIDISPEC EMUSIC   Listing of Controller/Mode Command Codes
  STATTAB  MIDISPEC EMUSIC   Listing of MIDI Status Codes
  NOTESTAB MIDISPEC EMUSIC   Listing of MIDI Notes by Octave
  FILEFMT  MIDISPEC EMUSIC   Description of MIDI Standard File Format
  SDSFMT   MIDISPEC EMUSIC   Description of MIDI Sample Dump Standard
  TIMECODE MIDISPEC EMUSIC   Description of MIDI Time Code Format


---

5.5)		What are the details behind current sound formats?

Answer:

	The Audio Formats Guide is available by anonymous ftp from
ftp.cwi.nl [192.16.184.180], directory pub, file AudioFormats*.*
(where *.* is the version number).

--Guido van Rossum, CWI, Amsterdam <guido@cwi.nl>
"Shut that bloody bouzouki off!"


---


End of the Netjam FAQ.

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