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FAQ Multics Bibliography


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archive-name: multics/bibliography
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I regret that I do not have the time to copy, scan, OCR, convert, or mail 
copies of these documents.  I don't even have copies of all of them.  
 -- tom

================================================================


Papers and books

* Adleman, N., Effects of Producing a Multics Security Kernel, Honeywell
  Information Systems Inc., Mclean Va Federal Systems Operations, October
  1975. NTIS AD-A031 220/7

* Adleman, N., Engineering Investigations in Support of Multics Security
  Kernel Software Development, Honeywell Information Systems Inc., Mclean
  Va Federal Systems Operations. October 19, 1976. NTIS AD-A040 329/5

* Adleman, N., J. R. Gilson, R. J. Sestak, and R. J. Ziller, Security
  Kernel Evaluation for Multics and Secure Multics Design, Development
  and Certification, Semi-annual progress rept. 1 Jan-30 June 76,
  Honeywell Information Systems Inc., Mclean Va Federal Systems
  Operations, August 1976. NTIS AD-A038 261/4

* Adleman, N., J. R. Gilson, R. J. Sestak, and R. J. Ziller, Semi-Annual
  Progress Report July 1975 to December 1975, Honeywell Information
  Systems Inc., Mclean Va Federal Systems Operations, January 1976. NTIS
  AD-A037 501/4

* Adleman, N., R. J. Ziller, and J. C. Whitmore, Multics Security
  Integration Requirements, 1 January 1976-31 December 1980, Honeywell
  Information Systems Inc., Mclean Va Federal Systems Operations, March
  1976. NTIS AD-A041 514/1

* Ames, S. R., File Attributes and Their Relationship to Computer
  Security, S.M. thesis, June 1974, Case Western Reserve University,
  Cleveland, OH: HQ Electronic Systems Division, Hanscom AFB, MA.. ESD-
  TR-74-191

* Ames Jr., Stanley R., and D. K. Kallman, Multics Security Kernel
  Validation: Proof Description, Volume I, MITRE Corp Bedford MA, July
  1978. NTIS AD-A056 901/2

* Ames Jr., Stanley R., and J. G. Keeton-Williams, Demonstrating security
  for trusted applications on a security kernel base, IEEE Comp. Soc.
  Proc 1980 Symposium on Security and Privacy, April 1980.

* Ames Jr., Stanley R., and Jonathan K. Millen, Interface Verification
  for a Security Kernel, System Reliability and Integrity, Vol 2,
  Infotech State of the Art report pp.1-21 1978.

* Ames Jr., Stanley R., and Peter G. Neumann, Computer Security
  Technology: Introduction, IEEE Computer 16(7) p.11, July 1983.

* Anderson, James P., Multics Evaluation, James P. Anderson and Co., Fort
  Washington Pa, October 1973. NTIS AD-777 593/5

Details of a planning study for USAF computer security requirements are
  presented. An Advanced development and Engineering program to obtain an
  open-use, multilevel secure computing capability is described. Plans
  are also presented for the related developments of communications
  security products and the interim solution to present secure computing
  problems. Finally a Exploratory development plan complementary to the
  recommended Advanced and Engineering development plans is also
  included.

* Anderson, James P., Accelerating Computer Security Innovation, IEEE
  Symposium on Security and Privacy, 1982.

This note is prompted by a number of observations. - After nearly twelve
  years of serious work on computer security, all that can be shown is
  two one-shot ?brassboard? systems and one commercially supported
  product that integrates the DoD security policy into the operating
  system. - The first round of research results on computer security were
  useful and by 1975 the principles of secure computers were well enough
  understood that the first demonstration models of security kernels had
  been completed. [SCHI 73] - In spite of hopes to the contrary, it has
  been amply demonstrated that the civil sector of government and
  virtually all of the private sector can satisfy their information
  protection needs with simple physical and procedural lethods, coupled
  with using systems with "improved integrity". - In spite of the
  tiresomeness of its repetition, the fact is that the need for secure
  systems for important national defense applications has not been
  diminished in the slightest by any work that has gone on over the past
  twelve years.

* Banh, T., and H. Tran, Test program set/document management system,
  AUTOTESTCON '96, 'Test Technology and Commercialization' Conference
  Record, pp 369-374, Sep 1996.

The legacy C-17 Support Equipment Data Acquisition and Control System
  (SEDACS) was initially designed as a test requirement document (TRD)
  and test program set (TPS) development system. Its applications have
  expanded to include word processing for a majority of the C-17 support
  equipment (SE) deliverable documentation, project management functions,
  and line-replaceable-unit (LRU) and shop-replaceable-unit (SRU)
  tracking. While the SEDACS system enabled MDA to support C-17 test and
  early operation, this legacy SEDACS has some drawbacks. Recently, the
  SEDACS was upgraded from a host-based Honeywell/Multics mainframe to a
  new client/server system. The TPS document management system (DMS) was
  designed to provide the environment to create and edit documents as
  well as to control their configurations, and it is the first step
  toward becoming an electronic document management system. The system
  has increased efficiency and productivity, improved and safeguarded
  file sharing, and provides better management of document revisions.
  This TPS DMS was developed using an integrated application software
  package that runs on IBM PCs. This paper describes how the integrated
  application software was developed and how the deliverable documents
  were transferred from the existing mainframe system to the
  client/server system. The software products identified in this paper
  were chosen to meet our particular applications requirements and are
  provided only as examples.

* Banatre, Jean-Pierre, Michel Banatre, Guy Lapalme, and Florimond
  Ployette, The design and building of Enchere, a distributed electronic
  marketing system, Commun. ACM 29, 1, 19-29. Jan. 1986.

Building and prototyping an agricultural electronic marketing system
  involved experimenting with distributed synchronization, atomic
  activity, and commit protocols and recovery algorithms.

* Bell, D. E., and L. J. LaPadula, Computer Security Model: Unified
  Exposition and Multics Interpretation, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1975. ESD-TR-
  75-306

(also available as DTIC AD-A023588)

* Bell, D. E., and L. J. LaPadula, Secure Computer Systems: Unified
  Exposition and Multics Interpretation, Mitre Technical Report MTR-2997,
  rev 2, March 1976. NTIS AD-A023 588/7

For the past several years ESD has been involved in various projects
  relating to secure computer systems design and operation. One of the
  continuing efforts, started in 1972 at MITRE, has been secure computer
  system modeling. The effort initially produced a mathematical framework
  and a model [1, 2] and subsequently developed refinements and
  extensions to the model [3] which reflected a computer system
  architecture similar to that of Multics [4]. Recently a large effort
  has been proceeding to produce a design for a secure Multics based on
  the mathematical model given in [l, 2, 3].

* Bell, D. E., and L. J. LaPadula, Secure Computer Systems: Mathematical
  foundations, MITRE tech report, 1 Mar 1973. MTR-2547 vol I

* LaPadula, L. J., and D. E. Bell, Secure Computer System: A Mathematical
  Model, MITRE tech report, 31 May 1973. MTR-2547 vol III

* Bell, D. E., Secure Computer System: A Refinement of the Mathematical
  Model, MITRE tech report, 28 Dec 1973. MTR-2547 vol II

* Benedict, G. G., An Enciphering Module for Multics, 1974 Jul. NTIS AD-
  782 658/9

* Bennett, D. A., and C. A. Landauer, An application of simulation to
  tracking, In: Winter Simulation Conference, San Diego, CA, December 3-
  5, 1979, Proceedings. Volume 1. New York, IEEE, p. 83-90..

AIMER (Automatic Integration of Multiple Element Radars) is an emulated
  model of a loosely coupled distributed radar tracking processor. The
  design goal of the model is to provide a reliable processing system
  whose computational bandwidth can be dynamically altered in response to
  changing ground scenario and availability of hardware. A large number
  of minicomputers connected with multiple packet networks was chosen as
  the framework for the design. This paper describes the current status
  of AIMER.

* Bensoussan, A., C. T. Clingen, and R. C. Daley, The Multics virtual
  memory: concepts and design, Proc Second ACM SOSP, Princeton NJ,
  October 1969.

Commun. ACM 15, 5, pp 308-318, May 1972. As experience with use of on-
  line operating systems has grown, the need to share information among
  system users has become increasingly apparent. Many contemporary
  systems permit some degree of sharing. Usually, sharing is accomplished
  by allowing several users to share data via input and output of
  information stored in files kept in secondary storage. Through the use
  of segmentation, however, Multics provides direct hardware addressing
  by user and system programs of all information, ...

* Berstel, J., and J.-F. Perrot, MULTICS: guide de l'usager, Manuels
  informatiques Masson, Paris [etc.]: Masson, 1986.

* Biba, K. J., S. R. Ames Jr., E. L. Burke, P. A. Karger, W. R. Price, R.
  R. Schell, and W. L. Schiller, The top level specification of a Multics
  security kernel, MITRE Corp, Bedford MA, August 1975. WP-20377

* Birnbaum, D., J. J. Cupak, J. D. Dyar, and R. Jackson, MULTICS Remote
  Data Entry System. Volume I, Source: Pattern Analysis and Recognition
  Corp., Rome, NY., Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, NY, Oct
  1979, RADC TR-79-265-VOL-1. NTIS ADA080625

This report contains the user's manuals and software documentation for
  the Remote Data Entry System which is the front-end to the MULTICS
  Pattern Recognition Facility and the Cluster Analysis package which was
  added to MULTICS OLPARS. The Remote Data Entry System was designed to
  allow users of the MULTICS Pattern Recognition Facility the ability to
  input their data over the ARPANENT from a Tektronix remote storage
  device. Once the data is input into the MULTICS System, routines are
  provided so that the user can easily restructure or cluster his
  database to perform different classification experiments.

* Bisbey II, Richard L., Jim Carlstedt, Dale M. Chase, and Dennis
  Hollingworth, Data Dependency Analysis, ISI-RR-76-45, USC Information
  Sciences Institute, February 1976. NTIS: ADA 022017

* Bisbey II, Richard L., and Dennis Hollingworth, Protection Analysis:
  Final Report, ISI-SR-78-13, USC Information Sciences Institute, July
  1978. NTIS: ADA 056816

The Protection Analysis project was initiated at ISI by ARPA IPTO to
  further understand operating system security vulnerabilities and, where
  possible, identify automatable techniques for detecting such
  vulnerabilities in existing system software. The primary goal of the
  project was to make protection evaluation both more effective and more
  economical by decomposing it into more manageable and methodical
  subtasks so as to drastically reduce the requirement for protection
  expertise and make it as independent as possible of the skills and
  motivation of the actual individuals involved. The project focused on
  near-term solutions to the problem of improving the security of
  existing and future operating systems in an attempt to have some impact
  on the security of the systems which would be in use over the next ten
  years. A general strategy was identified, referred to as "pattern-
  directed protection evaluation" and tailored to the problem of
  evaluating existing systems. The approach provided a basis for
  categorizing protection errors according to their security-relevant
  properties; it was successfully applied for one such category to the
  MULTICS operating system, resulting in the detection of previously
  unknown security vulnerabilities.

* Boyd, Donald L., and Antonio Pizzarello, Introduction to the WELLMADE
  design methodology, Proc. 3d Int. Conf. on Software Engineering, 1978.

* Bull HN Information Systems Inc., Multics Data Security and Data
  Privacy, USA: Bull HN Information Systems. no date.

* Burke, Edmund L. et al., Emulating a Honeywell 6180 Computer System,
  Mitre Corporation, pp. 1-73. June 1974. NTIS AD 787 218

* Burke, Edmund L., Concept of Operation for Handling I/O in a Secure
  Computer at the Air Force Data Services Center (AFDSC), Mitre
  Corporation. Apr 1974. DTIC AD0780529

The operation of a computer system in a secure fashion requires the
  control of access to all parts of the system. One part of the system
  which is often neglected when access and security controls are
  developed is the input/output (I/O) subsystem. This paper develops a
  general Concept of Operations for I/O in a secure computer system. This
  concept is then applied to the proposed two-level, Secret-Top Secret,
  MULTICS System at the Air Force Data Services Center (AFDSC). The most
  unusual operational feature recommended for the AFDSC MULTICS is the
  use of autonomous processes to perform all I/O, preventing any user
  from directly accessing any I/O device. Procedures are described to
  provide the necessary controls for operation in the Data Services
  Center environment.

* Burrus, Phillip F., SEDACS-a client/server approach to TPS development,
  AUTOTESTCON '95. Systems Readiness: Test Technology for the 21st
  Century. Conference Record, Aug 1995.

The C-17 Support Equipment Data Acquisition and Control System (SEDACS)
  Test Program Set/Test Requirements Document (TPS/TRD) development
  system was upgraded from a host-based Honeywell/Multics mainframe
  system to a new client/server system with Internet connectivity.
  Reliability, flexibility, and supportability were the requirements for
  the new system. The combination of the client/server model and
  commercial software met these requirements by exploiting fast and
  inexpensive hardware and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software such
  as word processing and project and circuit analysis software. Greater
  efficiencies were realized by reducing the required time needed to
  train users, develop TPSs, and prepare supporting documentation.
  Quality was improved by incorporating configuration management tools
  and integrated spell checking into the applications suite and by
  designing around a centralized database. This paper briefly describes
  how we developed our new system and how we migrated from our existing
  mainframe (or legacy) system to a client/server system.

* Caruso, Michael Joseph, A graphics systems for RDMS, Massachusetts
  Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer
  Science. Thesis. 1975. B.S., 1975.

82 pages

* Clingen, C. T., Program naming problems in a shared tree-structured
  hierarchy, Proc Conf on Techniques in Software Engineering, October
  1969.

* Clisham, Tom J., Source RX: A Multics-Fortran program for stratigraphic
  and petroleum geochemical data, U.S. Geological Survey, 1979.

* Colijn, A. W., A note on the Multics command language, Software --
  Practice and Experience 11, 6, pp 741-744, Jul 1981.

Some aspects of the Multics operating system are critically examined. In
  particular, the properties of the command and language are noted as
  allowing considerable general purpose programming power. The strength
  and weaknesses are discussed and a quantitative evaluation of speed is
  attempted based on a comparison of programming the "Towers of Hanoi"
  and Ackermann's function in both Multics command language and pll. The
  programs also serve to exemplify the use of the command language.

* Colman, S. M., CHEMANAL: A MULTICS Fortran program to calculate
  chemical weathering data, U.S. Geological Survey, 1980.

* Connell, David B., Kermit N. Klingbail, and Richard A. Jackson, MULTICS
  OLPARS Operating System. Volume I., Pattern Analysis and Recognition
  Corp Rome N Y, 219 pages, PAR-74-25-A, F30602-75-C-0226, F30602-73-C-
  0352, RADC TR-76-271-Vol-1. NTIS ADA034393

The development of interactive graphics computer systems for use in
  detection, identification, and transformation of patterns contained in
  high- dimensional data has been a continuing program at the Rome Air
  Development Center since 1968. This long standing effort has resulted
  in the implementation of OLPARS (the On-Line Pattern Analysis and
  Recognition System), IFES (the Image Feature Extraction System), and
  WPS (the Waveform Processing System). This report contains detailed
  design and user-oriented information related to MOOS (the MULTICS
  OLPARS Operating System), and advanced version of OLPARS currently
  resident upon the Honeywell 6180 MULTICS computer system. The currently
  operational system represents an implemented version of the operations
  described in a previous report (RADC-TR-73-241); appropriate selections
  of that report are retained within this document. This report contains
  brief descriptions of the MOOS system and the mathematics underlying
  the system algorithms. A major portion of this document is reserved for
  a user's manual (providing detailed information relating to the
  operation of all system options) and for MOOS program documentation.

* Corbato, F. J., A paging experiment with the Multics system, In Honor
  of P. M. Morse, M. I. T. Press, Cambridge MA, 217-228, 1969.

(36 MB pdf)

* Corbato, F. J., and C. T. Clingen, A Managerial View of the Multics
  System Development, in Research Directions in Software Technology
  edited by P. Wegner, M.I.T. Press, 1979.

(Also published in Tutorial: Software Management, Reifer, Donald J. (ed),
  IEEE Computer Society Press, l979; Second Edition l981; Third Edition,
  1986.) A reasonable question of a software manager might be "What
  possible insight can I gain from the agonies of someone else's
  project?"

* Corbato, F. J., and J. H. Saltzer, Some considerations of supervisor
  program design for multiplexed computer systems, Proc IFIP 4th Global
  Conf, Edinburgh, August 1968.

* Corbato, F. J., and V. A. Vyssotsky, Introduction and overview of the
  Multics system, AFIPS Conf Proc 27, 185-196, 1965.

Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is a
  comprehensive, general-purpose programming system which is being
  developed as a research project. The initial Multics system will be
  implemented on the GE 645 computer. One of the overall design goals is
  to create a computing system which is capable of meeting almost all of
  the present and near-future requirements of a large computer utility.

* Corbato, F. J., C. T. Clingen, and J. H. Saltzer, Multics -- the first
  seven years, Proc SJCC, 571-583, May 1972.

* Corbato, F. J., M. M. Daggett, and R. C. Daley, An experimental time-
  sharing system, AFIPS Conf Proc 21, 335-344, 1962.

It is the purpose of this paper to discuss briefly the need for time-
  sharing, some of the implementation problems, an experimental time-
  sharing system which has been developed for the contemporary IBM 7090,
  and finally a scheduling algorithm of one of us (FJC) that illustrates
  some of the techniques which may be employed to enhance and be analyzed
  for the performance limits of such a time-sharing system.

* Corbato, F. J., PL/I as a Tool for System Programming, Datamation 15,
  5, 68-76, May, 1969.

* Corbato, F. J., Sensitive issues in the design of multi-use systems, M.
  I. T. Project MAC, December 1968. MAC-M-383

* Corbato, F. J., On building systems that will fail, (A. M. Turing Award
  lecture), Commun. ACM 34 No. 9, September 1991.

* Corbato, F. J., M. M. Daggett, R. C. Daley, R. J. Creasy, J. D.
  Hellwig, R. H. Orenstein, and L. K. Korn, The compatible time-sharing
  system: a programmer's guide, 1st ed, M. I. T. Press, June 1963.

The "candy stripe" manual.

* Couleur, J. F., and E. L. Glaser, Shared-access data processing
  sytstem, filed November 26, 1965, awarded November 19, 1968. US Patent
  no 3,412,382

* Couleur, J. F., and R. F. Montee, Method and means for storing and
  accessing information in a shared access multiprogrammed data
  processing system, ("New System Architecture" patent) filed November
  14, 1978, awarded November 10, 1981. US Patent no 4,300,192

Partitioning, paging, and segmentation techniques are employed with
  virtual memory to provide more secure and efficient storage and
  transfer of information. The virtual memory is divided into a plurality
  of partitions with real memory storage provided by paging the plurality
  of partitions. User programs are segmented into logical units and
  stored in assigned partitions thereby isolating user programs and data.
  Unsegmented programs may be run by storage in a partition with direct
  addressing. Segment descriptors including partition, base, and bound
  are utilized in accessing memory. User domains are expandable by
  temporarily passing descriptor parameters from one routine to another
  with access flags limiting access thereto. By shrinking passed
  descriptors the receiving routine can be restricted to only a portion
  of the information defined by the descriptor.

* Couleur, John F., The Core of the Black Canyon Computer Corporation,
  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Vol. 17, No. 4: Winter 1995,
  pp. 56-60.

* Crisman, P. A., Ed., The compatible time-sharing system: a programmer's
  guide, 2nd ed, M. I. T. Press, 1965.

Looseleaf.

* Daley, R. C., and J. B. Dennis, Virtual memory, processes, and sharing
  in Multics, Commun. ACM 11, 306-312, May 1968.

The value of a computer system to its users is greatly enhanced if a user
  can, in a simple and general way, build his work upon procedures
  developed by others. The attainment of this essential generality
  requires that a computer system possess the features of equipment-
  independent addressing, an effectively infinite virtual memory, and
  provision for the dynamic linking of shared procedure and data objects.
  The paper explains how these features are realized in the Multics
  system.

* Daley, R. C., and P. G. Neumann, A general-purpose file system for
  secondary storage, AFIPS Conf Proc 27, 212-230, 1965.

The need for a versatile on-line secondary storage complex in a
  multiprogramming environment is immense.

* Datapro, An Overview of Operating Systems Security, Datapro Reports on
  Information Security, June 1986. Datapro IS56-001

* Datapro, Bull HN Information Systems Inc: Security Capabilities of
  Multics, Datapro Reports on Information Security; Vol 3, USA: Datapro
  Research. April 1989. IS56-115-101

* David Jr., E. E., and R. M. Fano, Some thoughts about the social
  implications of accessible computing, AFIPS Conf Proc 27, 243-248,
  1965.

* Davids, Noah S., Experiences with an Interactive Electronic Meeting
  Facility, Proc Second Annual Phoenix Conference on Computers and
  Communications, 563-567, Mar 1983.

The introduction of an interactive electronic meeting facility, called
  Forum, within Honeywell's Large Information Systems Division (LISD), a
  large multi-national organization, has had profound effets. The
  environment set up by Forum closely mimics that of a face-to-face
  meeting. The user interface, based on a TTY-style terminal, allows the
  users to concentrate on the content of the meeting instead of on the
  interface or the computer. Forum is briefly described, and LISD's
  experiences, both good and bad, are discussed.

* Davis, R. C., A Security Compliance Study of the Air Force Data
  Services Center Multics System, Mitre Corp., Bedford, Mass, NTIS,
  December 1976.

Do the hardware and software security features of the Air Force Data
  Services Center (AFDSC) Multics system comply with the Department of
  Defense security requirements. To answer this question AFDSC
  commissioned MITRE to undertake a study to compare intrinsic features
  of the AFDSC Multics system with the applicable requirements set forth
  in DoD Requirement 5200.28 and expanded upon in DoD Manual 5200.28-M.
  (also available as DTIC AD-A034985)

* Denning, P. J., The working set model for program behavior, Commun. ACM
  11, 5, 323-333, May 1968.

* Denning, P. J., Virtual memory, ACM Computing Surveys 2, 3, 153-189,
  September 1970.

* Denning, P. J., Effects of scheduling on file memory operations, Proc
  1967 SJCC, 1967.

* Denning, P. J., A statistical model for console behavior in multiuser
  computers, Commun. ACM, Sep 1968.

* Denning, P. J., Thrashing: its causes and prevention, Proc 1968 FJCC,
  1968.

* Denning, P. J., Equipment configuration in balanced computer systems,
  IEEE Trans on Computers, Nov 1969.

* Denning, P. J., Comments on a linear paging model, Proceedings of the
  1974 ACM SIGMETRICS conference on Measurement and evaluation, Jan 1974.

The linear approximation relating mean time between page transfers
  between levels of memory, as reported by Saltzer for Multics, is
  examined. It is tentatively concluded that this approximation is
  untenable for main memory, especially under working set policies; and
  that the linearity of the data for the drum reflects the behavior of
  the Multics scheduler for background jobs, not the behavior of
  programs.

* Dennis, J. B., A multiuser computation facility for education and
  research, Commun. ACM 7, 521-529, September 1964.

* Dennis, J. B., Segmentation and the design of multiprogrammed computer
  systems, IEEE Intl Convention Rec 3, 214-225, 1965.

* Deutsch, L. P., and B. W. Lampson, An online editor, (qed), Commun. ACM
  10, 12, pp 793-799, December 1967.

* Diamond, D. S., and L. L. Selwyn, Considerations for computer utility
  pricing policies, Proc ACM 23d Natl Conf, 189-200, 1968.

* Dominick, W. D., and S. K. Agarwal, MADAM: Multics Approach to Data
  Access and Management Users Guide, Computer Science Department,
  University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1977. Technical Report CMPS-77-6-
  1

* Donovan, J. J., Tools and philosophy for software education, Commun.
  ACM, 19, Issue 8, August 1976.

* Downey, P. J., MULTICS Security Evaluation: Password and File
  Encryption Techniques, US Air Force, Electronic Systems Div, Hanscom
  AFB Mass,, Jun 1977. NTIS AD-A045 279/7

* Dyar, J. D., Multics Remote Data Entry System. Volume II. Clustering
  Additions to MOOS, PATTERN ANALYSIS AND RECOGNITION CORP ROME N Y, Oct
  1979. DTIC ADA080626

This report describes the clustering algorithms added to the MULTICS
  OLPARS Operating System under this effort.

* Elefante, Donald M., Unattended Testing Sessions on the Honeywell
  Multics Computer, Rome Air Development Center Griffiss AFB N Y (MAR
  1977).. NTIS ADA041824

This report discusses the procedure used to run a series of machine-
  dedicated performance evaluation tests without any machine operator
  intervention, either before or after the tests, and with minimum
  disruption to normal time-sharing service. The procedure involves,
  among other things, setting up a control program to execute at some
  optimum time in the future, whereupon MULTICS is automatically induced
  to remove itself from its normal user support status, log in a
  predetermined set of artificial users for the duration of the test, and
  following this, restore itself to its normal user (timesharing) status.
  43 pages.

* Elspas, B., R. E. Shostak, and J. M. Sptizen, A Verification System for
  JOCIT/J3 Programs (Rugged Programming Environment - RPE/2)., Stanford
  Research Inst Menlo Park Calif. DTIC ADA042670

This report describes work done during the second year of a research and
  development program aimed ultimately at a Rugged Programming
  Environment for JOVIAL. The RPE/1 verification system designed and
  built during the first year has been greatly extended and improved in
  several ways. The basic method of verification remains the same--that
  of inductive assertions. The input processor has been modified to
  handle virtually of all JOCIT instead of the small subset covered by
  the RPE/1 system. The overall speed of verification has been increased
  by a factor of over 25. Ease of user interaction with the system has
  been greatly enhanced by adding facilities for carrying out and saving
  partial proofs of programs, for extending the assertion language, and
  for enabling top-down and bottom-up proofs for well-structured
  programs. Moreover, the entire system has been translated into MACLISP,
  the system files have been transferred to the RADC-MULTICS Honeywell
  6180 computer, and a sample verification (shown in the report) has been
  carried out entirely on the RADC computer.

* Enslow, Philip H., 6180 Multics Systems and 6000 Series, Appendix C
  (pages 219-228) of Philip H. Enslow, editor, Multiprocessors and
  Parallel Processing, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974..

* Fano, R. M., and P. Elias, Project MAC 25th Anniversary, M. I. T.
  Laboratory for Computer Science, 1989.

* Fano, R. M., The computer utility and the community, IEEE Int
  Convention Record 12, 30-37, 1967.

* Fano, R. M., The MAC system: The computer utility approach, IEEE
  Spectrum 2, 56-64, January 1965.

* Fano, R. M., and F. J. Corbato, Time-sharing on computers, Scientific
  American 215, 3, September, 1966, pp. 129-140.

also in Information, A Scientific American Book, W. H. Freeman & Co., pp.
  76-95, 1966

* Fano, R. M., Project MAC, Encyclopedia of Computer Science and
  Technology, Vol 12, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York and Basel, 1979.

* Feiertag, R. J., and E. I. Organick, The Multics input/output system,
  Proc ACM Third SOSP, 35-41, October 1971.

An I/0 system has been implemented in the Multics system that facilitates
  dynamic switching of I/0 devices. This switching is accomplished by
  providing a general interface for all I/O devices that allows all
  equivalent operations on different devices to be expressed in the same
  way. Also particular devices are referenced by symbolic names and the
  binding of names to devices can be dynamically modified. Available I/0
  operations range from a set of basic I/0 calls that require almost no
  knowledge ...

* Feiertag, R. J., Karl N. Levitt, and Lawrence Robinson, Proving
  Multilevel Security of a System Design, ACM Operating Systems Review
  11, 5, Proc ACM 6th SOSP, West Lafayette, IN, November 1977.

* Feingold, Richard, Electronic Resources for Security Related
  Information, US Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National
  Laboratory, Computer Incident Advisory Capability, December 1994. CIAC-
  2307 R.1

* Fenichel, R. R., and J. C. Yochelson, A LISP garbage collector for
  virtual memory computer systems, Commun. ACM 12, 611-612, 1969.

* Finfer, M., J. Fellows, and D. Casey, Software debugging methodology.
  Volume II: Handbook for debugging in the MULTICS/GCOS/RTM environments,
  System Development Corp, Santa Monica, Calif, Apr 1979.

A debugging study was conducted which surveyed current research being
  performed in the area of software debugging during integration level
  testing. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing debugging tools
  and techniques which were applicable to embedded software developments.
  The purpose of the debugging study was to define a software debugging
  methodology applicable to diverse environments to be utilized during
  integration testing of system software. The results of the study are
  contained in three volumes. This volume presents the application of the
  debugging methodology to three specific environments. 122 pages.

* Flamm, Kenneth, Targeting the Computer: Government Support and
  International Competition, Washington, DC; Brookings Institution, 1987,
  pp. 42-92..

* Frankston, Robert M., A Limited Service System on Multics, Bachelor of
  Science thesis, M. I. T. Department of Electrical Engineering, June
  1970.

* Frankston, Robert M., Multics: Lightweight Processes, Unpublished
  memorandum, MIT Project MAC, March 1974.

This is a pair of memos I wrote in 1974 when I was a graduate student
  working on the Multics project. (precursors of MIT CSR-RFC-123)

* Freiburghouse, R. A., A user's guide to the Multics FORTRAN compiler
  implementation, CISL, October 1969.

A document that provides the prospective Multics FORTRAN user with
  sufficient information to enable him to create and execute FORTRAN
  programs on Multics. It contains a complete definition of the Multics
  FORTRAN language as well as a description of the FORTRAN command and
  error messages. It also describes how to communicate with non-FORTRAN
  programs and discusses some of the fundamental characteristics of
  Multics that affect the FORTRAN user. 68 pages. -- Organick

* Freiburghouse, R. A., The Multics PL/1 compiler, Proc 1969 FJCC, 187-
  199, 1969.

Description of the Multics version 1 PL/I compiler implementation.

* Freiburghouse, R. A., Register allocation via usage counts, Commun. ACM
  17, Issue 11, November 1974.

This paper introduces the notion of usage counts, shows how usage counts
  can be developed by algorithms that eliminate redundant computations,
  and describes how usage counts can provide the basis for register
  allocation. The paper compares register allocation based on usage
  counts to other commonly used register allocation techniques, and
  presents evidence which shows that the usage count technique is
  significantly better than these other techniques.

* Frenkel, K. A., An interview with Fernando Jose Corbato, Commun. ACM 34
  No. 9, September 1991.

* Friesen, O. D., and J. A. Weeldreyer, Multics Integrated Data Store: An
  Implementation of a Network Data Base Manager Utilizing Relational Data
  Base Methodology, Proc 11th Hawaii Intl Conf on System Sciences, Vol 1,
  pp. 67-84, 1978.

* Friesen, O. D., N.S. Davids, and R. E. Brinegar, MRDS/LINUS: System
  Evaluation, in Relational Database Systems: Analysis and Comparison, J.
  W. Schmidt and M. L. Brodie, eds., Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1983.

* Gasser, M., A Random Word Generator for Pronouncable Passwords, MTR-
  3006, The Mitre Corporation, Bedford, MA 01730, ESD-TR-75-97, HQ
  Electronic Systems Division, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731. 1975. NTIS AD A
  017676

* Gasser, M., S. R. Ames, and L. J. Chmura, Test Procedures for Multics
  Security Enhancements, Mitre Corp., Bedford, Mass., NTIS, December
  1976.

(also available as DTIC AD-A034986)

* Gasser, M., Top Level Specification of a Security Kernel for Multics
  Front-End Processor, MTR-3269, Mitre Corp., Bedford, Mass., November
  1977.

* Gifford, D., Hardware Estimation of a Process's Primary Memory
  Requirements, Commun. ACM 20, 9, September 1977.

A minor hardware extension to the Honeywell 6180 processor is
  demonstrated to allow the primary memory requirements of a process in
  Multics to be approximated. The additional hardware required for this
  estimate to be computed consists of a program accessible register
  containing the miss rate of the associative memory used for page table
  words. This primary memory requirement estimate was employed in an
  experimental version of Multics to control the level of
  multiprogramming in the system and ...

* Gilson, J. R., Security and Integrity Procedures., Honeywell
  Information Systems Inc, Mclean Va, Federal Systems Operations, 21
  pages, F19628-74-C-0193, ESD TR-76-294. NTIS ADA040328

This report covers the procedures required to protect critical phases of
  the design, development, and certification of a secure Multics.
  Involved is protection of the security kernel software from
  unauthorized alteration or sabotage. The facilities of the Government
  Information Security Program are applied. The program includes
  protection of a security kernel for Multics and a security kernel for
  the Secure Communications Processor.

* Glaser, Edward L., A brief description of privacy measures in the
  Multics operating system, Proc AFIPS 1967 SJCC, pp 303-304. 1967.

The problem of maintaining information privacy in a multi-user, remote-
  access system is quite complex. Hopefully, without going into detail,
  some idea can be given of the mechanisms that have been used in the
  Multics operating system at MIT.

* Glaser, E. L., J. F. Couleur, and G. A. Oliver, System design of a
  computer for time-sharing applications, AFIPS Conf Proc 27, 197-202,
  1965.

In the late spring and early summer of 1964 it became obvious that
  greater facility in the computing system was required if time-sharing
  techniques were to move from the state of an interesting pilot
  experiment into that of a useful prototype for remote access computer
  systems. Investigation proved computers that were immediately available
  could not be adapted readily to meet the difficult set of requirements
  time-sharing places on any machine. However, there was one system that
  appeared to be extendible into what was desired. This machine was the
  General Electric 635.

* Gligor, Virgil D., Some thoughts on denial-of-service problems,
  University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 16 Sept. 1982.

* Goldstein, R. C., and A. L. Strnad, The MacAIMS Data Management System,
  ACM SIGFIDET, Houston TX, 1970. 963K

* Graham, R. M., Protection in an information processing utility, Commun.
  ACM 11, 5, 365-369, May 1968.

* Graham, Robert M., Gerald J. Clancy, and David B. DeVaney, A software
  design and evaluation system, Commun. ACM 16, 2, 110,116, Feb 1973.

* Green, Paul, An implementation of SEAL on Multics., S. B. Thesis,
  Department of Electrical Engineering, M. I. T., Cambridge, May, 1973.

* Greenberg, B. S., Multics Emacs: an experiment in computer interaction,
  Proc Fourth Honeywell Software Conf, March 1980.

* Greenberg, B. S., Prose and CONS (Multics Emacs: production text-
  processing in Lisp), Report on the 1980 LISP Conference, August 1980.

This paper addresses the choice of Lisp as the implementation language,
  and its consequences, including some of the implementation issues. The
  detailed history of Multics Emacs, its system-level design
  considerations, and its impact on Multics and its user community are
  discussed in [Greenberg]. One of the immediate and profound
  consequences of this choice has been to assert Lisp's adequacy, indeed,
  superiority, as a full-fledged systems and applications programming
  language. Multics Emacs ...

* Greenberg, B. S., "Multics Emacs: The History, Design and
  Implementation", 1979.

Multics Emacs is a video-oriented text preparation and editing system
  running on Honeywell's Multics system, being distributed as an
  experimental offering in Multics Release 7.0. From the viewpoint of
  Multics, it represents the first video-management software to be
  implemented, the first time character-at-a-time-interaction has been
  used, and a radical and complete departure from other editing and text
  preparation tools and techniques prevalent on Multics.

* Greenberg, B. S., The Multics MACLISP Compiler. The Basic Hackery. A
  tutorial, 1977.

If you are not already familiar with LISP, in some detail, including the
  traditional implementations and value/object issues, you probably
  should not be reading this.

* Greenberg, B. S., and S. H. Webber, The Multics Multilevel Paging
  Hierarchy, Proc 1975 IEEE Intercon, 1975.

* Greenberger, Martin, The Computers of Tomorrow, Atlantic Monthly, May
  1964.

In the past two decades, thousands of computers have been applied
  successfully in various industries. How much more widespread will their
  use become? Martin Greenberger, who is associate professor at the
  School of Industrial Management of M.I.T., has been working with
  computers for fourteen years.

* Grochow, J. M., MOO in Multics, Software -- Practice and Experience 2,
  303-308, 1972. 179K

PL/I source is online.

* Grochow, J. M., Real-time graphic display of time-sharing system
  operating characteristics, AFIPS Conf Proc 35 (1969 FJCC), AFIPS Press,
  pp. 379-385, 1969.

* Gumpertz, Richard Henry, The Design and Fabrication of an ARPA Network
  Interface, Bachelor of Science thesis, M. I. T. Department of
  Electrical Engineering, July 1973.

* Gunson, Alison, Directory of library software for microcomputers:
  Design and implementation of a STATUS database, and hardcopy output
  using the Multics Wordpro system, ASIN: B0000CHIWC.

* Haggett, Allan G., John R. McFadden, and Peter R. Newsted, Naive user
  behavior in a restricted interactive command environment, ACM SIGSOC
  Bulletin, Volume 13, Issue 2-3, p 139 1982. ISBN:0-89791-064-8

Results are reported showing the changing pattern of command use by
  introductory business data processing students. Using the ability of
  the University of Calgary's Honeywell Multics Operating System to
  tailor a command and response environment, a subset of commands and
  responses (called GENIE) was set up in a user-friendly environment to
  facilitate novice students programming at CRT terminals. Frequency and
  time of usage of all commands was metered and changing patterns of
  usage emerged as the semester progressed. For example, "help" usage --
  which was originally quite extensive and broad -- limited itself over
  time to questions only about specific topics. Reluctance to use an
  "audit" facility to capture an interactive session disappeared as the
  commands for such usage were likened to a movie camera taking pictures
  over a student's shoulder. It is further noted that specific emphasis
  was placed on simplifying commands and reducing options.The whole idea
  of a restricted command environment is compared to the "abstract
  machine" concept of Hopper, Kugler, and Unger who are building a
  universal command and response language (NICOLA, a NIce Standard
  COmmand LAnguage). GENIE is seen as an example of what such an abstract
  machine could be if the Multics operating system were viewed as a basic
  or "parent" abstract machine. Interactive environments such as Multics
  provides are viewed as essential to providing a satisfactory
  timesharing system for the various, but frequently intermittent uses,
  in the social sciences.

* Hebalkar, Prakash Gurunath, Asynchronous cooperative multiprocessing
  within MULTICS., S.M. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering,
  M.I.T., June 1968.

* Henderson, H., and Elliott I. Organick, Considerations in the Design of
  an XDS Sigma 7 Multics, University of Texas, Department of Computer
  Science, September, 1969. NTIS AD0713477

* Henningan, K. B., Hardware Subverter for the Honeywell 6180, MTR-3280,
  Dec. 1976, pp. 1-222. 1976. ESD-TR-76-352

(also available as DTIC AD-A034221)

* Hilton, Jarvis Gene, Instructional data base development using MULTICS
  relational data store, Thesis (M.B.A.)--San Diego State University,
  1978..

* Hinke, Thomas H., and Marvin Schaefer, Secure Data Management System.,
  System Development Corp, Santa Monica Calif, 197 pages, SDC-TM-(L)-
  5407/007/00, F30602-74-C-0258, RADC TR-75-266. NTIS ADA019201

This report describes the design of a Secure Data Management System (DMS)
  that is to operate on a Secure MULTICS Operating System Kernel. The DMS
  achieves its security by mapping its data base into the security
  structure provided by the operating system, with the result that the
  DMS need contain no security enforcement code. The logical view chosen
  for the DMS is the relational view of data.

* Honeywell, Prototype Secure MULTICS Specification, Preliminary draft,
  Honeywell Information Systems Inc., Mclean Va Federal Systems
  Operations, January 1976. NTIS AD-A055 166/3

* Honeywell, Multics Security Kernel Certification Plan, Honeywell
  Information Systems Inc Mclean Va Federal Systems Operations, July
  1976. NTIS AD-A055 171/3

* Ikeda, Katsuo, Structure of a computer utility: anatomy of Multics, (in
  Japanese), 2nd ed, Shokoda Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan, 1976.

* Iuorno, Normand, Rzepka, Kobziar, LaMonica, Douglas White, and
  McCauley, RADC/MULTICS evaluation, May 1971. RADC-TR-71-121

* Janson, Phillippe A., Dynamic linking and environment initialization in
  a multi-domain process, ACM 5th Symposium on Operating System
  Principles, 1975.

As part of an effort to engineer a security kernel for Multics, the
  dynamic linker has been removed from the domain of the security kernel.
  The resulting implementation of the dynamic linking function requires
  minimal security kernel support and is consistent with the principle of
  least privilege. In the course of the project, the dynamic linker was
  found to implement not only a linking function, but also an environment
  initialization function for executing procedures. This report presents
  ...

* Janson, P. A., Using Type-Extension to Organize Virtual-Memory
  Mechanisms, Operating Systems Review, Vol 15 #4 (October 1981) pages 6-
  38.

* Jarvis, J. E., The many faces of Multics, 1973.

* Jones, Malcolm M. et al., The SIMPL Primer, Oct 1971.

* Jones, Malcolm M., On-line simulation, ACM CSC-ER, Proc 22d National
  Conference, 1967.

An on-line simulation system allows both the user and the computer to
  cooperate and share the task of performing the simulation. It does this
  by providing facilities for the user to interact with the computer so
  that they may both play active roles in the simulation process as it is
  occurring. Thus, the user may perform some of the simulation functions
  himself and the computer performs the remaining ones. Alternately, the
  user may act only as a monitor and observe, verify and record data or
  modify and redirect the simulation when it strays erroneously from the
  desired path. A second feature of an on-line simulation system is that
  it may allow the actual phenomenon being simulated to become a part of
  the simulation.

* Jordan, D. M., Multics Data Security, Scientific Honeyweller 2, 2, June
  1981.

* Kanodia, R. K., Performance improvement in ARPANET file transfers from
  Multics, Nov 1974. RFC 662

* Kaplow, Roy, David Schneider, Franklin C. Smith, and William R.
  Stensrud, Computer assistance for writing interactive programs,
  Proceedings of the 1973 annual ACM conference, August 1973.

In this paper, we describe an on-line and interactive programming system,
  TICS(1) (for Teacher-Interactive Computer System), which is aimed at
  facilitating the authoring of interactive computer programs. The system
  includes particular features for creating instructional software, and
  in that application it is intended for direct use by teachers or other
  persons whose expertise lies in the subject matter being addressed, but
  not necessarily in computer programming. ...

* Karger, Paul A., The Lattice Security Model In A Public Computing
  Network, ACM CSC-ER, Proc 1987 National Conference, December 1978.

This paper defines the lattice security model and shows it to be useful
  in private sector applications of decentralized computer networks. It
  examines discretionary security models and shows them to be inadequate
  to protect against 'Trojan Horse' attacks. It examines the management
  of large security lattices and proposes solutions to the proliferation
  of categories problem.

* Karger, Paul A., and Roger R. Schell, Multics security evaluation:
  vulnerability anaysis, ESD-TR-74-193, Vol 2, Electronic Systems
  Division, USAF, June 1974. NTIS AD-A001 120/5

A security evaluation of Multics for potential use as a two-level
  (Secret/Top Secret) system in the Air Force Data Services Center
  (AFDSC) is presented. An overview is provided of the present
  implementation of the Multics Security controls. The reports then
  details the results of a penetration exercise of Multics on the HIS 645
  computer. In addition, preliminary results of a penetration excise of
  Multics on the new HIS 6180 computer are presented. The report
  concludes that Multics as implemented today is not certifiably secure
  and cannot be used in an open use multi-level system. However, the
  Multics security design principles are significantly better than other
  contemporary systems. Thus, Multics as implemented today, can be used
  in a benign Secret/Top Secret environment. In addition, Multics forms a
  base from which a certifiably secure open use multi-level system can be
  developed.

* Karger, Paul A., New Methods for Immediate Revocation, in: Proc 1989
  IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland, California, USA: IEEE
  Computer Society, pp 48-55, May, 1989.

* Karger, Paul A., An Implementation of XPL for Multics, SB thesis, June
  1972, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Cambridge, MA..

* Karger, Paul A., and Roger R. Schell, Thirty Years Later: Lessons from
  the Multics Security Evaluation, Proc ACSAC 2002. IBM Research Report
  RC22534.

Almost thirty years ago a vulnerability assessment of Multics identified
  significant vulnerabilities, despite the fact that Multics was more
  secure than other contemporary (and current) computer systems.
  Considerably more important than any of the individual design and
  implementation flaws was the demonstration of subversion of the
  protection mechanism using malicious software (e.g., trap doors and
  Trojan horses). A series of enhancements were suggested that enabled
  Multics to serve in a relatively benign environment. These included
  addition of "Mandatory Access Controls" and these enhancements were
  greatly enabled by the fact the Multics was designed from the start for
  security. However, the bottom-line conclusion was that "restructuring
  is essential" around a verifiable "security kernel" before using
  Multics (or any other system) in an open environment (as in today's
  Internet) with well-motivated professional attacks employing
  subversion. The lessons learned from the vulnerability assessment are
  highly applicable today as governments and industry strive
  (unsuccessfully) to "secure" today's weaker operating systems through
  add-ons, "hardening", and intrusion detection schemes.

* King, Jane, and William A. Shelly, A Family History of Honeywell's
  Large-Scale Computer Systems, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
  Vol. 19, No. 4, October/ December 1997. Dec 1997.

* Klensin, John Conrad, The Consistent System, Multics version: Handbook
  of programs and data, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory
  of Architecture and Planning, 1978.

* Koch, R. D., TMPLOT -- Transverse Mercator Plot Program for Multics,
  U.S. Geological Survey (1980).

* Kork, John O., Modifications of the IBM Personal Computer Asynchronous
  Communications Support programs for use with the Multics, U.S.
  Geological Survey, 1983.

* Lackey, R. D., Penetration of Computer Systems, an Overview, Honeywell
  Computer Journal 8, 2, 1974.

* Lahr, J. C., HYPOELLIPSE/MULTICS: A computer program for determining
  local earthquake hypocentral parameters, magnitude, and first-motion
  pattern, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-59, 59 p..

* Lahr, John C., SQUASH/MULTICS: A computer program to be used in
  conjunction with HYPOELLIPSE to generate an augmented phase data
  archive, U.S. Geological Survey, 1980.

* Landwehr, Carl E., The Best Available Technologies for Computer
  Security, IEEE Computer 16(7) pp.86-100, July 1983.

* Landwehr, Carl E., Alan R. Bull, John P. McDermott, and William S.
  Choi, A taxonomy of computer program security flaws, ACM Computing
  Surveys 26, 3, 211-254. Sept. 1994.

An organized record of actual flaws can be useful to computer system
  designers, programmers, analysts, administrators, and users. This
  survey provides a taxonomy for computer program security flaws, with an
  Appendix that documents 50 actual security flaws. These flaws have all
  been described previously in the open literature, but in widely
  separated places. For those new to the field of computer security, they
  provide a good introduction to the characteristics of security flaws
  and how they ...

* Lee, J. A. N., The Rise and Fall of the General Electric Corporation
  Computer Department, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Vol. 17,
  No. 4: Winter 1995, pp. 24-45. 1995.

The computer department of the General Electric Corporation began with
  the winning of a single contract to provide a special purpose computer
  system to the Bank of America, and expanded to the development of a
  line of upward compatible machines in advance of the IBM System/360 and
  whose descendants still exist in 1995, to a highly successful time-
  sharing service, and to a process control business. Over the objections
  of the executive officers of the Company the computer department
  strived to become the number two in the industry, but after fifteen
  years, to the surprise of many in the industry, GE sold the operation
  and got out of the competition to concentrate on other products that
  had a faster turn around on investment and a well established first or
  second place in their industry. This paper looks at the history of the
  GE computer department and attempts to draw some conclusions regarding
  the reasons why this fifteen year venture was not more successful,
  while recognizing that there were successful aspects of the operation
  that could have balanced the books and provided necessary capital for a
  continued business.

* Lee, J. A. N., and George E. Snively, The Rise and Sale of the General
  Electric Corporation Computer Department, IEEE Annals of the History of
  Computing April-June 2000 (vol. 22 no. 2) pp. 53-60..

This article is a follow-up and extension of the first author&apso;s 1995
  Annals article entitled, "The Rise and Fall of the General Electric
  Corporation Computer Department." It is divided into three parts: a
  study of the financial implications of rental versus sales in the
  larger GE environment, a collection of differing views with respect to
  the GE management paradigm and its effect on the Computer Department,
  and a set of corrections to the original article.

* Lipari, Charles A., An intelligent temperature monitor-control system
  for the University of Southwestern Louisiana Multics machine room,
  Thesis USL, 1978.

* Lipner, S. B., Computer security research and development requirements,
  MITRE Corp, Bedford MA, February 1973. MTP-142

* Lipner, Steven B., A comment on the confinement problem, Proc 5th
  symposium on Operating systems principles, November 1975.

* Lively, Mark Beirne, Time aspects of paging on MULTICS., MIT thesis,
  1971.

52 pages

* Loepere, Keith, Resolving covert channels within a B2 class secure
  system, ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Volume 19 Issue 3, July
  1985.

For a secure computer system in the B2, B3 and A1 classes (as defined by
  the DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria), the problem of
  confining a process such that it may not transmit information in
  violation of the *-property is an analyzable and solvable problem.This
  paper examines the problem of covert channels and attempts to analyze
  and resolve them relative to satisfying the B2 security requirements. A
  novel solution developed for the Multics computer system for a class of
  covert channels is presented.

* Loepere, Keith, The covert channel limiter revisited, ACM SIGOPS
  Operating Systems Review, Volume 23 Issue 2, April 1989.

In a previous article, I introduced the idea of a mechanism (the covert
  channel limiter) that would watch for the potential uses of covert
  channels and affect the responsible process (or process group) only
  when such potential uses exceeded the allowable bandwidth for covert
  channels. Recent work involving the design of the Opus operating system
  (target class B3) has refined and extended this idea. This paper
  extends the informal basis for the covert channel limiter and extends
  its possible utility.

* Lorho, Bernard, Semantic attributes processing in the system DELTA,
  Lecture Notes In Computer Science; Vol. 47, Symposium on Methods of
  Algorithmic Language Implementation, Springer-Verlag, London, UK, 1975.
  ISBN:3-540-08065-1

* Lucas, Henry C., An on-line user information facility for the Multics-
  time-sharing system (Project MAC), Massachusetts Institute of
  Technology Project MAC (1967).

textbookland.com lists the price for this report as 10 trillion dollars.

* Mackenzie, Donald, and Garrel Pottinger, Mathematics, Technology, and
  Trust: Formal Verification, Computer Security, and the U.S. Military,
  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Vol. 19, No. 3: JULY-SEPTEMBER
  1997, pp. 41-59. Sept 1997.

A distinctive concern in the U.S. military for computer security dates
  from the emergence of time-sharing systems in the 1960s. This paper
  traces the subsequent development of the idea of a "security kernel"
  and of the mathematical modeling of security, focusing in particular on
  the paradigmatic Bell-LaPadula model. The paper examines the
  connections between computer security and formal, deductive
  verification of the properties of computer systems. It goes on to
  discuss differences between the cultures of communications security and
  computer security, the bureaucratic turf war over security, and the
  emergence and impact of the Department of Defense's Trusted Computer
  System Evaluation Criteria (the so-called Orange Book), which
  effectively took its final form in 1983. The paper ends by outlining
  the fragmentation of computer security since the Orange Book was
  written.

* Mainnikko, Sirkku, Multics in the computer world, Master's thesis in
  social anthropology.

* Margulies, Benson I., Security in a Multics environment, USA: Auerbach
  Publishers Inc. Honeywell Information Systems, 1985.

* Margulies, B I, An overview of Multics security, Proc 2nd IFIP
  international conference on Computer security, Dec 1984.

* Mark, Robert K., User oriented, interactive Multics computer programs
  to create grid cell, contour, and perspective maps using Surface
  Display Library, U.S. Geological Survey, 1981.

* Martin, Thomas Joseph, A performance analysis of the relational data
  management system, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of
  Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Thesis. 1976. B.S., 1976.

* McCarthy, J., A time-sharing operator program for our projected IBM
  709, M. I. T. Computation Center memo, 1959.

* McClure, R. M., TMG -- a syntax directed compiler, Proc 20th ACM
  National Conf, 262-274, 1965.

* McGee, R. C., My Adventures with Dwarfs: A Personal History in
  Mainframe Computers, unpublished manuscript.

The book is a slice through the history of those mainframe machines as
  experienced by the author.

* McGibbon, Thomas L., MULTICS Long Waveform Analysis System., Pattern
  Analysis and Recognition Corp Rome N Y, 551 pages, PAR-78-28, F30602-
  77-C-0090, RADC TR-78-218. NTIS ADA062111

The objective of the research described in this report was the
  development and software implementation of a Long Waveform Analysis
  System (WAVES) on the Honeywell 6180 Computer System running under the
  MULTICS operating System. The currently operational WAVES System is an
  open-ended and flexible system for primary use in feature definition
  and extraction and, as such, serves as a front-end to the MULTICS
  version of OLPARS (On-Line Pattern Analysis and Recognition System).
  The development of computer-based interactive feature definition and
  pattern classification systems has been a continuing program at Rome
  Air Development Center since 1968. This long standing effort has
  resulted in the implementation of OLPARS, IFES (the Image Feature
  Extraction System), IDRS (the Interactive Digital Receiver Simulator
  System), and WPS (the Waveform Processing System). WAVES represents a
  furtherance of this continuing effort and a logical expansion and
  improvement of currently available waveform analysis and feature
  definition systems.

* McRae, J. R., and W. Y. Svrcek, Honeywell Multics: an approach to
  simplify use of an interactive simulation language, Proc. 1983 Summer
  Comp. Simul. Conf., 1983, vol. 1, pp. 31-39.

The simulation of continuous systems, simulation languages in general and
  CSSLIV in particular are discussed briefly, followed by a description
  of the attempts made to create a more user friendly environment for the
  CSSLIV implementation on the Honeywell Multics system at the University
  of Calgary.

* Michelsen, Christie D., Wayne D. Dominick, and Joseph E. Urban, A
  methodology for the objective evaluation of the user/system interfaces
  of the MADAM system using software engineering principles, Proceedings
  of the 18th annual Southeast regional conference, Tallahassee, Florida,
  pp 103 - 109. ISBN:0-89791-014-1

* Montgomery, W. A., Measurements of Sharing in Multics, ACM Operating
  Systems Review 11, 5, Proc ACM 6th SOSP, West Lafayette, IN, November
  1977.

There are many good arguments for implementing information systems as
  distributed systems. These arguments depend on the extent to which
  interactions between machines in the distributed implementation can be
  minimized. Sharing among users of a computer utility is a type of
  interaction that may be difficult to provide in a distributed system.
  This paper defines a number of parameters that can be used to
  characterize such sharing. This paper reports measurements that were
  made on ...

* Morgan, D., The Multics System, IEEE Trans on Communications 21 10, Oct
  1973, pp 1166-1167.

(A book review of Organick's book.) "The miracle is that it works and
  provides a level of service sufficient for customers of Honeywell to
  buy it and M.I.I users to use it. Nevertheless, there must be a better
  way to achieve an information utility than such a complex system as
  Multics."

* Mullen, R. E., Automated merging of software modifications, Proc
  Honeywell Software Productivity Symposium, April 1977.

Parallel modification of software modules by different programming teams
  is an inherent problem of large scale system software efforts. In the
  Multics Project experiment and analysis have lead to the development of
  an interactive program, merge_ascii, which competently merges related
  texts.

* Nandigam, Jagadeesh, EMT : an interactive expert system for Multics
  tuning, Thesis USL, 1987.

* NCSC staff, Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation
  Criteria, the "Orange Book", December 1985. DOD 5200.28-STD

The trusted computer system evaluation criteria defined in this document
  classify systems into four broad hierarchical divisions of enhanced
  security protection. They provide a basis for the evaluation of
  effectiveness of security controls built into automatic data processing
  system products. The criteria were developed with three objectives in
  mind: (a) to provide users with a yardstick with which to assess the
  degree of trust that can be placed in computer systems for the secure
  processing of classified or other sensitive information; (b) to provide
  guidance to manufacturers as to what to build into their new, widely-
  available trusted commercial products in order to satisfy trust
  requirements for sensitive applications; and (c) to provide a basis for
  specifying security requirements in acquisition specifications. Two
  types of requirements are delineated for secure processing: (a)
  specific security feature requirements and (b) assurance requirements.
  Some of the latter requirements enable evaluation personnel to
  determine if the required features are present and functioning as
  intended. The scope of these criteria is to be applied to the set of
  components comprising a trusted system, and is not necessarily to be
  applied to each system component individually. Hence, some components
  of a system may be completely untrusted, while others may be
  individually evaluated to a lower or higher evaluation class than the
  trusted product considered as a whole system. In trusted products at
  the high end of the range, the strength of the reference monitor is
  such that most of the components can be completely untrusted. Though
  the criteria are intended to be application-independent, the specific
  security feature requirements may have to be interpreted when applying
  the criteria to specific systems with their own functional
  requirements, applications or special environments (e.g.,
  communications processors, process control computers, and embedded
  systems in general). The underlying assurance requirements can be
  applied across the entire spectrum of ADP system or application
  processing environments without special interpretation.

* Neumann, P. G., The role of motherhood in the pop art of system
  programming, Proc Second ACM SOSP, October 1969.

Numerous papers and conference talks have recently been devoted to the
  affirmation or reaffirmation of various common-sense principles of
  computer program design and implementation, particularly with respect
  to operating systems ad to large subsystems such as language
  translators. These principles are nevertheless little observed in
  practice, often to the detriment of the resulting systems. This paper
  attempts to summarize the most significant principles, to evaluate
  their applicability in the real world of large multi-access systems,
  and to assess how they can be used more effectively.

* Neumann, P. G., R. J. Feiertag, K. N, Levitt, and L. Robinson, Software
  Development and Proofs of Multi-Level Security, ICSE, 1976.

This paper summarizes current research at SRI aimed at developing secure
  operating systems and verifying certain critical properties of these
  systems. It is seen that proofs of design properties can be relatively
  straightforward when the design is specified in suitable formal
  specification language. These proofs demonstrate the correspondence
  between the desired properties and a specification of the system
  design. Various on-line tools aid considerably in this process. In
  addition, correctness proofs for implementations of such systems are
  now feasible, because of both various theoretical advances and the use
  of supporting tools.

* Oke, Tom, Multics Through the Looking Glass, HLSUA Formu XXXI, October
  1980.

This paper deals with some of the problems encountered at The University
  of Calgary during the tuning and optimization of system performance. It
  presents some of the characteristics to be found in both the scheduling
  system and the virtual memory environment of Multics, and attempts to
  put forward a heuristic model of system action to permit a tuner to
  improve performance.

* Oldfield, Homer R., King of the Seven Dwarfs: General Electric's
  Ambiguous Challenge to the Computer Industry, IEEE Computer Society,
  May 1996. ISBN 0818673834

* O'Neill, Judy E., 'Prestige Luster' and 'Snow-Balling Effects': IBM's
  Development of Computer Time-Sharing, IEEE Annals of the History of
  Computing Vol. 17, No. 2: Summer 1995, pp. 50-54. 1995.

In the middle 1960s IBM responded to pressure from its most prestigious
  customers to hasten the development and availability of computer time-
  sharing systems. When MIT and Bell Laboratories chose General Electric
  computers for their new time-sharing system, IBM management feared that
  the ?prestige luster? of these customers would lead other customers to
  demand the same capabilities and that there would be a ?snow-balling?
  effect as more customers rejected IBM computers. IBM worked on a time-
  sharing product and brought it to market by the end of the decade
  despite greater-than-expected costs. Meanwhile MIT, Bell Laboratories,
  and GE worked together on a new time-sharing system known as Multics.
  By examining IBM?s role in and response to the development of time-
  sharing, this article illustrates the nontechnological criteria that
  even high-technology companies use to decide what products to develop
  and market.

* Organick, E. I., The Multics System: An Examination of its Structure,
  M. I. T. Press, Cambridge MA, 1972. ISBN 0-262-15012-3

Multics as it was in the 60s. Reprint available from M. I. T. Press.

This volume provides an overview of the Multics system developed at
  M.I.T.--a time-shared, general purpose utility like system with third-
  generation software. The advantage that this new system has over its
  predecessors lies in its expanded capacity to manipulate and file
  information on several levels and to police and control access to data
  in its various files. On the invitation of M.I.T.'s Project MAC,
  Elliott Organick developed over a period of years an explanation of the
  workings, concepts, and mechanisms of the Multics system. This book is
  a result of that effort, and is approved by the Computer Systems
  Research Group of Project MAC.

In keeping with his reputation as a writer able to explain technical
  ideas in the computer field clearly and precisely, the author develops
  an exceptionally lucid description of the Multics system, particularly
  in the area of "how it works." His stated purpose is to serve the
  expected needs of designers, and to help them "to gain confidence that
  they are really able to exploit the system fully, as they design
  increasingly larger programs and subsystems."

The chapter sequence was planned to build an understanding of
  increasingly larger entities. From segments and the addressing of
  segments, the discussion extends to ways in which procedure segments
  may link dynamically to one another and to data segments. Subsequent
  chapters are devoted to how Multics provides for the solution of
  problems, the file system organization and services, and the segment
  management functions of the Multics file system and how the user may
  employ these facilities to advantage. Ultimately, the author builds a
  picture of the life of a process in coexistence with other processes,
  and suggests ways to model or construct subsystems that are far more
  complex than could be implemented using predecessor computer
  facilities.

This volume is intended for the moderately well informed computer user
  accustomed to predecessor systems and familiar with some of the Multics
  overview literature. While not intended as a definitive work on this
  living, ever-changing system, the book nevertheless reflects Multics as
  it has been first implemented, and should reveal its flavor, structure
  and power for some time to come.

* Ossanna, J. F., and J. H. Saltzer, Technical and human engineering
  problems in connecting terminals to a time-sharing system, AFIPS Conf
  Proc 37 (1970 FJCC), 355-362, 1970.

* Ossanna, J. F., L. Mikus, and S. D. Dunten, Communications and input-
  output switching in a multiplexed computing system, AFIPS Conf Proc 27,
  231-242, 1965.

This paper discusses the general communications and input/output
  switching problems in a large-scale multiplexed computing system.

* Padlipsky, M. A., New Multics network software features, Nov 1972. RFC
  411

* Padlipsky, M. A., Multics sampling timeout change, Feb 1973. RFC 450

* Padlipsky, M. A., Multics address change, Nov 1973. RFC 590

* Pandolf, MA, Implementing Forth for the multics operating system,
  Journal of FORTH Application and Research archive Volume 3 , Issue 2
  1986.

* Perron, Richard Theodore, Establishing a data channel between Multics
  and a communications processor., Thesis MIT, 1971.

36 pages

* Peterson, John Raymond, Contour model in Multics, Massachusetts
  Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer
  Science. Thesis. 1975. B.S..

* Podlaska-Lando, S., Implementation and evaluation of interval
  arithmetic software: Report 2: The Honeywell MULTICS System, Technical
  report - U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 1979. NTIS
  B0006X47Z0

This is Report 2 of a series entitled Implementation and Evaluation of
  Interval Arithmetic Software. Interval arithmetic can be used to
  determine the precision of the arithmetic required to guarantee a given
  precision in the results of an algorithm. In general, whether using
  interval or regular arithmetic, the greater the precision the longer
  the run time required for a given algorithm. A 56 decimal digit version
  of the original MULTICS interval package was implemented on the MULTICS
  system. It is concluded that the use of single precision and 56 decimal
  digit extended precision interval arithmetic can, at times, be
  extremely useful. The testing showed that, when using the 56 decimal
  digit data type, much better bounds were obtained for the results than
  when using the single precision interval data type.

* Pozzo, M. M., Life Cycle Assurance for Trusted Computer Systems: a
  Configuration Management Strategy for Multics, 7th DOD/NBS Computer
  Security Conf, September 1984.

* Pugh, Emerson et al., IBMs 360 and early 370 systems, no date.

* Radin, George, The early history and characteristics of PL/I, August
  1978 SIGPLAN Notices , Volume 13 Issue 8.

Source material for a written history of PL/I has been preserved and is
  available in dozens of cartons, each packed with memos, evaluations,
  language control logs, etc. A remembered history of PL/I is retrievable
  by listening to as many people, each of whom was deeply involved in one
  aspect of its progress. This paper is an attempt to gather together and
  evaluate what I and some associates could read and recall in a few
  months. There is enough material left for several dissertations. The
  exercise is important, I think, not only because of the importance of
  PL/I, but because of the breadth of its subject matter. Since PL/I took
  as its scope of applicability virtually all of programming, the
  dialogues about its various parts encompass a minor history of computer
  science in the middle sixties. There are debates among numerical
  analysts about arithmetic, among language experts about syntax, name
  scope, block structure, etc., among systems programmers about multi-
  tasking, exception handling, I/O, and more.

* Ramprasad, B. S., A design and implementation of a hierarchical data
  store as a front end to Multics relational data store, Computer
  Science, University of Calgary, 1980.

114 pages

* Rautenberg, Lee Howard, A data communications tutorial and a MULTICS-
  minicomputer program transfer operating system., MIT thesis, 1972.

87 pages

* Reynolds, G. E., Multics Security Evaluation. Volume IV. Exemplary
  Performance Under Demanding Workload, Electronic Systems Div Hanscom
  AFB Mass November, 1976. NTIS AD-A038 231/7

* Ritchie, D. M., The evolution of the UNIX time-sharing system, Bell
  System Technical Journal 63, 8, Oct 1984.

This paper presents a brief history of the early development of the Unix
  operating system. It concentrates on the evolution of the file system,
  the process-control mechanism, and the idea of pipelined commands. Some
  attention is paid to social conditions during the development of the
  system.

* Ritchie, D. M., The development of the C language, ACM SIGPLAN Notices
  28, 3, 201-208 (ACM HOPL-II Conf), March 1993.

The C programming language was devised in the early 1970s as a system
  implementation language for the nascent Unix operating system. Derived
  from the typeless language BCPL, it evolved a type structure; created
  on a tiny machine as a tool to improve a meager programming
  environment, it has become one of the dominant languages of today. This
  paper studies its evolution.

* Rus, T., Data Structures and Operating Systems, John Wiley & Sons,
  Chichester, 1979.

* Sabonnadiere, J., G. Meunier, and B. Morel, FLUX: A general interactive
  finite elements package for 2D electromagnetic fields, IEEE Trans on
  Magnetics 18, 2, Mar 1982, pp 624-626.

Achievement of finite element methods leads nowadays to the development
  of general purpose packages. FLUX, developed by the Laboratoire
  d'Electrotechnique de l'Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble is
  an interactive system in which graphic facilities are combined with a
  convenient command language to allow a high level of conversationnal
  use. FLUX is made of three independant programs : a pre-precessor :
  ENTREE for geometrical, physical and finite element descriptions of the
  model, the computation processor RESOL in which equations occuring from
  finite elements are solved, and, finally EXPLOI, the post-processor for
  flux plots, field visualisation, forces and torques. FLUX is
  implemented under the conversationnal system MULTICS on the HB68
  computer of the Centre Inter-universitaire de Calcul de Grenoble. It is
  available in France through TRANSRAC, the french computer network, and
  in all western EUROPE through EURONET.

* Saltzer, J. H., A simple linear model of demand paging performance,
  Commun. ACM 17, 4, April, 1974.. Project MAC memo M0131, November 1972

Predicting the performance of a proposed automatically managed multilevel
  memory system requires a model of the patterns by which programs refer
  to the information stored in the memory. Some recent experimental
  measurements on the Multics virtual memory suggest that, for rough
  approximations, a remarkably simple program reference model will
  suffice. The simple model combines the effect of the information
  reference pattern with the effect of the automatic management algorithm
  to produce a ...

* Saltzer, J. H., and J. F. Ossanna, Remote terminal character stream
  processing in Multics, AFIPS Conf Proc 36 (1970 SJCC), 621-627, 1970.

* Saltzer, J. H., and J. W. Gintell, The instrumentation of Multics,
  Commun. ACM 13, No. 8, 495-500, August 1970.

An array of measuring tools devised to aid in the implementation of a
  prototype computer utility is discussed. These tools include special
  hardware clocks and data channels, general purpose programmed probing
  and recording tools, and specialized measurement facilities. Some
  particular measurements of interest in a system which combines demand
  paging with multiprogamming are described in detail. Where appropriate,
  insight into effectiveness (or lack thereof) of individual tools is
  provided.

* Saltzer, J. H., Protection and the control of information sharing in
  the Multics system, Commun. ACM 17, 7, July 1974.

The design of mechanisms to control the sharing of information in the
  Multics system is described. Five design principles help provide
  insight into the tradeoffs among different possible designs. The key
  mechanisms described include access control lists, hierarchical control
  of access specifications, identification and authentication of users,
  and primary memory protection. The paper ends with a discussion of
  several known weaknesses in the current protection mechanism design.

* Saltzer, J. H., and M. D. Schroeder, The protection of information in
  computer systems, Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 63, No. 9 (September
  1975), pp. 1278-1308.

(Also at Mike Schroeder's website)

This seminal paper collected and established many the of the fundamental
  principles and terms used in computer security over the last three
  decades. In addition to the eight "Saltzer/Schroeder Design Principles"
  and other basic principles of information protection in section 1, it
  provides an overview of descriptor-based protection systems in section
  2, and surveys the state of the art in section 3. Although the paper
  dates from 1974, most of it is still highly relevant to systems being
  designed today.

ABSTRACT: This tutorial paper explores the mechanics of protecting
  computer-stored information from unauthorized use or modification. It
  concentrates on those architectural structures--whether hardware or
  software--that are necessary to support information protection. The
  paper develops in three main sections. Section I describes desired
  functions, design principles, and examples of elementary protection and
  authentication mechanisms. Any reader familiar with computers should
  find the first section to be reasonably accessible. Section II requires
  some familiarity with descriptor-based computer architecture. It
  examines in depth the principles of modern protection architectures and
  the relation between capability systems and access control list
  systems, and ends with a brief analysis of protected subsystems and
  protected objects. The reader who is dismayed by either the
  prerequisites or the level of detail in the second section may wish to
  skip to Section III, which reviews the state of the art and current
  research projects and provides suggestions for further reading.

* Saltzer, J. H., Ongoing research and development on information
  protection, ACM Operating Systems Review 8, 3, pp. 8-24, July, 1974.

* Saltzer, J. H., Naming and binding of objects, in R. Bayer, R. M.
  Graham, and G. Seegmuller (eds.), Operating Systems: An Advanced
  Course, Springer Verlag, New York, 1979, pp. 99-208. [Appendix A: Case
  Study of Naming in Multics, pp. 193-208.] 1979.

* Saltzer, J. H., On the modeling of paging algorithms, ACM Forum,
  Commun. ACM 19, 5, May 1976.

* Saltzer, J. H., Technical possibilities and problems in protecting data
  in computer systems, in Dierstein et al., eds, Datenschutz und
  Datensicherung, J. P. Bachem Verlag, Cologne, 1976.

* Salus, Peter H., A Quarter Century of UNIX, Addison Wesley, 1994.

* Sawatzky, Don L., REMAPP Multics programmer's guide, Open-file report /
  U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, 1980.

* Schaefer, Marvin, If A1 is the Answer, What was the Question? An Edgy
  Naif's Retrospective on Promulgating the Trusted Computer Systems
  Evaluation Criteria, Proceedings of the 20th Annual Computer Security
  Applications Conference, 2004.

This paper provides an introspective retrospective on the history and
  development of the United States Department of Defense Trusted Computer
  System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC). Known to many as the Orange Book,
  the TCSEC contained a distillation of what many researchers considered
  to be the soundest proven principles and practices for achieving graded
  degrees of sensitive information protection on multiuser computing
  systems. While its seven stated evaluation classes were explicitly
  directed to standalone computer systems, many of its authors contended
  that its principles would stand as adequate guidance for the design,
  implementation, assurance, evaluation and certification of other
  classes of computing applications including database management systems
  and networks. The account is a personal reminiscence of the author, and
  concludes with a subjective assessment of the TCSEC's validity in the
  face of its successor evaluation criteria.

* Scheffler, Lee J., Optimal folding of a paging drum in a three level
  memory system, Proceedings of the fourth symposium on Operating system
  principles, January 1973.

This paper describes a drum space allocation and accessing strategy
  called "folding", whereby effective drum storage capacity can be traded
  off for reduced drum page fetch time. A model for the "folded drum" is
  developed and an expression is derived for the mean page fetch time of
  the drum as a function of the degree of folding. In a hypothetical
  three-level memory system of primary (directly addressable), drum, and
  tertiary (usually disk) memories, the tradeoffs among drum storage
  capacity, drum page fetch time, and page fetch traffic to tertiary
  memory are explored. An expression is derived for the mean page fetch
  time of the combined drum-tertiary memory system as a function of the
  degree of folding. Measurements of the MULTICS three-level memory
  system are presented as examples of improving multi-level memory
  performance through drum folding. A methodology is suggested for
  choosing the degree of folding most appropriate to a particular memory
  configuration.

* Schell, R. R., Effectiveness -- the Reason for a Security Kernel,
  Proceedings of the National Computer Conference, 1974, pp. 975-976.
  1974.

* Schell, Roger R., Peter J. Downey, and Gerald J. Popek, Preliminary
  Notes on the Design of Secure Military Computer Systems, The MITRE
  Corporation, Bedford, MA 01730 (Jan. 1973). MCI-73-1

The military has a heavy responsibility for protection of information in
  its shared computer systems. The military must insure the security of
  its computer systems before they are put into operational use. That is,
  the security must be "certified", since once military information is
  lost it is irretrievable and there are no legal remedies for redress.
  Most contemporary shared computer systems are not secure because
  security was not a mandatory requirement of the initial hardware and
  software design. The military has reasonably effective physical,
  communication, and personnel security, so that the nub of our computer
  security problem is the information access controls in the operating
  system and supporting hardware. We primarily need an effective means
  for enforcing very simple protection relationships, (e.g., user
  clearance level must be greater than or equal to the classification
  level of accessed information); however, we do not require solutions to
  some of the more complex protection problems such as mutually
  suspicious processes. Based on the work of people like Butler Lampson
  we have espoused three design principles as a basis for adequate
  security controls:
* Complete Mediation -- The system must provide complete mediation of
  information references, i.e., must interpose itself between any
  reference to sensitive data and accession of that data. All references
  must be validated by those portions of the system hardware and software
  responsible for security.
* Isolation -- These valid operators, a "security kernel," must be an
  isolated, tamper-proof component of the system. This kernel must
  provide a unique, protected identity for each user who generates
  references, and must protect the reference-validating algorithms.
* Simplicity -- The security kernel must be simple enough for effective
  certification. The demonstrably complete logical design should be
  implemented as a small set of simple primitive operations and system
  database structures that can be shown to be correct.

These three principles are central to the understanding of the
  deficiencies of present systems and provide a basis for critical
  examination of protection mechanisms and a method for insuring a system
  is secure. It is our firm belief that by applying these principles we
  can have secure shared systems in the next few years.

* Schiller, W. L., K. J. Biba, and E. L. Burke, A preliminary
  specification of a Multics security kernel, MITRE Corp, Bedford MA,
  April 1975. WP-20119

* Schiller, W. L., Design and Abstract Specification of a Multics
  Security Kernel, MITRE Corp Bedford MA, 1977. NTIS AD-048 576

* Schiller, W. L. et al., Top level specification of a Multics security
  kernel, MITRE Corp, Bedford MA, July 1976. WP-20810

* Schiller, W. L., Preliminary Specification of the Answering Service,
  Multics design note 33, MITRE Corp, Bedford MA, 1976.

* Schroeder, M. D., and J. H. Saltzer, A hardware architecture for
  implementing protection rings, Proc ACM Third SOSP, 42-54, October
  1971. Commun. ACM 15, 3, pp.157-170, March 1972.

Protection of computations and information is an important aspect of a
  computer utility. In a system which uses segmentation as a memory
  addressing scheme, protection can be achieved in part by associating
  concentric rings of decreasing access privilege with a computation.
  This paper describes hardware processor mechanisms for implementing
  these rings of protection. The mechanisms allow cross-ring calls and
  subsequent returns to occur without trapping to the supervisor.
  Automatic hardware ...

* Schroeder, M. D., Engineering a security kernel for Multics, ACM
  Operating Systems Review 9, 5, pp. 25-32, Proc ACM 5th SOSP, November,
  1975.

This paper describes a research project to engineer a security kernel for
  Multics, a general-purpose, remotely accessed, multiuser computer
  system. The goals are to identify the minimum mechanism that must be
  correct to guarantee computer enforcement of desired constraints on
  information access, to simplify the structure of that minimum mechanism
  to make verification of correctness by auditing possible, and to
  demonstrate by test implementation that the security kernel so
  developed is ...

* Schroeder, M. D., Performance of the GE-645 associative memory while
  Multics is in operation, Proc ACM SIGOPS Workshop on System Performance
  Evaluation, Harvard, April 1971.

* Schroeder, M. D., D. D. Clark, and J. H. Saltzer, The Multics kernel
  design project, ACM Operating Systems Review 11, 5, Proc ACM 6th SOSP,
  West Lafayette, IN, November 1977.

We describe a plan to create an auditable version of Multics. The
  engineering experiments of that plan are now complete. Type extension
  as a design discipline has been demonstrated feasible, even for the
  internal workings of an operating system, where many subtle intermodule
  dependencies were discovered and controlled. Insight was gained into
  several tradeoffs between kernel complexity and user semantics. The
  performance and size effects of this work are encouraging. We conclude
  that ...

* Sebring, Michael M., Eric W. Shellhouse, Mary E. Hanna, and R. Alan
  Whitehurst, Expert Systems in Intrusion Detection: A Case Study, Proc
  11th NCSC, Baltimore, USA: NBS/NCSC: pp.74-81, October 17, 1988.

Describes MIDAS (Multics Intrusion Detection and Alerting System).

* Sekino, A., Response time distribution of multiprogrammed time-shared
  computing systems, Sixth Annual Princeton Conf on Information Sciences
  and Systems, Princeton, March 1972.

* Shafer, Fred J., Multilevel Computer Security Requirements of the World
  Wide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS), LCD-78-106, April 5,
  1978.

The World Wide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS) is a
  composite of military command facilities, communications, warning
  systems, and computers located throughout the world to support military
  command and control activities. A followup review was conducted to
  determine whether the multilevel computer security requirements of
  WWMCCS were being properly provided for by the Department of Defense
  (DOD) and if Air Force efforts to solve this problem had been properly
  considered by DOD. At the time of the review, WWMCCS officials had not
  endorsed or supported Air Force efforts on multilevel computer security
  even though the Air Force had demonstrated a potential for resolving
  the shortcomings of WWMCCS software. However, the Air Force terminated
  its efforts to develop multilevel computer security because of
  insufficient financing. The Departments of the Army and Navy also have
  a need for multilevel security in their computerized systems and had
  been waiting for the developed capability by the Air Force. The
  apparent need for a multilevel security system and the lack of a
  concentrated effort to meet it, as well as cancellation of the Air
  Force program which showed promise of meeting this need, resulted from
  a lack of centralized responsibility and authority for development of a
  multilevel system. An office within the Office of the Secretary of
  Defense should be given budget authority and responsibility for:
  control of all computer security research and development in DOD;
  review and approval of computer security requirements for all three
  services; review and approval of all computer security specifications,
  methodologies, and procurements; and review and approval of all long-
  range plans for WWMCCS and the services.

* Sibert, Olin, mxload - Read Multics Backup Tapes, HLSUA FORUM, 1988.

* Sibert, W. Olin, and Robert W. Baldwin, The Multics encipher_
  Algorithm, Cryptologia, Volume 31, Issue 4 October 2007, pages 292 -
  304.

A fast software block encryption algorithm with a 72-bit key was written
  by (then) Major Roger R. Schell (United States Air Force) in April 1973
  and released as part of the source code for the Multics operating
  system. The design of the Multics encipher_ algorithm includes features
  such as variable data-dependent rotations that were not published until
  the 1990s - 20 years after the Multics cipher. This article describes
  the history and details of the Multics encipher_algorithm and how it
  was used for Key Generation, File Encryption, and Password Hashing. A
  cryptographic analysis of the algorithm has not been performed,
  although similarities are noted with algorithms such as XTEA, SEAL, and
  RC5.

* Spafford, Eugene H., UNIX and Security: The Influences of History,
  Information Systems Security. Auerbach Publications. 4-3. 1995.

Unix has a reputation as an operating system that is difficult to secure.
  This reputation is largely unfounded. Instead, the blame lies partially
  with the traditional use of Unix and partially with the poor security
  consciousness of its users. Unix's reputation as a nonsecure operating
  system comes not from design flaws but from practice. For its first 15
  years, Unix was used primarily in academic and computer industrial
  environments --- two places where computer security has not been a
  priority until recently. Users in these environments often configured
  their systems with lax security, and even developed philosophies that
  viewed security as something to avoid. Because they cater to this
  community, (and hire from it) many Unix vendors have been slow to
  incorporate stringent security mechanisms into their systems. This
  paper describes how the history and development of Unix can be viewed
  as the source of many serious problems. Some suggestions are made of
  approaches to help increase the security of your system, and of the
  Unix community.

* Speckman, Wendy S., Multics STATPAC user handbook: Part 2, a guide with
  examples to basic statistical programs and more advanced general
  operation, U.S. Geological Survey, 1983.

* Spicer, Robert A., MAGIC, computer programs for paleontologists
  available on MULTICS, Reports-Open file series - United States
  Geological Survey, 1980.

* Spier, M. J., and E. I. Organick, The Multics inter-process
  communication facility, Proc ACM Second SOSP, 83-91, October 1969.

* Spratt, Lindsey L., The transaction resolution journal: extending the
  before journal, ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Volume 19 Issue 3,
  July 1985.

* Stamen, Jeffrey P., and Robert M. Wallace, Janus: a data management and
  analysis system for the behavioral sciences, ACM CSC-ER, Proc 1973
  national conference, 1973.

This paper describes the Janus data management and analysis system which
  has been designed at the Cambridge Project. A prototype of Janus is
  currently running on the Multics time-sharing system at M.I.T. The data
  model for the design of Janus is very general and should be usable as a
  model for data handling in general, as well as for Janus in particular.
  The Janus command language is an English-like language based on
  procedural functions - such as define, display, and delete - which act
  on ...

* Stanke, Edward C., II, An Associative Processor Study, The RADCAP
  Project, Rept. for 1 Sep 72-30 Nov 76, Rome Air Development Center,
  Griffiss AFB N Y, Feb 1978. DTIC ADA052717

The underlying objective of the Rome Air Development Center Associative
  Processor (RADCAP) Project is to investigate solutions to data
  processing problems which strain conventional approaches due to high
  data rates and heavy processing requirements. One group of data
  processing functions, those inherent in the USAF Airborne Warning and
  Control System (AWACS, now called the E-3A), have been chosen as being
  representative of this class of problems. This report describes the
  results of a five-year project which involved the implementation of the
  AWACS functions on the RADCAP testbed system which consists of a STARAN
  S-1000P associative processor interfaced to a Honeywell Information
  Systems 645-MULTICS computer (later upgraded to a HIS 6180). Based on
  these results, the key characteristics of an associative processor to
  handle this type of problem are identified and some general conclusions
  as to the applicability of associative/parallel processing to real-
  world, real-time processing problems are drawn. The report also makes
  some general statements concerning the future of associative/parallel
  processing.

* Stein, Arthur, Processor and memory allocation in multics and TSS,
  Thesis (M.B.A.)--Bernard M. Baruch College, 1977.

* Stern, J. A., Multics Security Kernel Top Level Specification, ESD-TR-
  76-368, Honeywell Information Systems Inc Mclean Va Federal Systems
  Operations, November 1976. NTIS AD-A060 000/7

Air Force Systems Command terminated the effort which this document
  describes before the effort reached its logical conclusion. This report
  is incomplete but was published in the interest of capturing and
  disseminating the computer security technology that was available at
  the time of the termination.

* Stern, J. A., Discretionary Access Control, memo, 15 March 1976.

* Teichroew, D., A. Hershey, and S. Spewak, User Requirements Language
  (URL) User's Manual. Part I. (Description) H6180/Multics/Version 3.2.,
  Michigan Univ Ann Arbor Dept of Industrial and Operations Engineering,
  200 pages, F19628-76-C-0197, ESD TR-78-127-VOL-1. NTIS ADA054096

This report is part of a series that deals with a Computer-Aided Design
  and Specification Analysis Tool (CADSAT). The purpose of the tool is to
  describe the requirements for information processing systems and to
  record such descriptions in machine-processable form. The major
  components of CADSAT are the User Requirements Language (URL) and the
  User Requirements Analyzer (URA) which can operate in an interactive
  computer environment. This report describes how the formal URL may be
  used to define systems. It explains the language statements available,
  their use and application on a Honeywell 6180 Multics Computer.

* Teichroew, D., A. Hershey, and S. Spewak, User Requirements Language
  (URL) User's Manual. Part II. (Reference) H6180/Multics/Version 3.2.,
  Michigan Univ Ann Arbor Dept of Industrial and Operations Engineering,
  450 pages, F19628-76-C-0197. ESD TR-78-127-VOL-2

This report is part of a series that deals with a Computer-Aided Design
  and Specification Analysis Tool (CADSAT). Its purpose is to describe
  the requirements for information processing systems and to record such
  descriptions in machine-processable form. The major components of
  CADSAT are the User Requirements Language (URL) and the User
  Requirement Analyzer (URA) which can operate in an interactive computer
  environment. In parts I and II, this report describes how the formal
  URL may be used to define systems. It explains the language statements
  available, their use and application on a Honeywell 6180 Multics
  Computer. This manual describes the User Requirements Language (URL) to
  be used with Version 3.2 of the User Requirements Analyzer (URA). Part
  I gives a detailed description of the URL statements available and
  their use. Part II is a reference manual which gives the proper syntax
  for each statement.

* Turner, Richard, An interactive simulator for MATHILDA-RIKKE on
  multics: Concept, design and implementation, Computer Science Dept.,
  University of Southwestern, Louisiana, 1977.

* Van Vleck, T. H., An example of industry-university cooperation:
  Multics, Proc IRIA Tenth Anniversary Conf, Paris, June 1978.

* Van Vleck, T. H., and C. T. Clingen, Implementation of security
  concepts in a large-scale operating system, Proc Honeywell Security
  Symposium, Monaco, December 1980.

* Van Vleck, T. H., and C. T. Clingen, The Multics system programming
  process, Proc IEEE COMPCON 78, Atlanta, May 1978.

Reprinted in IEEE Tutorial on Software Maintenance, 1981. Features of the
  Multics system programming process lead to high programmer productivity
  with a small programming staff and a finished system with high software
  reliability. Other workers' predictions of increasing difficulty of
  system maintenance with time have not been observed; reasons for this
  are suggested.

* Van Vleck, T. H., Control of access to computer system resources, Proc
  IEEE COMPCON 74, San Francisco, February 1974.

* Van Vleck, T. H., The administration and management of Multics, Project
  MAC Multics Symposium, January 1971.

* Vestal, Stanley Curtis, Diane Anderson, and Henry Nirsberger,
  GCOS/Multics File Transfer Facility, Honeywell Information Systems Inc
  Minneapolis Minn, 440 pages, F30602-73-C-0327, RADC TR-75-137. NTIS
  ADA013109

Rome Air Development Center currently operates two R and D computer
  facilities: an HIS GCOS system and an HIS Multics system. Another Air
  Force site also operates both a GCOS and a Multics installation. In
  both cases, the GCOS system has preceded the Multics system by several
  years. There is thus a large GCOS user applications and data files.
  Many of these users desire to transfer these programs, applications,
  and data files from the GCOS environment to the Multics environment in
  order to take advantage of the unique design features of the Multics
  system. To facilitate this transfer, and to make the process as simple
  and easy to use as possible, Rome Air Development Center contracted
  with Honeywell Information Systems to specify, design, and implement
  procedures and software to provide an integrated capability for the
  transfer of information, programs, and procedures from the GCOS to the
  Multics environment. This technical report describes the activities
  conducted in the performance of this contract.

* Vestal, Stanley Curtis, and Henry Nirsberger, GCOS/Multics File
  Transfer Tool., Honeywell Information Systems Inc Minneapolis Minn, 157
  pages, F30602-75-C-0162, RADC TR-75-312. NTIS ADA019748

The effort described in this report consisted of enhancements to the
  GCOS/Multics File Transfer Facility which was developed under contract.
  The facility provides for the transfer of data files from the GCOS
  environment to the Multics environment. In particular, data base and
  file backup facilities, performance monitoring instrumentation, and
  Inner Ring Program/Data Protection have been added.

* Vestal, S. C., T. Krocak, H. S. Schwenk, and A. Levy, Virtual Machine
  Monitor Performance Analysis, Honeywell Information Systems Inc
  Minneapolis Minn, 178 pages, F30602-77-C-0097, RADCTR-78-251. NTIS
  ADA065087

This report describes the H6180 Virtual Machine Monitor Performance
  Analysis. Included as part of this report is a description of the
  Virtual Machine Monitor. This report also includes an approach for
  enhancing the baseline VMM functionality by use of a service machine to
  control peripheral sharing. The actual experimentation performed in
  this effort identifies the feasibility of a VMM in a Programming
  Environment and the performance tradeoffs required for its optimized
  utilization.

* Vinograd, D. R., What's a system to do? -- Assuring system data
  integrity, Proc IEEE Conf, September 1971.

* Vyssotsky, V. A., F. J. Corbato, and R. M. Graham, Structure of the
  Multics Supervisor, AFIPS Conf Proc 27, 203-212, 1965.

This paper is a preliminary report on a system which has not yet been
  implemented. Of necessity, it therefore reports on status and
  objectives rather than on performance.

* Wade, W., M. Mortara, P. Leong, and V. Frost, Interactive Communication
  Systems Simulation Model--ICSSM, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
  Communications 2, 1, Jan 1984, pp 102-128.

The design of ICSSM, a nonreal time computer-aided simulation and
  analysis tool for communications systems, is presented, ICSSM is
  capable of supporting modeling, simulation, and analysis of any system
  representable in terms of a network of multiport functional blocks. Its
  applicability is limited only by the modeler's ingenuity to decompose
  the system to functional blocks and to represent these functional
  blocks algorithmically. ICSSM has been constructed modularly,
  consisting of five subsystems to facilitate the tasks of formulating
  the model, exercising the model, evaluating and showing the simulation
  results, and storing and maintaining a library of modeling elements,
  analysis, and utility subroutines. It is written exclusively in ANSI
  Standard Fortran IV language, and is now operational in a Honeywell DPS
  7/80 M computer under the MULTICS Operating System. Description of a
  recent simulation using ICSSM and some generic moduels of general
  interest developed as a result of the modeling work are also presented.

* Waldrop, M. Mitchell, The Dream Machine: J. C. R. Licklider and the
  Revolution That Made Computing Personal, Viking Press, 2001.

The history of time-sharing and networks and ARPA's part in supporting
  the activities. It has one or two chapters which focus on CTSS and
  Multics. It also includes the saga of PARC.

* Walter, K. G., J. M. Gilligan, S. I. Schaen, W. F. Ogden, W. C. Rounds,
  D. G. Shumway, D. D. Schaeffer, K. J. Biba, F. T. Bradshaw, and S. R.
  Ames, Structured specification of a Security Kernel, Proceedings of the
  SIGPLAN international conference on Reliable software, pp 285 - 293,
  Los Angeles, California, 1975.

Certifying an entire operating system to be reliable is too large a task
  to be practicable. Instead, we are designing a Security Kernel which
  will provide information security. The kernel's job is to monitor
  information flow in order to prevent compromise of security. Sound
  design is encouraged by using a technique called Structured
  Specification, in which successively more detailed models of the
  Security Kernel are developed. The initial model, M0, is an abstract
  description which formalizes governmental security applied to computer
  systems. Subsequent levels of modeling provide increasingly more
  detail, and gradually the models begin to resemble a particular system
  (Multics in this case). The second model, M1, defines a tree-structured
  file system, and an interagent communication system while M2 adds
  details concerning segmentation in a dynamic environment. It is
  intended that the final level of modeling will specify the primitive
  commands for the kernel of a Multics-like system and will enumerate
  precisely those assertions which must be proved about the
  implementation in order to establish correctness.

* Walter, K. G., W. F. Ogden, W. C. Rounds, F. T. Bradshaw, S. R. Ames,
  and D. G. Shumway, Primitive Models for Computer Security, 23 January
  1974, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH: HQ Electronic
  Systems Division, Hanscom AFB, MA.. ESD-TR-74-117

* Watson, R., Time-Sharing System Concepts, McGraw Hill, 1970.

* Weeldreyer, J. A., and O. D. Friesen, Multics Relational Data Store: An
  Implementation of a Relational Data Base Manager, Proc 11th Hawaii Intl
  Conf on System Sciences, Vol 1, pp. 52-66. 1978.

* Weizenbaum, Pm, Creating a campus on-line news system, Proceedings of
  the 4th annual international conference on Systems documentation .

Information Systems, MIT's campus-wide computing service organization,
  recently reorganized and strengthened its resources. Out of this recent
  effort came the decision to explore several ways of reporting on the
  expanded range of systems and services we offer. One service that
  central computing facilities must provide is timely notice of changes
  to the supported systems. This paper presents the design and
  implementation of Information Systems' "On-Line News System", which
  keeps users updated about changes in the wide variety of services
  offered by Information Systems.

* Whiteside, Thomas, Computer Capers: Tales of Electronic Thievery,
  Embezzlement, and Fraud, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., NY, 1978.
  ISBN 0-690-01743-X

* Whitmore, Jerold, Andre Bensoussan, Paul Green, Douglas Hunt, Andrew
  Kobziar, and Jerry Stern, Design for Multics security enhancements, ESD
  AFSC Hanscom AFB Mass, 1974. ESD-TR-74-176

The results of a 1973 security study of the Multics Computer System are
  presented detailing requirements for a new access control mechanism
  that would allow two levels of classified data to be used
  simultaneously on a single Multics system. The access control policy
  was derived from the Department of Defense Information Security
  Program. The design decisions presented were the basis for subsequent
  security enhancements to the Multics system.

* Whitmore, J., A. Bensoussan, P. Green, D. Hunt, and A. Kobziar, Design
  for Multics Security Enhancements, Honeywell Information Systems Inc.,
  Cambridge Mass,, December 1973. NTIS AD-A030 801/5

The results of a 1973 security study of the Multics computer system are
  presented detailing requirements for a new access control mechanism
  that would allow two levels of classified data to be used
  simultaneously on a single Multics system. The access control policy
  was derived from the Department of Defense Information Security
  Program. The design decisions presented were the basis for subsequent
  security enhancements to the Multics system.

* Withington, P. T., Design and Abstract Specification of a Multics
  Security Kernel, Volume 2, MITRE Corp Bedford MA, March 1978. NTIS AD-
  A053 148/3

* Withington, P. T., A Secure Flat File System for Multics, MITRE Corp
  Bedford MA. no date.

* Wolman, B. L., Debugging PL/I programs in the Multics environment,
  AFIPS Conf Proc 41, Part I, (1972 FJCC), 507-514, AFIPS Press, 1972.

* Woodward, J. P. L., Design and Abstract Specification of a Multics
  Security Kernel. Volume 3, MITRE Corp Bedford MA, March 1978. NTIS AD-
  A053 149/1

* Yntema, Douwe B., Arthur P. Dempster, John P. Gilbert, John C. Klensin,
  Wren M. McMains, William Porter, Jeffrey P. Stamen, and Raymond A.
  Wiesen, The Cambridge Project's Consistent System, Proceedings of the
  ACM annual conference, August 1972.

One of the main goals of the Cambridge Project is a Consistent System of
  programs, data, and models for use in the behavioral sciences. A
  framework for the System has been constructed on the Multics time-
  sharing system at M.I.T., and a collection of programs has begun to
  accumulate within it. This session will be devoted to that framework
  and to three examples of subsystems that are being fitted into it. They
  will be described briefly, and the reasons why they are expected to be
  ...

* Yntema, Douwe B., The Cambridge Project: Computer Methods for Analysis
  and Modeling of Complex Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
  AD-783 626, pp. 1-29 , Feb. 1974. DTIC AD0783626

The Cambridge Project is a cooperative effort by a number of scientists
  at M.I.T. and Harvard; its purpose is to make the digital computer more
  useful and usable by scientists in the basic and applied behavioral
  sciences, and in other sciences that have similar computing problems.
  The most notable single achievement of the half year covered in this
  report was the transfer of the entire Consistent System from the old
  Multics computer, which was a Honeywell 645, to a new Multics computer,
  a Honeywell 6180, and the subsequent transfer to another 6180 operated
  by the Air Force Data Services Center.

Newspaper & magazine articles about Multics

* Fano, Robert M., Excerpts from "The MAC System: A Progress Report",
  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 10-11,
  Apr-Jun, 1992.

* Fano, Robert M., The Computer Utility and the Community, IEEE Annals of
  the History of Computing, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 39-41, Apr-Jun, 1992.

* Frankston, Robert M., Nonhistory of IBM Time-Sharing, (letter), IEEE
  Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 72-73, Fall,
  1996.

Yes, Multics was a market failure but not because the market had changed.
  It was because Honeywell (which bought out the GE computer division)
  worked hard not to sell it. ...Did the world pass Multics by? As noted
  above, Honeywell wounded it and then eventually killed it. But Unix,
  though weak as an implementation of Multics, has achieved great success
  in the marketplace.

* Kornel, Amiel, Honeywell decision puts Groupe Bull in sticky situation,
  Computwerworld Vol. XX, No. 2, p 15, January 13, 1986.

* Korzeniowski, Paul, Honeywell phasing out Multics line, Computerworld,
  Vol. XX, No. 2, p 1, January 13, 1986.

* Lee, J. A. N., Robert Rosin, F. J. Corbato, R. M. Fano, M. Greenberger,
  J. C. R Licklider, D. T. Ross, and A. L. Scherr, The Project MAC
  Interviews, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 14, no. 2,
  pp. 14-35, Apr-Jun, 1992.

On the day following the Celebration of the 25th anniversary of Project
  MAC held in Cambridge on October 16 and 17, 1988, two small groups of
  participants in the developments of CTSS and Project MAC met to
  exchange recollections about their activities. These interviews are
  separated into two parts, concentrating on each of the two
  developmental stages of time-sharing, although it was impossible to
  strictly maintain the separation since the discussions naturally
  overlapped the time periods. By choice, the interviewers guided the
  discussion to concentrate on the more personal and background aspects
  of this history, since the technological history has been well
  documented in the open literature.

* Lee, J. A. N., Time-Sharing at MIT: Introduction, IEEE Annals of the
  History of Computing vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 13-15, Jan.-Mar. 1992.

Introduction to an issue describing the beginnings of time-sharing at
  MIT.

* Metcalfe, Bob, Internet services moving us back toward Multics utility
  computing of old, InfoWorld, October 18, 1999.

* Schell, R. R., "Computer Security: The Achilles' Heel of the Electronic
  Air Force", Air University Review, January - February 1979, p. 16,
  1979.

It is not easy to make a computer system secure, but neither is it
  impossible. The greatest error is to ignore the problem.

* staff, Honeywell introduces commercial version of its large Multics
  computer system, Wall Street Journal, p 9, January 18, 1973.

* staff, FORD WEIGHING HONEYWELL BOYCOTT?, Datamation, In the LOOK AHEAD
  column, p. 10., June 1, 1986.

* Verity, John W., Multics users face their maker, Datamation, Vol. 32,
  No. 9, 102-112, May 1, 1986.

* Whiteside, Thomas, Dead Souls in the Computer, The New Yorker, 29 Aug
  1977, pp 59-62.

MIT Project MAC TRs and TMs

Source: LCS document handed out at the Project MAC 25th reunion, updated
  by Jerry Saltzer 5/8/98. The Library 2000 project at MIT scanned many
  old MAC TRs and the images were available on a server provided by the
  MIT libraries.

See also the LCS on-line list of publications.
* Bawden, Alan, Glenn S. Burke, and Carl W. Hoffman, MacLisp Extensions,
  MAC-TM-203, July 1981.

* Benedict, Gordon, An Enciphering Module for Multics, MAC-TM-50 (Lucifer
  for Multics), 7-1-1974.

* Bratt, R. G., Minimizing the naming facilities requiring protection in
  a computer utility, MAC-TR-156 (S.M. thesis), September 1975. 6.5M

This thesis examines the various mechanisms for naming the information
  objects stored in a general-purpose computing utility, and isolates a
  basic set of naming facilities that must be protected to assure
  complete control over user interaction and that allow desired
  interactions among users to occur in a natural way. Minimizing the
  protected naming facilities consistent with the functional objective of
  controlled, but natural, user interaction contributes to defining a
  security kernel for a general-purpose computing utility. The security
  kernel is that complex of programs that must be correct if control on
  user interaction is to be assured. The Multics system is used as a test
  case, and its segment naming mechanisms are redesigned to reduce the
  part that must be protected as part of the supervisor. To show that
  this smaller protected naming facility can still support the complete
  functionality of Multics, a test implementation of the design is
  performed. The new design is shown to have a significant impact on the
  size and complexity of the Multics supervisor.

* Clark, D. D., R. M. Graham, J. H. Saltzer, and M. D. Schroeder, The
  classroom information and computing service, MAC-TR-80, January 1971.

This report describes the Classroom Information and Computing Service
  (Clics), a pedagogical computer-based information system that is used
  as a case study in the subject "Information Systems" in the Department
  of Electrical Engineering at M.I.T. Clics is an abstraction of the
  Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (Multics) that is being
  implemented by Project MAC at M.I.T. As such, it is an example of a
  computer utility. Clics is derived from Multics by a combination of
  simplifying the mechanisms of Multics and removing some of its more
  exotic features; and embodies research into ways to simplify the
  mechanisms of Multics without sacrificing service objectives. This
  report is a specification of the hardware, control programs, and system
  implementation language of the Clics system, as developed to date. The
  system is specified in sufficient detail for students to develop a
  structural as well as a functional understanding of its operation and
  mechanisms. As the primary case study for an undergraduate subject,
  Clics provides specific examples of the complexities in a general
  purpose information system, and methods of coping with them.

* Clark, D. D., An input-ouput architecture for virtual memory computer
  systems, MAC-TR-117 (Ph.D. thesis), January 1974. 7.2M

In many large systems today, input/output is not performed directly by
  the user, but is done interpretively by the system for him, which
  causes additional overhead and also restricts the user to whatever
  algorithms the system has implemented. Many causes contribute to this
  involvement of the system in user input/output, including the need to
  enforce protection requirements, the inability to provide adequate
  response to control signals from devices, and the difficulty of running
  devices in a virtual environment, especially a virtual memory. The goal
  of this thesis was the creation of an input/output system which allows
  the user the freedom of direct access to the device, and which allows
  the user to build input/output control programs in a simple and
  understandable manner. This thesis presents a design for an
  input/output subsystem architecture which, in the context of a
  segmented, paged, time-shared computer system, allows the user direct
  access to input/output devices. This thesis proposes a particular
  architecture, to be used as an example of a class of suitable designs,
  with the intention that this example serve as a tool in understanding
  the large number preferable form.

* Clark, D. D., Ancillary reports: kernel design project, MAC-TM-87, June
  1977.

contents:
* Repaired Security Bugs in Multics (2/7/73) by J. H. Saltzer. (reprint
  of RFC-5)

* A Census of Ring 0 (9/5/73) by V. L. Voydock (reprint of RFC-37)

* Some Multics Security Holes which were Closed by 6180 Hardware
  (1/28/74) by J. H. Saltzer, P. A. Janson, D. H. Hunt (reprint of RFC-
  46)

* Some Recently Repaired Security Holes of Multics (1/28/74) by J. H.
  Saltzer, D. H. Hunt (reprint of RFC-47)

* Patterns of Security Violations: Multiple References to Arguments
  (11/8/74) by H. C. Forsdick, D. P. Reed (reprint of RFC-59)

* A Two-Level Implementation of Processes for Multics (9/8/76) by R. M.
  Frankston (reprint of RFC-123)

* Further Results with Multi-Process Page Control (2/9/77) by R. F. Mabee
  (reprint of RFC-135)

See individual entries for the RFCs.

* Corbato, F. J., System requirements for multiple-access, time-shared
  computers, MAC-TR-3, May 1964. 907K

It is now clear that it is possible to create a general-purpose time-
  shared multiple access system on most contemporary computers. However,
  it is equally clear that none of the existent computers are well
  designed for multiple access systems. At present, good service to a few
  dozen simultaneous users is considered state-of-the-art. Discussions
  include: clocks, memory protection and supervisor mode, program
  relocation and common subroutines which expose the reader to the
  difficulties encountered with contemporary machines when multiple user
  multiple-processor systems are considered.

* Deitel, H. M., Absentee computations in a multiple-access computer
  system, MAC-TR-52 (S.M. thesis), August 1968. 4.0M

* Denning, P. J., Resource allocation in multiprocess computer systems,
  MAC-TR-50 (Ph.D. Thesis), May 1968. 6.1M

* Denning, P. J., Queueing models for file memory operations, MAC-TR-21
  (S.M. Thesis), May 1965. 2.3M

A model for the auxiliary memory function of a segmented, multiprocessor,
  time-shared computer system is set up. A drum system in particular is
  discussed, although no loss of generality is implied by limiting the
  discussion to drums. Particular attention is given to the queue of
  requests waiting for drum use. It is shown that a shortest access time
  first queue discipline is the most efficient, with the access time
  being defined as the time required for the drum to be positioned, and
  is measured from the finish of service of the last request to the
  beginning of the data transfer for the present request. A detailed
  study of the shortest access time queue is made, giving the minimum
  access time probability distribution, equations for the number in the
  queue, and equations for the wait in the queue. Simulations were used
  to verify these equations; the results are discussed. Finally, a
  general Markov Model for Queues is discussed in an Appendix.

* Dennis, J. B., and E. C. Van Horn, Programming semantics for
  multiprogrammed computations, MAC-TR-21, 1966. 2.3M

* Dennis, J. B., Program structure in a multi-access computer, MAC-TR-11,
  May 1964. 1.3M

* Fillat, A. I., and A. L. Kraning, Generalized organization of large
  data-bases: a set-theoretic approach to relations, MAC-TR-70 (S.M. and
  S.B. thesis), June 1970. 5.5M

* Forsdick, H. C., and D. P. Reed, Patterns of Security Violations:
  Multiple References to Arguments, CSR-RFC-59, Nov 8 1974.

part 5 of MAC-TM-87

* Frankston, R. M., A Two-Level Implementation of Processes for Multics,
  CSR-RFC-123, Sep 8 1976.

part 6 of MAC-TM-87

* Frankston, R. M., The computer utility as a marketplace for computer
  services, MAC-TR-128 (S.M. & E.E. thesis), May 1974. 5.8M

* Gifford, D., Hardware estimation of a process's primary memory
  requirements, MAC-TM-81 (S.B. Thesis), May, 1976. 2.3M

* Graham, R. M., File management and related topics, MAC-TM-12, September
  1970. 2.3M

* Graham, R. M., Use of high level language for systems programming, MAC-
  TM-13, September 1970. 938K

* Greenbaum, H. J., A simulator of multiple interactive users to drive a
  time-shared computer system, MAC-TR-58 (S.M. Thesis), October 1968.
  3.5M

* Greenberg, B. S., An experimental analysis of program reference
  patterns in the Multics virtual memory, MAC-TR-127 (S.M. thesis), May
  1974. 8.4M

* Grochow, J. M., The graphic display as an aid in the monitoring of a
  time-shared computer system, MAC-TR-54 (S.M. thesis), November 1968.
  2.3M

* Huber, A. R., A multi-process design of a paging system, MAC-TR-171
  (S.M. thesis), December 1976. 5.7M

* Hunt, D. H., A case study of intermodule dependencies in a virtual
  memory, system, MAC-TR-174 (S.M. thesis), December 1976. 5.5M

* Janson, P. A., Removing the dynamic linker from the security kernel of
  a computing utility, MAC-TR-132 (S.M. thesis), June 1974. 6.8M

* Janson, P. A., Using type extension to organize virtual memory
  mechanisms, MAC-TR-167 (Ph.D. thesis), September 1976. 9.1M

* Jones, Malcolm, Incremental Simulation on a Time-Shared Computer, MAC-
  TR-48 (OPS/3 language), 1-1-1968. 7.5M

* Karger, P. A., Non-discretionary access control for decentralized
  computing systems, MAC-TR-179 (S.M. thesis), May 1977. 3.8M

(Also available as NTIS AD-A040 808/8)

* Kent, Steve, Encryption-Based Protection Protocols For Interactive
  User-Computer Communication, MAC-TR-162, 6-1-1976. 5.9M

* Luniewski, A. W., A simple and flexible system initialization
  mechanism, MAC-TR-180 (S.M. thesis), May 1977. 3.8M

* Mabee, R. F., Further Results with Multi-Process Page Control, CSR-RFC-
  135, Feb 9 1977.

part 7 of MAC-TM-87

* Mason, A. H., A layered virtual memory manager, MAC-TR-177 (S.M. & E.E.
  thesis), May 1977. 4.4M

* Montgomery, W. A., A secure and flexible model of process initiation
  for a computer utility, MAC-TR-163 (S.M. & E.E. thesis), June 1976.
  6.4M

* Pitman, K. M., The Revised MacLisp Manual, MAC-TR-295, 1 Jun 1983.

MACLISP is a dialect of Lisp developed at M.I.T.'s Project MAC (now the
  MIT Laboratory for Computer Science) and the MIT Artificial
  Intelligence Laboratory for use in artificial intelligence research and
  related fields. Maclisp is descended from Lisp 1.5, and many recent
  important dialects (for example Lisp Machine Lisp and NIL) have evolved
  from Maclisp. David Moon's original document on Maclisp, The Maclisp
  Reference Manual (alias the Moonual ) provided in-depth coverage of a
  number of areas of the Maclisp world. Some parts of that document,
  however, were never completed (most notably a description of Maclisp's
  I/O system); other parts are no longer accurate due to changes that
  have occurred in the language over time. This manual includes some
  introductory information about Lisp, but is not intended as tutorial.
  It is intended primarily as a reference manual; particularly, it comes
  in response to user's please for more up-to-date documentation. Much
  text has been borrowed directly from the Moonual, but there has been a
  shift in emphasis. While the Moonual went into greater depth on some
  issues, this manual attempts to offer more in the way of examples and
  style notes. Also, since Moon had worked on the Multics implementation,
  the Moonual offered more detail about compatibility between ITS and
  Multics Maclisp. While it is hoped that Multics users will still find
  the information contained herein to be useful, this manual focuses more
  on the ITS and TOPS-20 implementations since those were the
  implementations most familiar to the author.

* Rappaport, R. L., Implementing multi-process primitives in a
  multiplexed computer system, MAC-TR-55 (S.M. thesis), November 1968.
  3.6M

* Reed, D. P., Processor multiplexing in a layered operating system, MAC-
  TR-164 (S.M. thesis), July 1976. 7.1M

* Richards, M., A. Evans, and R. Mabee, The BCPL reference manual, MAC-
  TR-141, December 1974.

BCPL is a language which is readable and easy to learn, as well as
  admitting of an efficient compiler capable of generating efficient
  code. It is made self consistent and easy to define accurately by an
  underlying structure based on a simple idealized object machine. The
  treatment of data types is unusual and it allows the power and
  convenience of a language with dynamically varying types and yet the
  efficiency of FORTRAN. BCPL has been used successfully to implement a
  number of languages and has proved to be a useful tool for compiler
  writing. The BCPL compiler itself is written in BCPL and has been
  designed to be easy to transfer to other machines; it has already been
  transferred to more than ten different systems.

* Rodriguez Jr, H., Measuring user characteristics on the Multics system,
  MAC-TM-89 (S. B. Thesis), August 1977.

* Saltzer, J. H., Traffic control in a multiplexed computer system, MAC-
  TR-30 (Sc.D. Thesis), July, 1966. 3.3M

* Saltzer, J. H., Introduction to Multics, MAC-TR-123, February 1974.
  14.2M

* Saltzer, J. H., Repaired Security Bugs in Multics, CSR-RFC-5, Feb 27
  1973.

part 1 of MAC-TM-87

* Saltzer, J. H., P. A. Janson, and D. H. Hunt, Some Multics Security
  Holes which were Closed by 6180 Hardware, CSR-RFC-46, Jan 28 1974.

part 3 of MAC-TM-87

* Saltzer, J. H., and D. H. Hunt, Some Recently Repaired Security Holes
  of Multics, CSR-RFC-47, Jan 28 1974.

part 4 of MAC-TM-87

* Schell, R. R., Dynamic reconfiguration in a modular computer system,
  MAC TR-86, 1971. 5.9M

* Schroeder, M. D., Cooperation of mutually suspicious subsystems in a
  computer utility, MAC-TR-104 (Ph.D. Thesis), September 1972. 4.9M

* Schroeder, M. D., D. D. Clark, J. H. Saltzer, and D. M. Wells, Final
  report of the Multics kernel design project, MAC-TR-196, March 1978.
  3.7M

* Sekino, A., Performance evaluation of multiprogrammed time-shared
  computer systems, MAC-TR-103 (Ph.D. thesis), September 1972.

This thesis presents a comprehensive set of hierarchically organized
  modular analytical models developed for the performance evaluation of
  multiprogrammed virtual-memory time-shared computer systems using
  demand paging. The hierarchy of models contains a user behavior model,
  a secondary memory model, a program behavior model, a processor model,
  and a total system model. This thesis is particularly concerned with
  the last three models. The program behavior model developed in this
  thesis allows us to estimate the frequency of paging expected on a
  given processing system. The processor model allows us to evaluate the
  throughput of a given multi-processor multi-memory processing system
  under multiprogramming. Finally, the total system model allows us to
  derive the response time distribution of an entire computer system
  under study. Since all major factors (such as various system overhead
  times and idle times) which may decrease a system's computational
  capacity available for users' useful work are explicitly considered in
  the analyses using the above models, the performance predicted by these
  analyses is very realistic. A comparison of the performance of an
  actual system, the Multics system of M.I.T., and the corresponding
  performance predicted by these analyses confirms the accuracy of
  performance prediction by these models. Then, these analyses are
  applied to the optimization of computer systems and to the selection of
  the best performing system for a given budget. The framework of a
  performance evaluation using these hierarchically organized analytical
  models guides human intuition in understanding the actual performance
  problems and provides us with reliable answers to most of the basic
  quantitative performance questions concerning throughput and response
  time of actual modern large-scale time-shared computer systems.

* Smith, A. A., Input-output in time-shared, sgemented multiprocessor
  systems, MAC-TR-28 (S.M. thesis), June 1966. 1.5M

* Stern, J. A., Backup and recovery of on-line information in a computer
  utility, MAC-TR-116 (S.M. & E.E. thesis), January 1974. 4.2M

* Van Horn, E. C., Computer design for asynchronously reproducible
  multiprocessing, MAC-TR-34 (Ph.D. thesis), November 1966. 7.3M

* Vogt, C. M., Suspension of processes in a multiplexed computer system,
  MAC-TM-14, September 1970.

* Voydock, V. L., A Census of Ring 0, CSR-RFC-37, Sep 5 1973.

part 2 of MAC-TM-87

Multics Manuals

Published by Honeywell.

Al Kossow at bitsavers.org has scanned many Honeywell Multics manuals and
  placed them  online.
* 43A239851 DSS181-DSS190 Specification, May 1974 (5.5 MB pdf)

* 43A239854 600B IOM Specification, Jul 1975 (6.2 MB pdf)

* 58009906 DPS8 System Manual, Freestanding DPS8 Multics, Aug 1982 This
  manual is intended as a general system review and maintenance aid for
  TAC personnel in analyzing and diagnosing system problems beyond level
  1 procedure. (4.4 MB pdf)

* 58009917 DPS8 CPU Installation Instructions, Aug 1984 Installation
  instructions for a DPS8 CPU. Unpacking, inspection, cable routing, and
  power-up. (1.5 MB pdf)

* 60132445 FEP Coupler Specification, Nov 1977 (3.7 MB pdf)

* AG90 Multics Programmer's Manual: Introduction to Programming on
  Multics, Dec 1981 (7 MB pdf)

* AG91 Multics Programmer's manual: Reference Guide, Dec 1975 (11 MB pdf)

* AG91 Multics Programmer's manual: Reference Guide, Jan 1987 (36 MB pdf)

* AG92 Multics Programmer's manual: Commands and Active Functions, Feb
  1980 861 pages. (39 MB pdf)

* AG92 Multics Programmer's manual: Commands and Active Functions, Nov
  1987 (60 MB pdf)

* AG93 Multics Programmer's manual: Subroutines and I/O Modules, Nov 1986
  (64 MB pdf)

* AG94 Multics PL/I Language Specification, Mar 1981 (14 MB pdf)

* AG95 The Multics Virtual Memory, Jun 1972 (reprint of Bensoussan,
  Clingen, and Daley paper; "Access Control to the Multics Virtual
  Memory"; and "Series 6000 Features for the Multics Virtual Memory") (11
  MB pdf)

* AK15 The Multics System Summary Description, (brochure), 1974

* AK24 Multics Software Overview Product Brief, 1973

* AK26 Multics Model 6180 Hardware Product Brief, 1973

* AK27 The Multics System, (brochure), 1973

* AK27-2 The Multics System, (brochure), 1975

* AK27-3 The Multics System, (brochure), 1977

* AK50 Multics System Administrators' Manual, Feb 73 An early version of
  the MSAM. (4 MB pdf)

* AK50 Multics System Administrators' Manual, Dec 87 The Trusted
  Facilities Manual required for B2 certification is contained in Part VI
  "Assuring System Security" and Appendix B "Audit Tables and Include
  Files" of AK50-03 (Renamed the "Multics System Administration
  Procedures Manual", May 1985). Part VI consists of Chapters 18 through
  26 of the manual and provides guidelines for the system administrator
  on how to manage Multics as a secure system. [info from Ed Ranzenbach]
  (21 MB pdf)

* AK51 Multics Project Administrators' Manual, Feb 1985 (4 MB pdf)

* AK52 Multics Administrative Functions Product Brief, 1973

* AK92 Multics Programmer's manual: Subsystem Writer's Guide, Mar 1979
  (20 MB pdf)

* AK95 Multics APL Users' Guide, Dec 1985 (11 MB pdf)

* AK96 Multics Programmer's manual: System Programmer's Supplement

* AL39 Multics Processor Manual, Nov 1985 461 pages. (18 MB pdf)

* AM81 Multics Operator's Handbook, Nov 1986 (29 MB pdf)

* AM82 Multics BASIC, Feb 1981 (29 MB pdf)

* AM82 Multics BASIC Update, Dec 1984 (2 MB pdf)

* AM83 Multics PL/I Reference Manual, Sep 1978 (31 MB pdf)

* AN05 GCOS Environment Simulator, Dec 85 (6 MB pdf)

* AN50 Guide to Multics Manuals

* AN51 System Tools PLM, 1979 This Program Logic Manual (PLM) is not
  structured in the same manner as most others in this series. The System
  Tools PLM consists only of a number of command and subroutine
  descriptions with no design motivation, implementation description, or
  data structure description except what is needed to describe the use of
  the command or subroutine as a tool. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN52 Multics System Metering, Feb 1979 (5 MB pdf)

* AN53 Multics System Dump Analysis, June 1975 (5 MB pdf) (source at
  web.mit.edu)

* AN54 PL/I Compiler PLM, Aug 1974 The PL/1 compiler translates a source
  program written in the PL/1 language into an equivalent Multics
  standard object segment. This compiler represents an implementation of
  the PL/1 language as defined in the PL/1 Language Manual (Order No.
  AG94). The entire compiler is written in the same language, and
  therefore, is self reproduceable. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN57 Multics User Ring Input/Output System PLM, May 1977 (13 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN61 Multics Storage System: Program Logic Manual, Sep 1978 Internal
  logic of the Multics Storage System. (23 MB pdf) (source at
  web.mit.edu)

* AN63 Multics ALM Assembler SDN, February 1975 (1 MB pdf)

* AN69 Multics Message Segment Facility SDN, Oct 1979 (3 MB pdf) (source
  at web.mit.edu)

* AN70 System Initialization Program Logic Manual, Feb 1975 (8 MB pdf)

* AN71 Reconfiguration Program Logic Manual, June 1974 (2 MB pdf)

* AN76 Multics Carry Facility, Feb 1981 (1 MB pdf)

* AN77 Multics GCOS Environment Simulator, Apr 1977 (source at
  web.mit.edu)

* AN80 Level 68 & DPS8/M Library Maintenance SDN, May 1979 (6 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN82 Multics Standards SDN, June 1980 (3 MB pdf) Description of the
  Standards, Conventions, and Guidelines Used in the Software and
  Documentation of the Multics Operating System. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN83 FORTRAN Compiler PLM, Mar 1979 The FORTRAN Program Logic Manual
  (PLM) deals solely with the parse and semantic translation phases of
  the Multics FORTRAN Compiler. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN85 Multics Communication System SDN, Oct 1979 (14 MB pdf)

* AN87 Multics Hardware and Software Formats PLM, March 1980 (7 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AR97 Multics System Diagnostic Aids, Dec 1983 (7 MB pdf)

* AS40 Multics Graphics System, Aug 1981 (12 MB pdf)

* AS43 Multics COBOL Users' Guide, Jul 1981 (12 MB pdf)

* AS44 Multics COBOL Reference Manual, Jul 1981 (20 MB pdf)

* AS68 Multics Administrator's Manual - Registration and Accounting

* AT58 Multics FORTRAN, Dec 1983 (8 MB pdf)

* AT59 Multics DFAST Subsystem Users' Guide, Mar 1976 (3 MB pdf)

* AT71 MSU0402 Manual, Oct 1983 (1 MB pdf)

* AU25 Multics FAST Subsystem Reference Guide, Sep 1979 (5 MB pdf)

* AU77 Multics Online Test and Diagnostics Reference Manual, Mar 1984 (7
  MB pdf)

* AW17 Multics Pocket Guide: Commands and Active Functions, Apr 1976 (2
  MB pdf)

* AW32 Multics SORT/MERGE, Jul 1976 (2 MB pdf)

* AW53 Multics Relational Data Store (MRDS) -- Reference Manual, Mar 1984
  (15 MB pdf)

* AX31 VIP 72xx Operator Manual, May 1981 (3 MB pdf)

* AX49 Multics Peripheral Input/Output, Jul 1982 (10 MB pdf)

* AY03 MSU0500 Manual, Dec 1979 (1 MB pdf)

* AY34 Datanet Operator Manual, May 1980 (7 MB pdf)

* AZ03 System Programming Tools, (includes TECO), Jul 1982 (16 MB pdf)

* AZ49 Logical Inquiry and Update System (LINUS), Aug 1986 (7 MB pdf)

* AZ98 Multics WORDPRO Reference Guide, Jul 1983 (13 MB pdf)

* CC34 Multics Bulk Input/Output

* CC69 Multics Report Program Generator (MRPG) Reference Manual, Nov 1982
  (7 MB pdf)

* CC70 FORTRAN Users' Guide, Dec 1983 (9 MB pdf)

* CC74 Multics Administrator's Manual - Resource Control

* CC75 Multics Administrator's Manual - Communications Administration,
  Dec 1983 (6 MB pdf)

* CC75 Multics Administrator's Manual - Communications Administration,
  Feb 1985 (6 MB pdf)

* CC92 Multics Communications Input/Output, Jul 1982 (8 MB pdf)

* CC96 Multics Transaction Processing Reference Manual, Jun 1979 (3 MB
  pdf)

* CG18 Multics Remote Batch Facility (Level 68 to Level 6), Jul 1979 (2
  MB pdf)

* CG40 QEDX Text Editor User's Guide, Feb 1983 (6 MB pdf)

* CH23 Multics Extended Mail System User's Guide, Feb 1982 (8 MB pdf)

* CH24 New Users' Introduction to Multics -- Part I, Nov 1979 (4 MB pdf)

* CH25 New Users' Introduction to Multics -- Part II, Nov 1979 (4 MB pdf)

* CH26 Multics Error Messages: Primer and Reference Manual, Sep 1980 ( MB
  pdf)

* CH27 Emacs Manual, December 1979 (14 MB pdf)

* CJ27 Emacs Text Editor User's Guide, December 1979 (7.6 MB pdf)

* CJ52 Emacs Extension Writer's Guide, January 1980 (3.5 MB pdf)

* CJ52 Emacs Extension Writer's Guide, Jul 1982 (9.4 MB pdf)

* CJ97 Multics Page Processing System Utility Manual, May 1980 (1 MB pdf)

* CP31 Level 68 Introduction to Emacs

* CP50 Multics Text Editor (TED) Reference Manual, Oct 1985 (7 MB pdf)

* CP51 Multics Menu Creation Facilities, Feb 1985 (8 MB pdf)

* CP92 VIP7201 Reference Manual, Jul 1983 (6 MB pdf)

* CT38 Resource Control User Guide, Jun 1981 (3 MB pdf)

* CW99 PRU901 Manual, May 1982 (4 MB pdf)

* CX20 Fundamentals of Multics Executive Mail

* CX72 Executive Facilities Editing Operations Ref Card

* CY73 Inter-Multics File Transfer Facility Ref Manual, Dec 1983 (3 MB
  pdf)

* CY74 Multics Forum Interactive Meeting System Users' Guide, Feb 1985
  (10 MB pdf)

* DB37 DSS190 Reference, May 1974 (2.6 MB pdf)

* DF48 Series 60 Level 68 DPS Pocket Guide, June 1978

* DJ18 Guide to Multics Wordpro for New Users

* DL92 Honeywell Multics Distributed Processing System, Summary Overview,
  1982

* DL92 Multics brochure, 1982 (21.5 MB pdf)

* DS44 Honeywell Multics, (brochure), 1983

* DS45 Honeywell DPS8/Multics, (brochure), 1983

* DU06 Fundamentals of Multics Forum Interactive Meeting System

* DU34 DPS8 Site Preparation Manual, Jan 1986 (5 MB pdf)

* DV74 Texto Reference Manual

* DW19 Multics MegaCalc User's Guide

* DX71 Fundamentals of Multics Executive Forum

* F01 Introduction to Multics Course Notes, Oct 1978 (20 MB pdf)

* F15C Multics Course Notes F15C, Sep 1983 (7 MB pdf)

* F15D Multics Course Notes F15D, May 1981 (15 MB pdf)

* F21 Multics Course Notes F21, Jul 1981 (11 MB pdf)

* F80 Multics Course Notes F80, Mar 1983 (18 MB pdf)

* F86 Multics Course Notes F86 (7 MB pdf)

* F88 Multics Course Notes F88 (10 MB pdf)

* GA01 Multics Data Security, (brochure), 1983 Based on Dave Jordan's
  article in Scientific Honeyweller, June 1981

* GB58 Multics Common Commands Manual, (GB18?), Feb 1983 (10 MB pdf)

* GB59 DPS 6/Multics Satellite 6M Reference Manual

* GB60 Multics HASP Service and Utility

* GB61 Operator's Guide to Multics, Dec 1987 (13 MB pdf)

* GB62 Multics Pascal User's Guide

* GB63 Multics Report Writer Reference Manual, Jan 1985 (5 MB pdf)

* GB64 Administration, Maintenance, and Operations Commands, Nov 1986 (26
  MB pdf)

* GB65 Multics/Personal Computer File Transmission Facility

* GB66 Multics On-Line Work Station Environment User's Guide

* GL71 Multics Simplified Computing and Filing Facility

* GN08 Multics Emacs Reference Card

* HH07 Multics C User's Guide, Nov 1987 (7 MB pdf)

* YL77 Multics Cray Station Users' Guide

Multics Repository Documents

Internal design documents used by the development team in the 1960s.
  Three series, M, G, and B, for MIT, GE, and Bell Labs. This table is
  derived from TOC memos M0116, M0117, M0118, and M0119.
* B0005 EPL Design Journal #4, 08/09/65, McIlroy, M. D.

* B0008 FJCC: Structure of Multics Supervisor, 9/16/65, Vyssotsky, V. A.,
  F. J. Corbato, and R. M. Graham

* B0009 FJCC: General Purpose File System, 09/16/65, Daley, R. C., and P.
  G. Neumann

* B0010 FJCC: Communication in I/O Switching, 9/17/65, Ossanna, J. F., L.
  Mikus, and J. H. Saltzer

* B0021 Debugging and Multics (supersedes M0039), 11/09/65, Brown, W. S.

* B0039 Software Tools for Monitoring and Tracing in Multics, 02/15/66,
  Gimpel, J. F.

* B0043 Big Computing and Multics, 03/30/66, McIlroy, M. D.

* B0044 EPL Manual -Reprint IBM Operating System/360 PL/I: Language
  Specifications, 04/66, IBM

* B0045 A Proposed Outerview of Performance Monitoring in Multics,
  04/13/66, Gimpel, J. F.

* B0057 Character Conversion for PRT-202 Line Printer, 05/10/66,
  Vyssotsky, V. A.

* B0060 Fault Tags and the IT modifier in the 645 Processor, 06/03/66,
  Tague, B. A.

* B0066 Proposed Context Editor Edit(Audit), 07/22/66, Kaiman, A.

* B0067 Some Thoughts and Ideas Pertaining to Tasking , 01/08/68, Farber,
  D. J., and R. L. Wexelblat

* B0086 Compendium of PL/I (EPL) Run-Time Library, 06/15/17, Hyde, J. P.

* B0088 QED Text EdItor, 08/05/67, Thompson, K. L.

* B0095 Current History Permuted Index BTL/GE/MIT, 08/01/66, Serido, J.

* B0097 Current Permuted Index BTL/GE/MIT, 05/17/68, Serido, J.

* B0099 Obsolete Permuted Index BTL/GE/MIT, 05/17/68, Serido, J.

* B0100 The Multics Device Utility Package (DUP), OS/27/68, Jones, S. W.

* G0004 636 Simulation Package, 08/30/65, Ziegler, G. G.

* G0006 Free Standing GECOS - GIOC Version, nd, McGee, R. C.

* G0007 Proposal for Developing Multics Documentation, 10/11/65, Haig, H.
  C., R. C. McGee, and B. A. Tague

* G0012 GE-645 Bootstrap Assembler(BSA), 01/01/66, anonymous

* G0013 Peripheral T and D Interface with 645 Software, 02/03/66,
  Matthews, H. D.

* G0015 On-Line Testing in a 636 Time-Sharing System, 10/21/65, Mikus, L.
  E.

* G0016 Memo on 645 Mnemonics, 01/18/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0029 Design Notebook Appendix C.Rev., 03/11/65, Oliver, G. A.

* G0030 Memo on Las Vegas Changes, 04/19/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0034 645 Utility Program, 05/12/66, Hobbs, R. J., and R. M. Foster

* G0036 M50EB00131 -Performance Specification -Multics Assembler ,
  06/15/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0037 SPS-B-645 Simulator, 08/9/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0038 SPS-B Multics Assembler (M50EB00131), 08/22/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0039 SPSB 645 Free-Standing Simulator (M50EB00171) , 08/22/66, McGee,
  R. C.

* G0040 EPS MTH211 and MTH311 Magnetic Tape Units, 08/22/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0041 SPS GE-645 Gecos-IOC Version (M50EB00006), 08/22/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0042 SCU Instruction Format, 11/22/66, Stoller, G. S.

* G0043 SPS-C Multics/Gecos Monitor (M50EB00188), 09/01/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0044 SPS-B GE-645 PL/I Compiler (M50EB00175), 09/01/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0045 EPS Extended Character Set Printer Subsystem (PRT202)
  (M50EB00070), 09/01/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0046 Errata G0042, 12/05/66, Stoller, G. S.

* G0047 600 Series GE Specifications , 12/08/66, Bash, J. L.

* G0048 Distribution of Specifications , 12/12/66, Bash, J. L.

* G0049 Fortran IV Language Manual, 01/12/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0050 GIOC Manual, 01/12/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0051 Correction to G0049, 01/12/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0053 Renumbering of Repository Document, INDEX, 05/11/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0054 Revised INDEX, 06/16/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0055 Compendium of PL/I (EPL) Run-Time Mathematics Library , 09/01/67,
  Goldberg, I. B.

* G0056 Current INDEX Revision, 09/13/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0057 Current VOCAB Revision, 09/25/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0058 Phase I Test Experiment, 10/02/67, Shy, I.

* G0059 The Multics Operating System , 05/67, CISL

* G0060 EPL User's Reference Manual, 12/67, CISL

* G0061 CISL User Manuals on MULTICS (memo), ND, Bash, J. L.

* G0062 Current INDEX Revision, 01/26/68, Bash, J. L.

* G0063 CTSS Console User's Manual , 01/68, CISL

* G0065 Errata to EPL User's Reference Manual, 02/05/68, Benjafield, G.

* G0066 Memo Re: G0067, 02/12/68, CISL

* G0067 Handbook of Operating Information, Configuration A/Multics ,
  11/68, CISL

* G0068 Current Revision of VOCAB , 02/15/68, Bash, J. L.

* G0069 Intermediate Update of INDEX and VOCAB, 03/08/68, Bash, J. L.

* G0070 EPL User's Reference Manual, Revision 1, 04/68, CISL

* G0071 Multics PL/I Language Reference Manual Questionnaire, 05/09/69,
  Bash, J. L.

* G0072 EPLBSA Manual, 04/68, CISL

* G0073 Initial Multics Console User's Manual, 07/68, CISL

* G0074 EPL Glossary of Terms, 08/68, Hart, J. E.

* G0075 GE-645 Address Modification , 09/68, Riesenberg, D. J.

* G0076 Updates to the Glossary of Multics Terms (Vocabulary) , 09/04/68,
  Bash, J. L.

* G0077 Interim FL Reference Manual, 10/29/68, Riesenberg, D. J.

* G0078 Interim I/O Document, 12/20/68, Goudy, M. L.

* G0080 Significant Features of Multics PL/I , 01/21/69, Freiburghouse,
  R. A.

* G0081 Compatibility Consideration of the PL/I Implementation ,
  01/21/69, Freiburghouse, R. A.

* G0082 Update to EPL Manual G0070, 01/22/69, Bash, J. L.

* G0084 MULTICS Condensed Guide, 06/69, CISL

* G0085 Chapter I of MULTICS User Procedures (Calls to the File System),
  07/01/69, Hart, J. E.

* G0086 Multics User Procedures Update (Chapter 1), 07/28/69, Hart, J. E.

* G0087 Chapter II of MULTICS User Procedures (Interim Document on I/O
  Calls), 08/06/69, Bash, J. L.

* G0088 Multics User Procedures Update (Chapter I) , 08/15/69, Hart, J.
  E.

* G0089 Update to G0087, Interim Document on I/O Calls, ND, Bash, J. L.

* G0090 Working paper on Program Naming Problems in a Shared Tree
  Structured Hierarchy, 08/22/69, Clingen, C. T.

* G0091 A User's Guide to the MULTICS Fortran Implementation, 10/69,
  Freiburghouse, R. A.

* G0092 A User's Guide to the MULTICS PL/I Implementation, 10/69,
  Freiburghouse, R. A.

* M0047 FJCC: Intro. & Overview of Multics, 9/17/65, Corbato, F. J., and
  V. A. Vyssotsky

* M0048 FJCC: System Design of a Computer for Time Sharing Applications,
  9/17/65, Glaser, E. L., J. F. Couleur, and G. A. Oliver

* M0049 FJCC: Some Thoughts about the Social Implications of Accessible
  Computing , 9/17/65, David, E. E.

* M0052 Debuging Aids for the Multics System (Revised) , 11/09/65,
  Wagner, D. B.

* M0054 Proposal for a System of Clocks for Multics , 11/16/65, Saltzer,
  J. H.

* M0058 Outline of Proposed Interactive Debugging Aids for Multics,
  1/19/66, Wagner, D. B.

* M0060 Thoughts About Operating Multics, 12/17/65, Oppert, D. E.

* M0062 System Metering , 3/17/66, Widrig, D. R.

* M0063 Conversion of Typset Files to Flexowriter Tapes, 3/11/66,
  Magnuski, H. S.

* M0065 Operational Description of the EPLBSA Assembler , 5/26/66,
  Poduska, J. W.

* M0066 Resource Management and Accounting for Multics, 6/26/66, Van
  Vleck, T. H.

* M0070 Character Handling and PL/I, 6/30/66, Saltzer, J. H.

* M0071 ASCII Graphics on Multics , 6/30/66, Saltzer, J. H.

* M0076 Operating Procedures for the Model 2201 Flexowriter to Prepare
  Documents for Multics , 8/25/66, Selwyn, L. L.

* M0077 Traffic Control in a Multiplexed Computer System, 0/22/66,
  Saltzer, J. H.

* M0082 Examples of PL/I Subroutines, 11/22/66, Corbato, F. J., and A.
  Evans

* M0085 Use of QED and ROFF, 1/19/67, Graham, R. M.

* M0086 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers-I, 3/67, Organick, E. I.

* M0087 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers-II, 4/67, Organick, E.
  I.

* M0089 Error in hash-coding algorithm, 4/10/67, Corbato, F. J., and A.
  Evans

* M0090 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers Chapter III, 8/67,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0094 Virtual Memory, Processes, and Sharing in Multics , 10/14/67,
  Daley, R. C., and J. B. Dennis

* M0095 Protection in an Information Processing Utility, 10/14/67,
  Graham, R. M.

* M0103 PL/I As a Tool for System Programming , 07/02/68, Corbato, F. J.

* M0104 A Paging Experiment with the Multics System , 07/68, Corbato, F.
  J.

* M0105 Sensitive Issues in the Design of Multi-Use Systems, 11/12/68,
  Corbato, F. J.

* M0106 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers Chapter IV, 01/69,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0107 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers -Chapter V, 02/69,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0108 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers -Chapter VI, 03/69,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0109 Annotated Bibliography of Multics, 04/16/69, Saltzer, J. H., and
  R. M. Graham

* M0110 BCPL Manual for Multics, 07/30/69, Evans, A.

* M0111 The Multics Virtual Memory, 10/69, Bensoussan, A., C. T. Clingen,
  and R. C. Daley

* M0112 The Instrumentation of Multics, 10/69, Saltzer, J. H., and J. W.
  Gintell

* M0113 The Role of Motherhood in the Pop Art of System Programming,
  08/21/69, Neumann, P. G.

* M0114 The Multics Interprocess Communication Facility , 07/29/69,
  Spier, M. J., and E. I. Organick

* M0115 System performance effects of the new PL/I compiler , 10/14/69,
  Corbato, F. J.

* M0116 MAC Repository list, 12/01/69, Gardner, R.

* M0117 GE Repository List, 07/19/69, Gardner, R.

* M0118 GE Repository list, 12/01/69, Gardner, R.

* M0119 BTL Repository list, 12/01/69, Gardner, R.

* M0132 A Multics Process (System 17.11a), 12/8/72, Greenberg, B., and M.
  Miyazaki

Multics Design Document Series

The Multics Design Document series, specifically produced by Honeywell
  for the B2 evaluation effort, includes some documents written for the
  project. Others were existing manuals that were found to be adequate
  for the evaluation but were to eventually be re-written for
  consistency. [info from Ed Ranzenbach]
* MDD-001 Overview and Index of Multics Design Documents (Margulies, B.)
  Introduction to Multics Design Documents. The index of all Multics
  Design Documents.

* MDD-002-01 Multics Security Model -- Bell and LaPadula (Tague, R.
  Michael) The Multics system enforces a security policy that is an
  implementation of the security model described by Bell and La Padula.
  This Multics Design Document (MDD) presents the relationship between
  the actual implementation in Multics and the model.

* MDD-003 Overview of the Multics TCB (Sibert, W. Olin) Overview of the
  Multics Virtual Memory System, Metering, and the Supervisor.

* MDD-004-01 Multics Functional Testing (Dickson, Paul) This MDD contains
  documentation on the Multics Functional Testing Suite.

* MDD-005-02 System Initialization (Farley, Paul) The internal
  organization of Multics System Initialization.

* MDD-006-01 Directory Control (Dixon, Gary C.) Internal Organization of
  the Directory Control and the Address and Name Space Management
  functions within the Multics system.

* MDD-007-01 VTOCE File System (Sharpe, Ed) The management and internal
  organization of storage system physical disk volumes on Multics.

* MDD-008 Online Storage Volume Management (Sharpe, Ed) This MDD
  describes the management of Online Storage Volumes.

* MDD-009 Resource Control Package (Pozzo, Maria M.) This MDD covers the
  management and internal organization of resources (devices and volumes)
  on Multics.

* MDD-010-01 System / User Control (Swenson, E., and Jim Lippard) The
  management and internal description of the system/user control
  subsystem on Multics.

* MDD-011 Page Control (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-012-01 I/O Interface (IOI) (Jones, Chris) This MDD describes the
  features and operations of the I/O interfacer (IOI), as well as those
  hardware features which make its operation possible.

* MDD-013 Multics Message Segment Facility (Pandolf, Michael A.)
  Description and documentation of the internal and user interfaces of
  the Multics Message Segment Facility.

* MDD-014 Hierarchy Backup Dumper (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-015 Interprocess Communication (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-016 Volume Backup Dumper (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-017 Multics I/O SysDaemon (Gilcrease, George) An overview of the
  operation of the I/O SysDaemon. The scope of this document is a
  synopsis of the I/O SysDaemon software: a description of the primary
  associated databases, and a narrative of the order of events and
  communication between the I/O SysDaemon coordinator process and a
  representative driver process.

* MDD-018 Reconfiguration (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-019 Traffic Control (Coren, Robert S.) This document describes the
  policies and algorithms of Multics Traffic Control, which is that part
  of the supervisor that manages the allocation of processors among
  processes.

* MDD-020 Multics Runtime Environment (Weaver, Melanie) Explanation of
  the runtime environment, including process structure and
  initialization, ring crossing mechanisms, object format and dynamic
  linking, area management, and condition signalling and handling.

* MDD-021 Fault and Interrupt Handling (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-022 System Administration (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-023 Online T&D (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-024 System Logging (Sharpe, Ed) Describes the system logging
  mechanisms. This document also provides a foundation for MDD-029
  "Security Auditing".

* MDD-025 Hardcore I/O (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-026 Salvaging and Scavenging (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-027 MCS (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-028 SysDaemons (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-029 Security Auditing (Sharpe, Ed) Describes the system security
  audit trail. Some descriptions in this document are dependent upon the
  contents of MDD-024 "System Logging".

Multics Operating Staff Notes

Documents given to machine operators at the MIT and GE/Honeywell
  development sites. Later incorporated into Honeywell manuals.
* MOSN-A001 Operational Changes for MR4.0 (Van Vleck, T. H.) Initial
  operator documents for NSS, describing BOS changes and operator command
  changes. (2.0M pdf)

Multics Alternative Documentation

Here is a list, thanks to Bruce Sanderson, of documents produced by
  Warren Johnson and Jim Homan, describing operational lore useful to
  site analysts and operators.
* MAD-001 Multics Alternative Documentation, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.A Multics Alternative Documentation, 2/20/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.B Multics Alternative Documentation, 3/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-002 Reading Processor Lights, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003 Multics Metering and Tuning, 10/30/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003.A Multics Metering and Tuning, 2/24/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004 Channel Master File, 11/5/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004.A Channel Master File, 4/17/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-005 Disk Space Monitoring, 11/10/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-005.A Disk Space Monitoring, 7/7/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-006 So you're going to 6250 bpi..., 11/13/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-007 Operator Message Facility, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-008 Recovery from ESD Failure, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-009 Knocking the Initializer out of a loop, 11/19/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-010 Sending Interrupt from IOM to System Console, 2/25/81, Johnson,
  W.

* MAD-011 Fac_Totum.SysDaemon, 4/22/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.A Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/7/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.B Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/21/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-012 Multics Failure Analysis, 5/21/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-013 RCPRM For Tape Library Management, 6/1/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-014 Setting SAT Bit Count, 8/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-015 Site Library Maintenance, 5/10/82, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-016 Auto-Reboot Redone, 7/30/82, Homan, J.

* MAD-017 Yet Another start_up.ec Spiel, 3/29/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-018 Tools For Maintaining System Tables And Exec_coms, 3/29/83,
  Homan, J.

* MAD-019 Installing A New Multics Site, 5/31/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-020 Survey of Privileged Accesses, 3/28/83, Homan, J.

Local Site memos

Memos local to particular sites.
* MIT IPC, MIT Author Maintained Library, April 1975

Documentation for 34 commands, 7 active functions, and 25 subroutines
  contributed by the MIT user community, including XPL, TECO and BCPL.
  (5.6M pdf)

* MIT IPC, MIT Installation Maintained Library, July 1974

Documentation for 5 commands and 2 subroutines installed locally at the
  MIT site, including Multics versions of BMD and SSP. (1.8M pdf)
hnson, W.

* MAD-004.A Channel Master File, 4/17/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-005 Disk Space Monitoring, 11/10/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-005.A Disk Space Monitoring, 7/7/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-006 So you're going to 6250 bpi..., 11/13/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-007 Operator Message Facility, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-008 Recovery from ESD Failure, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-009 Knocking the Initializer out of a loop, 11/19/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-010 Sending Interrupt from IOM to System Console, 2/25/81, Johnson,
  W.

* MAD-011 Fac_Totum.SysDaemon, 4/22/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.A Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/7/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.B Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/21/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-012 Multics Failure Analysis, 5/21/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-013 RCPRM For Tape Library Management, 6/1/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-014 Setting SAT Bit Count, 8/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-015 Site Library Maintenance, 5/10/82, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-016 Auto-Reboot Redone, 7/30/82, Homan, J.

* MAD-017 Yet Another start_up.ec Spiel, 3/29/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-018 Tools For Maintaining System Tables And Exec_coms, 3/29/83,
  Homan, J.

* MAD-019 Installing A New Multics Site, 5/31/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-020 Survey of Privileged Accesses, 3/28/83, Homan, J.

Local Site memos

Memos local to particular sites.
* MIT IPC, MIT Author Maintained Library, April 1975

Documentation for 34 commands, 7 active functions, and 25 subroutines
  contributed by the MIT user community, including XPL, TECO and BCPL.
  (5.6M pdf)

* MIT IPC, MIT Installation Maintained Library, July 1974

Documentation for 5 commands and 2 subroutines installed locally at the
  MIT site, including Multics versions of BMD and SSP. (1.8M pdf)
f)

Multics Alternative Documentation

Here is a list, thanks to Bruce Sanderson, of documents produced by
  Warren Johnson and Jim Homan, describing operational lore useful to
  site analysts and operators.
* MAD-001 Multics Alternative Documentation, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.A Multics Alternative Documentation, 2/20/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.B Multics Alternative Documentation, 3/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-002 Reading Processor Lights, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003 Multics Metering and Tuning, 10/30/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003.A Multics Metering and Tuning, 2/24/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004 Channel Master File, 11/5/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004.A Channel Master File, 4/17/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-005 Disk Space Monitoring, 11/10/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-005.A Disk Space Monitoring, 7/7/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-006 So you're going to 6250 bpi..., 11/13/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-007 Operator Message Facility, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-008 Recovery from ESD Failure, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-009 Knocking the Initializer out of a loop, 11/19/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-010 Sending Interrupt from IOM to System Console, 2/25/81, Johnson,
  W.

* MAD-011 Fac_Totum.SysDaemon, 4/22/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.A Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/7/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.B Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/21/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-012 Multics Failure Analysis, 5/21/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-013 RCPRM For Tape Library Management, 6/1/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-014 Setting SAT Bit Count, 8/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-015 Site Library Maintenance, 5/10/82, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-016 Auto-Reboot Redone, 7/30/82, Homan, J.

* MAD-017 Yet Another start_up.ec Spiel, 3/29/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-018 Tools For Maintaining System Tables And Exec_coms, 3/29/83,
  Homan, J.

* MAD-019 Installing A New Multics Site, 5/31/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-020 Survey of Privileged Accesses, 3/28/83, Homan, J.

Local Site memos

Memos local to particular sites.
* MIT IPC, MIT Author Maintained Library, April 1975

Documentation for 34 commands, 7 active functions, and 25 subroutines
  contributed by the MIT user community, including XPL, TECO and BCPL.
  (5.6M pdf)

* MIT IPC, MIT Installation Maintained Library, July 1974

Documentation for 5 commands and 2 subroutines installed locally at the
  MIT site, including Multics versions of BMD and SSP. (1.8M pdf)
nd GE/Honeywell
  development sites. Later incorporated into Honeywell manuals.
* MOSN-A001 Operational Changes for MR4.0 (Van Vleck, T. H.) Initial
  operator documents for NSS, describing BOS changes and operator command
  changes. (2.0M pdf)

Multics Alternative Documentation

Here is a list, thanks to Bruce Sanderson, of documents produced by
  Warren Johnson and Jim Homan, describing operational lore useful to
  site analysts and operators.
* MAD-001 Multics Alternative Documentation, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.A Multics Alternative Documentation, 2/20/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.B Multics Alternative Documentation, 3/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-002 Reading Processor Lights, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003 Multics Metering and Tuning, 10/30/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003.A Multics Metering and Tuning, 2/24/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004 Channel Master File, 11/5/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004.A Channel Master File, 4/17/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-005 Disk Space Monitoring, 11/10/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-005.A Disk Space Monitoring, 7/7/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-006 So you're going to 6250 bpi..., 11/13/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-007 Operator Message Facility, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-008 Recovery from ESD Failure, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-009 Knocking the Initializer out of a loop, 11/19/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-010 Sending Interrupt from IOM to System Console, 2/25/81, Johnson,
  W.

* MAD-011 Fac_Totum.SysDaemon, 4/22/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.A Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/7/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.B Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/21/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-012 Multics Failure Analysis, 5/21/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-013 RCPRM For Tape Library Management, 6/1/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-014 Setting SAT Bit Count, 8/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-015 Site Library Maintenance, 5/10/82, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-016 Auto-Reboot Redone, 7/30/82, Homan, J.

* MAD-017 Yet Another start_up.ec Spiel, 3/29/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-018 Tools For Maintaining System Tables And Exec_coms, 3/29/83,
  Homan, J.

* MAD-019 Installing A New Multics Site, 5/31/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-020 Survey of Privileged Accesses, 3/28/83, Homan, J.

Local Site memos

Memos local to particular sites.
* MIT IPC, MIT Author Maintained Library, April 1975

Documentation for 34 commands, 7 active functions, and 25 subroutines
  contributed by the MIT user community, including XPL, TECO and BCPL.
  (5.6M pdf)

* MIT IPC, MIT Installation Maintained Library, July 1974

Documentation for 5 commands and 2 subroutines installed locally at the
  MIT site, including Multics versions of BMD and SSP. (1.8M pdf)

* MIT IPC, MIT Installation Maintained Library, July 1974

Documentation for 5 commands and 2 subroutines installed locally at the
  MIT site, including Multics versions of BMD and SSP. (1.8M pdf)
ance prediction by these models. Then, these analyses are
  applied to the optimization of computer systems and to the selection of
  the best performing system for a given budget. The framework of a
  performance evaluation using these hierarchically organized analytical
  models guides human intuition in understanding the actual performance
  problems and provides us with reliable answers to most of the basic
  quantitative performance questions concerning throughput and response
  time of actual modern large-scale time-shared computer systems.

* Smith, A. A., Input-output in time-shared, segmented multiprocessor
  systems, MAC-TR-28 (S.M. thesis), June 1966. 1.5M

* Stern, J. A., Backup and recovery of on-line information in a computer
  utility, MAC-TR-116 (S.M. & E.E. thesis), January 1974. 4.2M

This thesis describes a design for an automatic backup mechanism to be
  incorporated in a computer utility for the protection of on-line
  information against accidental or malicious destruction. This
  protection is achieved by preserving on magnetic tape recent copies of
  all items of information known to the on-line file system. In the event
  of a system failure, file system damage is automatically assessed and
  missing information is recovered from backup storage. For isolated
  mishaps, users may directly request the retrieval of selected items of
  information. The design of the backup mechanism presented in this
  thesis is based upon existing backup mechanism contained in the Multics
  system. As compared to the present Multics backup system, the new
  design lessens overhead, drastically reduces recovery time from system
  failures, eliminates the need to interrupt system operation for backup
  purposes, and scales up significantly better with on-line storage
  growth.

* Van Horn, E. C., Computer design for asynchronously reproducible
  multiprocessing, MAC-TR-34 (Ph.D. thesis), November 1966. 7.3M

* Vogt, C. M., Suspension of processes in a multiplexed computer system,
  MAC-TM-14, September 1970.

* Voydock, V. L., A Census of Ring 0, CSR-RFC-37, Sep 5 1973.

part 2 of MAC-TM-87

Multics Manuals

Published by Honeywell.

Al Kossow at bitsavers.org has scanned many Honeywell Multics manuals and
  placed them  online.
* 43A239851 DSS181-DSS190 Specification, May 1974 (5.5 MB pdf)

* 43A239854 600B IOM Specification, Jul 1975 (6.2 MB pdf)

* 58009906 DPS8 System Manual, Freestanding DPS8 Multics, Aug 1982 This
  manual is intended as a general system review and maintenance aid for
  TAC personnel in analyzing and diagnosing system problems beyond level
  1 procedure. (4.4 MB pdf)

* 58009917 DPS8 CPU Installation Instructions, Aug 1984 Installation
  instructions for a DPS8 CPU. Unpacking, inspection, cable routing, and
  power-up. (1.5 MB pdf)

* 60132445 FEP Coupler Specification, Nov 1977 (3.7 MB pdf)

* AG90 Multics Programmer's Manual: Introduction to Programming on
  Multics, Dec 1981 (7 MB pdf)

* AG91 Multics Programmer's manual: Reference Guide, Dec 1975 (11 MB pdf)

* AG91 Multics Programmer's manual: Reference Guide, Jan 1987 (36 MB pdf)

* AG92 Multics Programmer's manual: Commands and Active Functions, Feb
  1980 861 pages. (39 MB pdf)

* AG92 Multics Programmer's manual: Commands and Active Functions, Nov
  1987 (60 MB pdf)

* AG93 Multics Programmer's manual: Subroutines and I/O Modules, Nov 1986
  (64 MB pdf)

* AG94 Multics PL/I Language Specification, Mar 1981 (14 MB pdf)

* AG95 The Multics Virtual Memory, Jun 1972 (reprint of Bensoussan,
  Clingen, and Daley paper; "Access Control to the Multics Virtual
  Memory"; and "Series 6000 Features for the Multics Virtual Memory") (11
  MB pdf)

* AK15 The Multics System Summary Description, (brochure), 1974

* AK24 Multics Software Overview Product Brief, 1973

* AK26 Multics Model 6180 Hardware Product Brief, 1973

* AK27 The Multics System, (brochure), 1973

* AK27-2 The Multics System, (brochure), 1975

* AK27-3 The Multics System, (brochure), 1977

* AK50 Multics System Administrators' Manual, Feb 1973 An early version
  of the MSAM. (4 MB pdf)

* AK50 Multics System Administrators' Manual, Dec 1987 The Trusted
  Facilities Manual required for B2 certification is contained in Part VI
  "Assuring System Security" and Appendix B "Audit Tables and Include
  Files" of AK50-03 (Renamed the "Multics System Administration
  Procedures Manual", May 1985). Part VI consists of Chapters 18 through
  26 of the manual and provides guidelines for the system administrator
  on how to manage Multics as a secure system. [info from Ed Ranzenbach]
  (21 MB pdf)

* AK51 Multics Project Administrators' Manual, Feb 1985 (4 MB pdf)

* AK52 Multics Administrative Functions Product Brief, 1973

* AK92 Multics Programmer's manual: Subsystem Writer's Guide, Mar 1979
  (20 MB pdf)

* AK95 Multics APL Users' Guide, Dec 1985 (11 MB pdf)

* AK96 Multics Programmer's manual: System Programmer's Supplement

* AL39 Multics Processor Manual, Nov 1985 461 pages. (18 MB pdf)

* AL39-01C Multics Processor Manual, Nov 1985 358 pages. (1.5 MB
  searchable pdf thanks to Bob Mabee)

* AM81 Multics Operator's Handbook, Nov 1986 (29 MB pdf)

* AM82 Multics BASIC, Feb 1981 (29 MB pdf)

* AM82 Multics BASIC Update, Dec 1984 (2 MB pdf)

* AM83 Multics PL/I Reference Manual, Sep 1978 (31 MB pdf)

* AN05 GCOS Environment Simulator, Dec 1985 (6 MB pdf)

* AN50 Guide to Multics Manuals

* AN51 System Tools PLM, 1979 This Program Logic Manual (PLM) is not
  structured in the same manner as most others in this series. The System
  Tools PLM consists only of a number of command and subroutine
  descriptions with no design motivation, implementation description, or
  data structure description except what is needed to describe the use of
  the command or subroutine as a tool. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN52 Multics System Metering, Feb 1979 (5 MB pdf)

* AN53 Multics System Dump Analysis, June 1975 (5 MB pdf) (source at
  web.mit.edu)

* AN54 PL/I Compiler PLM, Aug 1974 The PL/1 compiler translates a source
  program written in the PL/1 language into an equivalent Multics
  standard object segment. This compiler represents an implementation of
  the PL/1 language as defined in the PL/1 Language Manual (Order No.
  AG94). The entire compiler is written in the same language, and
  therefore, is self reproducible. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN57 Multics User Ring Input/Output System PLM, May 1977 (13 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN61 Multics Storage System: Program Logic Manual, Sep 1978 Internal
  logic of the Multics Storage System. (23 MB pdf) (source at
  web.mit.edu)

* AN63 Multics ALM Assembler SDN, February 1975 (1 MB pdf)

* AN69 Multics Message Segment Facility SDN, Oct 1979 (3 MB pdf) (source
  at web.mit.edu)

* AN70 System Initialization Program Logic Manual, Feb 1975 (8 MB pdf)

* AN70 System Initialization Program Logic Manual, May 1984 (8 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN71 Reconfiguration Program Logic Manual, June 1974 (2 MB pdf)

* AN71 Reconfiguration Program Logic Manual, Apr 1977 (2 MB pdf) This
  document describes the implementation and design of the Multics dynamic
  reconfiguration software for the major hardware modules of the system.
  This document is limited to processor, system controller and bulk store
  memory reconfiguration although there are many more hardware and
  software switchable modules in the system. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN76 Multics Carry Facility, Feb 1981 (1 MB pdf)

* AN77 Multics GCOS Environment Simulator, Apr 1977 (source at
  web.mit.edu)

* AN80 Level 68 & DPS8/M Library Maintenance SDN, May 1979 (6 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN82 Multics Standards SDN, June 1980 (3 MB pdf) Description of the
  Standards, Conventions, and Guidelines Used in the Software and
  Documentation of the Multics Operating System. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN83 FORTRAN Compiler PLM, Mar 1979 The FORTRAN Program Logic Manual
  (PLM) deals solely with the parse and semantic translation phases of
  the Multics FORTRAN Compiler. (source at web.mit.edu)

* AN85 Multics Communication System SDN, Oct 1979 (14 MB pdf)

* AN87 Multics Hardware and Software Formats PLM, March 1980 (7 MB pdf)
  (source at web.mit.edu)

* AR97 Multics System Diagnostic Aids, Dec 1983 (7 MB pdf)

* AS40 Multics Graphics System, Aug 1981 (12 MB pdf)

* AS43 Multics COBOL Users' Guide, Jul 1981 (12 MB pdf)

* AS44 Multics COBOL Reference Manual, Jul 1981 (20 MB pdf)

* AS68 Multics Administrator's Manual - Registration and Accounting

* AT58 Multics FORTRAN, Dec 1983 (8 MB pdf)

* AT59 Multics DFAST Subsystem Users' Guide, Mar 1976 (3 MB pdf)

* AT71 MSU0402 Manual, Oct 1983 (1 MB pdf)

* AU25 Multics FAST Subsystem Reference Guide, Sep 1979 (5 MB pdf)

* AU77 Multics Online Test and Diagnostics Reference Manual, Mar 1984 (7
  MB pdf)

* AW17 Multics Pocket Guide: Commands and Active Functions, Apr 1976 (2
  MB pdf)

* AW32 Multics SORT/MERGE, Jul 1976 (2 MB pdf)

* AW53 Multics Relational Data Store (MRDS) -- Reference Manual, Mar 1984
  (15 MB pdf)

* AX31 VIP 72xx Operator Manual, May 1981 (3 MB pdf)

* AX49 Multics Peripheral Input/Output, Jul 1982 (10 MB pdf)

* AY03 MSU0500 Manual, Dec 1979 (1 MB pdf)

* AY34 Datanet Operator Manual, May 1980 (7 MB pdf)

* AZ03 System Programming Tools, (includes TECO), Jul 1982 (16 MB pdf)

* AZ49 Logical Inquiry and Update System (LINUS), Aug 1986 (7 MB pdf)

* AZ98 Multics WORDPRO Reference Guide, Jul 1983 (13 MB pdf)

* CC34 Multics Bulk Input/Output

* CC69 Multics Report Program Generator (MRPG) Reference Manual, Nov 1982
  (7 MB pdf)

* CC70 FORTRAN Users' Guide, Dec 1983 (9 MB pdf)

* CC74 Multics Administrator's Manual - Resource Control

* CC75 Multics Administrator's Manual - Communications Administration,
  Dec 1983 (6 MB pdf)

* CC75 Multics Administrator's Manual - Communications Administration,
  Feb 1985 (6 MB pdf)

* CC92 Multics Communications Input/Output, Jul 1982 (8 MB pdf)

* CC96 Multics Transaction Processing Reference Manual, Jun 1979 (3 MB
  pdf)

* CG18 Multics Remote Batch Facility (Level 68 to Level 6), Jul 1979 (2
  MB pdf)

* CG40 QEDX Text Editor User's Guide, Feb 1983 (6 MB pdf)

* CH23 Multics Extended Mail System User's Guide, Feb 1982 (8 MB pdf)

* CH24 New Users' Introduction to Multics -- Part I, Nov 1979 (4 MB pdf)

* CH25 New Users' Introduction to Multics -- Part II, Nov 1979 (4 MB pdf)

* CH26 Multics Error Messages: Primer and Reference Manual, Sep 1980 ( MB
  pdf)

* CH27 Emacs Manual, December 1979 (14 MB pdf)

* CJ27 Emacs Text Editor User's Guide, December 1979 (7.6 MB pdf)

* CJ52 Emacs Extension Writer's Guide, January 1980 (3.5 MB pdf)

* CJ52 Emacs Extension Writer's Guide, Jul 1982 (9.4 MB pdf)

* CJ97 Multics Page Processing System Utility Manual, May 1980 (1 MB pdf)

* CP31 Level 68 Introduction to Emacs

* CP50 Multics Text Editor (TED) Reference Manual, Oct 1985 (7 MB pdf)

* CP51 Multics Menu Creation Facilities, Feb 1985 (8 MB pdf)

* CP92 VIP7201 Reference Manual, Jul 1983 (6 MB pdf)

* CT38 Resource Control User Guide, Jun 1981 (3 MB pdf)

* CW99 PRU901 Manual, May 1982 (4 MB pdf)

* CX20 Fundamentals of Multics Executive Mail

* CX72 Executive Facilities Editing Operations Ref Card

* CY73 Inter-Multics File Transfer Facility Ref Manual, Dec 1983 (3 MB
  pdf)

* CY74 Multics Forum Interactive Meeting System Users' Guide, Feb 1985
  (10 MB pdf)

* CY93 PRU7070 Handbook, Dec 1982 (5 MB pdf)

* DB37 DSS190 Reference, May 1974 (2.6 MB pdf)

* DF48 Series 60 Level 68 DPS Pocket Guide, June 1978

* DJ18 Guide to Multics Wordpro for New Users

* DL92 Honeywell Multics Distributed Processing System, Summary Overview,
  1982

* DL92 Multics brochure, 1982 (21.5 MB pdf)

* DS44 Honeywell Multics, (brochure), 1983

* DS45 Honeywell DPS8/Multics, (brochure), 1983

* DU06 Fundamentals of Multics Forum Interactive Meeting System

* DU34 DPS8 Site Preparation Manual, Jan 1986 (5 MB pdf)

* DV74 Texto Reference Manual

* DW19 Multics MegaCalc User's Guide

* DX71 Fundamentals of Multics Executive Forum

* F01 Introduction to Multics Course Notes, Oct 1978 (20 MB pdf)

* F15C Multics Course Notes F15C, Sep 1983 (7 MB pdf)

* F15D Multics Course Notes F15D, May 1981 (15 MB pdf)

* F21 Multics Course Notes F21, Jul 1981 (11 MB pdf)

* F80 Multics Course Notes F80, Mar 1983 (18 MB pdf)

* F86 Multics Course Notes F86 (7 MB pdf)

* F88 Multics Course Notes F88 (10 MB pdf)

* GA01 Multics Data Security, (brochure), 1983 Based on Dave Jordan's
  article in Scientific Honeyweller, June 1981

* GB58 Multics Common Commands Manual, (GB18?), Feb 1983 (10 MB pdf)

* GB59 DPS 6/Multics Satellite 6M Reference Manual

* GB60 Multics HASP Service and Utility

* GB61 Operator's Guide to Multics, Dec 1987 (13 MB pdf)

* GB62 Multics Pascal User's Guide

* GB63 Multics Report Writer Reference Manual, Jan 1985 (5 MB pdf)

* GB64 Administration, Maintenance, and Operations Commands, Nov 1986 (26
  MB pdf)

* GB65 Multics/Personal Computer File Transmission Facility

* GB66 Multics On-Line Work Station Environment User's Guide

* GL71 Multics Simplified Computing and Filing Facility

* GN08 Multics Emacs Reference Card

* HH07 Multics C User's Guide, Nov 1987 (7 MB pdf)

* YL77 Multics Cray Station Users' Guide

Multics Repository Documents

Internal design documents used by the development team in the 1960s.
  Three series, M, G, and B, for MIT, GE, and Bell Labs. This table is
  derived from TOC memos M0116, M0117, M0118, and M0119.
* B0005 EPL Design Journal #4, 08/09/65, McIlroy, M. D.

* B0008 FJCC: Structure of Multics Supervisor, 9/16/65, Vyssotsky, V. A.,
  F. J. Corbato, and R. M. Graham

* B0009 FJCC: General Purpose File System, 09/16/65, Daley, R. C., and P.
  G. Neumann

* B0010 FJCC: Communication in I/O Switching, 9/17/65, Ossanna, J. F., L.
  Mikus, and S. D. Dunten

* B0021 Debugging and Multics (supersedes M0039), 11/09/65, Brown, W. S.

* B0039 Software Tools for Monitoring and Tracing in Multics, 02/15/66,
  Gimpel, J. F.

* B0043 Big Computing and Multics, 03/30/66, McIlroy, M. D.

* B0044 EPL Manual -Reprint IBM Operating System/360 PL/I: Language
  Specifications, 04/66, IBM

* B0045 A Proposed Outerview of Performance Monitoring in Multics,
  04/13/66, Gimpel, J. F.

* B0057 Character Conversion for PRT-202 Line Printer, 05/10/66,
  Vyssotsky, V. A.

* B0060 Fault Tags and the IT modifier in the 645 Processor, 06/03/66,
  Tague, B. A.

* B0066 Proposed Context Editor Edit(Audit), 07/22/66, Kaiman, A.

* B0067 Some Thoughts and Ideas Pertaining to Tasking , 01/08/68, Farber,
  D. J., and R. L. Wexelblat

* B0086 Compendium of PL/I (EPL) Run-Time Library, 06/15/17, Hyde, J. P.

* B0088 QED Text EdItor, 08/05/67, Thompson, K. L.

* B0095 Current History Permuted Index BTL/GE/MIT, 08/01/66, Serido, J.

* B0097 Current Permuted Index BTL/GE/MIT, 05/17/68, Serido, J.

* B0099 Obsolete Permuted Index BTL/GE/MIT, 05/17/68, Serido, J.

* B0100 The Multics Device Utility Package (DUP), OS/27/68, Jones, S. W.

* G0004 636 Simulation Package, 08/30/65, Ziegler, G. G.

* G0006 Free Standing GECOS - GIOC Version, nd, McGee, R. C.

* G0007 Proposal for Developing Multics Documentation, 10/11/65, Haig, H.
  C., R. C. McGee, and B. A. Tague

* G0012 GE-645 Bootstrap Assembler(BSA), 01/01/66, anonymous

* G0013 Peripheral T and D Interface with 645 Software, 02/03/66,
  Matthews, H. D.

* G0015 On-Line Testing in a 636 Time-Sharing System, 10/21/65, Mikus, L.
  E.

* G0016 Memo on 645 Mnemonics, 01/18/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0029 Design Notebook Appendix C.Rev., 03/11/65, Oliver, G. A.

* G0030 Memo on Las Vegas Changes, 04/19/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0031 Definition of Inactive Mode in the GIOC, 04/20/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0034 645 Utility Program, 05/12/66, Hobbs, R. J., and R. M. Foster

* G0036 M50EB00131 -Performance Specification -Multics Assembler ,
  06/15/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0037 SPS-B-645 Simulator, 08/9/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0038 SPS-B Multics Assembler (M50EB00131), 08/22/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0039 SPSB 645 Free-Standing Simulator (M50EB00171) , 08/22/66, McGee,
  R. C.

* G0040 EPS MTH211 and MTH311 Magnetic Tape Units, 08/22/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0041 SPS GE-645 Gecos-IOC Version (M50EB00006), 08/22/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0042 SCU Instruction Format, 11/22/66, Stoller, G. S.

* G0043 SPS-C Multics/Gecos Monitor (M50EB00188), 09/01/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0044 SPS-B GE-645 PL/I Compiler (M50EB00175), 09/01/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0045 EPS Extended Character Set Printer Subsystem (PRT202)
  (M50EB00070), 09/01/66, McGee, R. C.

* G0046 Errata G0042, 12/05/66, Stoller, G. S.

* G0047 600 Series GE Specifications , 12/08/66, Bash, J. L.

* G0048 Distribution of Specifications , 12/12/66, Bash, J. L.

* G0049 Fortran IV Language Manual, 01/12/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0050 GIOC Manual, 01/12/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0051 Correction to G0049, 01/12/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0053 Renumbering of Repository Document, INDEX, 05/11/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0054 Revised INDEX, 06/16/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0055 Compendium of PL/I (EPL) Run-Time Mathematics Library , 09/01/67,
  Goldberg, I. B.

* G0056 Current INDEX Revision, 09/13/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0057 Current VOCAB Revision, 09/25/67, Bash, J. L.

* G0058 Phase I Test Experiment, 10/02/67, Shy, I.

* G0059 The Multics Operating System , 05/67, CISL

* G0060 EPL User's Reference Manual, 12/67, CISL

* G0061 CISL User Manuals on MULTICS (memo), ND, Bash, J. L.

* G0062 Current INDEX Revision, 01/26/68, Bash, J. L.

* G0063 CTSS Console User's Manual , 01/68, CISL

* G0065 Errata to EPL User's Reference Manual, 02/05/68, Benjafield, G.

* G0066 Memo Re: G0067, 02/12/68, CISL

* G0067 Handbook of Operating Information, Configuration A/Multics ,
  11/68, CISL

* G0068 Current Revision of VOCAB , 02/15/68, Bash, J. L.

* G0069 Intermediate Update of INDEX and VOCAB, 03/08/68, Bash, J. L.

* G0070 EPL User's Reference Manual, Revision 1, 04/68, CISL

* G0071 Multics PL/I Language Reference Manual Questionnaire, 05/09/69,
  Bash, J. L.

* G0072 EPLBSA Manual, 04/68, CISL

* G0073 Initial Multics Console User's Manual, 07/68, CISL

* G0074 EPL Glossary of Terms, 08/68, Hart, J. E.

* G0075 GE-645 Address Modification , 09/68, Riesenberg, D. J.

* G0076 Updates to the Glossary of Multics Terms (Vocabulary) , 09/04/68,
  Bash, J. L.

* G0077 Interim FL Reference Manual, 10/29/68, Riesenberg, D. J.

* G0078 Interim I/O Document, 12/20/68, Goudy, M. L.

* G0080 Significant Features of Multics PL/I , 01/21/69, Freiburghouse,
  R. A.

* G0081 Compatibility Consideration of the PL/I Implementation ,
  01/21/69, Freiburghouse, R. A.

* G0082 Update to EPL Manual G0070, 01/22/69, Bash, J. L.

* G0084 MULTICS Condensed Guide, 06/69, CISL

* G0085 Chapter I of MULTICS User Procedures (Calls to the File System),
  07/01/69, Hart, J. E.

* G0086 Multics User Procedures Update (Chapter 1), 07/28/69, Hart, J. E.

* G0087 Chapter II of MULTICS User Procedures (Interim Document on I/O
  Calls), 08/06/69, Bash, J. L.

* G0088 Multics User Procedures Update (Chapter I) , 08/15/69, Hart, J.
  E.

* G0089 Update to G0087, Interim Document on I/O Calls, ND, Bash, J. L.

* G0090 Working paper on Program Naming Problems in a Shared Tree
  Structured Hierarchy, 08/22/69, Clingen, C. T.

* G0091 A User's Guide to the MULTICS Fortran Implementation, 10/69,
  Freiburghouse, R. A.

* G0092 A User's Guide to the MULTICS PL/I Implementation, 10/69,
  Freiburghouse, R. A.

* M0047 FJCC: Intro. & Overview of Multics, 9/17/65, Corbato, F. J., and
  V. A. Vyssotsky

* M0048 FJCC: System Design of a Computer for Time Sharing Applications,
  9/17/65, Glaser, E. L., J. F. Couleur, and G. A. Oliver

* M0049 FJCC: Some Thoughts about the Social Implications of Accessible
  Computing , 9/17/65, David, E. E.

* M0052 Debugging Aids for the Multics System (Revised) , 11/09/65,
  Wagner, D. B.

* M0054 Proposal for a System of Clocks for Multics , 11/16/65, Saltzer,
  J. H.

* M0058 Outline of Proposed Interactive Debugging Aids for Multics,
  1/19/66, Wagner, D. B.

* M0060 Thoughts About Operating Multics, 12/17/65, Oppert, D. E.

* M0062 System Metering , 3/17/66, Widrig, D. R.

* M0063 Conversion of Typset Files to Flexowriter Tapes, 3/11/66,
  Magnuski, H. S.

* M0065 Operational Description of the EPLBSA Assembler , 5/26/66,
  Poduska, J. W.

* M0066 Resource Management and Accounting for Multics, 6/26/66, Van
  Vleck, T. H.

* M0070 Character Handling and PL/I, 6/30/66, Saltzer, J. H.

* M0071 ASCII Graphics on Multics , 6/30/66, Saltzer, J. H.

* M0076 Operating Procedures for the Model 2201 Flexowriter to Prepare
  Documents for Multics , 8/25/66, Selwyn, L. L.

* M0077 Traffic Control in a Multiplexed Computer System, 0/22/66,
  Saltzer, J. H.

* M0082 Examples of PL/I Subroutines, 11/22/66, Corbato, F. J., and A.
  Evans

* M0085 Use of QED and ROFF, 1/19/67, Graham, R. M.

* M0086 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers-I, 3/67, Organick, E. I.

* M0087 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers-II, 4/67, Organick, E.
  I.

* M0089 Error in hash-coding algorithm, 4/10/67, Corbato, F. J., and A.
  Evans

* M0090 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers Chapter III, 8/67,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0094 Virtual Memory, Processes, and Sharing in Multics , 10/14/67,
  Daley, R. C., and J. B. Dennis

* M0095 Protection in an Information Processing Utility, 10/14/67,
  Graham, R. M.

* M0103 PL/I As a Tool for System Programming , 07/02/68, Corbato, F. J.

* M0104 A Paging Experiment with the Multics System , 07/68, Corbato, F.
  J.

* M0105 Sensitive Issues in the Design of Multi-Use Systems, 11/12/68,
  Corbato, F. J.

* M0106 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers Chapter IV, 01/69,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0107 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers -Chapter V, 02/69,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0108 A Guide to Multics for Subsystem Writers -Chapter VI, 03/69,
  Organick, E. I.

* M0109 Annotated Bibliography of Multics, 04/16/69, Saltzer, J. H., and
  R. M. Graham

* M0110 BCPL Manual for Multics, 07/30/69, Evans, A.

* M0111 The Multics Virtual Memory, 10/69, Bensoussan, A., C. T. Clingen,
  and R. C. Daley

* M0112 The Instrumentation of Multics, 10/69, Saltzer, J. H., and J. W.
  Gintell

* M0113 The Role of Motherhood in the Pop Art of System Programming,
  08/21/69, Neumann, P. G.

* M0114 The Multics Interprocess Communication Facility , 07/29/69,
  Spier, M. J., and E. I. Organick

* M0115 System performance effects of the new PL/I compiler , 10/14/69,
  Corbato, F. J.

* M0116 MAC Repository list, 12/01/69, Gardner, R.

* M0117 GE Repository List, 07/19/69, Gardner, R.

* M0118 GE Repository list, 12/01/69, Gardner, R.

* M0119 BTL Repository list, 12/01/69, Gardner, R.

* M0132 A Multics Process (System 17.11a), 12/8/72, Greenberg, B., and M.
  Miyazaki

Multics Design Document Series

The Multics Design Document series, specifically produced by Honeywell
  for the B2 evaluation effort, includes some documents written for the
  project. Others were existing manuals that were found to be adequate
  for the evaluation but were to eventually be re-written for
  consistency. [info from Ed Ranzenbach]
* MDD-001 Overview and Index of Multics Design Documents (Margulies, B.)
  Introduction to Multics Design Documents. The index of all Multics
  Design Documents.

* MDD-002-01 Multics Security Model -- Bell and La Padula (Tague, R.
  Michael) The Multics system enforces a security policy that is an
  implementation of the security model described by Bell and La Padula.
  This Multics Design Document (MDD) presents the relationship between
  the actual implementation in Multics and the model.

* MDD-003 Overview of the Multics TCB (Sibert, W. Olin) Overview of the
  Multics Virtual Memory System, Metering, and the Supervisor.

* MDD-004-01 Multics Functional Testing (Dickson, Paul) This MDD contains
  documentation on the Multics Functional Testing Suite.

* MDD-005-02 System Initialization (Farley, Paul) The internal
  organization of Multics System Initialization.

* MDD-006-01 Directory Control (Dixon, Gary C.) Internal Organization of
  the Directory Control and the Address and Name Space Management
  functions within the Multics system.

* MDD-007-01 VTOCE File System (Sharpe, Ed) The management and internal
  organization of storage system physical disk volumes on Multics.

* MDD-008 Online Storage Volume Management (Sharpe, Ed) This MDD
  describes the management of Online Storage Volumes.

* MDD-009 Resource Control Package (Pozzo, Maria M.) This MDD covers the
  management and internal organization of resources (devices and volumes)
  on Multics.

* MDD-010-01 System / User Control (Swenson, E., and Jim Lippard) The
  management and internal description of the system/user control
  subsystem on Multics.

* MDD-011 Page Control (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-012-01 I/O Interface (IOI) (Jones, Chris) This MDD describes the
  features and operations of the I/O interfacer (IOI), as well as those
  hardware features which make its operation possible.

* MDD-013 Multics Message Segment Facility (Pandolf, Michael A.)
  Description and documentation of the internal and user interfaces of
  the Multics Message Segment Facility.

* MDD-014 Hierarchy Backup Dumper (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-015 Interprocess Communication (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-016 Volume Backup Dumper (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-017 Multics I/O SysDaemon (Gilcrease, George) An overview of the
  operation of the I/O SysDaemon. The scope of this document is a
  synopsis of the I/O SysDaemon software: a description of the primary
  associated databases, and a narrative of the order of events and
  communication between the I/O SysDaemon coordinator process and a
  representative driver process.

* MDD-018 Reconfiguration (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-019 Traffic Control (Coren, Robert S.) This document describes the
  policies and algorithms of Multics Traffic Control, which is that part
  of the supervisor that manages the allocation of processors among
  processes.

* MDD-020 Multics Runtime Environment (Weaver, Melanie) Explanation of
  the runtime environment, including process structure and
  initialization, ring crossing mechanisms, object format and dynamic
  linking, area management, and condition signalling and handling.

* MDD-021 Fault and Interrupt Handling (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-022 System Administration (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-023 Online T&D (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-024 System Logging (Sharpe, Ed) Describes the system logging
  mechanisms. This document also provides a foundation for MDD-029
  "Security Auditing".

* MDD-025 Hardcore I/O (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-026 Salvaging and Scavenging (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-027 MCS (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-028 SysDaemons (Honeywell) unpublished

* MDD-029 Security Auditing (Sharpe, Ed) Describes the system security
  audit trail. Some descriptions in this document are dependent upon the
  contents of MDD-024 "System Logging".

Multics Operating Staff Notes

Documents given to machine operators at the MIT and GE/Honeywell
  development sites. Later incorporated into Honeywell manuals.
* MOSN-A001 Operational Changes for MR4.0 (Van Vleck, T. H.) Initial
  operator documents for NSS, describing BOS changes and operator command
  changes. (2.0M pdf)

Multics Alternative Documentation

Here is a list, thanks to Bruce Sanderson, of documents produced by
  Warren Johnson and Jim Homan, describing operational lore useful to
  site analysts and operators.
* MAD-001 Multics Alternative Documentation, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.A Multics Alternative Documentation, 2/20/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-001.B Multics Alternative Documentation, 3/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-002 Reading Processor Lights, 10/29/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003 Multics Metering and Tuning, 10/30/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-003.A Multics Metering and Tuning, 2/24/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004 Channel Master File, 11/5/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-004.A Channel Master File, 4/17/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-005 Disk Space Monitoring, 11/10/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-005.A Disk Space Monitoring, 7/7/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-006 So you're going to 6250 bpi..., 11/13/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-007 Operator Message Facility, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-008 Recovery from ESD Failure, 11/18/80, Homan, J.

* MAD-009 Knocking the Initializer out of a loop, 11/19/80, Johnson, W.

* MAD-010 Sending Interrupt from IOM to System Console, 2/25/81, Johnson,
  W.

* MAD-011 Fac_Totum.SysDaemon, 4/22/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.A Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/7/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-011.B Factotum.SysDaemon, 7/21/81, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-012 Multics Failure Analysis, 5/21/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-013 RCPRM For Tape Library Management, 6/1/81, Homan, J.

* MAD-014 Setting SAT Bit Count, 8/3/81, Johnson, W.

* MAD-015 Site Library Maintenance, 5/10/82, Homan, J., and W. Johnson

* MAD-016 Auto-Reboot Redone, 7/30/82, Homan, J.

* MAD-017 Yet Another start_up.ec Spiel, 3/29/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-018 Tools For Maintaining System Tables And Exec_coms, 3/29/83,
  Homan, J.

* MAD-019 Installing A New Multics Site, 5/31/83, Homan, J.

* MAD-020 Survey of Privileged Accesses, 3/28/83, Homan, J.

Local Site memos

Memos local to particular sites.
* MIT IPC, MIT Author Maintained Library, April 1975

Documentation for 34 commands, 7 active functions, and 25 subroutines
  contributed by the MIT user community, including XPL, TECO and BCPL.
  (5.6M pdf)

* MIT IPC, MIT Installation Maintained Library, July 1974

Documentation for 5 commands and 2 subroutines installed locally at the
  MIT site, including Multics versions of BMD and SSP. (1.8M pdf)

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