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<TITLE>INTERNET FILMMAKER'S FAQ - PART 2</TITLE>
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<P><CENTER><B><FONT SIZE=7>INTERNET FILMMAKER'S</FONT></B>

<P><H2>FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS</H2><BR>

<P><H1>Version 3.2</H1>

<P>Compiled and Maintained<BR> by<BR><BR>
<FONT SIZE=+1>Benjamin Craig<BR>
<A HREF="mailto:benc@vianet.net.au">benc@vianet.net.au</A></FONT><BR> <BR><BR>

<P><H2>PART 2 OF 4</H2></CENTER>

<P><HR WIDTH=400 ALIGN=center>

<P><CENTER><h3>COPYRIGHT NOTICE</h3></CENTER>

<p><b>&copy Copyright Benjamin Craig, 1994 - 96. All Rights Reserved.</b></center>

<p>Permission is granted for reproduction, distribution, transmission, or storage of this FAQ for non-commercial
purposes only and on the condition that the contents are not modified in any way. Commercial use and/or distribution 
of this document is strictly forbidden with prior written consent from the copyright holder.  Educational use of this 
document is allowed subject to the above mentioned conditions and the requirement to notify the copyright holder 
before any such use is undertaken.

<h3><p align=center>DISCLAIMER</h3>

<P>Whilst every effort has been made to maintain the accuracy of information provided in this FAQ, the
author cannot accept any moral or legal liability for inaccurate or outdated information contained within. 
Furthermore, certain information presented in this FAQ is based on the opinions and experiences of the author
only, and cannot be taken to be legally binding.  Trademarks referred to in this document are noted as such,
and are used without permission of the respective trademark owners. Use of such trademarks is for 
informational purposes only, and should in no way be considered a challenge to their ownership.

<P><HR WIDTH=400 ALIGN=center>

<P><A NAME="index"><CENTER><H2>TABLE OF CONTENTS</H2></CENTER></A>

<P>(%) denotes a new/updated topic; (+) indicates the question is presently unanswered.<BR><BR>

<P><DL><DT><FONT SIZE=+1>Part 2: Basic Stuff</FONT><BR><BR>
<DD><LI> <B>What is/where is:</b><ul>       
<li><a href="#ILM">ILM (Industrial Light & Magic)?</a><br>
<li><a href="#lucasfilm">Lucasfilm Ltd?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#lightst">Lightstorm Entertainment?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#amblin">Amblin Entertainment?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#d2">Digital Domain</a><br>
<LI><a href="#DGA">Directors Guild of America</a><br>
<li><a href="#dreamworks">Dreamworks SKG</a><br>
<li><a href="#miramax">Miramax</a><br>
<li><A HREF="#universal">Universal Pictures</A><br></ul>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#intern">I've heard something about Lucasfilm/ILM Internships.  What are they/how can I apply?</a>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#iwanna">I wanna be a [insert your film career here]. How?</A> 
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#sfxjob">I wanna work in FX. How?</a>
<DD><LI> <B>What is/What does a [insert crew role] do:</b><ul>
<li><a href="#prod">Producer? Executive, Line, Associate? etc</a><br>
<li><a href="#grip">Grip?</a><br>
<li><a href="#gaffer">Gaffer?</a><br>
<li><a href="#bestboy">Best Boy/Girl?</a><br>
<li><a href="#artdir">Art Director?</a><br>
<li><a href="#designer">Production Designer?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#DOP">Director of Photography?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#foley">Foley Artist?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#AD">Assistant Director? 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 2nd 2nd? </a><br>
<LI><a href="#scriptsup">Script Supervisor?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#publicist">Unit Publicist?</a><br>
<LI><a href="#upm">Production Manager/Unit Production Manager?</a></UL>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#letters">What do the little letters mean after some people's names in the credits?</a>
<DD><LI> <a href="#schools">What/Where are the best film schools?</a>
<DD><LI> <a href="#cannes">What is Cannes and how do I pronounce it?</a>
<DD><LI> <b>What are the entrance requirements for:</b>
<ul>
<li><a href="#ASC">American Society of Cinematographers?</a>
<li><a href="#WGA">Writer's Guild of America?</a> +
<li><a href="#IATSE">I.A.T.S.E?</a></UL>
<DD><LI> <B>What does [insert cryptic film term] mean?</b><ul>
<li><a href="#reversal">Reversal Film?</a>
<li><a href="#fps">Frame Rate?</a></ul>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#sup16">What is the difference between 16mm and Super 16mm?</a>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#mymovie">I've got a great script which I want made into a movie.  How?</a>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#rights">How do I get the rights to adapt a book into a screenplay?</a>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#2day">Are those "two day" film schools any good?</A>
<DD><LI> <A HREF="#doubles">What's the difference between a stand-in and a double?</A>
<DD><LI> <a href="#internships">Where can I find a listing of film/tv internships?</a>
<DD><LI> <a href="#managent">What's the difference between a manager and an agent?</a>
<DD><LI> <a href="#abovebelow">What's the difference between "Above" and "Below" the line costs?</a>
</DL><BR>

<HR>

<h3><b><a name="ILM">What is/Where is: ILM?</a></b></h3>

<p>ILM stands for Industrial Light and Magic, and is George Lucas' special 
effects house.  ILM is part of his Lucasfilm Ltd company and does effects for 
both in-house and outside productions.  ILM was set up to create effects 
for <i>Star Wars</i> in the mid-70s, and has an excellent track record with ground-breaking FX films such as <i>Jurassic Park, Terminator 2</I>, and <I>The Abyss.</i>  In 1992 the ILM 
award count was:  11 Oscars for best visual effects; 5 British Academy 
awards; 2 Emmys; and for specific inventions 4 Academy Awards for Technical 
Achievement. (Source: <cite>George Lucas: The Creative Impulse.</cite>  By Charles 
Champlin, 1992)

ILM is in San Rafael, northern California.  ILM can be reached at:
<dl><dt>
<dd>            <b>ILM</b>
<dd>            PO Box 2009
<dd>            San Rafael, CA 94912
<dd>            USA<br>
</dl><br>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>
<h3><a name="lucasfilm">Lucasfilm Ltd?</a></h3>

<p>Lucasfilm is George Lucas' own production company.  It is located in 
San Rafael, northern California.  Lucasfilm has been responsible for many of 
the great movies of the last two decades, including The <i>Star Wars Trilogy,</i> 
The <i>Indiana Jones</i> Trilogy, <i>Willow, American Graffiti,</i> and <i>Labrynth.</i><p>

<p>Lucasfilm can be reached at:
<dl><dt>
<dd>         <b>Lucasfilm Ltd.</b>
<dd>         PO Box 2009
<dd>         San Rafael, CA, 94912
<dd>         USA<br>
<br>
<dd>         Tel. (415) 662-1800<br>
</dl>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<h3><a name="lightst">Lightstorm Entertainment?</a></h3>

<p>Lightstorm Entertainment is James Cameron's (<i>Aliens, The Abyss, Terminator 1 
& 2, True Lies</i>) own production company.  It is not a special effects house.  

<dl><dt>Lightstorm Entertainment can be reached at:<br>
<br>
<dd>         <b>Lightstorm Entertainment</b>
<dd>         919 Santa Monica Blvd
<dd>         Santa Monica, CA, 90401
<dd>         USA<br>
<br>
<dd>         Tel. (310) 587-2500<br>
</dl>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<h3><a name="amblin">Amblin Entertainment?</a></h3>

<p>Amblin is Steven Spielberg's own production company.  The name comes from one 
of Spielberg's early films.  Amblin and Lucasfilm between them hold credit 
for most of the great movies of the last 20 years.  Amblin is responsible for 
<i>E.T., Jurassic Park, Schindler's List</I>, and<i> Jaws</i>.  Amblin has its
offices on the Universal lot.  You can also check out Amblin's online site at:
<blockquote>
<a href="http://www.amblin.com/">http://www.amblin.com/</a></blockquote>

<p>Apparently the plan is to eventually fold <i>Amblin</i> into the new <i><a href="#7.7">Dreamworks 
SKG</a></i> studio.  

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<h3><a name="d2">Digital Domain?</a></h3>

<p>Digital Domain is the newly formed special effects house of James Cameron's.  
Digital Domain is responsible for the visual effects of the latest 
Schwarzenegger film, <i>True Lies</i>.  Digital Domain is on the Net at <a href="http://www.d2.com">http://www.d2.com</a> and has an FTP site at <A HREF="ftp://d2.com">d2.com</A>.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<h3><a name="DGA">Directors Guild of America</a></h3>

<p>The Directors Guild of America (or DGA) is the regulating union of screen 
directors who work in Hollywood.  In order to become a member of the DGA
you must currently be a director working in California on a DGA film.  However, in order to
get work on films covered by the DGA award you must be a member of the
Guild.  The catch-22 situation is kind of interesting.
<dl><dt>
<dd>       <b> Directors Guild of America</b>
<dd>        7920 Sunset Blvd
<dd>        West Hollywood, CA, 90048
<dd>        USA<br>
<br>
<dd>        Tel.  310-289-2000
<dd>        Fax. 310-289-2029<br>
</dl>
<p>The DGA's web site can be reached at <a href="http://www.leonardo.net/dga/index.html">http://www.leonardo.net/dga/index.html</a>
and contains all of the relevant information on the policies, functions, and membership of the Guild.

<p>One way to gain membership is to do the course that the DGA offers in the 
art of being a 2nd Assistant Director.  This course is extremely competitive, but 
graduates are usually in high demand.  The Assistant Director Training Plan is 
a joint program of the DGA and the AMPTP (Alliance of Motion Picture and 
Television Producer - the management bargaining unit).  It takes about two
years to matriculate the program and the result is placement on the "Los 
Angeles Area Qualification List" as a Second Assistant Director.  This 
qualifies you to join the DGA as a Second Assistant Director.
  
<dl><dt>The address for the Training Program is:<br>
<br>
<dd>   <b> The Directors Guild-Producer Training Plan</b>  
<dd>    15503 Ventura Blvd.
<dd>    Encino, CA     91436-3140
<dd>    USA<br>
</dl>

<P>The full AD Training program FAQ can be found at the DGA Web site.

<P>BTW... no, they don't train producers!

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<h3><a name="dreamworks">Dreamworks SKG?</a></h3>

<p><i>Dreamworks SKG</i> is the newest studio in Hollywood, formed by "dream team" 
Steven Spielberg, Jeffery Katzenberg, and David Geffen (the "SKG" bit in the
name stands for Spielberg-Katzenberg-Geffen of course).  <i>Dreamworks</i> is the 
first new studio to be formed in Hollywood in over 20 years (AFAIK <i>20th 
Century Fox</i> was the last).  Currently, the "dream team" are pulling together 
finance for this venture, with the plan to release up to 15 films per year by 
the end of the decade.  At least count they had raised about $US 2 billion.

<p><i>Dreamworks</i> is still in its infancy and it will probably be a year or two 
before we see any productions.  One hot rumour is that the studio will release
the up-coming new <I>Star Wars</i> trilogy.  
<blockquote>
<b>Dreamworks SKG</b><br>
100 Universal City<br>
Plaza Bldg 601<br>
Universal City, CA 91608<br><br>
Tel. (310) 571 2222<br>
Domain Name: dreamworks.com<br>
Email. <a href="mailto:postmaster@dreamworks.com">postmaster@dreamworks.com</a><br></blockquote>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<h3><a name="miramax">Miramax?</a></h3>

<p>Miramax is a film distribution company. They started off distributing mainly art-house films, but 
quite a few mega-hits over the last few years have put them in a pretty strong position in the distribution
world.  They are more likely to look at art-house and independent stuff than many of the other big
distributors, particularly the Studios.  Miramax can be reached at:

<p><center><table width=100%>
<tr><th align=left>LA Office <th align=left>New York Office
<tr><td>Suite 230<br>7920 Sunset Blvd<br>Los Angeles CA 90046
<td>3rd floor<br>375 Greenwich St<br>New York NY 10013<br>
<tr><td>Tel. (213) 969-2000<td>(212) 941-3800
</table></center>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=center>

<H3><A NAME="universal">7.9 Universal Pictures</A></H3>

<p>Universal Pictures is the second largest film studio in the world after Warner Brothers (AFAIK).  Apart from having released
the last two all-time highest grossing movies (<EM>Jurassic Park</EM> and <EM>E.T.</EM>), they also run one of the world's most famous theme parks -  called Universal Studios :)

<p>You can reach Universal Pictures at:

<BLOCKQUOTE><STRONG>Universal Pictures</STRONG><BR>
100 Universal City Plaza <BR>
Building 488/8              <BR>
Universal City, CA 91608<BR><BR>

Tel. (818) 777-1293        <BR>
Fax. (818) 733-1473       <BR></BLOCKQUOTE>

<p>Universal also have an interesting web site called the <A HREF="http://www.mca.com/">MCA/Universal CyberWalk</A> (<EM>http://www.mca.com/</EM>). 

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="intern">I Heard Something About Lucasfilm/ILM Internships?  What are they/how do I apply?</a></h3>

<p>Both Lucasfilm and ILM run and internship program three times a year for several months.  Only the summer program is available to those who reside outside the United States.  For more information contact Lucasfilm at (415) 
662-1800.

<P><CENTER><STRONG>Unfortunately, these programs are currently under suspension whilst an internal review takes place.</STRONG>
</CENTER>

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="iwanna">I wanna be a [insert your film career here]. How?</a></h3>

<p>There are no hard and fast rules about breaking into the film industry.  It's extremely hard and very competitive.
Many many many people dream of working in the movies, but fall by the wayside in their attempts because it's 
impossible to break in.  The film industry lives off the concept of "who you know" and quite frankly, that is the only
way you're really going to get anywhere.  If you don't know anyone in the industry, go out and meet them.  
Spielberg spent day after day down on the Universal lot, bugging them until they gave him a job.

<p>Also don't aim for the top (straight away).  So you want to work for ILM in special effects (reality check time) 
you and about a billion other people.  The thing that is over-looked these days is that there are a multitude of other
companies that do the same work as ILM, but just don't have the profile.  Try them first, particularly the small, 
budding ones, as they are probably more likely to give you a job.  And once you're in the field that you want, it's 
up to you to prove that you've got so much talent that ILM will come running to YOU.

<p>I found a book recently published by the American Film Institute which deals with this very subject.  It has
information for beginners (such as "what does a producer do?") and interviews with many industry professionals
regarding their areas of expertise.  Interviewees include George Lucas, Robert Greenberg, and many more.<blockquote>
<b>Getting into Film</b><br>
By <i>The <a href="#afi">American Film Institute</a></i></blockquote>

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="sfxjob">I wanna work in movie FX. How?</a></h3>

<p><i>By Jim Janecek, Personal Effects Inc</i>.
<p>This response  is bent towards live-action as opposed to computer graphics, as that is my background, hope
it helps.

<p>Since I do not reside in CA I can't really give you any practical advice about work in CA, however, I can tell
you that the best way to jump-start a career in SFX is to work for a company doing SFX. However, they probably
won't just hire you unless you come highly recommended or have useful skills such as sculpting or fabricating or
electronics.

<p>So what do you do?

<p>You work for <font size=5>free</font size>. As a Production Assistant (or gopher).   

<p>You get a copy of the LA 411 guide (call LA phone info or check out the library) find all the SFX companies
and tell them you want to work in SFX, <b>NOT THAT YOU WANT A JOB</b>,  just that you want to work.  
You'll work for free.  It's hard to say no to a person who will work for nothing.  This is the fastest way I know of to 
break into any field.  

<p>However, be aware that egos drive a lot of people in the business.  Many people are very protective of their 
techniques and methods, so they may think you are a "spy" or something, you may run into that type of mentality
<p><b><font size=5>BIG TIP</font size></b>: Do not pretend you know everything, play dumb and soak up as
much info as you can.  An FX company doesn't want a person who always thinks they have a better idea or
knows a different way of doing something. (your idea may actually be better, but you really are not in a position
politically to offer it.)  They want an empty page to work for them that they can train or mould to do things "their"
 way.

<p>After a while they may decide to pay you something, or maybe not, but in the meantime, you have 
established a "presence" in the "biz".  You will meet other people in the biz and they will think you already work
at so&so's FX company.

<p>The rest is up to you.  Once you are in as a Production Assistant, you can look around at various fields 
within the FX business and see if you have a place there.
		 
<P><hr>

<h3><a name="prod">What is/What does a [insert crew role] do? - Producer?  Executive, Line, Associate etc?</a></h3>

<p>Producers come in a variety of types and have different roles in production. Damien 
Parer sums up the different types of producer quite well in his "Glossary of 
Filmspeak" in <i>Film Business:  A Handbook for Producers</i>.
<dl>
<dt><b>Producer</b>  
<dd>The person responsible for the film from concept to maximisation of revenue.  
The person in authority to make artistic and financial decisions.  The entrepreneur 
who causes the film to made and released.<br>
<br>
<dt><b>Executive Producer</b>  
<dd>Usually the person who has arranged finance for the film.  The title is 
also used for star's agents, people who finalise presales, rather important 
contributors to the production - anyone really.  (A good example of the later  
is George Lucas' position on the second and third <i>Star Wars</i> movies. Obviously
<i>Star Wars</i> is Lucas' baby, so he had important input into the editing and
direction of the film, even though these roles were filled by others.<br>
<br>
<dt>  <b>Line Producer</b>  
<dd>The person who takes responsibility for the 
    production of the film.  Line producers are generally employed just before 
    pre-production and complete their work at the answer print stage.<br>
<br>
<dt><b>Co-producer</b>  
<dd>It could mean what it implies or it could mean anything.  
    It seems to be between the credit of Line Producer and Producer.  It may 
    be shared producer responsibility.<br>
<br>
<dt><b>Associate Producer</b>  
<dd><ol><li>A title given to a person who has made a 
    major contribution to the production.  It could be a financier, 
    production manager, writer, post-production supervisor, actor, etc.<br>  
    <li>Second in charge of production.  The person who takes part of the 
    producer responsibility, both creatively and administratively.</ol>
</dl>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="grip">Grip?</a></h3>

<p>A grip is a person who works on set with all of the camera support equipment.  
They organise camera mounts when the director wants the camera on the side of 
a moving car, they move dollies, cranes, lay tracks and generally make it 
possible for the director to put the camera in more places than just on a 
tripod.  A Key Grip is the person in charge, and reports directly to the 
Director of Photography.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="gaffer">Gaffer?</a></h3>

<p>The Gaffer is the head electrician, supervised by the Director of 
Photography.  He/she will arrange the lighting and electrical requirements 
on set as needed, and supervise the other electricians.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="bestboy">Best Boy/Girl?</a></H3>

<p>The Best Boy/Girl is the second in charge of the electrics department, and 
works under the supervision of the Gaffer.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="artdir">Art Director?</a></h3>

<p>The Art director is second in charge of the Art Department after the 
Production Designer.  The Art Department looks after "the look" of the film, 
which includes sets, costumes, make-up, props, locations, construction, etc.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="designer">Production Designer?</a></h3>

<p>The Production Designer is responsible for creating and designing  "the look" 
of the film.  He/she is head of the Art Department and works closely with the 
Director in an attempt to put his/her vision on the screen.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="DOP">Director of Photography?</a></h3>

<p>Aka Cinematographer.  The Director Of Photography is responsible for the 
cinematic look of the film - the lighting, the type of film/lenses used, etc, 
and also for getting the image on film.  Often abbreviated to DP (in the USA) 
or DOP (In UK/Australia).

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="foley">Foley Artist?</a></h3>

<p>A Foley Artist is a person who creates sound effects for the post-production 
of the film.  They beat drums, throw themselves on the floor, walk on gravel, 
etc to record the right effect as required by the director and sound 
supervisor.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="AD">Assistant Director?</a></h3>
<dl>
<dt><b>1st Assistant</B>  
<dd>Aka 1st AD.  The person who organises the crew to the best 
    advantage for filming. They say things like "quiet please" and "turn 
    over".  They will act as floor manager or stage manager and efficiently 
    draw together the necessary elements for shooting.  The 1st AD usually 
    designs and controls the shooting schedule and generally liaise between 
    the production office and the set.<br>
<br>
<dt><b>2nd Assistant</b>  
<dd>Aka 2nd AD.  Under the supervision of the 1st AD, the 2nd 
    looks after the cast.  They also occasionally take charge of the set and 
    organise the next day's call sheet.  2nd ADs tend also to be a liaison 
    between the set and production office.<br>
<br>
<dt><b>3rd Assistant</b>  
<dd>Aka 3rd AD.  Usually the assistant to the 1st AD.<br>
<br>
<dt><b>2nd 2nd Assistant</b>  
<dd>Same as a 3rd AD.  Depends which school of terminology 
    you graduated from.
</dl>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="scriptsup">Script Supervisor?</a></h3>

<p>Thanks to Ellen Evans for this wholesome description of what a script 
supervisor does.

<p>The script supervisor basically keeps track of things.  First of all, for 
the production office, he or she keeps track of number of pages and 
scenes covered in a day, the number of setups, the estimated screen time, 
the official lunch and wrap times, etc.  Secondly, for the editor, he or 
she keeps a detailed list of shots, including type, number of takes, 
prints, film and sound roll where they might be found, etc.  Finally, and 
more generally, the script supervisor is a kind of clearing house for all 
the details associated with film continuity.  

<p>For example, the wardrobe department is responsible for keeping track of 
the number of buttons open at the top of an actor's shirt during a scene, 
but the script supervisor also keeps track of this, and, if there is a question, tries to help 
out.  An actor is, more or less, responsible for matching his or her 
action from setup to setup, but the script supervisor also keeps track, 
and can be called upon to help out.  The director and the DP are 
responsible for keeping track of screen direction in the coverage of the 
scene, but the script supervisor also has a backup responsibility in this 
area.  And so forth.  Also, the script supervisor keeps a copy of the 
script handy at all times, so that if anyone needs to refer to it - an 
actor for lines, the director to see how this scene is linked to the 
following one in the script - it is available.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="publicist">Unit Publicist?</a></h3>

<p>Thanks to Jacqueline Dinsmore and Dixie Cutler for this one.

<p>The Unit Publicist organises cast interviews and visits to the set by
journalists while the film is shooting.  You know all those bits on
Entertainment Tonight where they are on the set visiting with the stars
during filming?  Well, the Unit Publicist set that up.  She/He also gets
mention of the film into the trades as well as local papers (especially if
the film is not being shot in Hollywood).  It's not always an easy job as
the stars are usually doing this on their own time and are not always
cooperative.

<p>They also write press kit information (biographies, story synopses, etc.), maintain
photo files (write IDs, get artist approvals) and assist the stills photographer with posed shots. 
To get into this line of work: journalism or public relations education/experience and
some experience with photo editing are appropriate background. (And a
degree in advanced psychology would be useful!)

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="upm">Production Manager/Unit Production Manager?</a></h3>
<P>Thanks to Bob Koster for this one.

<P>The Unit Production Manager, sometimes called the Production manager, is the 
businessman (businessperson?) of the company.  The UPM hires the crew, leases 
the equipment, negotiates with unions (for independents), and sets the budgetary limits 
within which the different departments must function. They also monitor the production in 
progress and ensure that if the production begins to go over budget or over schedule, steps are taken 
to correct the problems before they multiply.  They are the Producer's right arm.

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="letters">What Do The Little Letters Mean After Some People's Names In The Credits?</a></h3>
  
<p>The letters after some people's names generally notate membership to a 
professional society for their chosen career.  More often than not membership 
to these societies is by invitation only, so they are very prestigious.  You 
can generally assume that if a person is a member of these societies they 
have made a substantial contribution to their area of specialisation.

<P><CENTER><TABLE WIDTH=600>
<TR><TD>A.S.C <TD>American Society of Cinematographers <TD>DOPs
<TR><TD>A.C.S <TD>Australian Cinematographer's Society <TD>DOPs
<TR><TD>B.S.C <TD>British Society of Cinematographers<TD>DOPs
<TR><TD>C.S.C <TD>Canadian Society of Cinematographers <TD>DOPs
<TR><TD>A.C.E<TD>American Cinema Editors <TD>Film Editors*
<TR><TD>C.S.A<TD>Casting Society of America <TD>Casting Directors* 
<TR><TD>C.A.S<TD> Cinema Audio Society <TD>Sound Mixers
<TR><TD>M.P.S.E<TD>Motion Picture Sound Editors<TD> Sound Editors
</TABLE></CENTER>                      
<P>* AFAIK

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="schools">What/Where Are The Best Film Schools?</a></h3>

<p>Many different universities, colleges and schools offer a variety of courses 
that they call "film courses," however if you are serious about going to a 
well-respected film school, your choices are severely limited and extremely 
difficult to gain entry to.

<p>There are a couple of publications that provide information on the various 
film schools and courses that exist around the place.  Two such books are:

<blockquote><b><i>The American Film Institute Guide to Film & Television Courses</i></b><br>
By <a href="#AFI">The American Film Institute</a></blockquote>

<p>This book contains course listings for all of the major institutions in the USA, and has a chapter on International film schools too.  

<blockquote><b><i>The Complete Guide to American Film Schools and Cinema-Television Courses</i></b><br>
By Ernest Pintoff (ISBN 0-14-01-7226-2)</blockquote>

<p>This book only contains US schools.  It outlines the various courses that are available at each school, entry 
requirements, curricular emphasis, and each school's facilities.  It also has a section on famous alumni.

<p>An online film school resource now exists called <a href="http://www.wavenet.com/~tomedgar/fsc/fsc.html"><i>Film School
Confidential: The Insiders' Guide to Film Schools</a> (http://www.wavenet.com/~tomedgar/fsc/fsc.html)</i>. It seems to answer a lot of the questions seen frequently on USENET about film schools.  

<p>An interesting initiative that is still in its early phase is <a href="http://www.io.org/~mbelli/">The Cyber Film School</a>.
(<i>http://www.io.org/~mbelli/</i>). This service provides some handy help for filmmakers of learner to medium skill.

<h4>UNITED STATES:</h4>

<p>By far the most respected film schools in the US are:
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.ucla.edu">University of California at Los Angeles</a> (UCLA)<i> (http://www.ucla.edu)</i>
<li><a href="http://cwis.usc.edu/dept/etc/cntv/cntv.html">University of Southern California</a> (USC) 
(<i>http://cwis.usc.edu/dept/etc/cntv/cntv.html</i>)
<li><a href="http://www.studio.sgi.com/TrainingCenters/AFI.html">The American Film Insitute</a>.  
<i>(http://www.studio.sgi.com/TrainingCenters/AFI.html)</i>
</ul>
Some other schools that you might want to check out are:
<ul>
<li><a href="http://found.cs.nyu.edu/MRL/mrl.html">New York University</a> <i>(http://found.cs.nyu.edu/MRL/mrl.html)</i>
<li><a href="http://www.columbia.edu">Columbia University</a> (NY) <i>(http://www.columbia.edu)</i>
<li><a href="http://www.fsu.edu/~film/">Florida State University</a> <i>(http://www.fsu.edu/~film/)</i>
<li><a href="http://www.leonardo.net/columbia_college/">Columbia College - Hollywood</a> <i>(http://www.leonardo.net/columbia_college/)
</ul></i>
<p>All of these institutions are listed in College Guides that are available from books stores, local  
libraries, and career advisers.

<h4>CANADA:</h4>

<P>The <A HREF="http://www.ubc.ca">University of British Columbia</A> is an obvious choice and <A HREF="http://www.concordia.ca">Concordia University</A> (<EM>http://www.concordia.ca</EM>) is another potential institution.

<P>Also have a look at Vancouver Film School, which runs both courses in film/tv production and professional 3-D computer animation.  They also run many specialised part-time and short courses in all areas of film and television production, and also for actors in these media.  For more info about VFS, drop a line to:

<blockquote><b>Vancouver Film School</b><br>
400-1168 Hamilton Street<br>
Vancouver, B.C. V6B 2S2<br>
CANADA<br><br>
Tel. (604) 685-5808<br>
WWW. <a href="http://www.multimedia.edu">http://www.multimedia.edu</a></blockquote>

<h4>UK:</h4>

<p>London International Film School has a good reputation amongst the general 
film community, however it is quite expensive compared to some of the other 
institutions.  One advantage however is that students get to work with 35mm 
as part of the course (AFAIK).  For more info:

<blockquote><b>London International Film School</b><br>
24 Shelton Street<br>
London, WC2H 9HP<br>
United Kingdom<br><br>
Tel. (071) 836-9642<br>
Web. <a href="http://www.tecc.co.uk/lifs/index.html">http://www.tecc.co.uk/lifs/index.html</a></blockquote>

<P>There is also a special page for ex-students to log onto at <a href="http://www.tecc.co.uk/lifs/lifs40.html">http://www.tecc.co.uk/lifs/lifs40.html</a>.


<h4>AUSTRALIA/SOUTH-EAST ASIA:</h4>

<p>Two institutions exist in Australia which have world class reputations - The 
Australian Film, Television, and Radio School (AFTRS) and the Victorian College of the 
Arts at Swinburne (VCA).  AFTRS is in Sydney and VCA is in Melbourne.  AFAIK entry 
to AFTRS is only available to Australian citizens and permanent residents 
unless you are part of an official government exchange program.  VCA 
accepts entrants from all nations subject to it's entry requirements (AFAIK).

<blockquote><ul><li><b>Australian Film, Television & Radio School</b><br>
PO Box 126<br>
North Ryde, NSW, 2113<br><br>
Tel. (02) 805-6444<br>
Fax. (02) 887-1030<br>
Web. <a href="http://www.usyd.edu.au/~graham/aftrs">http://www.usyd.edu.au/~graham/aftrs</a></blockquote>
<blockquote><li><b>Victorian College of the Arts (Swinburne)</b><br>
PO Box 218<br>
Hawthorn, VIC, 3122<br><br>
Tel. (03) 819-8911<br>
Fax. (03) 819-5454<br>
Web. <a href="http://www.swin.edu.au/ssb/media/mlfhome.html">http://www.swin.edu.au/ssb/media/mlfhome.html</a>
</ul></blockquote>

<P>Another good institution to check out is the privately run Queensland School of Film and Television.  Tuition is about 
$AU 12,000 (less in $US) a year because it is not a government college, but it is located in the fastest growing film center in the country.
For more info contact 

<BLOCKQUOTE>Queensland School of Film and Television<BR>
PO Box 380                                                                              <BR>
FORTITUDE VALLEY QLD  4006                                                             <BR>
AUSTRALIA<BR><BR>

PH: + 61 7 3257 1939 <BR>
FAX: + 61 7 3257 1947</BLOCKQUOTE>
<P><hr>

<h3><a name="cannes">What is Cannes and How Do I Pronounce it?</a></h3>

<p>Cannes is a city in south eastern France and is home to arguably the most prestigious film festival in the
world.  The Cannes Film Festival is held annually in May and attracts hundreds of thousands of movie-goers and 
filmmakers each year. Cannes is also the home of many other film related conventions and markets during the rest of the year.

<p>Several Web sites have been created to broadcast Cannes news on the Internet.  The sites
are:<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.mhm.fr/festival/cannes/index.html">Official Cannes Site</a> - <EM>http://www.mhm.fr/festival/cannes/index.html</EM> (in French... some English)
<li><a href="http://www.inria.fr/rodeo/personnel/hoschka/cannes-festival.html">Indp. Cannes Site </a> - <EM>http://www.inria.fr/rodeo/personal/hoschka/cannes-festival.html </EM>(English / French)
<li><a href="http://cannes.cyber.ad.jp">Cannes on Cyber</a> - <EM>http://cannes.cyber.ad.jp</EM> (English / French / Japanese)
<LI><A HREF="http://www.interactive8.com/cannes/welcome/welcome.html">Film Scouts Guide to Cannes</A> - <EM>http://www.interactive8.com/cannes/welcome/welcome.html</EM> (English)

</ul>

<p><i>Cannes</i> is pronounced ....  <b>CAN</b> as in "can of Coke."

<P><hr>
<h3>What are the entrance requirements for: <a name="ASC">American Society of Cinematographers?</a></h3>

<p>The ASC is kind of a professional "club" for cinematographers.  You cannot apply for entry, it is by invitation
only.  Generally any cinematographer who has made a substantial contribution to his field will be invited to 
become a member.  Decisions are made by other members in relation to the cinematographer's body of work.
ASC membership is a great honour for any cinematographer.

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="WGA">Writer's Guild of America?</a></h3>

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="IATSE">I.A.T.S.E?</a></h3>

<p>IATSE stands for International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees.  It's
international because it covers Canada in addition to US.  IATSE has many
different locals, representing all types of technicians from theatrical
stage hands to film projectionists to grips, electrics, and camera
department personnel. 

<p>Entrance requirements depend on the particular local,
but may include a written and practical examination, (technical equipment,
procedures). After passing the test applicants must be voted into
membership.  There are exceptions, eg. if a crew person is working on a
film that becomes organised, membership may be given to that person.<br><br>

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="reversal">What does [insert cryptic film term] mean? - Reversal Film?</a></h3>

<p>Reversal-film like diapositives/slides in still-photography, the film 
will show the colours as seen through the camera - in contrast to 
negative-film.

<p>Reversal-film is used when there's only one sample needed. Negative-film is used for spreading/copying the film, because
     1) neg film is cheaper than reversal 
     2) the quality of a neg-neg-copy is better than a rev-rev-copy

<P><HR WIDTH=200 ALIGN=CENTER>

<h3><a name="fps">Frame Rate?</a></h3>
 
<p>Frame Rate refers to the number of single "frames" of film that are exposed
per second.  Standard film is shot at 24 frames per second (fps).  In the 
past, the old standard was 18fps, but with the introduction of sound this
standard became too slow.  This is also the reason that in old silent films
the action tends to move a little faster than normal.

<p>It is possible to create time-based effects by adjusting the frame rate at
which the film is shot and then playing it back at the standard 24fps.  For
slow-motion effects you increase your frame rate and thus the action is 
spread out over a longer piece of film.  When this is played back at normal
speed, the same action takes more time to progress, hence it is slower.  
For fast motion, the reverse is true.

<P><hr>

<h3><a name="sup16">What is the difference between 16mm and Super-16mm?</a></h3>

<p>"When normal 16mm is blown up to wide-screen 35mm, the great magnification
results in more graininess and a poorer image quality.  The problem is further
aggravated by th fact that the top and bottom of the frame are lost in changing
the image to a wide-screen ratio.  Super-16mm was designed to alleviate these
problems.

<p>Super-16mm film extends the image into what was formerly the sound track area
of the original negative.  This provides not only a larger image, but one that is 
already in wide-screen ratio.  Thus Super-16 requires less magnification when 
blowing up to 35mm, and hence there is a much smaller loss in quality."

Source:  <i>Cinematography</i> by Kris Malkiewicz

<p>Many of new cameras these days come with adjustable gates to support both
standard and super 16mm formats.  Older cameras must however have their
gates adjusted to allow for the increase in exposure area.

<P><HR>

<h3><a name="mymovie">I've got a great script which I want made into a movie.  How?</a></h3>

<p>So you've got a script.  You either wrote it, a friend wrote it, you got given it, you stole it, aliens gave it to you, what-ever, but it's hotter than hot right?  And it's destined to be bigger than <i>Jurassic Park</i>.

<P>Before you do anything make sure you script is properly copyrighted.  Under the terms of  international copyright legislation your script is automatically copyright as soon as you write it (and remember to put the &copy; symbol on it). This may suffice, depending on which country you live in. 

<P>If you are in the USA, you <EM>should</EM> register your script with the Writer's Guild of America. Registration costs approximately $US 25 and the Guild takes a copy of your script for storage and gives you a registration number. This number should be displayed prominently on the cover page of your script. Other countries have similar organisations that perform the same functions (Australia has Australian Writer's Guild). 

If you want added security (or can't afford the $25) another way of "copyrighting" your script is to place a copy in an envelope, seal it and mail it to yourself.  When you receive the mail back, store it - <STRONG>Don't open it!</STRONG> This way the postmark on the sealed envelope will give you a legal means of proving when you wrote the script. Remember always keep at least one copy of the script for yourself. <STRONG>Never Never Never give your last copy to anyone.</STRONG>

<p>There are generally two paths one may travel down on the road to turning a script into an expensive piece of celluloid, and unfortunately both are extremely difficult. 

<p>The first of the two ways is to try and sell your script to someone who can 
(and wants to) get it made.  This involves a very important first step and
that is <b>GET YOURSELF A GOOD LITERARY AGENT</b>.  Very few of the
larger productions companies and none of the studios will accept unsolicited 
scripts.  If you just send it to them, they will probably return it without 
reading it.  Your agent knows the market and will have the contacts that you
don't to get your script read - it's their job!  And before you start to worry 
about how much an agent costs, most agents will take their fees only once
the script is sold (usually about 10% of the purchase price).   You may find
it hard to get an agent at first but you must keep trying until you find one that
likes your work.  You must otherwise you will get nowhere.

<p>Unfortunately, the reality is as follows:   The Writer's Guild of America 
registration office receives approximately 16,000 screenplays each year . 
The major studios only make around 100 films per year, so the odds of your 
script being films are generally quite slim unless you are John Grisham 
or similar.  Even the bigger independents don't make a large number of films - 
certainly not enough to make up the difference of 15,900 scripts!

<p>The second way, and perhaps the easier of the two, is get it made yourself. 
This involves the most important filmmaking skill that exists - networking.
You've got a script that you believe in? Then appoint yourself to an
Executive Producer position and go out to search for people who are 
have the necessary skills (and money) and are interested in working with you.  If you
network successfully and are resourceful (and extremely dedicated) it is not
unforeseeable that you could create a production company, raise the finance, 
hire an experienced crew, and hey presto, you have a film.  Of course it's 
not always that simple, but then what in life ever is?

<p><hr>

<h3><a name="rights">How do I get the rights to adapt a book into a screenplay?</a></b></h3>

<p>So you've read a book/play/article/something that you reckon will make an 
unreal movie.  You're a script writer of sorts so you think, "yep.  I'm gonna
write this sucker."  Where do you go from there?

<p>The most important first step you should take is finding out whether the 
motion picture and associated rights are available for the work you wish to
adapt.  <b>FIND THIS OUT BEFORE YOU START WRITING</b> as you may just be wasting your
time if you go ahead and write a killer screenplay, only to find that Speilberg's
company just optioned the material for half a million dollars.  There are 
thousands of other reasons that will prevent you from getting the rights to a
work so you must always check first if you are serious about the project.

<p>Finding out if the rights are available can either be a piece of cake or a
monstrous task of seeming impossibility.  The easiest way for published works
is to get in contact with the author.  This can be done through a number of ways.
1) writing to the author's fan club address; 2) sending a letter to the author 
care of the publisher of the book; 3) finding out who the author's agent is (many
reference books exist with this information) and asking them.  Regardless of the
method, it is best to try and deal with the author directly if at all possible as
you are likely to get a better deal (agents after all take 15% of the income made
off the work so they will push for as high a fee as possible to get maximum profit).

<p>Once you're in contact with the holder of the screen rights (this may not be the
author but they should be able to put you onto the right parties), you must request
an <b>OPTION</b> on the rights.  An option gives you the sole rights to adapt and seek to
produce a motion picture based on a previously published work, for a limited amount
of time (usually 1 year).  Basically, with an option you can get your script written,
and look for production finance, or try and sell it, without having to worry about
someone else taking it.

<p>At the time an option is granted, an agreement will be entered into between the
various parties regarding the ultimate purchase of the screen and associated rights
once certain conditions have been met (ie.  production finance has been secured etc).
The option will usually cost around 10% of the total purchase price for the rights,
and should include the first right to renewal for an additional term (for a further 
fee of course).

<p>Options and rights on published works can be expensive.  Try to consider this before
you are blown out of the water by a $500,000 option price on John Grisham's next novel.
The profile of the author and the work will be a large factor in determining how
expensive the option/rights will be.  If you are a small time operator or just starting
out, don't try and adapt the world's best-selling novel unless you have a golden 
tongue (or wealthy relatives).

<p>Once you have secured your option, you can then go ahead and write your killer script.
If the option expires before you find a buyer/producer, and you don't renew, the
screen rights revert back to the previous owner (but you still own the copyright
on your work - you just can't sell it without the underlying rights).

<P><hr>

<A NAME="2day"><H3>Are Those "Two Day" Film Schools Any Good?</H3></A>

<P>Well... is a two day course in law, medicine or nuclear physics any good? Filmmaking is a complicated an time-consuming craft and it takes more than just a quick course to make you an expert in any field.  Be very wary of short courses that claim to teach you "everything you need to know about filmmaking."  Whilst these courses might be a good introduction to the art, it will be very rare indeed that you leave with all of the necessary skills to be a successful filmmaker.

<P>My advice would be instead of spending the hundreds (sometimes thousands) of dollars of fees for these courses, channel some of this money into purchasing yourself some Super 8 gear and a couple of introductory books on the subject. You will probably find that this is a much more valuable (and cheaper) exercise.  If you are serious about film school, get yourself into at least a one year course at a reputable institution.

<P><HR>

<P><A NAME="doubles"><H3>What's the difference between a stand-in and a double?</H3></A>

<P>A stand-in is any person who is used to replace lead actors and stars for tedious parts of filmmaking.  These are primarily camera and lighting tests, but can include to a lesser extent costume tests, temporary dialogue partners or as a replacement for close-ups hands, feet etc.  Stand-ins do not show their face or have their voice in the final film.

<P>A double is someone who is used in place of a cast member where the real actor cannot be used because of danger or other reasons.  Doubles usually physically resemble the actor they are replacing (in body size, shape and clothing) and are often dressed in wigs to complete the illusion.  Doubles are used for things such as dangerous stunts, sex scenes or scenes requiring nudity where the actor refuses to do it, situations where the same actor must appear to confront themselves and so on.  One very clever
 use of a double was in the film <EM>The Crow</EM>. In order to complete the film after Brandon Lee's accidental death on set, the filmmakers shot a couple of critical scenes using a body double (someone that looked like Brandon physically). In post-production the FX team digitally super-imposed Brandon's face over that of the double.   The effect worked seemlessly.

<P><HR>

<P><a name="internships"><h3>Where can I find a list of film/tv internships?</h3></a>

<P>Many large and small companies offer interships for a variety of time periods.  These are a great way to meet new contacts
and gain some non-film school experience in the real world.  An internship is arguably what got George Lucas started - he
one a place at Warner Bros. (I think), where he happened to meet Francis Ford Coppola. Coppola and he became friends
and Coppola ended up financing Lucas' first feature <i>THX 1138</i> and his first commercial success <i>American Grafitti</i>.
We all know where that lead.

<P>There is a book called <i>Film & Video Career Guide</i>, by Bradley J. Morgan and Joseph M. Palmisano.  It lists US 
productions companies, networks etc. Some of these companies offer internships, some don't.

<P>You can also check out the New York Film Academy's home page at <a href="http://www.panix.com/~nyfa/">http://www.panix.com/~nyfa</a>.

<P><HR>

<P><h3><a name="managent">What's the difference between a manager and an agent?</a></a></h3>

<P>An agent is someone legally qualified, contracted by you, to seek out work for you and act as a "middleman" between
you and your prospective employer. He/she usually takes around 15% from your contracted fee for the service.

<P>A manager has no legal rights to make deals for you.  He.she also has no cap on what they can charge.  Managers are 
mainly for career guidance, financial planning etc.  The manager-client relationship is usually much closer than an
agent-client relationship as agents will often have thousands of clients under their wing.  Managers usually only have a couple.

<P>You can get lists of reputable agents and managers from the various trade Guilds in the industry such as the WGA,
DGA etc.


<P><HR>
<h3><a namef="abovebelow">What's the difference between "Above" and "Below" the line costs?</a></h3>

<P>You've heard the terms "Above The Line" and "Below The Line" related to film budgets, but what do they mean.

<P>"Above The Line" costs are generally all of the costs involved in a production before principle photography begins.  
These are not neccessarily all pre-production costs as some of these may relate to the shoot itself.  Rather above the line
costs include things such as salaries for the producer, director, and sometimes big name stars, producer's expenses in
getting the project up and running, and fees for screenwriters and any underlying rights for the script.

<P>"Below the Line" costs are basically everything else that doesn't come under "Above the Line."  This includes the
cost of the crew, most cast, shoot, post-production, catering, coffee, etc.

<P><HR>
<P><FONT SIZE=+1>Go on to <A HREF="if-faq3.htm">Part 3</A>.<BR></FONT>
<P><HR WIDTH=300 ALIGN=CENTER>

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Digital Horizons       WWW. http://www.it.com.au/dhorizons/
         
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                                 - The Vampire Lestat

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