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Blade Runner FAQ


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From: lukas.mariman@skynet.be
Newsgroups: alt.fan.blade-runner,rec.arts.movies.misc,alt.cult-movies,rec.arts.sf.movies,rec.answers,alt.answers,news.answers
Subject: Blade Runner FAQ
Followup-To: alt.fan.blade-runner
Summary: This document is the official alt.fan.blade-runner FAQ,
containing information about the movie Blade Runner,
the newsgroup and everything else relevant to either.
Expires: Thu, 27 Mar 2003 00:00:00 GMT
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Archive-name: movies/blade-runner-faq
Posting frequency: quarterly
Last-modified: September 24, 2002
Version: 4.1
URL: http://www.brmovie.com/FAQs/index.htm
Copyright: (c) 2000-2002 Lukas Mariman
Maintainer: Lukas Mariman <lukas.mariman@skynet.be> and Netrunner
<Netrunner@Netrunner.co.uk>



BLADE RUNNER

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

VERSION 4.1

Copyright  (c)  2000-2002  Lukas Mariman


Edited by Lukas Mariman ( lukas.mariman@skynet.be )
Assistant Editor: Netrunner ( Webmaster@BRmovie.com )


A full web version of this document can be found at the official alt.fan.blade-runner newsgroup website: http://www.BRmovie.com/

Plans are in progress to translate this FAQ into other languages that will also be available at BRmovie.com in due course.  If you
would like to volunteer to be a part of this translation process, please e-mail Webmaster@BRmovie.com


A text version of this document is also regularly posted to: alt.fan.blade-runner, rec.arts.movies, alt.cult-movies,
rec.arts.sf.movies, rec.answers, and news.answers

All follow-up posts should be to alt.fan.blade-runner


Contents

I. About the FAQ

1. What is a FAQ?

2. What is the purpose of this FAQ?

3. Where can I get the FAQ?

4. Abbreviations & terminology used in this FAQ:

II. The Film

1. About The Film

1.1. What is Blade Runner?
1.2. What is it about?  (Opening crawl)
1.3. Situating BR
1.4. BR terminology
1.5. How many versions of BR are there?
1.6. What are the differences between the OV and the DC?
1.7. Hey! What's with the differences in length between American & European versions of BR?
1.8. Are there any sequels? I heard rumours...
1.9. BR cast information
1.10. BR crew information
1.11. How did BR come to be made?
1.12. Who or what is the Blade Runner Partnership?
1.13. Did Blade Runner win any awards?

2. BR & Cyberpunk

2.1. What is cyberpunk?
2.2. Is, or can BR be considered "cyberpunk"?
2.3. Did Blade Runner influence William Gibson when he wrote his cyberpunk classic, "Neuromancer"?
2.4. Did Blade Runner influence cyberpunk in general?

3. Influences on Blade Runner

4. Film FAQs

4.1. Blade Runners
4.1.1. What is a "Blade Runner" anyway?
4.1.2. Why are they called "Blade Runners"? Where does that term come from?
4.2. Glowing Eyes
4.2.1. What's with the glowing eyes? What do they mean?
4.2.2. If their eyes are glowing, why the need for V-K tests?
4.3. Replicants
4.3.1. What are replicants?
4.3.2. Replicant information
4.3.3. Do replicants have emotions, like "real" humans?
4.3.4. Can replicants reproduce?
4.3.5. Can replicants become intoxicated?
4.3.6. What are those tattoos on Roy's chest?
4.4. Animoids
4.4.1. What are animoids?
4.4.2. Are all the animals that we see in the movie, artificial?
4.5. Deckard
4.5.1. Is Deckard a replicant?
4.5.2. How can Deckard be a replicant if the replicants he has to deal with are clearly all stronger than him?
4.5.3. Bryant mentions a sixth replicant. What is going on? Is Deckard the sixth replicant? Is Rachael?
4.5.4. Why does Deckard dream of a unicorn? What is that all about?
4.6. Memories and Photographs
4.6.1. What is the deal with implanted memories? Do all replicants have them?
4.6.2. Are Leon's photographs real? I mean, if Rachael's photo was a fake, then...
4.6.3. I could swear I saw Rachael and her mother move on that picture...
4.6.4. What is the scribbling we see on the back of Rachael's photo?
4.7. Language Matters
4.7.1. What are the languages used in BR?
4.7.2. What is "Cityspeak"?
4.7.3. Translation of the noodle bar scene dialogue (with comments)
4.7.4. What is the language used by the midgets that are ripping stuff off Deckard's car? What are they saying?
4.8. Themes and Subtexts Used In Blade Runner
4.8.1. Eye theme
4.8.2. Religious theme
4.8.3. Animal theme
4.8.4. Chess Theme
4.9. Miscellaneous Movie Questions
4.9.1. The unicorn footage is from the movie "Legend", right? [NO, IT IS NOT!]
4.9.2. Can you tell me how to make my own origami unicorn?
4.9.3. What do Gaff's origami figures mean?
4.9.4. Who is this Gaff anyway? What is his function in the LAPD?
4.9.5. In the beginning of the movies we see these big fireballs. What are they?
4.9.6. Whose eye is that in the beginning?
4.9.7. Does Holden survive being shot by Leon Kowalski?
4.9.8. Why didn't Holden recognise Leon?
4.9.9. I think I remember a scene with Deckard jumping over a car in Zhora's chase scene, but I can't find it in any of the tapes or
DVD's. What gives?
4.9.10. Which companies were featured in BR?
4.9.11. Why is there talk of a BR curse?
4.9.12. Who is the actor who plays Abdul-Ben Hassan, the snake dealer?
4.9.13. When Abdul and Deckard are arguing, why don't the words match the lip movements?
4.9.14. When Roy Batty meets Tyrell, does he call him "father" or "f***er"?
4.9.15. How does Roy get to Tyrell so easily?
4.9.16. Who wrote the "voiceover" in the original theatrical release version of BR?

III. The Soundtrack

1. About the soundtrack

1.1. Who wrote the soundtrack?
1.2. More about the composer.
1.3. Other work by the composer.
1.4. Why did it take so long for Vangelis to release his own original work for the movie?
1.5. How many versions of the soundtrack are there?

2. Other Music in BR

2.1. What was the language used in the piece "Tales of The Future"?
2.2. What is the music Rachael is playing when she is in Deckard's apartment?
2.3. What is the music heard when Roy & Leon are on their way to visit Chew?
2.4. What is the Japanese music that the blimp flying over Sebastian's apartment is playing?
2.5. What is the music that is playing in Taffey's bar when Deckard enters?
2.6. What is the music playing when Zhora is "taking the pleasures from the serpent"?

3. References to BR in other music

[See the "Trivia" section]

IV. Related Literature

1. About The Source Novel

1.1. What is the source novel for BR? Who wrote it?
1.2. More about the author
1.3. Did the author ever get to see the movie adaptation?
1.4. Differences between the book DADoES & the movie BR...
1.5. Themes in DADoES
1.6. Is Deckard a replicant in the book?
1.7. Are there any sequels to DADoES?

2. About The Sequels

2.1. What sequels are there?
2.2. What is the general opinion about these "sequels"?
2.3. Who wrote them?
2.4. More about the author.

V. The Games

1. Is there a Blade Runner game?

2. About the board game.

3. About the old computer game.

3.1. Can I still get the game? If so, how & where?

4. About the 1997 PC game by Westwood Studios

4.1. General & Technical information
4.1.1. When was the game released?
4.1.2. What are the hardware requirements? Can I run it on my system?
4.1.3. Does the game work on systems with AMD processors?
4.1.4. How many versions of the game are there?
4.1.5. Swapping CD-ROMs sucks. Can I play the entire game from my hard disk?
4.1.6. Where can I find out more about the game's cast?
4.1.7. Who wrote the music for the game?
4.1.8. Will there ever be another Westwood "Blade Runner" game?
4.2. Playing the Game (WARNING: CONTAINS SPOILERS)
4.2.1. Is Ray McCoy a replicant?
4.2.2. Who else is a replicant in the game?
4.3. Troubleshooting
4.3.1. Are there any updates available for the game?
4.3.2. What are the patches supposed to fix?
4.3.3. Trouble getting away from the bomb at Moraji's lab?
4.3.4. There's something wrong with the shooting range! Why does it take so long for anything to happen? Where are the targets?
4.3.5. Workaround solution

VI. Trivia

1. Trivia

1.1. Film Trivia
1.2. Book Trivia
1.3. Music Trivia
1.4. Game Trivia

2. Goofs & continuity errors

3. Movie Quotes

4. References to BR in other movies

5. References to BR in Music

VII. BR on Internet & Usenet

1. The World Wide Web (WWW)

2. Usenet

2.1. What is Usenet?
2.2. Specific BR-Related Newsgroups
2.3. Other Relevant Newsgroups
2.4. Usenet Jargon
2.5. Tips for posting, reading, and replying to messages
2.6. Using Acronyms
2.7. Emoticons (AKA smileys)

VIII. Related Stuff

1. Related Literature

1.1. Fiction
1.2. Non-Fiction

2. Related Films

3. Related TV Series

4. Related Games

IX. Credits

- Thanks to...

- Sources


I. ABOUT THE FAQ

1. What is a FAQ?

FAQ stands for: "Frequently Asked Questions". The purpose of any FAQ document is to answer frequently asked questions regarding its
particular subject.

2. What is the purpose of this FAQ?

The Blade Runner FAQ was created in order to provide a source of information regarding the film "Blade Runner", but also regarding
related media, such as the novel on which it was based.

This document was originally created May 10, 2000, and last updated September 2002 by, and for, the regulars of the Usenet newsgroup
alt.fan.blade-runner (news:alt.fan.blade-runner ) and of course for anyone else who is interested.

3. Where can I get the FAQ?

The FAQ is posted in alt.fan.blade-runner every now and then.  An on-line version of the BR FAQ can also be found on the website
http://www.BRmovie.com/ which is the newsgroup's official site. The document may also be downloaded from there in text or Word
formats.

4. Abbreviations & terminology used in this FAQ:

SF: Science Fiction
NG or ng: "Newsgroup", a site or forum on Usenet, like alt.fan.blade-runner
RS: Ridley Scott
BR: Blade Runner
OV: "Original Version"; refers to the original 1982 theatrical release of BR
VO: Voiceover, a cinematic technique where you hear a movie's main character talk off-screen
BRDC or DC: Blade Runner Director's Cut
BRSE or SE: Blade Runner Special Edition. Due out in 2002/3!
FN: Refers to the book "Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner"
PKD: Philip K. Dick, author of BR's source novel...
DADoES: "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?"


II. THE FILM

1. About the Film

1.1. What is Blade Runner?

"Blade Runner" is a Science Fiction film, originally released in 1982, with stylistic roots in the hardboiled "film noir" classics
of the 1940's. It has turned out to be one of the most influential films ever made. Blade Runner presents a certain vision of the
future that has been copied a thousand times over, presenting a dark future vision that may prove to be all too prophetic.

Blade Runner is sometimes called a "cult classic" and others refer to it as "the most influential Science Fiction film ever made".
Considering that Blade Runner is not just a well known Science Fiction film, but regularly appears in "Top 100 Favourite Movies
Ever" lists (and Top 10s in some countries), it is perhaps surprising that the worldwide popularity of the film isn't more widely
recognised.  This is no minor cult movie; it is one of the most loved films of the 20th Century!  So don't be surprised that there
are other Blade Runner fans out there - they are everywhere!

1.2. What is it about?

The opening crawl from the movie describes the situation as follows:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Early in the 21st Century, THE TYRELL
        CORPORATION advanced Robot evolution
        into the NEXUS phase -- a being virtually
        identical to a human -- known as a Replicant.
        The NEXUS 6 Replicants were superior
        in strength and agility, and at least equal
        in intelligence, to the genetic engineers
        who created them.
        Replicants were used Off-world as
        slave labor, in the hazardous exploration and
        colonization of other planets.
           After a bloody mutiny by a NEXUS 6
        combat team in an Off-world colony,
        Replicants were declared illegal
        on earth -- under penalty of death.
        Special police squads -- BLADE RUNNER
        UNITS -- had orders to shoot to kill, upon
        detection, any trespassing Replicant.

        This was not called execution.
        It was called retirement.


        LOS ANGELES
        NOVEMBER, 2019

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Synopsis:

A small group of rogue and extremely dangerous replicants led by Roy Batty (Rutger Hauer) have managed to hijack a spaceship and
have made it to Earth, looking for a way to extend their artificially limited lifespan.
When Blade Runner Dave Holden is heavily wounded after having confronted one of them, former Blade Runner Rick Deckard (Harrison
Ford) is coerced into tracking them down and "retiring" them.

1.3. Situating BR

The time: November 2019. The place: Los Angeles.

The climate in (formerly) sunny California seems to have radically changed; evidently some ecological disaster has occurred. Is it
because of pollution? Or the aftermath of a nuclear war? Or a combination of the two, perhaps? Whichever it is, the opening scene
suggests heavy industrial pollution is at least part of the cause.

Note: in BR's source novel, a nuclear war was responsible for the ecological devastation on earth. The game also assumes a global
war.

Also, whatever the cause, it seems to have made most animal life all but extinct. (A situation that is only hinted at, at best, in
the movie, but that was much more integral to the story in the book on which BR was based.)

1.4. BR Terminology

The following information is taken from the 1982 BR Press kit:

BLADE RUNNER -- The nickname given to those police detectives who are
specially trained in the use of the Voight-Kampff machine and whose specific
function is to track down and eliminate any replicants that manage to escape
into human society and attempt to pass as real human beings.  The official
name of the Blade Runner division is Rep-Detect.

REPLICANT -- A genetically engineered creature composed entirely of organic
substance.  Animal replicants (animoids) were developed first for use as pets
and beasts of burden after most real animals became extinct.  Later, humanoid
replicants were created for military purposes and for the exploration and
colonization of space.  The Tyrell Corp. recently introduced the Nexus 6, the
supreme replicant -- much stronger and faster than, and virtually
indistinguishable from, real human beings.  Earth law forbids replicants on
the planet, except in the huge industrial complex where they are created.
The law does not consider replicants human and therefore accords them no
No rights or protection.

ESPER -- A high-density computer with a very powerful three- dimensional
resolution capacity and a cryogenic cooling system.  The police cars and
Deckard's apartment contain small models which can be channelled into the
large one at police headquarters.  This big apparatus is a well-worn, retro-
fitted part of the furniture.  Among many functions, the Esper can analyze
and enlarge photos, enabling investigators to search a room without being
there.

Notes:

1. The Esper was originally conceived as one big central computer system the police were using; the unit Deckard used was then
connected to the central L.A.P.D. mainframe; the wall with the video screens in the briefing room was also supposed to be part of
the Esper system (the wall was dubbed the Esper Wall by the crew).
2. The January 1995 issue of NASA Tech Briefs includes a description of an Esper-like machine called Omniview.

VOIGHT-KAMPFF MACHINE -- A very advanced form of lie detector that measures
contractions of the iris muscle and the presence of invisible airborne
particles emitted from the body.  The bellows were designed for the latter
function and give the machine the menacing air of a sinister insect.  The V-K
is used primarily by blade runners to determine if a suspect is truly human
by measuring the degree of his empathic response through carefully worded
questions and statements.

Note: In the original novel, the spelling used was in fact: VOIGT-KAMPFF; in the scripts, however, it was spelled VOIGHT-KAMPFF. For
consistency's sake, the scripts' spelling will be used throughout this FAQ.

SPINNER -- The generic term for all flying cars in use around the year 2020.
Only specially authorized people and police are licensed to operate these
remarkable vehicles, which are capable of street driving, vertical lift-off,
hovering and high-speed cruising.  The Spinner is powered by three engines --
conventional internal combustion, jet and anti-gravity.

Notes:
- Syd Mead explained in subsequent articles that the concept was actually one of internal lift like that used in vertical take-off
aircraft today - NOT anti-gravity, ed.
- About Spinner being a "generic" term - it has been noted that some spinners in the movie actually display the name "Spinner",
indicating Spinner would be an actual brand name of one particular spinner manufacturer. (An analogy might be the way 'Hoover' has
become the universal term for 'a vacuum cleaner', but you can still see vacuum cleaners made by Hoover.)

Additional terms:

SKIN JOB -- slang; synonymous with "replicant".

ANIMOID -- artificial animal, presumably created with replicant technology, or something very similar. (Note: this term is, to my
recollection, never actually used in the film; also, the street with the animal dealers where Deckard interrogates Abdul-Ben Hassan,
the snake dealer, is called "Animoid Row")

INCEPT DATE -- date of "birth" (or: manufacturing date, depending on how you look at it) of replicant.

RETIREMENT -- euphemistic jargon for the termination of replicants.

1.5. How many versions of BR are there?

In Future Noir, in a re-working of his article for Video Watchdog #20 (Nov/Dec 1993), "The 7 faces of Blade Runner", Paul M. Sammon
counts 5 different versions:

. The Workprint / US Denver/Dallas Sneak Preview (1982)
. US San Diego Sneak Preview (June 1982)
. US Domestic Cut (US Theatrical Release - 1982)
. International Cut (European/Asian Theatrical Release - 1982)
. The Director's Cut (BRDC) (1992)

. A new version is now being prepared (2002/3?) - The Blade Runner Special Edition

The Workprint is the most different from what we know and is also the version shown at the Fairfax, UCLA, NuArt & Castro
confidential screenings (where it was known as "The BLADE RUNNER Director's Cut") in 1991 and thus spawned the actual Director's Cut
which ended up being a confused and rushed process.

The San Diego Sneak was very close to the US Domestic Theatrical Cut.  But most people have never seen this version!  The US
Theatrical Release was never put on commercial video, but did appear on a laserdisc.

The International Theatrical Release is the one on which most of the videos, laserdiscs and released versions in the US and around
the world are based.  There is a version of this cut where some of the graphic scenes have about 15 seconds of extra violence - of
Roy gouging Tyrell's eyes, of Pris beating up Deckard and Deckard firing another shot and the close-up special effect of Roy
piercing his hand with the nail.  The "extra violence" version is the Embassy Tenth anniversary release and is also on laserdisc.
But we stress again, apart from these tiny bits, the rest of the film is the same on all OV videos.

In his original Video Watchdog article, Sammon refers to the Criterion Laserdisc Special Edition separately as it includes extras on
the disc, like the Syd Mead gallery.  (Hopefully these extras will appear on the BR:SE.)  He also listed the Workprint showings in
1991 separately to the 1982 showings for reasons of timing, but notes they are all probably The Workprint.  So in this article, it
was in fact clear that there were only five actual cuts, though some people seem to have been confused with the listing of different
showings/releases of these.

The "real" Director's Cut, which will appear on the Blade Runner Special Edition DVD set is likely to be much closer to the original
Workprint version.  Thus, criticisms that some Directors get of constantly recutting their films to new sensibilities is not really
true here as all Ridley Scott is doing is taking it back to what it was supposed to be before the studios interfered. So, the BR:SE
will become the sixth version, but is intended to be the "definitive cut" as it was always meant to be.

1.6. What are the differences between the OV and the DC?

The OV features a "voiceover" narration by Harrison Ford, and has an extra scene at the end - a "happy ending" scene of sorts - in
which you see Deckard drive off with Rachael in (strangely) unspoiled nature under a bright, sunny sky (clip from "The Shining");
both are looking happy...
Also, there is no unicorn footage in the OV. (Original footage WAS filmed, but it was cut at the insistence of the producers, who
voted it "too arty"...)
In the DC, the voiceover is gone, and so is the "happy ending", leaving the film ending like the Workprint did, with Deckard and
Rachael stepping into the elevator, effectively making the film more open-ended. The DC also features the unicorn "dream" sequence.
Finally, some new background "noises" were added to compensate for any voids created by omitting the VO.

There are at least seven differences between the BRDC and the Domestic Cut / International Cut:
1. Deckard's narration has been completely eliminated.
2. Some added dialogue from the blimp was inserted to fill the hole created by Deckard's missing voiceover, originally heard in the
Domestic/International/San Diego Cuts while Deckard was waiting for a place at the Noodle Bar ("They don't advertise for killers in
a newspaper..."). This added BRDC blimp line consists of a female voice saying "This announcement has been brought to you by the
Shimago-Dominguez Corporation. Helping America into the New World."
3. A twelve-second-long unicorn shot was reintroduced as Deckard plays his piano.  This was also not in the Workprint, but was
originally shot for Blade Runner and is not from Legend.
4. The music track during the unicorn scene was also changed. Originally, in the International/Domestic/San Diego Cuts, the
beautiful saxophone solo from Vangelis' "Love Theme" was heard as Deckard plinks on his piano. But for the BRDC, a new twelve-second
music cue by Vangelis (which had been composed back in 1982 and was retrieved by Arick and Scott especially for inclusion in the
BRDC) is heard instead. This takes the form of an atonal chorus wailing over the shot of the unicorn running through the woods and
concludes with the sound of an electronically generated "hunting horn" that's heard as the unicorn shot dissolves back into the
image of Deckard at the piano.
5. The Director's Cut features no happy ending or "Ride into The Sunset." Instead, the BRDC ends with the elevator doors closing on
Deckard and Rachael, as did the Workprint.
6. The extra violence seen on some videocassette and laserdisc copies of the International Cut was not included in the BRDC.
7. A newly remixed digital soundtrack was created for the BRDC.
[Source: FN]

1.7. Hey! What's with the differences in length between American & European versions of BR?

The small differences in length between the American and European versions of Blade Runner are caused by the conversion between the
different standards that are used. The cuts themselves are the same.

Film runs through the camera/projector at 24 frames per second (fps). The system used for TV in the Americas and Japan (NTSC) runs
at 30 fps, so they use a process called 2:3 pulldown which inserts repeated fields to stretch the 24 into the 30.  However the UK
PAL system runs at 25 fps, so rather than come up with a system to make 24 fit 25, they just do a frame by frame transfer and play
it 4% faster at 25 fps. Therefore running times for PAL transferred films are 4% shorter.

(A result of this is that when you play a PAL disc on an NTSC player, it will appear slightly sped up.)

The difference in speed should not be noticeable, although some people claim the different pitch is audible when listening to music
on such a converted tape.

For more detailed information about this, here is a good website to visit:
http://www.cs.tut.fi/~leopold/Ld/FilmToVideo/

Another issue specific to DVDs is "Regional Coding" which splits the world into six regions, (for commercial purposes) and is
implemented on DVDs and within DVD players that read the code off the Disc.  USA/Canada is Region 1, UK/Europe is Region 2, etc.  If
you live in Region 1, this won't matter much to you.  If you live anywhere else then do yourself a favour and either get a region
free DVD player or get it fixed to be region free.  Then you can stick your finger up at the Corporate bullies.  Some DVDs
themselves, (like "Brazil"), are region free, but will still be one of the PAL/NTSC/SECAM video signals.  Investigate before you
buy.

1.8. Are there any sequels? I heard rumours...

There have been rumours of BR [movie] sequels for years, but so far nothing has come of it. In one interview, BR director Ridley
Scott once stated he would have made a sequel years ago, if only he had been given permission (since he himself doesn't own the
movie rights).
Some years ago, there was talk of a script called "Blade Runner Down", which was reportedly based on Jeter's BR2 novel. The author
of the script had the following to say about it:
"WB don't have sequel rights, only a first-look at making a sequel. The rights reside with original producer Bud Yorkin. When my
script went out 'the town' loved it and offered me loads of jobs. Harrison's manager liked it but wouldn't give it to him unless a
studio offer was behind it, and the only people in town who didn't 'get' my script were the majority of execs at WB and Bud Yorkin
himself. What can I say? Other studios would love a crack, but it's these guys who hold all the cards right now. Harrison hasn't
read my script and may never read it." - Stuart Hazeldine, author of the Blade Runner Down script. (18 March 1999).

For more (old) information regarding any plans for a sequel:
http://www.corona.bc.ca/films/directorscut/980308.html
http://www.corona.bc.ca/films/directorscut/980310.html
http://www.philipkdick.com/news/archive1.htm

Some other rumours told that one of Scott's projects, Metropolis, could have been a disguised BR sequel. The project seems to have
been shelved, anyhow.
There have been three *written* sequels, "BR 2 - The Edge of Human", "BR 3 - Replicant Night", and "BR 4 - Eye and Talon" (For more
information on these, see the "Literature" section).

1.9. BR cast information

Harrison Ford  - Rick Deckard
Rutger Hauer  - Roy Batty
Sean Young  - Rachael
Edward James Olmos  - Gaff
M. Emmet Walsh  - Harry Bryant
Daryl Hannah  - Pris
William Sanderson  - J.F. Sebastian
Brion James  - Leon Kowalski
Joe Turkel  - Dr. Eldon Tyrell
Joanna Cassidy  - Zhora
James Hong  - Hannibal Chew
Morgan Paull  - Dave Holden
Kevin Thompson  - Bear
John E. Allen  - Kaiser
Hy Pyke  - Taffey Lewis
Robert Okazaki  - Sushi Master
Kimiko Hiroshige  - Cambodian Woman
Carolyn DeMirjian - Saleslady
Leo Gorcey Jr. - Louie the Bartender (uncredited)
Sharon Hesky - Bar Patron (uncredited)
Kelly Hine - Showgirl (uncredited)
Tom Hutchinson - Bartender (uncredited)
Charles Knapp - Bartender (uncredited)
Rose Mascari - Bar Patron (uncredited)
Jiro Okazaki - Policeman (uncredited)
Steve Pope - Policeman (uncredited)
Robert Reiter - Policeman (uncredited)

Please see the official BR FAQ website ( http://www.BRmovie.com/ ) for detailed profiles of both cast and characters.

1.10. BR crew information

Ridley Scott - Director
Michael Deeley - Producer
Bud Yorkin - Producer
Hampton Fancher - Screenwriter / Executive Producer
David Peoples - Screenwriter
Darryl Ponicsan - Screenwriter
Jordan S. Cronenweth - Cinematographer
Vangelis - Composer (Music Score)
Terry Rawlings - Editor
David Snyder - Art Director
Brian Kelly - Executive Producer
Lawrence G. Paull - Set Designer / Production Designer
Michael Kaplan - Costume Designer
Charles Knode - Costume Designer
Newt Arnold - First Assistant Director
Bud Alper - Sound/Sound Designer
Jane Feinberg - Casting
Mike Fenton - Casting
Marci Liroff - Casting
David Dryer - Special Effects Supervisor
Douglas Trumbull - Special Effects Supervisor
Richard Yuricich - Special Effects Supervisor
Matthew Yuricich - Matte Artist
Syd Mead - "Visual Futurist" (conceptual artist)
...

Please see the official BR FAQ website ( http://www.BRmovie.com/ ) for detailed profiles of the main crew/creators of Blade Runner.

1.11. How did BR come to be made?

In 1978, Hampton Fancher and Brian Kelly approached producer Michael Deeley with the idea of turning Philip K. Dick's novel, "Do
Androids Dream of Electric Sheep" into a film.  Although he was skeptical at first, he got Fancher to write a screenplay.  The
various drafts of the script, (under various titles), floated around for a while until it got to Ridley Scott. Scott was finishing
off "Alien", so wasn't sure about doing more Science Fiction, (he has stated in interview that the genre isn't important as long as
he can make something interesting of the story.)  Evidently he saw a good story and in 1980 signed up to make the film.

Scott and Fancher spent a lot of time working on the script and although their work was inspired, they also had some fundamental
disagreements.  Eventually Fancher said he couldn't do anything more with it.  Despite being close to filming, Scott brought in
David Peoples.  His initial reaction was that it was already a great script, but somehow he managed to move it forward to give Scott
more of what he wanted.  The "final" script was created by Scott by putting together parts of various of the previous versions
without either scriptwriter being present!  However, we can say the script is a combined effort from Fancher and Peoples, influenced
by Scott.  Some further tweaks were needed during filming itself and Peoples was no longer available so Fancher came back to do
that.  Note that two of the earlier scripts (July 24, 1980 and February 23, 1981) are available at http://www.BRmovie.com/Scripts

Michael Deeley put together the financing for the movie.  Early interest from Filmways Pictures disappeared as estimated costs rose,
(although peanuts compared to today's budgets), but this was partly because Filmways were having financial troubles anyway.  The
final backers were The Ladd Corporation, Sir Run Run Shaw and Tandem Productions.  Total raised was $21.5 million, split almost
evenly between the three.  Except Tandem were the bond guarantors and owned more rights.  What this means is that when the cost on
the film rose to $30 million, Tandem paid the extra, but this allowed them to exercise the right to take over the picture.  It seems
Tandem were also influential in getting the film made at Burbank in L.A. instead of being made in England.

There were numerous problems during filming.  Budget constraints certainly didn't help.  There were tensions on set, particularly
the well-known disagreements between Scott and Ford about the Deckard character.  Scott even ended up finishing the film after
having been fired!  Producer intervention also had a significant effect on the film content beyond the initial cuts during filming.
The voiceover, the deletion of the unicorn scene and the tacked on happy ending being the most obvious producer influences.

1.12. Who are the Blade Runner Partnership?

They are the people holding the rights to the movie. If ever a sequel is to be made, they're the (only) ones who can make it happen.
Who are they?  They are the two guys from Tandem Productions - Jerry Perenchio and Bud Yorkin.  Bud Yorkin is a significant producer
and is also behind a number of successful TV series.

Unfortunately, they don't seem to be very eager to make a Blade Runner 2 happen. Ridley Scott once stated he would have made a
sequel years ago, if only the BR Partnership would have allowed it.

1.13. Did Blade Runner win any awards?

Of course we all know that Blade Runner ought to have won the Oscars for Best Picture and Best Director at the very least, (but
wasn't even nominated for those - obviously "The Academy" didn't understand it back then).  The Oscar still eludes Ridley Scott
despite even the success of Gladiator (which got five awards including Best Picture!)  And why didn't Vangelis even get nominated
for an Oscar for the music?  (Even though he had just won one for "Chariots of Fire".)  He did, however, get nominated for a Golden
Globe.

Blade Runner was nominated as follows (source http://wwwdb.oscars.org/awards_db/ ):
Art Direction - won by "Gandhi"
Set Decoration - won by "Gandhi"
Visual Effects - won by "E.T. the Extra Terrestrial"

1982 was the year dominated by Gandhi.  Whatever the other qualities you might ascribe to Gandhi, when it comes to sets, how does a
few tents in the desert in Gandhi compare to the most stunningly realistic future cityscape of Blade Runner?  Linda DeScenna has
been nominated for Set Decoration FIVE times and not been rewarded.  Douglas Trumbull was nominated for a few memorable films too
without getting rewarded for his brilliant Visual Effects work, until 1992, when he was given the "Scientific and Technical Award".

However, Blade Runner has won other awards:

1982 - Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards - Best Cinematography - Jordan Cronenweth
1983 - Hugo Awards - Best Dramatic Presentation
But for a full appreciation of the high esteem in which Blade Runner is now regarded, check out the Top 100 Lists at:
http://www.brmovie.com/BR_Views.htm where you'll see Wired Magazine rate it as the top SF film of all time, it tops or at least
makes Top 10 in various other futurist and SF lists, and in the UK often makes the Top 10 Favourite Movies ever (not just SF).  The
British Film Institute and American Film Institutes have both recognised its importance and in 1993 it was one of the yearly batch
of 25 films to be added to the U.S. Library of Congress National Film Registry - an honour bestowed on films at least 10 years old
that are to be preserved forever.

2. BR & Cyberpunk

2.1. What is cyberpunk?

Cyberpunk is a sub-genre of science fiction literature, particularly prevalent from the 1980's. It referred to a particular writing
style (characterized by a "high-tech meets low-life" theme) and to a particular group of writers, which included William Gibson,
John Shirley, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan (the "Queen of Cyberpunk"), Walter Jon Williams, and others.

Gardner Dozois, an editor of "Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine" during the early '80s, is generally acknowledged as the first
person to popularize the term "cyberpunk" describing a body of literature. Dozois doesn't claim to have coined the term; he says he
picked it up "on the street somewhere". The term itself was actually coined by writer Bruce Bethke; it was the title of a short
story he wrote in 1980, about a group of skilled teenage hackers/crackers.  See Bruce's description of the invention of the word and
read the short story here: http://www.infinityplus.co.uk/stories/cpunk.htm

Although the term only started being used in the 1980's, there are many stories from earlier decades that fall into the sub-genre.
However, it was primarily the book "Neuromancer" by William Gibson, and perhaps the Blade Runner film that were the catalyst for
this becoming widely recognised as a sub-genre of Science Fiction.

For more information about cyberpunk, the alt.cyberpunk FAQ can be downloaded from the following site:
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/

2.2. Is, or can BR be considered "cyberpunk"?

To be sure if Blade Runner can be considered cyberpunk, it might be useful to get a clear definition of what cyberpunk is. This is
not as simple as it sounds. If you ask a hundred (knowledgeable) people to give a definition of cyberpunk, you'll likely get a
hundred different definitions.

Even so, while formulating any precise definition may be hard, there are some typical aspects that seem inherent to cyberpunk
stories:

- The individual vs. the system: the individuals are "high tech low-lifes", outlaws who are either actively or passively fighting
"the system" - the system being either government, or big multinational corporations, or both - fighting them with computers, high
tech gadgetry, etc.;

- Often, some kind of "cyberspace" is involved;

- Stories are situated in a near future, and usually in or near big cities;

- Dystopia: the future is not a pretty place to be, and the stories reflect this;

- The "hardboiled", rough-edged nature of the cyberpunk stories is said to owe much to the work of people like Dashiell Hammett and
Raymond Chandler, with their gritty detective novels.

So, is Blade Runner a cyberpunk movie? Let's compare some aspects of BR with the above points:

- The individual vs. the system: Rick Deckard starts out as an individual; he was once part of the system (in this case, the LAPD),
but apparently he quit his job. However, he is coerced by the system (personified by Captain Bryant and Gaff) to get back to his old
job. In the end, even though he is again part of the system, he is still very much on his own. Not exactly your basic "outlaw"
(although by the end of the movie his position may be very "unclear" indeed).

- The outlawed replicants themselves are clearly individuals outside the system who must be dealt with.

- Corporate power is clearly represented by the Tyrell Corporation.

- BR is situated in the city of Los Angeles (big city) in the year 2019 (near future).

- LA 2019 looks like a nice place to visit, but not to live in (i.e. a Dystopia).

- High technology is everywhere in BR - the replicants themselves are in fact state of the art technology, in a way. On the other
hand, while computers can be seen in the movie, they're more part of the "background"; there is no mention of any "cyberspace"-like
computer network (although the Esper machine that Deckard at one point uses to examine one of Leon's photos was supposed to actually
be a terminal which was linked to the LA police mainframe) and there are no "high tech rebels", hackers or whatever featured in the
story.  Of course the fact that cyberspace and hackers are not features of the story does not mean they don't exist in this
fictional future.

- BR seems very much inspired by the old hardboiled detective movies like "The Maltese Falcon" (starring Humphrey Bogart); Deckard
is a detective, ex-cop, dressed in the typical classic detective outfit (the trenchcoat). His old police "buddies" get back in touch
with him, meaning trouble for Deckard. There's the resident "femme fatale" Rachael (Sean Young), who essentially gets Deckard in
more trouble. (By getting involved with her, he loses everything. He may have hated his job, but at least he had this great
apartment :-) ) [See also the Trivia section]

In the end, it is this author's opinion that Blade Runner contains enough elements to allow it to be labelled "cyberpunk". One might
actually wonder if it is not a question of the chicken and the egg: Blade Runner's influence on SF in general has been substantial,
and may have influenced the writings of many, if not all of the "cyberpunk" writers at some point (after 1982, at least) and in some
way.

It might be interesting to note that the alt.cyberpunk FAQ contains a section which is dedicated to BR; the FAQ's author(s)
regard(s) the movie as "proto-cyberpunk", even calling it "the quintessential cyberpunk movie".

[See also p. 325 of Future Noir]

2.3. Did Blade Runner influence William Gibson when he wrote his cyberpunk classic, "Neuromancer"? Did Blade Runner influence
cyberpunk in general?

It seems that both William Gibson and Ridley Scott were, at the time, both very much influenced by much of the visual styles and
artwork featured in the magazine "Heavy Metal", notably the work by French artist Jean Giraud, AKA "Moebius". One story in
particular called "The Long Tomorrow", written by Dan O'Bannon and drawn by Moebius, was a major influence on the visual design of
BR.  Ironically, this story was in fact a parody of early American Film Noir.

Gibson, in an interview by Lance Loud in an article on the 10th anniversary of "Blade Runner" for the magazine "Details" (October
1992 issue), had the following to say:

"About ten minutes into Blade Runner, I reeled out of the theater in complete despair over its visual brilliance and its similarity
to the "look" of Neuromancer, my [then] largely unwritten first novel. Not only had I been beaten to the semiotic punch, but this
damned movie looked better than the images in my head! With time, as I got over that, I started to take a certain delight in the way
the film began to affect the way the world looked. Club fashions, at first, then rock videos, finally even architecture. Amazing! A
science fiction movie affecting reality!"

"Years later, I was having lunch with Ridley, and when the conversation turned to inspiration, we were both very clear about our
debt to the Métal Hurlant [the original Heavy Metal magazine] school of the '70s--Moebius and the others. But it was also obvious
that Scott understood the importance of information density to perceptual overload. When Blade Runner works best, it induces a
lyrical sort of information sickness, that quintessentially postmodern cocktail of ecstasy and dread. It was what cyberpunk was
supposed to be all about."

Also, here is an excerpt from an introduction Gibson wrote for the graphic novel adaptation of his own "Neuromancer" book:

"So it's entirely fair to say, and I've said it before, that the way Neuromancer-the-novel "looks" was influenced in large part by
some of the artwork I saw in 'Heavy Metal'. I assume that this must also be true of John Carpenter's 'Escape from New York', Ridley
Scott's 'Blade Runner'", and all other artefacts of the style sometimes dubbed 'cyberpunk'. Those French guys, they got their end in
early."


3. Influences on Blade Runner

Blade Runner has been said to have significantly influenced the movie business, spawning countless imitations, setting a standard
for how the future might look. It has even played a part in influencing modern architecture in general.  Of course it can be
difficult to determine what is influence and what is prediction.

But even a film like Blade Runner didn't appear out of the blue, without any prior influences. It too has its share of "spiritual
ancestors"...

- Metropolis (Fritz Lang, 1927)

An epic tale about social injustice and technology run amok, situated in the near-future Dystopia of a towering city-state... Sound
vaguely familiar? It should, although its sheer visual brilliance is probably the main link between it and films like BR, Dark City,
and many others.

- Story-wise, BR's roots can be traced back to the Film Noir genre, a style of American films that evolved in the 1940's and lasted
until the end of the 1960's. Film Noir itself was often based on the sort of stories found in detective novels of people like
Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, who created now classic characters like Sam Spade and Philip Marlowe, respectively.

- Heavy Metal (Métal Hurlant) magazine and the work of Moebius

The French SF magazine "Métal Hurlant", that eventually spawned an English language counterpart called "Heavy Metal", has proven to
be extremely influential.  A co-founder and contributor to the magazine was French artist "Moebius" (Jean Giraud).

The Heavy Metal story "The Long Tomorrow" (drawn by Moebius) in particular - which was originally meant to be sort of a parody on
American film noir - was a direct source of inspiration for Ridley Scott, because it had the look that Scott felt the film needed.

Ridley Scott wanted Giraud to work on Blade Runner, but he was under contract elsewhere at the time.  Although he was not directly
involved, his style was certainly referenced during production.

Other movies Moebius worked on:

- Alien (another film by Ridley Scott) (1979)
- Heavy Metal (1981): A movie inspired by the magazine of the same name; the "Taarna" segment of the movie was based on Moebius'
work.
- Tron (1982) on which he worked with Syd Mead, who himself did a lot of conceptual work for Blade Runner.
- Les Maîtres du temps (which he also wrote) (1982)
- Willow (1988)
- The Abyss (1989)
- The Fifth Element (1997)

Relevant links:
http://www.heavy-metal.net/
http://us.imdb.com/Name?Giraud,+Jean


4. Film FAQs

4.1. Blade Runners

4.1.1. What is a "Blade Runner" anyway?

Blade Runners are specially trained policemen, like a detective and bounty hunter rolled into one, specialized in tracking down and
retiring replicants.

The Blade Runner unit (officially known as "Rep-Detect") is a department of the Los Angeles Police Department specialized in
locating and "retiring" (terminating, if you will) escaped replicants.

4.1.2. Why are they called "Blade Runners"? Where does that term come from?

The title can be traced back to a book by science fiction / fantasy writer Alan E. Nourse who wrote a story called "The
Bladerunner". The story dealt with an impoverished society where medical supplies were so scarce they had to be supplied by
smugglers known as "Blade Runners".

William S. Burroughs took the book and wrote "Bladerunner (A Movie)" in 1979. Similarities between Nourse's "The Bladerunner" and
Scott's BR are in name only.

Ridley Scott felt that calling Deckard a "detective" just wouldn't do. Hampton Fancher, screenwriter for the movie, began searching
through his personal library and came up with Burroughs' book.

Scott liked it, and he and Fancher also felt the title would make a great new title for the screenplay, and so they eventually
bought the rights for the use of the name Blade Runner from both Nourse's and Burroughs' representatives.

So there you have it. The term "blade runner" is really best regarded as a code name; it doesn't really mean anything by itself.
Also, the words echo "bounty hunter".

Note: Early versions of the script were titled "Android" and, later on, "Dangerous Days", before ultimately "Blade Runner" was
chosen as the title.

4.2. Glowing Eyes

4.2.1 What's with the glowing eyes? What do they mean?

In the movie, on a few occasions, we see characters who have a strange gold like glow in their eyes. This is meant to suggest to us,
the audience, that they are replicants (or animoids, in the owl's case).

Note: The glowing eye effect was achieved by bouncing light off a half-mirrored glass mounted at a forty-five degree angle on the
camera. An effect that is quite difficult to create (and even harder to accomplish by mistake...)

But note also that the owl was originally intended to be real - Rachael's line was overdubbed to indicate the owl is artificial.

4.2.2 If their eyes are glowing, why the need for V-K tests?

Surely anyone can see who is a rep and who is not... [Well... not really!]

The use of the glowing eyes is a narrational device, a cinematic technique employed by the movie's makers to tell the audience who
is a replicant and who is not. This "device" goes outside of the movie's reality, meaning: we, the audience, see it, but the
characters in the movie *do not*. Hence the importance of the V-K test, which in the story is the only way to tell a replicant apart
from a human.

4.3. Replicants

4.3.1. What are replicants?

Replicants - those of the Nexus 6 kind, anyway - are artificially created through genetic engineering. They're not mechanical
robots, but rather more like clones. It is not entirely clear how they are created as this is not specifically explained in the
film.  It is also possible that previous Nexus series replicants were more robotic in the 'classic' sense; this is pure speculation,
however, since no information is really given about them.  What we do know about the Nexus 6 series is that they are engineered by
genetic engineers, they are created from some sort of DNA and they are designed to be "More human than human."  The likelihood is
that this is thus some sort of cloning/replication technology that uses human DNA as a starting point.

The 1981 script also provided the following definitions (that did appear in the Workprint and are used in the Blade Runner Comic):

        android (an'droid) adj.  Possessing human features - n.
                A synthetic man created from biological materials.
                Also called humanoid.  (Late Greek androeides,
                manlike:  ANDR(O) - OID.)

                                        THE AMERICAN HERITAGE
                                        DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH
                                        LANGUAGE  (1976)



        android (an'droid) n, Gk. humanoid automaton. more at
                robot./ 1. early version utilized for work too
                boring, dangerous or unpleasant for humans.
                2. second generation bio-engineered.  Electronic
                relay units and positronic brains.  Used in space
                to explore inhospitable environments.  3. third
                generation synthogenetic.  REPLICANT, constructed
                of skin/flesh culture.  Selected enogenic transfer
                conversion.  Capable of self perpetuating thought.
                paraphysical abilities.  Developed for emigration
                program.

                                        WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY
                                        New International (2012)

[Note the "positronic brain" in the second generation androids - In ST: TNG, Data has a positronic brain. This particular technology
is fictional, BTW; the term was made up by Isaac Asimov as a simple expository term with no scientific background.]

The 1981 script also furnishes us with more detail in the first "Hospital Scene" although dialogue changed before this (deleted)
scene was filmed:
HOLDEN:  They do a routine autopsy on the one that got aired and.. whaddya know?  A skin job, one of the ones that busted out!  Top
drawer replicant.. combat type.. Nexus six.
DECKARD:  Pretty sexy, the sixes.
HOLDEN:  Sexy!  Three hours into the autopsy they still think they're cutting up a human.  No marks, nothing.

Evidently the intention was that these replicants really were almost identical to humans.  Their individual abilities in most
respects are not "superhuman", but just represent the best of humans.  Some humans can withstand extreme cold for a few minutes,
walk across hot coals, perhaps even pick an egg out of boiling water, conditioned to withstand a little pain.

4.3.2. Replicant information

Early in the movie, there is a scene in a briefing room where Bryant shows Deckard some videos (called "Incept Tapes" by the crew)
containing information on the escaped replicants.
Here is the information that was shown on screen while the videos were running:

Replicant (M) Des: LEON
NEXUS-6 N6MAC41717
Incept Date: 10 APRIL, 2017
Func: Combat/Loader (Nuc. Fiss)
Phys: LEV. A Mental: LEV. C

Replicant (M) Des: BATTY (Roy)
NEXUS-6 N6MAA10816
Incept Date: 8 JAN., 2016
Func: Combat, Colonization Defense Prog
Phys: LEV. A Mental: LEV. A

Replicant (F) Des: ZHORA
NEXUS-6 N6FAB61216
Incept Date: 12 JUNE, 2016
Func: Retrained (9 Feb., 2018) Polit. homicide
Phys: LEV. A Mental: LEV. B

Replicant (F) Des: PRIS
NEXUS-6 N6FAB21416
Incept Date: 14 FEB., 2016

Note: You'll notice Pris (the "basic pleasure model") has February 14 - Valentine's Day - as incept date...

Explanation of replicant information:

The serial number of every replicant is actually detailed identification data, containing a summary of that replicant's statistics.

For example, Leon's no. is N6MAC41717;

N6 = Nexus 6
M  = male
A  = physical level
C  = mental level
4  = month
17 = day
17 = year

Note: There is an error in Leon's details as the serial number decrypts to the wrong date.
Also, we are left to guess what happens for Reps created in months October to December - do they use two digits, or move on to A, B,
C?

The information given in the briefing scene establishes certain interesting facts. For one, we learn that Nexus 6 replicants are
divided into both mental and physical categories, apparently ranging from
"A" (presumably more than average, perhaps even superhuman?) over "B" ("average") to "C" ("below average" - for a Nexus 6, anyway).

4.3.3. Do replicants have emotions, like "real" humans?

There seems to be a lot of confusion concerning this question.
The following text (provided by Netrunner) should provide a better understanding of the situation.

Firstly we have to make a distinction:

a. Reps have programmed emotional responses that are built in to make them seem like Humans.  These are not real emotions and the
Reps don't *feel* them - they are simulations of the responses that Humans give. These are what allow Reps to interact with Humans
and help them to appear Human.

b. Some Nexus 6 Reps have started developing their *own* emotional responses.  And these *are* real emotions.  It is the first stage
to the eventual possibility of them developing empathy (as we see in Roy at the end).

The V-K test measures a number of physical responses to the questions. These add up to a measurement of empathic response.  The Reps
respond with answers and programmed physical responses.   Humans respond naturally. I am sure there are aspects of the test that I
"don't know" but certainly one aspect is, for example, not just measuring things like how much of a blush response there is, but the
speed at which it happens.  Reps and Humans have the same basic responses, but at different levels and speeds.  (Note that the V-K
machine predates Nexus 6 Reps and was designed to identify Reps that had no true emotional responses of their own, hence the
question of whether it will still work in identifying Nexus 6 Reps.)

There may also be some questions that allow Reps to make mistakes. For example (from DADoES), "Your husband hangs a picture on the
wall of a naked girl lying on a bearskin rug - how do you respond?"  Well, if you're a human in this post-apocalyptic world, you
respond to the fact the rug is bearskin and ignore the naked girl part.  If you're a Replicant, you might miss that point.

4.3.4. Can replicants reproduce?

We are never told whether or not they can, but it makes sense to assume that they cannot. It would just create too many problems and
bad publicity for the replicant "manufacturers" if they could:
- People could breed their own replicants, so Tyrell would make less money.
- The replicants are viewed as commodities, not as human beings. But what if they start having children? Could they still be
regarded as less-than-human commodities instead of real people?
- How would the public react to babies of parents that die after 4 years, and are thus unable to take care of their offspring? Would
the newborn itself live longer than 4 years anyway?

4.3.5. Can replicants become intoxicated?

There is no evidence that they do, though this is not proof they can't.  Unless they specifically have a way to quickly metabolise
alcohol, then being biological, alcohol must eventually affect them.  They obviously do drink alcohol as a bottle can be seen in the
reps' apartment in Leon's photo.  This is ignoring the possibility of Deckard being a replicant, but again, although there is plenty
of evidence that he drinks a lot of alcohol, it is arguable whether he actually gets drunk or not.

4.3.6. What are those tattoos on Roy's chest?

They are not tattoos as such.  According to Ridley Scott quoted in Future Noir, it was a half-developed idea they had - another
thing inspired by Jean Giraud.  What would have been interesting was having the Replicants "built up" from parts.  (This wouldn't
have worked with other back-story that was developed though.)  And it would have meant too long in makeup for Rutger anyway.  So
they then thought of markings that denoted points where, say, a space war suit would plug in to sockets.  But even that idea got
left behind and we were left with markings that are simply "A curious detail." So it is really up to you how you would like to
interpret them.

The markings were applied by Freddy Blau of Reel Creations through a process of silk-screening them on and then hand-finishing them.
It took four hours to do!

4.4. Animoids

4.4.1. What are animoids?

The name given to artificial animals, presumably created using the same (or a very similar) technology used to create the earlier
replicants.

4.4.2. Are all the animals that we see in the movie, artificial?

Most of them probably are - but not necessarily all of them. It makes sense to assume the doves at the end of the movie are real,
for example.  This would be consistent with DADoES in which some animals are much more rare than others.  In the book, Deckard
checks rarity and prices of real animals in his "Sidney's" book.

4.5. Deckard

4.5.1. Is Deckard a replicant?

This is one of the most enduring debates regarding BR.

Either way, opinions have been and continue to be, divided.

For some, the glowing eyes can leave no doubt whatsoever, while the unicorn all but spells it out.  To others, these are easily
dismissed and must be regarded with a "Deck-a-Rep" viewpoint to be accepted.

Others insist there is no definitive answer, and that the clues merely "suggest" Deckard might be a replicant. Some accept Deckard
as a replicant because of the clues, but feel he shouldn't be, because they feel the movie works just as well if not better if he's
human, or if the question is left "unanswered".

There are those who feel that, in the OV, he is human, mainly because the unicorn dream was cut at the producers' insistence, who
felt the idea was "too arty", and that in the BRDC, he is a replicant.  However, many do not accept that there is any difference
between the versions - you interpret how you will for Blade Runner as a whole.

Some insist he simply cannot be a replicant because they feel it doesn't fit with what they have interpreted to be the theme(s) of
the film, whatever those may be.

Even the director coming forward and stating Deckard is a replicant (which he has done on several occasions) has done little to stop
the ongoing debate. As he plays with our memories and questions what is real during the movie, some see the wicked gleam in his eyes
when he makes the statement as indicating that he knows it will make no difference to the debate.  In a 1982 interview, Scott says
things like, "the central character could in fact be what he is chasing", "The innuendo is still there" and "I think it's
interesting that he could be."  All these suggest that the original intent was to get the audience to ask the question, but not
necessarily to confirm it either way.

Either way, here are some of the facts...

Director Ridley Scott wanted the audience to find out that Deckard is (or, at the very least, might be) a replicant himself. (In
Dick's original book the possibility was hinted at, but Deckard was eventually tested and was human.)  However, it was a passage in
an early version of the script that gave Scott the idea, even though this "We were brothers, Roy Batty and I!" passage was intended
to be metaphorical, not literal.)  This is still hinted at when Roy grabs Deckard as he's about to fall and says "Kinship!"

To this end, he put a few "clues" in the film.

The 2 most important ones are the following:

1. The unicorn "dream", coupled with the origami unicorn, was meant to strongly "suggest" (at the very least) that Gaff knows
Deckard's memories, like Deckard knew Rachael's, by having looked at her files, evidently containing detailed information about her
memory implants...
2. In one scene, you can see Deckard's eyes glow briefly, in a similar way to the replicants' eyes.

Also, the possibility of Deckard being a replicant is hinted at in some of the movie's dialogue; for instance, at one point Rachael
asks Deckard if he's ever taken the test himself (Deckard dozes off, however, leaving the audience to ponder the question).  Also,
at the end of the movie, Gaff tells Deckard: "You've done a man's job, sir!" While this is a common expression, within the movie's
context the double meaning should be apparent - which was the intention. (It's not conclusive evidence or anything, but what the
heck.)

Note: in early versions of the script, Gaff's line was actually longer - and somewhat less than subtle - adding: "... But are you
sure you are man? It's hard to be sure who's who around here."  However, as this is not in the film, we are just left with the
"man's job" line which can just as easily be taken as the literal statement of a man defeating replicants.

So, in the end, is he a replicant or not?  It all depends on how one interprets the clues and perhaps even one's perception of the
answer before one chooses the interpretations of clues and lines.  All we can be sure about is that whether Deckard is a replicant
or not is not really the point.  The fact that we ask the question and cannot be totally sure underlines the old Philip K. Dick
question, "What is Human?"

4.5.2. How can Deckard be a replicant if the replicants he has to deal with are clearly all stronger than him?

The replicants he was up against were all physically superior (A-level); Rachael, to name another replicant was also Nexus 6, yet
she did not exhibit any of the superhuman abilities/traits the other reps have.

So evidently you have all kinds of replicants, from A-level (the strongest) to possibly B- and C- classes. (As evidenced in the
information given at the briefing by Capt. Bryant, there are also mental
classes ranging from A (your regular genius) over B (average?) to C (not too bright).

This inevitably brings up the question: what is the purpose of making a rep with average human abilities. Once again, consider
Rachael's case. She was a replicant who wasn't supposed to know about it. In order to pull this off, she would have to have
"average" human abilities, not the superhuman qualities that Batty or Leon, for example, had (because otherwise she would find out
right away that she was a replicant). And implanted memories, but that's another discussion in itself...

Likewise, if Deckard was supposed to be a replicant, and he wasn't supposed to know about it, the *only way* to pull it off (without
letting him find out or making him suspicious) would be to give him
average human skills and abilities, and NOT make him a terminator of sorts. Unfortunately this would indeed mean he has to deal with
physically stronger opponents.

4.5.3. Bryant mentions a sixth replicant. What is going on? Is Deckard the sixth replicant? Is Rachael?
There is no sixth replicant; Bryant's dialogue gets it wrong.
An early version of the script called for a character called "Mary" (Stacy Nelkin was even cast in the role). The character's scenes
were dropped due to budget constraints, but one reference to the extra replicant had already been recorded and survived the changes,
creating a small continuity error in the process - and giving birth to a popular theory: namely, the idea that Deckard might himself
not only be *a* replicant, but actually be part of Batty's group of escaped replicants! This would make Deckard the sixth replicant!
The strange thing is that Scott had Walsh redo the line for an overdub but then decided not to use it.
According to the theory, Deckard would have been captured and "reprogrammed" (false memory implants, like they did for Rachael).
The fact Roy Batty calls him by name even though they've supposedly never met before might suggest Batty knew him, thereby giving
impetus to this theory, although there are other equally valid ways he would find this out, such as Roy hacking into the police
Esper, overhearing his name or just simply that Deckard has a well-known reputation as the ace Blade Runner.  "Aren't you the good
man?"  In fact there are so many holes in this particular theory that many Deck-a-Reppers acknowledge it as just a continuity error.
Incidentally, the fifth replicant, (the one that got fried), was called "Hodge".

4.5.4. Why does Deckard dream of a unicorn? What is that all about?

In itself, the "dream" (if that's what it is) means nothing. Or it could mean *anything*, depending on how you look at it. It does
not *seem* connected to anything else in the movie - anything, *except* Gaff's final origami "message", which happens to be (of all
things) a unicorn!

Now, all the origami figures seem to be comments from Gaff about Deckard. (See question "What do Gaff's origami figures mean?")

Therefore it seems logical to assume the unicorn is a reference to Deckard, and to his unicorn "dream" as well. So Gaff seems to
know Deckard's inner thoughts, suggesting the "dream" would actually be an implanted memory or image. This strongly suggests Gaff
knows Deckard's [implanted] memories, just like Deckard knew all about Rachael's.  Of course, purely within the fictional reality of
LA2019, there are a multitude of other possibilities for the meaning of unicorn dream/origami.  It seems clear that Gaff could not
know that Deckard had just had his unicorn dream a short time earlier, so this must necessarily refer to a general memory/dream that
Deckard has and which Gaff knows about, perhaps from Deckard's file.  But of course that is then just as applicable if Deckard is
human.

The whole unicorn thing was one of the clues Ridley Scott inserted in order to create a "surprise revelation" concerning Deckard's
true nature... (See question "Is Deckard A Replicant")  And in fact, it was the idea of the unicorn "calling card" that developed
into the idea of Gaff making his origami figures.

4.6. Memories and Photographs

4.6.1. What is the deal with implanted memories? Do all replicants have them?

There seems to be a lot of confusion regarding this.

The Nexus 6 replicants don't have implanted memories of the same sort as Rachael. That wouldn't make sense, because of reasons we'll
try to explain.
When Deckard arrives in Tyrell's office, he is asked to perform a V-K test on a subject that is, according to Tyrell, human. This
subject is Rachael. Deckard's test reveals she is actually a replicant. When Deckard tells this to Tyrell, to his surprise he finds
out she doesn't know (although "she is beginning to suspect" according to Tyrell).
Tyrell then explains how it is possible she is a replicant without even knowing it. The answer is: they "provided" (implanted) her
with false memories (the memories are real, that is; they're just not her own), giving her the memories of a normal lifetime, a
childhood, etc. so she would have no reason to suspect she is anything but human.
Tyrell goes on to explain *why* they did it. The replicants "developed strange obsessions" and exhibited emotional problems because
of their lack of experience in dealing with them. So Tyrell devised an experiment, namely: to see what would happen if "they"
(speaking generally) were given an emotional cushion (provided by a lifetime of memories, as illustrated by Rachael).

Providing a replicant with (false) memories seems a fairly new (not to mention unheard of) concept to Deckard, who is absolutely
stunned by the idea ("Memories... you're talking about memories!")

Bottom line: Rachael is the only Nexus 6 replicant with implanted memories; that's precisely why she (not "they" or anything, but
rather *Rachael* in particular) is considered "an experiment, nothing more" by Tyrell.

Later on, Bryant says the following to Deckard: "That skin job that you V-K-ed at the Tyrell Corporation, Rachael. Disappeared.
Vanished. Didn't even know she was a replicant. Something to do with a brain implant says Tyrell."  Evidently, this was all new to
Bryant as well.

Note: even the people from Westwood who made the Blade Runner game, appear to have assumed all replicants have them. (See section
"About the game" for more about this.)

4.6.2. Are Leon's photographs real? I mean, if Rachael's photo was a fake, then...

Leon's photographs are almost certainly real; what would be the point of supplying replicants with fakes, considering they have no
implanted memories to begin with and know they are replicants? Besides, the photograph Deckard examines with the Esper machine was
evidently real enough to be useful (it showed the apartment, with Zhora and Batty).

4.6.3. I could swear I saw Rachael and her mother move on that picture...

Yes, they do move. Actually, what is shown is not a photo but rather a freeze-frame of a filmed sequence, which then (for a very
short moment) starts playing.

4.6.4. What is the scribbling we see on the back of Rachael's photo?

On the back of the photo there is what seems to be an address. This is certainly meant to be glimpsed, (it is shown on two separate
occasions), but was probably never meant to be decoded precisely.

Of course we've tried anyway :-)

Best guesses so far:

cas 4217
68W Thika Blvd
South Wenton
Waytton

[The last line is illegible; it might be some signature.]

4.7. Language Matters

4.7.1. What are the languages used in BR?

The languages spoken are English, Chinese, Japanese, and "Cityspeak".

4.7.2. What is "Cityspeak"?

Cityspeak is a mixture of words and expressions from Spanish, French, Chinese, German, Hungarian and Japanese. The "conversation"
between Deckard and Gaff in the beginning of BR is an example of this.

4.7.3. Translation of the noodle bar scene dialogue (with comments)

(Provided by and with introduction by Netrunner)

==================
The Noodle Bar scene:
==================

The Noodle Bar is where we first meet Deckard, hear the (sometimes indistinct) advertising blimp, listen to the Noodle Bar
counterman speaking Japanese and meet Gaff, with his unusual Cityspeak. This scene is thus the source of many questions,
particularly about what precisely is being said.

Although transcripts and translations of this scene exist in hundreds of places on the Web, 99.9% of those are copies and are based
on the original work of just a few people. We thank those few for their hard work, but note that they all contain definite mistakes
and omissions, (including Future Noir!). We now take that work further, in order to get the best possible transcription and
translation for everyone. It isn't perfect, (will it ever be), but it is the best version available. If you have anything you can
add, we would love to hear from you.

Sources:

* Various versions of scripts, supplemented by interviews.
* A few people's translations to start from.
* My own small knowledge of European languages and Japanese. Now supplemented by Adam H. and eMU confirming the Hungarian lines and
MJS confirming the Japanese lines.
* Netrunner's definitive Blimp transcription, giving both the OV and DC lines.

Background to Cityspeak:

Edward James Olmos (who played Gaff) was originally given a very small character role to play. His input is what created the
character we know and he obviously inspired Scott et al, as the character not only became considerably more interesting, but also
more important to the film. The character, even in the last script, was officious, envious of Deckard and much less of a person. And
he was to speak straight Japanese, (intended to have English subtitles).

Olmos (with Scott) added more nationalities into Gaff's origins, plus the multilingual abilities. Olmos said, "The first idea of
mine was to take some different real languages and mix them down, such as French, Chinese, German and Japanese. Then I went to the
Berlitz School of Languages in Los Angeles, and translated and learned to pronounce all these little pieces of dialogue. It was
something strange, but it was fitting well into Gaff." Mr Olmos has some Hungarian Jewish background, hence the incorporation of
some Hungarian in Cityspeak.

Problems in translating Cityspeak:

* How do you transcribe sounds you don't understand if you don't even know which language is being used for which word?
* There were considerable changes to Gaff's character and lines during filming, so the final script only helps a little.
* As far as we know, Olmos hasn't left us with his own transcription.
* Attempts to translate have to make assumptions of language used. Although one line is in three different languages, his next line
is all Hungarian.
* Some of the speech is slang and therefore a standard dictionary is not going to cut it, but intelligent guesses and invaluable
assistance from native speakers of those languages have helped us translate the whole scene.
* Olmos did an excellent job in his creating and speaking of the different scraps in coherent sentences, but the fact is that it is
still street lingo and thus any "mistakes" he may have made in words or pronunciation are irrelevant as they can be simply part of
Cityspeak.

Note: In the following, I no longer label anything as "Cityspeak", but rather list just the actual languages that make up the
non-English lines.


- NOODLE BAR SCENE -

{Rainy, busy street scene. Deckard reading newspaper while waiting for a spot to open up at the White Dragon Noodle Bar.}

Blimp: A new life awaits you in the Off-world colonies. The chance to begin again in a golden land of opportunity and adventure.

Sushi Master: {To a customer} Nani ni shimasho ka. [Japanese: "What would you like to have?"]

Blimp: A new life awaits you in the Off-World Colonies. The chance to begin again in a golden land of opportunity and adventure.
Let's go to the Colonies!

<<OV only>>
Blimp: New climate, recreational facilities...

Deckard (voiceover): They don't advertise for killers in the newspaper. That was my profession. Ex-cop, ex-blade runner, ex-killer.

Blimp: ... absolutely free.
<<End OV>>

<<DC only>>
Blimp: This announcement has been brought to you by the Shimago-Dominguez Corporation. Helping America into the New World.
<<End DC>>

Blimp: {Continues over some of the following dialogue} Use your new friend as a personal body servant or a tireless field hand - the
custom tailored genetically engineered humanoid replicant designed especially for your needs. So come on America, lets put our team
up there ...

Sushi Master: {To Deckard} Kimashita, kimashita! Irasshai, irasshai! [Japanese: "Come, come. Welcome, welcome!" ]

{Deckard goes over to Sushi Bar.}

Sushi Master: Sa dozo. [Japanese: "Come, please." (sit down here)]

{Deckard sits where Sushi Master indicates.}

Sushi Master: Nani ni shimasho ka. [Japanese: "What would you like to have?"]

Deckard: {Points} Give me four.

Sushi Master: Futatsu de jubun desu yo. [Japanese: "Two is enough!"]

Deckard: No. Four. Two, two, four.

Sushi Master: Futatsu de jubun desu yo. [Japanese: "Two is enough!"]

Deckard: {Resignedly} And noodles.

Sushi Master: Wakatte kudasai yo. [Japanese: "Please understand!" (Actually implying sarcastically, "Can't you understand?") He
knows Deckard by name, so this is probably a familiar jibing between the two.]

<<OV only>>
Deckard (voiceover): Sushi, that's what my ex-wife called me. Cold fish.
<<End OV>>

Policeman: Hey, idi-wa. [Korean: "Hey, come here." {Thanks to Mark Taylor for confirmation.}]

Gaff: Monsieur, azonnal kövessen engem bitte. [French-Hungarian-German: "Sir, follow me immediately please!" (Thanks to eMU for
translating the Hungarian part:- "azonnal" - means immediately; "kövessen" - means follow imperative; "engem" - means me. And of
course "Monsieur" is French for Sir and "bitte" is German for please.)]

{Deckard gestures to Sushi Master to translate. (The script had Deckard not understanding the original Japanese. The subsequent
voiceover said of course he actually understood Cityspeak. So whether he really understands or not is pretty much your choice!)}

Sushi Master: He say you under arrest, Mr. Deckard.

Deckard: You got the wrong guy, pal.

Gaff: Lófaszt, nehogy már. Te vagy a Blade ... Blade Runner. [Hungarian: "Horsedick, no way! You are the Blade ... Blade Runner."
(Thanks to Adam H. and eMU for confirming this Hungarian.)]

Sushi Master: He say you 'Brade Runner'.

Deckard: Tell him I'm eating.

Gaff: Captain Bryant toka. Me ni omae yo. [Japanese: "Captain Bryant wants to see your mug in front of his immediately!" (This is a
loose translation. "Me ni omae yo" is a sort of pun. "Me ni mae" means to meet someone. "omae" is the very informal use of "you" -
in Japanese, this is significant. "yo" - Exclamation - Japanese doesn't use the '!' punctuation. Thanks to Michael J. Simon for
sorting out this line. I think "toka" in this sense marks information from someone else. - Netrunner)]

Deckard: Bryant, huh?

Gaff: Hai! [Japanese: "Yes!"]

{Deckard and Gaff leave in spinner.}

--------------------------

(By Netrunner)

4.7.4. What is the language used by the midgets that are ripping stuff off Deckard's car? What are they saying?

They are speaking German.

Here is the complete dialogue of that scene:

[On the street... Police radio heard in background. Street vandals approach
Deckard's car. ]

Vandal: Jemand hat uns ein kleines Geschenk dagelassen. [German:
"Somebody left us a little present."]

Vandal: Ist jemand drinnen? [German: "Is somebody in there?"]

Vandal: Ich kann nichts sehen. Hey, warte bis die Bullen weg sind! Hey,
warte bis die Bullen weg -- [ German: "I can`t see anything. Hey, wait
`til the cops are gone! Hey, wait `til the cops -- "]


4.8. Themes and Subtexts Used In Blade Runner

4.8.1. Eye theme

- Holden's eye at the beginning of the movie; eyes at Chew's lab;
- glow
- Computer & TV screens throughout the movie; a media-saturated near future;
- Tyrell's heavy glasses;
- Several eye references in the dialogue;

A sense of seeing, and of being seen, of being watched. Hinting at, or creating, a sense of paranoia and "Big Brother is watching
you"?

4.8.2. Religious theme

- The replicants coming "down" to earth are like angels descended from Heaven.
- Tyrell, as creator of the replicants, represents a (flawed) representation of God. He lives in a Mayan pyramid-like structure high
above the rest of the population. His bed is a replica of that of Pope John Paul II.
- Roy Batty is a Christ-like figure, but has also elements of Lucifer, the Fallen Angel, who rebels against God, and is cast out of
Heaven because of it; again, a flawed analogy: he does not sacrifice himself, and even rebels - and finally destroys - his god, his
"father".

4.8.3. Animal theme

Each character is associated with an animal:

Leon = Turtle
Roy = Wolf, Dove
Zhora = Snake
Rachael = Spider
Tyrell = Owl
Sebastian = Mouse
Pris = Raccoon
Deckard = Sushi (raw fish), unicorn

4.8.4. Chess Theme

The chess game between Tyrell and Sebastian is the conclusion of an informal game played between Adolf Anderssen and Lionel
Kieseritzky, in London at Simpson's on the Strand in 1851. They were both maths teachers and well-known, successful chess players.
However Kieseritzky (the loser) died a pauper just two years later.  In 1855 Ernst Falkbeer came up with the name the "Immortal
Game" and it has become one of the most famous chess games ever played.  It has even been used occasionally for La Partita - a chess
game recreated with real people every year in Marostica, Italy.

It starts off with King's Gambit, which Kieseritzky accepts.  Anderssen follows with the King's Bishop Gambit.  Kieseritzky, playing
Black, doesn't develop most of his pieces relying on the Queen's power to achieve his goals.  After Black's first challenges are
rebuffed, he sweeps forward with false confidence.  White loses his Bishop early (it gets fried in an electrical field) and has his
two Rooks shot, but this doesn't affect his goal. At the end, his Queen dies, but he is still victorious.  White may have lost his
most valuable pieces, but it is the Black King who ends up with his eyes crushed into his skull.

Note, the chessboards in Blade Runner are not arranged exactly as they should be for the position in The Immortal Game and
Sebastian's and Tyrell's boards are not set up the same as each other.

There are two different transcriptions documented in chess books and some other incorrect variations presented on the Web.  The main
variation is in the order of moves 18-20.  (White is ignoring the threats to his Rooks so it doesn't really matter in the end which
order the Rooks get taken - White is already setting up the kill.).  The position after 20 is the same in both versions.  It has
been suggested by some that Kieseritzky might have resigned in move 20.  With no way to continue attacking the White King, he has to
defend his static back row, but it is in fact already too late as he has nowhere to run.  The subsequent moves (21-23) are the ones
that are relevant to Blade Runner.  So here is the correct transcription of The Immortal Game and main variation, presented in
Figurine Algebraic Notation.

1.e4 e5  2.f4 exf4  3.Bc4 Qh4+  4.Kf1 b5  5.Bxb5 Nf6  6.Nf3 Qh6  7.d3 Nh5  8.Nh4 Qg5  9.Nf5 c6  10.g4 Nf6  11.Rg1 cxb5  12.h4 Qg6
13.h5 Qg5  14.Qf3 Ng8  15.Bxf4 Qf6  16.Nc3 Bc5  17.Nd5 Qxb2  18.Bd6 Bxg1  19.e5 Qxa1+ 20.Ke2 Na6  21.Nxg7+ Kd8  22.Qf6+ Nxf6
23.Be7++
To play through this variation visually, try this page: http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/Hangar/5176/replays/gm0007.htm

The variation that some have:
18. Bd6 Qxa1+  19. Ke2 Bxg1  20. e5 Na6
To play through this variation visually, try this page: http://www.chessdryad.com/pal/S_13_HTM.htm


This is what happens in the movie:
Roy makes a move.  [22.Qf6+]
JF says, "No, knight takes queen, see?  Won't do."  [22....Nxf6]
Roy then does that on the board and sits down to examine the board further.
Later, in the elevator, JF (repeating Roy) says "Queen to Bishop 6.  Check."  [22.Qf6+]
Tyrell responds with "Knight takes queen."  [22....Nxf6]
and the response is "Bishop to King 7.  Checkmate."  [23.Be7++]
These are the last moves of the "Immortal Game" that are being played.
So, Roy's initial move that JF discounts is the second last move to winning the game and JF has not seen it, and Tyrell does the
same as JF had initially responded to Roy.

On a simple level, the game can be seen as just the fight of replicants against humans.  However, The Immortal Game is also a clear
reflection of the struggle for longer life that Roy and his fellow replicants seek.  They want to escape from their status as pawns
and find immortality (as a pawn becoming a queen on the eighth rank).  Yet another layer can be seen at the individual level with
Roy chasing King Tyrell.  In the game, Roy checkmates Tyrell.  In life, Roy sets up Tyrell - Tyrell gets some false confidence just
before the end, but just as in the game, the King eventually dies.

4.9. Miscellaneous Movie Questions

4.9.1. The unicorn footage is from the movie "Legend", right? [NO, IT IS NOT!]

The unicorn footage is definitely NOT from Legend, although it is easy to see why the rumour is so persistent, as the imagery looks
quite a lot like that of "Legend".

Despite what many seem to believe, original unicorn footage was in fact shot for the 1982 release; however, at the request of the
producers (who didn't "get it", or just decided it was "too arty") it was cut.

When plans were made to make a DC, Scott insisted the footage be reinserted. Unfortunately, by that time, the intended unicorn
footage had disappeared. However, one particular shot - an out-take from the original footage that had been discarded by Ridley
Scott in 1982 - was found. That shot was cleaned up and colour-corrected, and became that particular BR scene we all know and
love... ;-)

[- Source: Future Noir, page 366]

Note:  A considerable amount of original footage was rediscovered when preparing to make the Blade Runner Special Edition.  It is
quite possible therefore that we may yet see more of the original unicorn sequence!

4.9.2. Can you tell me how to make my own origami unicorn?

No, but Shigeki Hayashi can!  Visit his site for detailed instructions on how to fold the unicorn:
http://www.linkclub.or.jp/~null/index_br.html

4.9.3. What do Gaff's origami figures mean?

Chicken:
Deckard is "chicken", he is reluctant to take the job.

Stick man:
Deckard may be getting *too* involved (probably meant in respect to Rachael).

Unicorn:
a) "Gaff was here!" basically, it was a calling card;
b) In the DC, there is an extra layer to it: (See question "Is Deckard a Replicant")

4.9.4. Who is this Gaff anyway? What is his function in the LAPD?

We know very little about Gaff. Is he a Blade Runner, like Deckard and Holden? Perhaps, although his physical condition leaves
little opportunity to do any "running". Maybe Gaff has some other function within the police department, some sort of supervisor,
assigned to keeping an eye on Deckard.

But who really knows what his function is?

4.9.5. In the beginning of the movie we see these big fireballs. What are they?

The flares are known as "sour gas".

From: "The Disposal of Sour Gas through Flaring by Oil Companies"
Robert D. Guy, Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University

"Sour gas is any gas in its natural state that contains impurities which form acidic combustion products. Sour gas also contains
compounds of sulfur at concentrations exceeding levels for practical use because of their corrosion and toxicity. Sour gas contains
over 250 different compounds, some of which are carbon dioxide, methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulphide..."

"Flaring is a means of safely disposing of waste gases through the use of combustion. With an elevated flare the combustion is
carried out at the top of a pipe or stack where the burner and igniter are located."

4.9.6. Whose eye is that in the beginning?

According to the script, the eye is supposed to be Holden's. The actual eye belongs to one of the assistants (Victoria Ewart) and
was filmed later. (This explains why it is the wrong colour for Holden.)

Note: because of the level of the windows, the character wouldn't in fact be able to actually see the cityscape, even though this
seems to be the intention...

4.9.7. Does Holden survive being shot by Leon Kowalski?

Yes, he does. Although it's easy to miss for the casual viewer, Holden survived, but is heavily wounded and needs to remain
"plugged" in, as Bryant calls it. In two deleted scenes, Deckard visits Holden in a hospital.

(A movie clip of some of the deleted hospital scene is available for download from BRmovie.com)

4.9.8. Why didn't Holden recognise Leon?

It would seem that they do not initially have photos of the escaped replicants.  Perhaps Rep-Detect only gets the photos after
Holden is shot.  But then the replicants don't necessarily look anything like their incept photos anyway - they could easily
disguise themselves.  Holden was sent to check on new employees at Tyrell's on the off chance they would try to infiltrate that way.
He has interviewed a number of people already and is bored.  With Leon, he is just starting to get something, but Leon doesn't wait.
Perhaps Holden still thought he could handle a Rep, but Leon is too fast for him.  Even so Holden is pulling his gun as he gets
blasted through the partition wall.

4.9.9. I think I remember a scene with Deckard jumping over a car in Zhora's chase scene, but I can't find it in any of the tapes or
DVD's. What gives?

The extended chase over the car rooftops was shot, but never included in any released version of the film, either theatrically or on
home video.  However, there are a few still photos from this deleted sequence which have been used repeatedly in promoting the film,
so that's probably where you saw it.

4.9.10. Which companies were featured in BR?

ANACO, Atari, Atriton, Bell, Budweiser, Bulova, Citizen, Coca-Cola, Cuisine Art, Dentyne, Hilton, Jovan, JVC, Koss, L.A. Eyeworks,
Lark, Marlboro, Million Dollar Discount, Mon Hart, Pan Am, Polaroid, RCA, Remy, Schiltz, Shakey's, Toshiba, Star Jewelers, TDK, The
Million Dollar Movie, TWA, Wakamoto.

4.9.11. Why is there talk of a BR curse?

Someone once noticed that a number of the companies whose logos appeared in BR had financial difficulties after the film was
released. Atari had 70% of the home console market in 1982, but faced losses of over $2 million in the first quarter of 1991.  Bell
lost its monopoly in 1982. Pan-Am filed for bankruptcy protection in 1991.  Soon after Blade Runner was released, Coca-Cola released
their "new formula", resulting in losses of millions of dollars. (It is interesting to note that since then, the Coca-Cola Company
has seen the biggest growth of any American company in history.) Cuisine Art filed for bankruptcy protection in July 1989.

Then again, it should also be noted that a lot of companies NOT featured in BR went bust too. It's a fact of life, if you will;
either they go bankrupt, or they merge with another company, or just change names, etc.

4.9.12. Who is the actor who plays Abdul-Ben Hassan, the snake dealer?

No one seems to know! It's a mystery! He is not mentioned anywhere in the credits... Even Future Noir does not have any information
regarding the man's real-life identity. He's not in any other FAQ.
And, yes, we did check the IMDb.

4.9.13. When Abdul and Deckard are arguing, why don't the words don't match the lip movements?

In Future Noir, Terry Rawlings is quoted, "The reason that changed between the workprint and release print was because certain
producers felt the original dialogue exchange was confusing.  The higher-ups wanted to clarify things and give the audience more of
an explanation about what Deckard was after and what this snake scale meant.  So new words were looped in during postproduction.
That didn't really work, though, did it?"

The original words are:
Deckard: Abdul Hassan? I'm a police officer, Abdul. I've got a couple of questions I wanted to ask you.
Abdul: (speaks in his native tongue, waves his arms)
Deckard: You made a snake, XB7 1. I want to know who you sold it to.
Abdul: My work? Not to many could afford such quality.
Deckard: How few?
Abdul: Very few.
Deckard: How FEW?
Abdul: Perhaps less than I thought but still more than I can remember.
Deckard: (grabbing Abdul's collar) Abdul, my friend ... (Animoid Row noise drowns Deckard out) ... about two seconds I'm gonna ...
(noise drowns Deckard out again).
Abdul: Snake Pit!

So, not really that confusing is it?

4.9.14. When Roy Batty meets Tyrell, does he call him "father" or "fucker"?

Actually, both versions exist. The "Father" version of that line was used for American TV showing.

4.9.15. How does Roy get to Tyrell so easily?

They've already tried the direct approach and the infiltration approach.  Both failed.  Roy and Pris manipulate J. F. Sebastian to
get Roy in.  Presumably the elevator doesn't detect multiple occupants.  In an earlier script, Sebastian and Chew have the highest
clearance.  Even without this, Tyrell's arrogance lets the "milk and cookies" Sebastian come up.

4.9.16. Who wrote the "voiceover" in the original theatrical release version of BR?

Producers decided a voiceover was required to explain things.  Darryl Ponicsan was first hired to write the VO, but his version was
tossed out.  Then a veteran TV screenwriter named Roland Kibbee was hired to write it and this is what was used.  Why he was chosen
is a mystery particularly as he was all but retired (his career spanning 1946-1980). Ford was still contracted and reluctantly came
in to the studio to read the voiceover, but said he would only do it 10 times and that was it.  According to Katie Haber (production
executive), he read it the way he did on purpose, hoping it wouldn't then be used. In their interview for the BR documentary,
Peoples and Fancher say that by the time the movie came out they had become friends and when they heard the voiceover, they were so
worried about the possibility that the other had written it, they didn't make any negative comments about it for months afterwards.
Note that a voiceover was actually included as an idea in earlier scripts and a few of the lines are reminiscent of that, so it
isn't as totally tacked-on as the "happy ending".

Scott didn't like the way the excessive "Irving the Explainer" voiceover turned out (and didn't want it added on anyway) so when the
pseudo-Director's Cut was made, this was one of the first things to be excised.  It will definitely not be reintroduced in the
Special Edition!



III. THE SOUNDTRACK

1. About The Soundtrack

1.1. Who wrote the soundtrack?

Most, but not all, of the score was written by a Greek man called Evangelos Odyssey Papathanassiou, better known to the world as
simply, "Vangelis" (the name Vangelis is a commonly used Greek first name, which literally means "Message from God").

1.2. More about the composer.

Vangelis was born March 29, 1943, in Volos, Greece.

During the 1960's, together with Demis Roussos and Lucas Sideras, he formed the successful pop group "Aphrodite's Child", that had a
number of hits including "Rain and Tears" and "It's Five O'Clock". Vangelis doubled as composer and keyboard player.

Demis Roussos, who was the group's singer, also performed the strange voice in the BR soundtrack "Tales of the future" featured on
the 1994 soundtrack release, and in the Offworld & Gongo bootlegs.

In the early 70's the band broke up, and Vangelis started a solo career, becoming a pioneer in the field of electronic music in the
process. His biggest success during the 70's was the groundbreaking album "Heaven & Hell", which would go on to provide the theme
and part of the soundtrack of Carl Sagan's popular science TV-series "Cosmos".

Fans of the Blade Runner music might think Vangelis should have won the Oscar for it!  Unfortunately this was one of many Oscars
that Blade Runner didn't get.  The Oscar for original musical score that year was won by John Williams for E.T.  But let us not
forget that Vangelis had just won the Oscar for his "Chariots of Fire" soundtrack when Blade Runner was released.

1.3. Other work by the composer.

Vangelis has produced a number of soundtracks for movies including:

The Bounty (starring Mel Gibson & Anthony Hopkins)
Antarctica (Japanese movie, big hit over there)
Bitter Moon
Francesco
L'apocalypse des animaux (based on a series of nature films by French director Frédéric Rossif)
1492: conquest of Paradise (also a Ridley Scott film)

Apart from his film scores, Vangelis has released a number of albums going back to the early seventies, sometimes in collaboration
with singer Jon Anderson (of Yes fame), but mostly solo.

1.4. Why did it take so long for Vangelis to release his own original work for the movie?

At the time there were rumours that Vangelis was upset because Ridley Scott had also used music from sources other than Vangelis to
use in the soundtrack, and that this was supposedly the reason why he didn't want to release his music. But, again, these are just
rumours. According to people who work closely with Vangelis, the rumours have been refuted as untrue.

The truth is, nobody (except Vangelis perhaps) knows for sure why. Maybe there is no "why".

(Please see specific notes for this album below.)

1.5. How many versions of the soundtrack are there?

There are at least 7 different soundtrack albums (8, if you count the Themes album). 2 of those are official releases, the rest are
bootlegs.


Sometime around 1982, a first bootleg (on audiocassette tape) was made.

Availability: unknown (probably impossible to find anymore)


Blade Runner (Orchestral Adaptation of Music Composed for The Motion Picture by Vangelis)
Performed by The New American Orchestra

Released by WEA in 1982

For many years this was the "official" BR soundtrack album.

As the text on the cover states, it is an orchestral arrangement of the soundtrack performed by the New American Orchestra.  This
album contains the following tracks:

1. Love Theme (4:12)
2. Main Title (5:01)
3. One More Kiss, Dear (4:00)
4. Memories of Green (4:50)
5. End Title (4:17)
6. Blade Runner Blues (4:38)
7. Farewell (3:10)
8. Love Theme (4:12)

The album is kind of disappointing for two main reasons:
- it is not the music in its original form, since it isn't performed by the original artist;
- it only has a very limited selection of music from the film.

On the plus side, what music is there isn't all that bad, and it does feature some nice saxophone work by Tom Scott.

Availability: originally released on vinyl record; should still be available on audio CD.


In 1989, Vangelis released his compilation album "Themes", which contained 2 previously unreleased tracks from his original BR
score:

1.   End Titles from "Bladerunner" (4:57)
8.   Love Theme from "Bladerunner" (4:55)

A third track on that album, which was used in Blade Runner, is "Memories of Green" (Track 11; 5:42) which originally appeared in
his 1980 album "See You Later".

Note: the New American Orchestra rendition of "See You Later" was later used in another Ridley Scott film, namely "Someone To Watch
Over Me".

Availability: should still be available.


"Off-World" 1993 Limited Edition (bootleg - 2,000 numbered copies)

Original Motion Picture Soundtrack: Blade Runner
Limited Edition of 2,000 ("not licensed for public sale")
Off World Music, Ltd., no. OWM 9301
Compact Disc (ADD)

Apart from the original Vangelis compositions, this album also contained some extra music, like the sound from the original BR
trailer, and the song "If I Didn't Care" by the "Ink Spots", which was originally intended to be used in the movie, but because of
copyright reasons had to be replaced; it was ultimately replaced by the original Vangelis composition "One More Kiss, Dear".
Also present on the Off-World album is "Harps of The Ancient Temples" by Gail Laughton; it's the music that was used in the scene
with the bicyclists, when replicants Roy Batty and Leon Kowalski are on their way to see Chew, the "eye designer".

Track listing:

 1. Ladd Company Logo (0:24) (composed by John Williams)
 2. Main Titles and Prologue (4:03) Vangelis
 3. Los Angeles, November 2019 (1:46) Vangelis
 4. Deckard Meets Rachael (1:29) Vangelis
 5. Bicycle Riders (2:05) (from: "Harps of the Ancient Temples"; performed by Gail Laughton)
 6. Memories of Green (5:39) Vangelis
 7. Blade Runner Blues (10:19) Vangelis
 8. Deckard's Dream (1:12) Vangelis
 9. On the Trail of Nexus 6 (5:30) Vangelis
10. If I Didn't Care (3:03)
    (Written by Jack Lawrence/performed by the Ink Spots; only used in the "Workprint")
11. Love Theme (4:57) Vangelis
12. The Prodigal Son Brings Death (3:35) Vangelis
13. Dangerous Days (1:02) Vangelis
14. Wounded Animals (10:58) Vangelis
15. Tears in Rain (2:41) Vangelis
16. End Titles (7:24) Vangelis
17. One More Kiss Dear (4:00) Skelling and Vangelis [theatrical release]
18. Trailer and Alternate Main Titles (1:39) (by Robert Randles)

Total disc time (72:42)

The bootleg CD includes an 8-page booklet containing 6 movie stills.  Cover art is from the British one-sheet movie poster that
accompanied the 1982 release.  The back cover is a colour still from an aborted sequence in which Leon's photo turns out to be a
hologram that shows Batty's head turning (Cinefex no. 9, July 1982).  The inside back cover is a bird's eye view of Deckard's
spinner as he and Rachael escape the city (Official Blade Runner Souvenir Magazine, 1982).  Another photo possibly unfamiliar to
many is Deckard looking at Holden in a life-support machine (a similar photo appeared in Video Watchdog, Nov-Dec 1993).

According to the booklet, Scott contacted several composers in case the score by Vangelis didn't work out.  His ultimate decision to
supplement the film with other source music led to a contractual dispute with the composer.  It was reported that because of this,
Vangelis refused to release the soundtrack album. However, this is a rumour that has been denied by various official sources.

Notes on the various pieces were interesting - like the fact that the Love Theme and Rachael's piano playing are a variation on
Chopin's 13th Nocturne. (The love theme used in the Workprint is not included in this album.) The music for several pieces is heard
complete for the first time and will prove fascinating listening for fans of the film, particularly nos. 9, 12, 13, and 14. Those
familiar with the Warner Bros. New American Orchestra CD will also appreciate that Blade Runner Blues is more than twice as long on
this CD. The producer (Christopher L. Shimata-Dominguez) displays a sense of humour with his name and Off World Music label.  He
also warns that unauthorized "replication" is a violation of applicable laws.

Availability: unknown.  You might find something like this on eBay.  Beware of paying lots of money for copies of copies!


"Vangelis - Blade Runner" (the official 1994 Vangelis release by Warner Bros.)

Warner Music (4509-96574-2)

Finally, in 1994, some 12 years after the release of the film, Vangelis released the definitive(?) version of the BR album.

The cover of the album is a close-up of the movie poster, showing Deckard, Rachael, and the roof of the police headquarters.

There are various photos inside (both in colour and black & white) including a shot of Ridley Scott directing Harrison Ford.

The cover/booklet contains Vangelis' notes accompanying the album say:

"Most of the music contained in this album originates from recordings I made in London in
1982, whilst working on the score for the film BLADE RUNNER. Finding myself unable to
release these recordings at the time, it is with great pleasure that I am able to do so now.  Some
of the pieces contained will be known to you from the Original Soundtrack of the film, whilst
others are appearing here for the first time. Looking back at RIDLEY SCOTT'S powerful and
evocative pictures left me as stimulated as before, and made the recompiling of this music,
today, an enjoyable experience."
VANGELIS Athens, April 1994

The sound quality is excellent. Not all music heard in the movie is used, while interestingly, some previously unreleased tracks
were added, containing music that wasn't even in the film. Also, a few snippets of dialogue from the movie have been sampled.
While this will undoubtedly annoy the purists among us, the result is an outstanding album, and what is (in the humble opinion of
this author, naturally) one of the best movie soundtrack albums ever.

Note 1: it's not like the "new" tracks are completely unrelated. Actually, "Wait For Me" was the only new recording; the other
tracks were indeed composed for the original release, but ultimately replaced by other music.

Note 2: the "reworking" of music used in movies is typical for the way Vangelis works, feeling that often the music as heard in the
movie is not varied enough, and that it benefits from being "enhanced". Much the same thing happened on the soundtrack album for
"1492: Conquest of Paradise", for example.

Track listing:

1. Main Titles (3.42)
2. Blush Response (5.47)
3. Wait for Me (5.27)
4. Rachel's Song (4.46)
5. Love Theme (4.56)
6. One More Kiss, Dear (3.58)
7. Blade Runner Blues (8.53)
8. Memories of Green (5.05)
9. Tales of the Future (4.46)
10. Damask Rose (2.32)
11. Blade Runner (End Titles) (4.40)
12. Tears in Rain (3.00)

Availability: should still be available.

Note that there is an on-line petition running to get a "20th Anniversary Edition" of the album produced as there is more music that
we would like (and there are diverse views on the inclusion of film dialogue on the original).  The petition can be found at:
http://www.petitiononline.com/la2019/petition.html


1995 "Gongo Music" (bootleg)

"Sunetul Original Al Filmului"

Limited Edition (3000 copies)
Gongo Music - GM-003
Compact Disc - ADD

Although very similar to the Off-World bootleg, this album does contain at least one unique track not found on the Off-World album.
It is the "Blimpvert" track, where you hear a Japanese woman singing an old traditional song.

The album was supposedly Rumanian, but was probably meant for the American market

Track listing and information (in Romanian!):

1. Tema de Semnatura a Companiei Ladd (0:25)
2. Titlurile si Prologurile Principale (3:58)
3. Los Angeles, Noiembrie, 2019 (1:46)
4. Intilnirea Lui Deckard Cu Rachel(1:28)
5. Ciclisti (2:12)
6. Amintirile Verdelui (5:40)
7. Tristetile Lui Blade Runner (10:20)
8. Visul Lui Deckard (1:13)
9. La Procesul Lui Nexus 6 (5:28)
10. Inca un Sarut, Draga (4:02)
11. Tema Iubirii (4:59)
12. Fiul Multiubit Aduce Moartea (3:34)
13. Blimpvert (2:52)
14. Zile Periculoase (1:03)
15. Animale Ranite (10:59)
16. Lacrimi In Ploaie (2:43)
17. Titlurile de Sfirsit (7:26)

Muzica compusa, aranjata, cintata si produsa de VANGELIS.
Copyright 1995 Gongo Music, Ltd. "Blade Runner" este marca inregistrata detinuta de Parteneriatul Blade Runner. Arta grafica si
fotografica cu drepturi de copiere copyright 1982 Compania Ladd. Toate drepturile de producator si de productie sint rezervate.
Copiera neautorizata, inchirierea, auditia publica si distribuirea sint interzise. Produs in Romania.

Availability: unknown.  Occasionally pops up on eBay, but beware - some of these are just copies.


A special collector's bootleg album called "Memoires 5" was released in a very limited number; reportedly only 20 silver CD's were
ever made. It basically contains Vangelis' music exactly as heard in the movie, minus the voices.

Availability: unknown.


A 2 CD bootleg soundtrack, called the "OWM2000" CD, was released late 2000. With it came a "bonus" CD. Reportedly, it does not
contain any new material.  It's a collection of work already out there.  See the following list for what's on it and where it comes
from:

(Legend: NAO - New American Orchestra; OWM - Off World Music; GGO - Gongo Music; JSE - Japan Special Edition; OST - Official
Soundtrack; LD - Laser Disc)

DOUBLE CD
-------------------------------------------------------------
DISC 1
1.  Opening    3.32 GGO (track 2)
2.  The First Test   1.29 JSE (track 2)
3.  Los Angeles, November 2019  1.39 GGO (track 3)
4.  Deckard Meets Rachel  1.40 OWM (track 4 = 1:29)
5.  Rachel's Song   4.34 OST (track 4)
6.  Blush Response   4.58 OST (track 2)
7.  Bicycle Riders   2.14 GGO (track 5)
8.  Memories of Green   5.05 GGO (track 6)
9.  Blade Runner Blues   10.22 GGO (track 7)
10. Deckard's Dream   1.15 OWM (track 8)
11. Investigate    0.43 LD
12. Flying Kabuki   2.49 GGO (track 13)
13. On The Trail Of Nexus 6  5.30 GGO (track 9)
14. The Market    1.47 JSE (track 12 pt.1)
15. Turkish    2.36 JSE (track 12 pt.2)
16. Blade Runner Blues (reprise) 8.56 OST (track 7)
17. Quietness At Home   4.07 JSE (track 14 pt.2)
18. I Dreamt Music   4.42 JSE (track 18)

DISC 2
1.  Deckard And Rachel   1.22 OWM (track 4)
2.  Damask Rose    2.34 OST (track 10)
3.  Love Theme     4.57 OST (track 5)
4.  One More Kiss, Dear   3.57 OWM (track 17)
5.  Wait For Me    5.29 OST (track 3)
6.  The Prodigal Son Brings Death 4.28 OWM (track 12 = 3:35)
7.  Dangerous Days   1.05 GGO (track 14)
8.  Wounded Animals   11.02 GGO (track 15)
9.  Farewell    2.44 OWM (track 15)
10. End Titles 7.25 GGO (track 17)

Bonus Tracks
11. Main Titles    3.42 OST (track 1 dialogue)
12. Blush Response   1.40 OST (track 2 dialogue)
13. Tales of The Future   4.41 OST (track 9)
14. Tears In Rain   2.48 OST (track 12 dialogue)
15. End Titles    4.37 OST (track 11)
16. If I Didn't Care   3.06 OWM (track 10)

BONUS CD
-------------------------------------------------------------
DISC 3
1.  Opening 1.36 NAO (track 2 pt.1)
2.  Los Angeles, November 2019 1.49 NAO (track 2 pt.3)
3.  Deckard Meets Rachel 1.09 NAO (track 2 pt.2)
4.  Blade Runner Blues 4.36 NAO (track 6)
5.  Memories of Green 4.48 NAO (track 4)
6.  Love Theme 4.10 NAO (track 1)
7.  Farewell 3.05 NAO (track 7)
8.  End titles 7.04 NAO (track 5 = 4:17)

Bonus Tracks
9.  One More Kiss, Dear 4.02 NAO (track 3)
10. End Titles (Reprise) 3.05 NAO (track 8)

Availability: unknown.


To hear Blade Runner music while surfing the Web, tune in to:
http://www.home.earthlink.net/~nexxus6/
1 hour and 16 minutes of BR music is continuously streamed.  Try it out!


2. Other Music in BR

2.1. What was the language used in the piece "Tales of The Future"?

Reportedly, it's not in any actual existing language; rather, singer Demis Roussos used sounds that, uhm, sound vaguely
Middle-Eastern. [If anyone knows a better way of formulating that, do let me know]

However, here and there actual Arabic words may have slipped in.

2.2. What is the music Rachael is playing when she is in Deckard's apartment?

For this scene, Vangelis composed a variation on Chopin's "Thirteenth Nocturne". (Trivia: the "temp" music for the scene was a
variation on Ravel's "Piano Concerto".)

2.3. What is the music heard when Roy & Leon are on their way to visit Chew?

The music is from "Harps of The Ancient Temples" by Gail Laughton.
The album is listed as cat #111 in the old CD catalogs on the Laurel label.

2.4. What is the Japanese music that the blimp flying over Sebastian's apartment is playing?

The old BR FAQ by Murray Chapman provides the following information:

"Japan: Traditional Vocal and Instrumental Music, Shakuhachi,
Biwa, Koto, Shamisen"; performed by Ensemble Nipponia, 1976.
Electra Asylum Nonesuch Records/Warner Communications Inc.
(Compact disc; catalog number not available)

The music is produced by plucking on what is called a "biwa" - a traditional Japanese instrument.
The Japanese lyrics are from a song called "Ogi no Mato", which is, according to FN, "part of a song cycle/epic somewhat reminiscent
of Shakespeare's 'Romeo and Juliet' and the William Tell legend (as 'Ogi no Mato' features young people from opposing clans and a
crucial moment of archery)." Reportedly, "the lyrics tell of the tragic and utter destruction of one Japanese clan by another."

2.5. What is the music that is playing in Taffey's bar when Deckard enters?

Since that track is not on any of the soundtrack albums (not even on the Off-World and Bongo bootlegs), this has been some kind of a
mystery, but most likely it's simply one of those many little Vangelis gems that never made it to the soundtrack album. The vocals
are definitely done by Demis Roussos.

In the BR Workprint, an instrumental version of "Qu'ran" by David Byrne and Brian Eno from "My Life in the Bush of Ghosts" was used
in Taffey's bar.

2.6. What is the music playing when Zhora is "taking the pleasures from the serpent"?

When Zhora starts her "act", a disco-like music starts playing; like the previous track, it is not on any of the soundtrack albums.
Probably another short Vangelis mystery track, but who knows?

3. References to BR in other music

[See the "Trivia" section]


IV. Related Literature

1. About The Source Novel

1.1. What is the source novel for BR? Who wrote it?

In 1968, Philip Kindred Dick wrote a science fiction novel called "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" (commonly abbreviated as
DADoES) which won that year's Nebula Award. The Nebula is an award given annually by the Science Fiction Writers of America, to
acknowledge excellence in science fiction writing.

In recent years, since BR came out, the book has been reprinted using the double title "Blade Runner / Do Androids Dream of Electric
Sheep?"

1.2. More about the author

Philip K. Dick was born in Chicago in 1928 and lived most of his life in California. He attended college for a year at Berkeley.
Apart from writing, his main interest was music: at one time he ran a record shop and also a classical music programme for a local
radio station. He won the Hugo award for his classic novel of alternative history, The Man in The High Castle (1962). He was married
five times and had three children. He died in March 1982.

[Source: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Harper-Collins paperback edition, Voyager series, 1996; ISBN 0-586-03605-9]

1.3. Did the author ever get to see the movie adaptation?

Unfortunately, Dick passed away about 4 months before BR was released, so he never got around to seeing the final product. However,
shortly before Christmas 1981 Ridley Scott invited Dick to a private showing of about 20 minutes of completed BR footage.

Reportedly, he was blown away by what he saw, stating after the showing how the "texture and tone" of the images, and the
environment that was shown, corresponded to what he had imagined.
[Source: Future Noir]

Philip K. Dick was a prolific writer and sometimes operated on the fringes of sanity and drug use.  At other times he was a
well-read, articulate scholar.  A certain sense of paranoia pervades many of his stories and is brought out in Blade Runner.  Much
of this came from his real sense of paranoia, suspicions of being watched by government agencies, etc.  It seems very likely that if
he were alive today, he would see even more reason in our world to be paranoid.

His stories lend themselves quite well to being made into films, though not through direct translation from page to screen.  Think
of "Total Recall" based on short story "We Can Remember it for you Wholesale" and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger.  Or "Screamers",
or "Impostor", or the latest big film to be made from one of his stories, "Minority Report" starring Tom Cruise.  Other of his
stories are destined for the big screen soon, such as "A Scanner Darkly", "Paycheck" and "King of the Elves".

1.4. Differences between the book DADoES and the movie Blade Runner.

There are lots of differences between the novel DADoES and the film that was (loosely) based on it. In fact, there are so many
differences they are really two different stories.

The book is situated in San Francisco - in the year 1992(!) - while the film takes place in L.A., in the year 2019.

The main character is still called Rick Deckard, but in the book he has a wife named Iran. Deckard is not a "blade runner" (not by
that name anyway, as the term is not used anywhere in the book) but a "bounty hunter". The job is essentially the same as it is in
the movie, but in the book the targets are known as androids or "andys" for short.

As you would expect in any movie adaptation of a novel, some events from the book were changed or dropped entirely for the film
(just like the movie contained things not in the book). Some characters have different names in the book: Eldon Tyrell is called
Eldon Rosen in the book; interestingly, Rachael is called Rachael *Rosen* in the book. There is a character called J.R. Isidore in
the book which seems to have inspired the J.F. Sebastian we know from the movie, (although it is quite a leap from a "chickenhead"
to an alleged top level genetic engineer).

The novel also seems to have a different focus: it is very concerned with ecological themes, explaining how a nuclear world war
ravaged the earth (forcing the majority of humanity to leave the planet) and making most animal life extinct - thereby rendering the
surviving species and specimens invaluable.

These things are never explained in the movie; the opening scene does suggest heavy industrial pollution is responsible for the
dreary condition the city is in, and the situation with the animals is alluded to in some of the dialogue, but we are never
explicitly told.

In the movie, Deckard's big problem is obviously retiring the replicants without getting himself killed in the process, while in the
book, Deckard's biggest issue was getting himself a real sheep. Having a real animal is kind of a status symbol in the book, because
of their value. (Also, getting a real sheep ties in closely to the title of the book...) Hunting the "andys" is merely an
opportunity for him to get the money to buy the sheep. Deckard has relatively little trouble dealing with all of them - compared to
the movie, it almost seems like an afterthought.

In the movie, focus is much more on the replicants themselves, who are also presented much more like real humans, giving a moral
ambiguity to Deckard, his job, and society in general.

Also, the book emphasizes the androids lack of empathy, which is the concept behind the Voight-Kampff test: measuring empathic
responses. The concept of Mercerism also ties into this empathy concept, emphasizing people's need for it and thereby contrasting
the androids' lack of it.

Although there are many differences and even a different vision being presented by Scott to that presented by Dick, there are also
many similarities and many of Dick's fundamental themes are actually represented in the film, such as "What does it mean to be
human" and "What is real?".  Despite all the script rewrites, some lines of dialogue make it from book to film surprisingly intact.

1.5. Themes in DADoES

[NOTHING YET]

1.6. Is Deckard a replicant in the book?

No, he isn't, although the question is raised when at one point, he is suspected of being an android; he also meets another bounty
hunter who (Deckard suspects) might be an android himself.

Eventually, they test each other; both come out "clean".

1.7. Are there any sequels to DADoES?

Yes! Sort of... :)

2. About The Sequels

2.1. What sequels are there?

There have been 3 sequels so far: "BR 2 - The Edge of Human", "BR 3 - Replicant Night" and "BR 4 - Eye and Talon".


Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human
K.W. Jeter
First published: 1995
Orion Paperback
ISBN 0-75280-188-0

"Rick Deckard has been snatched from the side of his lover, Rachael. Back in the decaying, labyrinthine sprawl of L.A. Deckard's
blade runner skills keep him alive, but one step behind his anonymous abductors.

A visit to his old boss only deepens his confusion: why is he facing a murder rap? Who is the mysterious sixth replicant? Why is
ex-blade runner Dave Holden stalking his every move? Should he trust Sarah Tyrell, who now heads her uncle's corporation, just
because she's the living, breathing image of Rachael?


Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night
K.W. Jeter
First published: 1996
Orion Paperback
ISBN 0-75280-607-6

"Life on Mars is hell for Rick Deckard - and for Sarah Tyrell. All pretence at civility has been abandoned and while Deckard is
off-planet, advising a movie company shooting his blade runner history, Sarah disappears from home.

Back on Earth, Sarah moves about the shadowy hulk of the decommissioned 'Salamander 3', rusting on the dried out floor of Scapa
Flow. Encouraged by Tyrell Corporation zealots, she confronts the ghosts of a childhood shrouded in questions. One ghost travels
back with her to Mars, bringing Deckard a whole new future. But first he has questions of his own to ask. And the rep-symps who want
him dead need answers too...


Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon
K.W. Jeter
First published: 2000
Orion Paperback
ISBN 0-57506-865-5

Originally to be titled "Beyond Orion".  Reportedly it is slightly better than the previous two efforts.



2.2. What is the general opinion about these "sequels"?

Opinion in the newsgroup has been divided (isn't it always?), but the predominant opinion seems to be a "thumbs down". The thing is,
Jeter tried to write a sequel to both DADoES and the film BR - in spite of their numerous differences.  Some would say
insurmountable differences.

The result is sort of a mixed bag at best. Events from the movie we all know so well are casually turned inside out and upside down;
characters who were definitely replicants in the movie suddenly turn out to have been human all along, and supposed dead characters
turn out to be still alive, while interesting characters (who *did* make it through the movie in one piece) are killed off before
the story even gets started.

*Maybe* P.K. Dick fans might appreciate them somewhat more?

2.3. Who wrote them?

They were written by K.W. Jeter.

2.4. More about the author.

K.W. Jeter was born in Los Angeles in 1950.
He has been writing novels since the mid-seventies.
His own fiction includes:

Morlock Night (1979)
Dr. Adder (1984)
The Glass Hammer (1985)
Noir (1998)

He has also written some SF movie and TV series tie-ins, such as Star Wars, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Alien Nation... and Blade
Runner.


5. THE GAMES

1. Is there a Blade Runner game?

Yes, there is, or rather, there ARE. Throughout the years there have been 3 BR games: a board game, an old game for the C64 and a PC
game.  2. About the board game.

"Apparently, this is an item that was never put into full production and is thus exceptionally rare -- only 100 boards were made. It
was printed by a small company in California (now defunct) and released to test markets in San Francisco and Los Angeles back in
1982-83. These are licensed products and bear the "Blade Runner Partnership" trademark.

As for the game itself, it's obviously a prototype. The box (a little smaller than average board game size) features a still of
Deckard at the V-K apparatus with a couple of Blade Runner logos and very vague description of the game. There's nothing on the
bottom half. The box contains a board, game pieces, cards, and a notepad. The pieces are little skyscrapers, 4 colours, and a
standard D6. The cards represent V-K test results that you're supposed to write on the pad. According to the two-page photocopied
instructions, the game seems to play something like a variation on that old game Scotland Yard. Basically you move your pieces
around and when you land on a V-K terminal, the other players give you a test and if the cards they draw add up to a certain number,
then that player is a replicant and the others have to try to catch him. The game sort of plays on that uncertainty of who's a
replicant and who isn't - something that's not really expressed in the original theatrical release.

Occasionally you can find one up for bid at eBay.com"

[From an article provided by ALZ]

3. About the old computer game.

The official BR computer game was released for the Commodore 64 and the Sinclair Spectrum around 1982-1983.  It featured the player
as Deckard, tracking down the replicants on an electronic map.
Upon locating one, you had to chase them down a crowded street and shoot them.  The music in the game is a Commodore 64 rendition of
the End Title track by Vangelis.  Copyright problems with the name ``Blade Runner'' resulted in CRL (the game's producers) obtaining
the rights to the music, thus allowing them to refer to "A game based on the music of Vangelis' 'Blade Runner'".

3.1. Can I still get the game? If so, how & where?

This game can now be downloaded from the newsgroup website: http://www.BRmovie.com/Downloads

4. About the 1997 PC game by Westwood Studios

4.1. General & Technical Information

4.1.1. When was the game released?

It was released in November, 1997.

4.1.2. What are the hardware requirements? Can I run it on my system?

The game, as stated on the original box, supports Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0. It also works fine on Windows 98, Windows 98 Second
Edition, and on Windows XP.

It *should* also work under Windows ME, and Windows 2000. I cannot confirm this, however, so if anyone knows for sure, please send
e-mail to lukas.mariman@skynet.be.

Minimum Windows requirements:

- Windows 95, 98, 98SE, Win ME (?), Win XP;
- Pentium 90 MHz (or equivalent);
- 16 Mb of RAM;
- 2 Mb DirectX 5.0 compatible graphics card;
- DirectX 5.0 compatible sound card;
- 4x CD-ROM drive;
- DirectX compatible mouse and driver;
- 150 Mb of free hard drive space.

4.1.3. Does the game work on systems with AMD processors?

Yes, it does. However... [See "Troubleshooting"]

4.1.4. How many versions of the game are there?

The retail version of the game consists of 4 CD-ROMs.

There is also a DVD-ROM version, which to my knowledge was only sold bundled with certain DVD-ROM drives. The DVD-ROM game is
identical to the one available on CD-ROM.

4.1.5. Swapping CD-ROMs sucks. Can I play the entire game from my hard disk?

Yes, you can! The installation program will give you 3 degrees of installation. The maximum installation option will copy the entire
contents of all four CD-ROMs to your HD, so you do not need to insert any of the CD-ROMs any more.

The DVD-ROM version has the same installation options.

4.1.6. Where can I find out more about the game's cast?

A comprehensive list can be found at http://us.imdb.com/Title?0126817

4.1.7. Who wrote the music for the game?

Parts from Vangelis' original soundtrack were re-recorded by Frank Klepacki, Westwood's resident composer; Klepacki also provided
additional music that emulated the feel of Vangelis' original work.

4.1.8. Will there ever be another Westwood "Blade Runner" game?

For the time being, there don't seem to be any plans for a sequel, though who knows what the future will bring? In the meantime,
however, don't hold your breath.

4.2. Playing the Game (WARNING: CONTAINS SPOILERS)

4.2.1. Is Ray McCoy a replicant?

Whether McCoy is a replicant or not is entirely up to you, the player. Hints are given that suggest he is, while there are also
hints that contradict this notion. Is he human, or is he a replicant - or is he a human who happens to be on the reps' side (a
sympathizer)? You decide.

Reportedly, there is a way to be sure: at the end, in the stolen moon bus, you see the original copy of a picture that had both
McCoy and the other replicants on it. If you're on the picture, you ARE a replicant. If you're not, well, then you were tricked.

4.2.2. Who else is a replicant in the game?

The replicant leader, Clovis, is always a replicant.
Spencer Gregorian is always human.
Bullet Bob usually turns out to be human, but can actually be identified as a replicant as well.  This can partially be a result of
not calibrating your V-K properly but mainly indicates what a flaky character he is.  If the V-K test shows him to be a replicant,
then you are only doing your job if you retire him...

The others, like Lucy, Gordo, Izo, Sadik and Dektora, may or may not be replicants, depending on your game. This is randomly
determined when you start a new game.

4.3. Troubleshooting

4.3.1. Are there any updates available for the game?

Yes, there are. 2 small patches were released, one for the CD-ROM version, and one for the DVD-ROM. They can be downloaded from the
newsgroup website at http://www.BRmovie.com/Downloads/

4.3.2. What are the patches supposed to fix?

Louis Castle from Westwood Studios had this to say: "Very minor database anomalies as I recall. There is another issue with some
video cards that we overlooked that came up when we got our beta copy of Windows 98. No major changes."

Bottom line: if your game works fine, then you probably don't need the patch, but it probably won't cause any harm if you do install
it.

4.3.3. Trouble getting away from the bomb at Moraji's lab?

[See "4.3.5. Workaround solution"]

4.3.4. There's something wrong with the shooting range! Why does it take so long for anything to happen? Where are the targets?

[See "4.3.5 Workaround solution"]

4.3.5. Workaround solution

There seems to be a problem running the game on more recent PCs; overall, the game works fine, except for the 2 problems described
above. What's more, the problem seems speed-related. Slowing down the microprocessor with a utility like Turbo before running the
game has been known to help.

As for the optimal setting, experimenting might yield the best results. Someone once reported having success after setting the CPU
to "53%", but your mileage may vary. Try starting at about 60 or 70% and work your way down from there at 5-10% increments.

Note: it might also turn out to be an "issue" with AMD processors, but I cannot confirm this either way. Any feedback on this is
greatly appreciated.

Turbo can be downloaded from: http://www.wiw.org/~jess/turbo.html (Turbo was developed for W95, but *seems* to work just fine under
other versions of Windows).


VI. Trivia

1. Trivia

1.1. Film Trivia

- The film was originally going to be set in 2020, (even while they were filming it).  However they thought this would make people
think of 20:20 vision, so they changed it to 2019 - one reason that Roy dies in less than four years!

- Right before working on BR, Syd Mead ("visual futurist" for BR) and Moebius both did Production Design on another SF film that,
like BR, would become a major influence on moviemaking and computer animation. That movie was "Tron".

- Returning props... The newspaper Deckard is reading in his first scene, at the White Dragon Noodle Bar, returns at two points
during the movie; the piece of newspaper Deckard finds in the drawer inside Leon's room at the Yukon; finally, it's also the same
one he is reading while he's waiting for Zhora to show up, inside Taffey Lewis' place.

- More returning props... The first scene with Chew has some pipes standing in a box in the foreground. These appear to be the same
pipes people are smoking in Taffy Lewis' bar (and elsewhere).

- The model of the blimp is currently in the possession of Warner Brothers and is on display in their museum in California. You can
take a tour, but they don't allow photography. It was purchased from Christie's in 1998. You can find a detailed photo in Christie's
sale catalog 8115.

- When Deckard meets Rachael in Tyrell's office, he asks her if the owl that is there is artificial. She tells him "Of course it
is." However, originally the owl was supposed to be real and Rachael even says so - her words were changed afterwards, to give more
emphasis to the artificial.

The former version emphasized the fact that Tyrell must have been incredibly rich to be able to possess a rare specimen of an all
but extinct species. (In the world of BR, real animals have becomes virtually extinct, so any surviving ones are priceless.)

However, it was changed for a couple of reasons. Firstly, the owl is shown to have these big glowing eyes, and it is used to
establish the notion (towards us, the audience) that artificial beings, like the replicants, and animoids like the owl, have glowing
eyes.

Also, it illustrates the level of perfection Tyrell has reached in creating these "imitations" of natural beings.

- At one point, while Deckard is V-K-ing Rachael, you can faintly hear Deckard talk about a "Bush outside your window... orange
body, green legs." This is actually a piece of the dialogue in a later scene, where Deckard tells Rachael she is a replicant.

Why? Well, it's just the director playing with memories. With those of the characters - and ours, as well. :-)

- Only one of the origami figures made by Gaff was actually made by actor Edward James Olmos; he made the chicken himself. The other
figures were made by people from the props department.

- Leon's line about his mother changes from the first time ("My Mother? ... Let me tell you about my mother.") to the time Deckard
is listening to the recording ("... I'll tell you about my mother!").

Memories - you just can't trust them.

- After Leon is retired, Deckard buys a bottle of "Tsing Tao". Tsing Tao is actually a well-known brand of Chinese beer. However,
the brewery is named after the place in Northern China where it is brewed. The name is also given to some red and white wines that
are made in that region. So they could easily have a spirit made there as well - probably Vodka.

- The microscopic image of the snake scale Deckard finds is actually a close-up of the bud on top of a female marijuana plant. The
serial number was added by manually retouching the photograph.  The number we see doesn't quite match the dialogue.

- Many (if not all) scenes from the original Outer Limits episode "Demon With a Glass Hand" (from a screenplay written by SF author
Harlan Ellison) take place inside the Bradbury Building.

- Smoking habits in BR: Rachael, Pris and Holden all smoke French brand "Boyard" cigarettes.

- What is Deckard's registration number?

It's "B-two-sixty-three-fifty-four", i.e. could be either B-260-354 or B-263-54 (there's a subtle difference there; either way,
without the final script it's not possible to be sure).

Note: be careful if you are watching the movie with subtitling; the registration no. is often - mistakenly(?) - printed as "B26354".

- What number does Deckard dial when he phones Rachael from Taffey's Bar?

The number is 555-7583. (American movies and TV shows always use the 555 prefix in phone numbers - it is specifically not used in
'real life'.) It costs Deckard $1.25 for the 30 second call.

- On what floor is Deckard's apartment located?

It's located on the 97th floor. (The apartment number is 9732)

- What is the address of Leon's apartment?

1187 Hunterwasser [Street?] - The Yukon Hotel.

- About Deckard in Leon's bathroom...

It wasn't Harrison Ford! The shot was done after principal photography had ended, when Ford had ended his work on the film. This is
why you only see his silhouette; the guy who played Deckard was a man called Vic Armstrong, who had worked as a stunt double for
Ford in "Raiders of the Lost Ark".

- About Zhora on Deckard's "3D photograph"...

It wasn't Joanna Cassidy! Again, this footage was shot after principal photography had ended, and a stand-in was hired.  Although
Joanna says she would have gladly come back to do it!

- About Roy Batty on one of Leon's other photos...

It wasn't Rutger Hauer! Once again, this footage was shot after principal photography had ended, and a stand-in was used.

- Zhora's "artificial" snake is (or was?) in fact Joanna Cassidy's own pet snake, a Burmese python named "Darling".

- The owl's name is/was "Aztec"; the animal was trained in England by Steve Beart who at the time was a trainer of birds of prey.

- When Batty releases the dove there are black clouds overhead. In the next shot the dove flies toward clear blue skies.  This is
because the dove wouldn't fly in the rain.  When released by Hauer, it actually just hopped off.  The dove flying into the sky was
actually filmed back in England during post-production.

- Harrison Ford was not the first choice for Rick Deckard. At one point - believe it or not - Dustin Hoffman (!) was considered for
the role.

- J.F.Sebastian's address is: Bradbury Apartments, Ninth Sector; N.F. 46751. The Bradbury, by the way, is an existing building, one
of LA's landmarks. (It looks nothing like in the movie, though.) It is located at 304 South Broadway, at the corner of 3rd Street.
The lobby is open during the day, but they won't let you go upstairs. The Million Dollar Theater is across the street, and Union
Station (where the interior of the police HQ were filmed) and the tunnel that is seen in the movie, are also in the same general
area.  See the Locations section on the website for more details and photos: http://www.BRmovie.com/Locations

- BR's street scenes were filmed on a set called the "Old New York Street", part of what was known back then as the Burbank Studios
(now Warner Brothers). Ironically, it was on this same movie set - "retrofitted" for the occasion - that old "film noir" detective
classics like "The Maltese Falcon" and "The Big Sleep" were once filmed, the very genre that BR seems to evoke and emulate.

- Most of the scenes inside the Police HQ (all except the briefing room - AKA the "Blue Room" by the film crew) were shot at Union
Station, downtown L.A.'s central train terminal. The outside (which was a model, of course) was made in a style that evoked the Art
Deco look of the Chrysler building in New York.

- Ridley Scott did not want the term "android" to be used in the movie, likely because it was deemed misleading (as the replicants
are much more "human" than "machine"). The term "replicant" was thought up by David Peoples after his daughter, Risa, who was
involved in scientific work at the time, brought up the term "replicating". It is a term used in biology that means: to reproduce
exactly an organism, genetic material, or a cell.

The term "replicant" has, interestingly, also been included in the Encarta World English Dictionary (among others, I presume?):

REPLICANT (plural: replicants) [noun]
Half-human, half-technological being: an imaginary being, especially in science fiction, that has been constructed from organic and
computerized components to look like a human being. (See also: "cyborg")

[Source: Encarta(r) World English Dictionary (c) & (P) 1999]

It has become a recognised term in other Science Fiction films, for example being the title of "Replicant", but much more
appropriately used in the film "Impostor" which is also based on a PKD story.  However, "replicant" is no longer a term used just in
Science Fiction.  It is one of the many influences that has filtered out of Blade Runner and now is a term that actually is used by
scientists in the real world!

- The image on the screen in the spinner cockpit was exactly the same used in Scott's previous SF movie, "Alien". Also, the
background sound heard in Deckard's apartment at the end of the movie was also used in "Alien", as well as in "The Empire Strikes
Back" (during a quiet moment in Luke Skywalker's lightsaber duel with Darth Vader).

- Religion in BR: apparently, religion will still be very much around in 2019: amongst the crowds of LA, we see Hare Krishnas,
orthodox Jews, and nuns.


Actor Trivia

- Actor Joe Turkel, who plays Dr. Eldon Tyrell, played a character (Lloyd, the bartender) in Stanley Kubrick's movie "The Shining"
(starring Jack Nicholson and Shelley Duvall); at the end of the OV of BR, there was a "happy ending", a scene that used unused
footage from... "The Shining"!


1.2. Book Trivia

[Nothing yet...]

1.3. Music Trivia

- "Memories of Green", the music that can be heard during the scene in Deckard's apartment, when he (basically) tells Rachael she is
a replicant, was (surprisingly perhaps, since it fits the scene so perfectly) *not* composed for the movie. It had already existed
for years, on the Vangelis album "See You Later". This track, together with the "End Titles" and "Love Theme", was also featured on
his 1989 album "Themes". The New American Orchestra rendition of this music was used in another Ridley Scott film, "Someone to Watch
over Me" (starring Tom Berenger and Mimi Rogers).

1.4. Game Trivia

- Mark Rolston did the voice acting for the Clovis character from the Westwood Blade Runner PC game. Rolston is a familiar face both
on TV and in the movies; he played Private Drake, one of the marines, in "Aliens", and appeared in Robocop 2, Eraser, episodes of
The X-Files, Dark Angel, Babylon 5 and Star Trek: The Next Generation and many other movies and TV series.

- While Joanna "Zhora" Cassidy did not appear in the 1997 Blade Runner game (although her character gets mentioned at one point) she
did appear in another Westwood game, "Nox".


2. Goofs & continuity errors

(... Or is it just Ridley Scott cleverly playing tricks on our minds?)

Continuity:

- The first shot of Batty's hand clenching up includes the nail, not inserted until later. The window in that scene is also visible,
broken, before he breaks it.
- Deckard's instructions to the Esper machine aren't consistent with its behaviour.
- Number of replicants that Bryant claims are at large.
- Zhora's boots are high-heeled until she crashes through the glass.
- Batty's shoes change from blue (when he's climbing through the window) to black (when he's on the roof).
- Deckard's shirt (not) tucked in when Batty saves him from falling.
- When Batty releases the dove there are black clouds overhead. In the next shot the dove flies toward clear blue skies.
- When the street vendor is examining the snake scale, the serial number she reads out loud doesn't match the number on her video
screen.

Revealing mistakes:

- When Deckard takes out the V-K machine to test Rachael, he mimes the action. The machine is already on the table!
- Support cables for spinner.
- Obvious stunt player when Zhora crashes through the glass walls.

Audio/visual unsynchronised:

- Rachael's claim that the owl is real.
- Deckard's conversation with the snake merchant.
- Zhora's wounds appear before the sound of the bullets hitting her.

Miscellaneous:

- The sheet music that Rachael reads does not match the song that she plays on the piano.
- A hand is visible on Batty's shoulder while he is in the phone booth. This is a reversed shot from later in the film when Batty
meets Tyrell.

Crew or equipment visible:

- Shadow of a camera crew when Deckard is being chased by Batty through the Bradbury building.

- The Marquee for the Million Dollar Movie changes. When first seen over Pris' shoulder as she is lighting her cigarette, it is
unreadable, BUT distinctly different from later in the scene after JF arrives.  (Due to filming at that location taking over a week,
during which time the films being shown were changed.)


3. Film Quotes

Rick Deckard:

They don't advertise for killers in the newspaper. That was my profession. Ex-cop. Ex-blade runner. Ex-killer.
[Quote from the voiceover as heard in the 1982 original release]

Sushi. That's what my ex-wife called me. Cold fish.
[Quote from the voiceover as heard in the 1982 original release]

I was quit when I come in here.  I'm twice as quit now.

Replicants are like any other machine. They're either a benefit or a hazard. If they're a benefit, it's not my problem.

She's a Replicant, isn't she?

Memories. You're talking about memories!

I've had people walk out on me before, but not when I was being so charming...

Shakes?  Me too.  I get them bad.  It's part of the business.

I dreamt music.

Captain Bryant:

Come on, don't be an asshole, Deckard. I've got four skin-jobs walking the streets.

Stop right where you are! You know the score, pal. You're not cop, you're little people.

Chew:

You not come here!  Illegal!

I just do eyes. Just - just eyes. Just genetic design. Just eyes.  I design your eyes.

Leon Kowalski:

I'm kinda nervous when I take tests.

My mother? Let me tell you about my mother.

Painful to live in fear, isn't it?

Nothing is worse than having an itch you can never scratch.

Wake up! Time to die!

Dr. Eldon Tyrell:

Commerce is our goal here at Tyrell. "More human than human" is our motto. Rachael is an experiment. Nothing more.

Milk and cookies kept you awake?

The light that burns twice as bright, burns half as long. And you have burned so very very brightly, Roy.

Rachael:

Do you like our owl?

Have you ever retired a human by mistake?

Is this testing whether I'm a Replicant or a lesbian, Mr Deckard?

I'm not in the business. I am the business.

You know that Voight-Kampff test of yours ... did you ever take that test yourself?

J. F. Sebastian:

I make friends. They're toys. My friends are toys. I make them. It's a hobby.

Roy Batty:

If only you could see what I've seen with your eyes.

Fiery the angels fell; deep thunder roared around their shores; burning at the fires of Orc.

It's not an easy thing to meet your maker.

I want more life, fucker.

I've done questionable things. ... Nothing the god of bio-mechanics wouldn't let you in heaven for.

Not very sporting to fire on an unarmed opponent.

I thought you were supposed to be good. Aren't you the good man? Come on! Oh, Deckard! Show me ... what you're made of.

Proud of yourself, little man?

You better get it up, or I'm gonna have to kill you!

Quite an experience to live in fear, isn't it? That's what it is to be a slave!

I've seen things you people wouldn't believe. Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched c-beams ... glitter in the
dark near Tannhauser Gate. All those ... moments will be lost ... in time, like tears ... in rain. Time ... to die.

Gaff:

Lófaszt, nehogy már. Te vagy a Blade ... Blade Runner.

You've done a man's job, sir!

It's too bad she won't live. But then again who does?

Taffey Lewis:

Hey, Louie. The man is dry. Give him one on the house, okay. See ya.

Zhora:

Are you for real?

Pris:

I'm sort of an orphan.

I think, Sebastian, therefore I am.

Then we're stupid, and we'll die.

Holden:

You look down and you see a tortoise crawling towards you.


4. References to BR in other movies

It seems BR has inspired a lot of other films - in terms of architecture and set design - and so much so that every time a new SF
movie is made, it is inevitably compared to BR. It would take too long to list every movie that (consciously or not) copied BR's
look, but sometimes other "parts" of BR turn up in other films. Here are a few notable examples...

Back To The Future Part II

Some of the cars Marty encounters in the future version of his home town are repainted spinners from BR.

Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace

There were a lot of visual in-jokes in the 1999 Star Wars movie. During the outdoor scenes on the planet Coruscant there are a
couple of BR spinners flying around amidst the heavy traffic. They're hard to spot, though, even if you know where to look.

Star Wars: Episode II - The Clone Wars

Even more of the same references, but far more than that, a huge number of reviewers pointed out the similarity of Coruscant and a
chase scene through it to the LA2019 and spinner flight in Blade Runner.  Notably, even after 20 years of SFX development and a huge
budget, the Star Wars city is no more impressive in effect than the 1982 Blade Runner cityscape.

Soldier

The "sidequel" to Blade Runner, also written by David Peoples who was one of the scriptwriters of BR.  The old Soldier (Kurt
Russell) faces up to a new breed of genetically developed supersoldiers in a future that may co-exist with a Blade Runner future.
There are references to his fighting at Tannhauser Gate and also the Shoulder of Orion.  And is that a BR spinner lying there in
that pile of junk?

Trancers

The car seen in the opening scene is the very same vehicle Deckard drove in BR! (Cool, huh?)

Impostor

The alien-created androids being used to replace humans are clearly described as "replicants" - a word specifically invented for
Blade Runner.  As this film is also inspired by a PKD story, it is not surprising to see a few other similarities with BR.

Casualties

A TV movie of intrigue and murder.  One particular residence is 1187 Hunterwasser - the same as Leon's place (The Yukon Hotel).


5. References to BR in Music

Blade Runner has been an inspiration to musicians since it was released.  This is for two reasons.  Firstly, the most excellent
Vangelis soundtrack and secondly the stunning film itself - providing food for thought to many.  And of all the samples, probably
the most sampled set of words in any film is Roy Batty's famous final speech, "I've seen things you people wouldn't believe. Attack
ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched c-beams glitter in the dark near Tannhauser Gate. All those moments will be lost
... in time, like tears ... in rain. Time ... to die."

A good listing of samples used can be found here:
http://www.sloth.org/samples-bin/samples/source?exact=Blade+Runner
At the last check, they totalled 73 groups, 96 songs, 191 samples

Maintaining a list of BR inspired music probably deserves its own FAQ by now.  We know we still have a long way to go in listing
them (and of course there are always new songs being written).  If you don't see a reference to a BR-inspired song that you know,
then please write in and we'll add it.



Artists: White Zombie
Album: Supersexy Swingin' Sounds (1996)
Track: More Human Than Human

Lyrics:

I am the astro-
Creep a demolition
Style hell american
Freak - I am the
Crawling dead - a
Phantom in a box
Shadow in your
Head say acid
Suicide freedom
Of the blast read
The fucker lies -
Scratch off the -
Broken skin - tear
Into my heart make
Me do it again yeah

More Human Than Human

I am the jigsaw
Man I turn the
World around
With a skeleton hand say -
I am electric head a cannibal core a
Television said
Yeah do not victimize
Read the mother
Fucker-psychoholic lies -
Into a psychic war I
Tear my soul
Apart and I
Eat it some more

More Human Than Human

I am the ripper
Man a locomotion
Mind love american
Style yeah I am
The nexus one I
Want more life
Fucker I ain't
Done - yeah

More Human Than Human

Website:  http://www.gac.edu/~dkuster/zombie/


Artists: Pop Will Eat Itself
Album: This is the Day, This is the Hour, This is This
Track: Wake Up! Time to Die

PWEI builds most of its songs around samples from movies, etc. and Ridley Scott is their number one choice.  The song "Wake Up! Time
to Die" is built around that quote from Leon when he was about to kill Deckard although the song is actually about an alcoholic.

Website:  http://pweination.org/


Artists: Revolting Cocks
Album: Big Sexy Land  (1986)
Track: Attack Ships on Fire

The "Attack Ships on Fire" title certainly appears to be based on Batty's words.  "We Shall Cleanse the World" on the same album
contains samples from the movie "The Omega Man."

Website:  http://www.ping.be/~ping3716/


Artists: The Stranglers
Album: Stranglers in the Night  (1993)
Track: Time to Die

Written by Paul Roberts, "Time to Die" is based on Roy Batty's final speech and includes a sample.

Website:  http://www.stranglers.net/
Website: http://www.paul-roberts.co.uk/


Artist: Kim Wilde
Album: Teases & Dares  (1984)
Track: Bladerunner

The song features samples from the film.  Written by Marty & Ricki Wilde after seeing the film, the song talks of being hunted by
Blade Runners and graphically describes Zhora's death.  Kim's site even has an entry in the encyclopedia about Blade Runner, the
film.

Excerpt from lyrics:

I watched her falling to the ground
And saw the glass go flying
And inside her mind the fuse blew out
But deep inside a voice was crying

Website:  http://www.kimwilde.com/


Artists: Iron Maiden

SOMEWHERE IN TIME cover references/neato things:

- Live After Death, Blade Runner on the movie theater
- The movie theater is the Philip K. Dick cinema, who is the author of "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" on which the movie
Blade Runner is based.
- The Bradbury Hotels International sign - ?

[Source: Iron Maiden FAQ, check the cover and details at: http://www.maidenfans.com/?url=sit ]


Artist: Jeff Mills
Album: Art of Connecting  (2000)
Track: Deckard

"Deckard", the first track, features Deckard in the scene where he is examining one of Leon's photos with his Esper machine.
Techno.

Website:  http://www.axisrecords.com/


Artist: Gary Numan
Album: Strange Charm (1986)  (Also on Babylon 4)
Track: Time to Die

Excerpt from lyrics:
"And I have seen sadness
And I have seen time run out
I've even seen men cry
It's all lost to me now
Like tears in the rain"

Website:  http://www.numan.co.uk/


Artists: Front Line Assembly
Single: Plasticity  (1996)
Track: Replicant

Features samples of Roy Batty.

Website:  http://www.delerium.com/


Artists: Magnesia (formerly Melatonin, formerly Atticus)
Track: A Time To Die  (1999)

Song "A Time to Die" obviously inspired by Blade Runner - starts with Roy's "Tears in Rain" speech.

Website:  http://www.jammer.demon.co.uk


Artist: Kent
Album: Isola (1997)
Track: OWC  (from "Off-World Colony")

Reportedly, one of the tracks on this Swedish band's album uses a sample from BR (the piano bit from "Memories of Green").  I don't
think it is a sample so much as piano music inspired by Memories of Green.  The song was written after seeing Blade Runner and is
inspired by the blimp adverts inviting people to go to the Off-World Colonies.  The words are a melancholy reflection that it is
time to move on.

Website:  http://www.kent-music.co.uk/


Artist: Ian Brown
Album: Music of The Spheres
Track: Northern Lights

His song "Northern Lights" contains a sample from the flickering light - a sound effect from BR (the one in Leon's Bathroom).  (Ian
Brown used to be in The Stone Roses.)

Website:  http://www.ianbrown-online.co.uk/

Artists: Blue Floyd
Album: ?
Track: Young Lust

In their adaptation of the Pink Floyd song "Young Lust", they use a sample from the scene where Roy Batty finally meets Tyrell.

Website:  http://www.bluefloyd.com/


Album - Newer Wave 2.0: The New Wave Cover Series
Label - 21st Circuitry
Song - Love Missile F1-11
Artist - New Mind
Original Artist - Sigue Sigue Sputnik

[This version of the song] has two samples from Blade Runner. The first is a lift of Holden's line about the Voight-Kampff being
only a test designed to evoke an emotional response, and the second is Leon's line about his mother. Both samples appear several
times throughout the song."


Artist: Hoodlum Priest
Album: Heart of Darkness (1990)
Track: Tyrell

The album contains a track called Tyrell, which uses samples from Blade Runner.

On the same album, use is also made of samples from lost of other movies such as Robocop, The Terminator, Total Recall, Dune and
Hellraiser I and II, etc.

Website:  http://www.obsolete.com/a60/
But better is:  http://www.atdot.demon.co.uk/hoodlum/


Artists: Paul Oakenfold
Album: Perfecto Presents Another World  (2000)

Paul is a UK DJ who particularly does Trance remixes.  He has done this with more than one part of Blade Runner (from the soundtrack
album by Vangelis).  Notably "Tears In The Rain" and "Rachel's Song".  A few other peoples' trance remixes have also been
popularised in Oakenfold sets, e.g. Andora (although occasionally those "other people" turn out to be an alias for Paul).  Paul
helped create the "Ibiza sound" and is behind the very hip "Swordfish" soundtrack.

Website:  http://www.pauloakenfold.com/


Artists: Sasha + John Digweed
Album: Renaissance  (1994)

Track 12 is a trance mix version of the Blade Runner "End Titles" by these two DJs from the 90s UK trance scene.


Artists: Remake
Album: [found on Loaded records]
Track: Bladerunner / Magic Fly (1995) on Load 27 and C&J Remix on Load 40

Note: 11 min. long; reportedly the best dance version of the BR End Titles around.

Loaded Website:  http://www.loadedrecords.com/


Artist: Cosmic Baby
Track: A Tribute To Blade Runner  (Maxi CD Single, 1995)

3 tracks:

1. A Tribute To Blade Runner - Radio Edit  (4:08)
2. A Tribute To Blade Runner - L.A. 2018 Main title  (9:15)
3. A Tribute To Blade Runner - Dance Title 1  (6:38)

Dance version of the BR theme tune.  Apparently the record company wanted him to use the name "Cosmic Replicant", but he didn't like
that idea.

Cosmic Baby also created another EP called "L.A. 2018"

1. A Tribute To Blade Runner (Dance Title 2)  (7:21)
2. L.A. 2018 - Replicants Requiem  (4:07)
3. L.A. 2018 - Rachel And Deckard  (7:59)

Website:  http://www.cosmic-baby.com/
or check:  http://www.franken.de/users/tursa/CosmicBaby_discog.html


Artist: Canibus
Album: "C" True Hollywood Stories (2001)

Canibus aka Germaine Williams.  This is rap music.  Track 17, Box Cutter, samples the New American Orchestra rendition of the BR End
Titles.


Artist: Mike Ladd
Album: Easy Listening For Armageddon (1997)
Track: Blade Runner

A variation on hip-hop that could be termed trip-hop music.  Seems to be inspired by and using samples from the movie.

Website:  http://www.likemadd.com/  (?)


Artists: Jam & Spoon
Album: Tripomatic Fairytales 2002  (1993)
Track: "V. Angel is Calling" (Get it? Get it? :) )

Jam & Spoon are Jam El Mar & Mark Spoon, "a dance project from Frankfurt, Germany" - creating ambient music.  Note: more information
on whether this is Vangelis/Blade Runner related is needed. All help is welcome.

Website:  http://www.jamandspoon.com/


Artists: Orbital
Track: Bladerunner

According to Orbital's site (http://www.loopz.co.uk/ ), the mp3 found on the Web that purports to be "Bladerunner by Orbital" is not
by them.



Artists: Robert Hazard and the Heroes
Album: Wing of Fire  (1984)
Track: Interplanetary Private Eye

Hazard was a Philadelphia act that had a hit record with the song "escalator of life".  His second album was called Wing of Fire,
and was dedicated to the makers of Blade Runner. "Interplanetary Private Eye" was one song that was directly influenced by the
Movie, and he mentions things like "electric sheep" in others (madmen of the new sci-fi, we count electric sheep). Probably hard to
find today, but it is probably the album most influenced by the movie out there.  [Thanks to Chris for this information]

Website:  http://www.roberthazard.com/


Artists: Therapy?
Track: Meat Abstract  (1990)

Therapy? recorded a track called Meat Abstract, originally as the a-side of their first 7" single, and later as the opening track on
their first EP.  The beginning of the song features a sample of the "Wake up, time to die!" speech from BR.  They also had the quote
on one of their t-shirts, along with their "angry face" logo, known to the fans as Gemil.  [Thanks to Steve for this information]

Website:  http://therapyquestionmark.co.uk/


Artists: Warren Zevon
Album: Transverse City  (1989)

Zevon has numerous rock 'n roll albums.  "Transverse City" is a concept album which, according to interviews with Zevon, is based in
part on "Blade Runner" and the works of cyberpunk author William Gibson.  The lyrics of the title track certainly seem to be very
much about Roy and Pris and their plight.

Website: http://www.warrenzevon.com/


Artists: Andora
Track: Bladerunner

Trance remix of BR music - has made it onto a couple of compilation albums like Dream Dance 11.  Originally released on the Infusion
label, which is now defunct.


Artists: L'Orchestra Electronique
Album: Genius, the music of Vangelis

Pointless "tribute" to Vangelis.  Album artwork includes fragments of Roy's speech that is on the BR album.


Artists: Hypnosis
Track: Pulstar/End Title (Blade Runner)

Italian dance stuff.  Supposedly not very good.


Artists: DJ Red
Track: Near Earth  (2001)

Drum/bass music includes a sample of the Blimp ad, "A new life awaits you..."  [Thanks to Mark for this information]


Artists: Ed Rush & Nico
Album: Torque  (1997)
Track: Technology

Drum/bass music samples the Vangelis Blade Runner soundtrack  [Thanks to Mark for this information]


Artists: DJ Trace & Nico
Album: Replicant
Track: A Replicant

Obviously inspired by Blade Runner.  More Drum/bass music, although being described as "techstep style jungle".


Artists: Blind Guardian
Album: Somewhere Far Beyond  (1992)
Track: Time What is Time

Here is a song that is all about Blade Runner.  Metal Rock.

Lyrics:

When the moonchild is crying
And silence has broken
The darkest truth

The things she remembered
Had never been her own
Replicant or human
I know the way to show
What do I see
What will I find
Know the answer inside
It's your last step

Ref.:
Time what is time
I wish I knew how to tell You why
It hurts to know
Aren't we machines
Time what is time
Unlock the door
And see the truth
Then time is time again

Whispering
These dreams were never mine
It's cold inside
It's gone forever
The things he saw
Who can say what's wrong or right
The vision of a free life
His eyes had seen it all
For what
He's asking
The vision, vision, vision
I know it's all a lie
I'll remember his past life
And I'll remember time

What did I see
What have I done
God I knew the answers
When he felt so tired

Ref.:
Time what is time
Come lock the door don't let me in
I am the one Your destiny
Time what is time
Reality - It hurts me so
When time is time again

(Solo)

Look into my eyes
Feel the fear just for a while
I'm a replicant and I love to live
Is it all over now
Only these years
I'll leave but I'm singing

Ref.:
Time what is time
He saw it clearly it's too late
It does not heal but it lets us forget
Time what is time
We'll never know
So don't take care
Then time is time again

Should I forget
The way I feel
God he knows how long I tried
Feel there is no reason to cry
I live my life
In fortune dreams forever

[Thanks to Nils for the information.]

Website:  http://www.blind-guardian.com/


Artists: Jefferson Starship
Album: Windows of Heaven  (1999)
Track: The Windows Of Heaven (FUTRxFUTR)

There is some reference to Blade Runner in the Futr2 track, but the actual lyrics sung are not quite the same as the ones printed.
[Thanks to waterhead for this information]

Printed Lyrics excerpt:

And she's a guide through the chaos, a road to the Passion
Between the earth and sky where love is like a drug
And as she looks into    the window of heaven
The windows of Heaven into the eyes of God she is
FREE     to face the Whirlwind
FREE  FREE   FREE      untamed (uncaged insane rearranged,
like a panther running
                                                  let loose in a Bladerunner world)
All our lives in the Whirlwind         blowin'
FREE  FREE  FREE


Artists: Phil Lesh
Album: There and Back Again  (2002)
Track: Midnight Train

Not sure what it means, but it is obviously something to do with Blade Runner.  [Thanks to waterhead for this information]

Lyrics excerpt:

I spin around
Headlights flashing in the pouring rain
We run around
Black lightning on the midnight train
You question me
I gesture and empires fall
Waves roll on
Through the windows in an empty hall
oo-blade-runner Bardo

Website:  http://www.phillesh.net/


Artists: Fleshquartet
Album: Fire Fire  (1996)
Track: Fading Like a Dream

The ending of the song "Fading Like A Dream" from the album "Fire Fire" by Swedish group "Flesh Quartet" contains "will all this
memories be lost in time like tears in rain".  [Thanks to Nicklas for this information.]

Website:  http://www.primal.se/fleshquartet/


Artists: OMD
Album: Junk Culture  (1984)
Track: Junk Culture

This isn't directly related to BR.  They both use the "Mexican Radio" sample.  In BR, it is in Taffey's.

Website:  http://www.omd.uk.com/


Artists: Electric Hellfire Club
Album: Electronomicon
Track: Tannhäuser Gate

A song about Blade Runner.  [Thanks to Christopher for this information.]

Lyrics except:

There comes a time for each of us
to make one last desperate stab...at life
To search for truth among the broken dreams
but it's never found...or so it seems to me
Can we break free?

And

Each day I hope and pray...
all these memories will be washed away
All this sadness, all this pain
Lost in time like tears in rain...

Website:  http://www.electrichell.com/


VII. BR on Internet & Usenet

1. The World Wide Web (WWW)

Blade Runner is one of the most talked-about movies on the Internet. To publish a list of even a selection of interesting websites
would lead us too far since there are so many of them.

Two good places to start are:
- The links page at BRMovie.com: http://www.BRmovie.com/BR_Links.htm
- The Blade Runner Webring:  http://s.webring.com/hub?ring=bladerunner

2. Usenet

2.1. What is Usenet?

Usenet is a worldwide, distributed discussion system, consisting of a large number of "newsgroups" with names that are classified
hierarchically by subject. It works like a giant electronic pin board, where people can post messages and reply to other people's
messages.

To learn more about what Usenet is and how it works, read the FAQ at http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/

2.2 Specific BR-related newsgroups

alt.fan.blade-runner

This FAQ was created by and for the regulars of this newsgroup. An official newsgroup website has been created as well, namely
http://www.BRmovie.com/

alt.games.bladerunner
alt.games.ea.westwood.blade-runner

Both of these ng's were created for discussing the BR game. However, since neither of them generates a lot of "traffic" anymore (if
any) it is OK to post your question(s) in alt.fan.blade-runner.

2.3. Other relevant newsgroups

alt.cult-movies
alt.cyberpunk

2.4. Usenet Jargon

* Posting: putting a message on-line.
* Shouting: posting a message written entirely in CAPITALS.
* Flaming: verbally attacking other users by posting or sending them messages bearing unfriendly content.
* Spam: posts that are put on the ng solely for advertising some product or website (The term was inspired by the famous Monty
Python "Spam" sketch.)
* Troll: a troll is someone who makes a post designed to incite flaming or predictable responses.  Derives from the fishing term of
"dragging bait along in the water hoping for a bite".
* Follow-up: a follow-up is a reply to another message.
* Thread: a number of posts that are linked together by their subject.

>>> Please do not spam, flame, troll or shout.

2.5. Tips for posting and reading messages

If you're new to Usenet, before you start posting messages, learn what you can about it's customs and "culture", what is known as
"netiquette". Here are some quick tips:

* Behave as you would in real life when posting messages or follow-ups to other messages: be polite, respect other people and their
opinions (even if they are different from yours).
* Unless the newsgroup was specifically created with a specific language in mind, the common language when posting messages on
Usenet newsgroups is English.
* Not everyone has the same grasp of English; many users - this author included - don't have English as their native tongue. Keep
this in mind when reading messages on Usenet, and don't flame others if their posts have bad spelling or grammatical errors.
* Commenting on others' typos and bad grammar is always a bad idea, whatever their mother language(s) may be. It tends to create
unnecessary tension and animosity.
* That said, POSTING ENTIRE MESSAGES IN CAPITALS IS VERY ANNOYING (NOT TO MENTION MUCH HARDER TO READ), SO please don't do that. Try
to avoid doing it, even in the subject header.
* Don't quote entire messages (unless you think you have a very good reason for it), but rather only the parts that are relevant for
your response).
* Try to develop the habit of placing your response underneath the quoted part, not on top of it. Especially in long threads, this
makes it easier to keep track of what is being written.

2.6. Using Acronyms

There are a number of 'acronyms' that are in common usage on the newsgroups, (and e-mail IRC, etc.). They are mostly there to
quickly convey the intent of the writer. As with all jargon, if the reader does not understand what it means, the communication
fails. So, we would humbly suggest that if you use an acronym not on the following "Most Common" list, that you should ask whether
your readers will understand what you are saying. (Unless that is the point? - as in IITYWIMIWHTKY).

AFAIK: As Far As I Know
BTW: By The Way
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
FWIW: For What It's Worth
FYI: For Your Information
IMO: In My Opinion
IMHO: In My Humble Opinion
IMNSHO: In My Not So Humble Opinion
IIRC: If I Recall Correctly
IRL: In Real Life
LOL: Laughing Out Loud
NG: Newsgroup
OTOH: On The Other Hand
POV: Point Of View
ROTFL: Rolling On The Floor Laughing
ROTFLOL: Rolling On The Floor Laughing Out Loud
ROTFLMAO: Rolling On The Floor Laughing My Ass Off, (getting a little silly now...)
RSN: Real Soon Now, (if ever)  (As in "The FAQ will be updated again, Real Soon Now...)
RTFM: Read The Fine Manual, (or any other F-word of your own choice...)
RTFF: Read The Fine FAQ
YABA: Yet Another Bloody Acronym - a reminder for us not to get carried away with these!

2.7. Emoticons (AKA smileys)

Also known as "smileys" although some of them are not smiling! Created with punctuation marks and intended to be viewed 'sideways'
to represent little faces. People have invented dozens of the things, but we suggest you keep your enthusiasm under control and
limit yourselves to the following commonly understood emoticons.

:-) or :) Happy > add this to signify you made a joke
:-D Really happy
;-) or ;) Winking - Sarcasm > add this to signify you don't really mean what you just wrote
:-( or :( Unhappy > express your dislike of whatever you just wrote about
:-| Resigned > if you're not sure how to react to something, this might do it
:-/ Similar to the "Resigned" sign; perplexed (?)
:-\ I'm undecided
8-# I'm dead

There are also a few "non-smileys".

<G> Grin
<BG> Big Grin
<EG> Evil Grin

For more information, visit one or more of the following websites:
http://www.netlingo.com/
http://www.mcfedries.com/Ramblings/usenet-primer.html
http://www.noodlebug.demon.co.uk/nuggets/acronym.htm
http://www.albion.com/netiquette/index.html
http://www.darkmountain.com/netiquette/index.shtml

VIII. Related Stuff

1. Related Literature

1.1. Fiction

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (Philip K. Dick)

The novel on which Blade Runner was based. [For more information, see "The origins of Blade Runner" and the "Literature" section]

The Blade Runner Comic

Published by Marvel Comics in 1982. Written by Archie Goodwin and illustrated by Al Williamson, Carlos Garzon, Dan Green and Ralph
Reese. The comic was issued in three versions: the full version, a pocket size B&W version, and the newsstand two issue comic book
version.  This comic is reproduced on the website:  http://www.BRmovie.com/Comic

Regularly for sale on eBay.

Blade Runner - A Story of the Future

Paperback - "Illustrated with More Than 60 Color Photographs, Based on the Movie Starring Harrison Ford". Story adaptation by Les
Martin and published in 1982, this is very much like the film, with slight variations. A fascinating story and great photos, if you
want a copy, your best bet is eBay.

Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (K.W. Jeter)
Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (K.W. Jeter)
Blade Runner 4: Eye And Talon (K.W. Jeter)

Sequels (of sorts) to both the novel "DADoES" *and* the film "Blade Runner".

The Bladerunner (Alan E. Nourse)

Related to the film "Blade Runner" in name only.

Bladerunner (A Movie) (William S. Burroughs)

Has nothing to do with Ridley Scott's film, despite the title.

1.2. Non-Fiction

Future Noir

Paul M. Sammon's book is described as one of the best of ALL movie reference books.

BR fans know it simply as "The BR Bible".

Ridley Scott - The Making of His Movies

If you like Paul M. Sammon's Future Noir book, you may also like his look at the director of Blade Runner. Not as in depth as FN,
but still an interesting read.

Blade Runner (Scott Bukatman, BFI Modern Classics, BFI Publishing; ISBN 0-85170-623-1)

The British Film Institute examines one of their 100 most significant films of the twentieth century - Blade Runner. This is an
in-depth look at the movie.

Beware: it is not really intended for the casual reader and is written in the sort of language you would expect from a "Film
Institute".

Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's 'Blade Runner' and Philip K. Dick's 'Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'
(Judith B. Kerman; Popular Press; ISBN 0-879-72510-9)

Another perspective. This is not a book about the making of Blade Runner. It is a series of essays examining the themes, etc. of the
film, with respect to the original book and the society that has developed two decades later.

Particularly good for those who really want to explore the deeper significances of the movie and the fundamental philosophical
questions it raises.

Blade Runner Sketchbook

Getting hard to find. Out of print in the USA and non-existent elsewhere. You might want to try the auction sites, like eBay, but
expect to pay a high price!  Watch out for photocopies.

York Film Notes

A study guide. If you are lucky enough to be using Blade Runner in something like "media studies" in school or college coursework,
then this one might be for you.

Blade Runner - The Inside Story

Hardcover - 71 pages (13 October, 2000)
Titan Books; ISBN: 1-84-023210-2

Hardcover reprint of the July, 1982 Cinefex magazine which delved deep into the special effects in Blade Runner.

Contains interviews with Syd Mead and Ridley Scott and detail that is not printed elsewhere. Only for those seriously interested in
the SFX and models side of Blade Runner.

Film Architecture: From Metropolis to Blade Runner

An expensive book that is very wordy. For a book that is examining something so visual, you would expect it to have more pictures!
Interesting, but probably only for those seriously interested in the way in which futuristic set design itself carries ideas.

In addition to published works, there are numerous analysis essays on all aspects of the film available on the Web, (many of them at
BRmovie.com).  A comprehensive, current set of links can be found at http://www.BRmovie.com/Analysis

2. Related Films

I enjoy Blade Runner so much - are there any other movies or TV that might interest me that you can recommend?

Well, basically, every SF movie made after 1982. :-)

Seriously, though, BR has been enormously influential; its powerful visual style, a look at an all too plausible near-future, has
been copied countless times.

A.I. Artificial Intelligence

Is it Kubrick or is it Spielberg? Well, both.

Is it anything like Blade Runner? Well, how can you discuss any film about androids and the question of "What is it that makes us
human?" without referring to Blade Runner?

The themes are in the same arena as Blade Runner and some of the cityscape looks very similar (despite 19 years advancement and a
huge budget). However, this is a different movie with a quite different story.  Although very interesting, it doesn't quite deliver
in the end.

Akira

The anime that blew the socks off the West. A few may have experienced Japanimation before this came out, but this is the one that
got the ball rolling. Still stands up as one of the best.

Post-apocalyptic intellectual evolution with biker kids and rock music. "Neo-Tokyo is about to E.X.P.L.O.D.E."

 The Limited Special Edition is now out in the USA!

Ghost In The Shell (Kokaku kidotai)

VERY BR-ish, dark and brooding, it even addresses some of the same themes as BR. Note for fans of "The Matrix": this was almost
certainly a major source of inspiration for the Wachowski bros.  (In interview on The Matrix DVD, they do refer to inspiration by a
particular anime film, but don't name it.)

A girl turned into a cyborg, investigating an AI in A BR-type city. If you switch your brain on while watching, you'll see more than
just great animation - you'll see the film really is questioning the nature of humanity.

Perfect Blue

Reality and dreams become one as the nightmares merge into the daytime and we lose track of what is real. Even a Replicant would
feel the paranoia and fear when watching this. One of the very best examples of how an animated movie can succeed with a
psychological thriller.

Brazil

Terry Gilliam's masterpiece with even more producer difficulties than BR. The DC is a completely different movie to the "Love
Conquers All" version and considerably longer as well. This ranks right up there with Blade Runner. The dark future is not a happy
place. Being outside the system, just like the Reps in BR, is a dangerous place to be.

Note: The 3-DVD set is one of the most complete packages of any movie; with just about everything you could ask for, including both
versions of the films.

Dark City

Are they manipulating our lives? What is real? Why does everything keep changing? A stunning movie that once again leaves us
questioning our existence.

Alex Proyas succeeds in bringing us a film where memory is in question, where being paranoid is probably good, because you don't
know what is real and they really are out to get you ...

One of those movies that donated a large chunk of plot to The Matrix.

Heavy Metal (1981)

Animated anthology movie based on the SF magazine of the same name. Of interest to BR fans for several reasons. Also, people who
have seen "The Fifth Element" may be interested in the first segment of the film...

[See also: "Origins of Blade Runner"]

Impostor

Based on a PKD story, it is 2079 and Earth is at war with alien invaders.  Gary Sinise plays a well-known scientist who is accused
of being an Impostor - the suggestion being that he has been replaced by a replicant that thinks it is the real person, but is
programmed to explode when it gets in proximity to a certain target.  He desperately tries to evade capture to prove he is human and
not a replicant.

Metropolis (1927)

The Grandfather of Science Fiction films. One of the earliest but STILL one of the best. Also, one of the only films on this list
that could be said to have influenced Blade Runner, rather than the other way around!

The robot creation rejecting its master and fighting the revolution. The rich elite don't care at all about the poor workers, but
that is about to end!

Be warned, this film was redone with modern music by Giorgio Moroder - some think that is sacrilege and destroys the movie, others
think it improves the film. Both versions are available so take your pick.  Note:  In 2002, a restored version was released, getting
as close as possible to the original, and including the original orchestral accompaniment.

Metropolis (2001)

A Japanese animation that is not just for anime fans.  With inspiration drawn from both Fritz Lang's Metropolis and from Blade
Runner, this is a well told story, beautifully presented and with great music.  In a future where robots and humans co-exist (with
robots mainly acting as servants), some still don't like the presence of these robots.  A new robot has been developed and there
follows a story of friendship, distrust and adventure.  A great film that can stand alongside Akira and GitS.

Soldier

Blade Runner doesn't have a sequel, but some refer to this as the "sidequel". David Peoples, (BR scriptwriter), wrote the script. He
contrasts the soldier trained from birth with the new breed of soldier that are genetically engineered. The two come into conflict
and Kurt Russell kicks ass.

Not the best film as there are a number of bad points in it, but worth a watch.

Note: there are a number of references to BR; at least once, a spinner from BR can be spotted.  In the beginning of the movie, among
medals Todd (Russell) has earned, we also get a few BR references such as his fighting at Tannhauser Gate and also the Shoulder of
Orion.  Tannhauser Gate is even mentioned in dialogue.

Total Recall

Paul Verhoeven brings aspects of another of Philip K. Dick's books to the screen, ("We Can Remember It for You Wholesale.") It was
also, together with Blade Runner, the inspiration for the TV series, Total Recall 2070".

Messing with man's brains and memories again - fighting for truth and reality and people's freedom. "They stole his mind, now he
wants it back."

Twelve Monkeys

The threat this time is from a genetically created virus. The difference is - it's already happened.

Bruce Willis is sent hurtling backwards and forwards in time trying to find the secret of the Twelve Monkeys and the plague that
swept the world and has trouble keeping track of his memory and his sanity.

This is yet another David Peoples script, (based on French art film "La Jetée"), this time brought to screen by Terry Gilliam.

The Crow

Brandon Lee showing what a great future he could have had. Another dark Alex Proyas movie with many undertones. Excellent acting,
stunning visuals and originality make this a must-see.

The Thirteenth Floor

"Question reality." Are we manipulating them, or are we being manipulated? What is real? What happens when the characters in your
virtual reality appear in your real world and you don't remember the murder you committed?

Don't look too closely at the cover if you haven't seen the movie.

One of the interiors looks kind of familiar... :-)

The Matrix

Some people love it. Some people make a noise about hating it. Chances are you've already seen it and made up your own mind anyway.

If you are a Keanu-hater, then you just need to get over it and enjoy the action. There may not be any original ideas in the film,
but they are put together well and perhaps presented to a new audience. And the Kung Fu and other SFX are stunning.

What is the real reality? And is it better than the false one? If we climb out of reality, can we then manipulate it?

And whether you like it or not, Matrix 2 and 3 are coming.

Johnny Mnemonic

Chances are if you didn't like Keanu in The Matrix, you won't like him in this either. Based on a William Gibson short story, it is
rather disappointing compared to what it should have been. It was originally meant to be a small film, but studio money made it into
a larger budget movie and it suffered from that.

However, this is very solid cyberpunk. The dystopian future, memory dumps in the brain, bits of tech all over and a pretty
cyberspace representation.

"The danger is all in his head."

Gattaca

Scientists messing around with humanity. The plight of the not genetically perfect human has parallels with the Reps in BR.
Deception, a warped future, and warnings for humanity.

If we are so similar, then what is the difference? Commenting on discrimination based on genes is as valid to us today as to the
extrapolation into the Gattaca future world.

"There is no gene for the human spirit."

eXistenZ

When computer games become reality. A movie that makes many SF fans top 10 lists David Cronenberg revisits and updates the very
organic technology and the world of fantasy/reality he first explored in "Videodrome". (See that as well if you haven't!)

Virtuosity

Computer generated villains escaping into reality again! (When will those darn VR programmers learn?) This time Russell Crowe is
chased by Denzel Washington.

The VR entity, created from the personalities of over 150 serial killers takes control and downloads himself into a nano created
android and proceeds to wreak havoc. (Obviously!)

Not original, but the acting is good and the whole is fun to watch if you switch off the critical eye.

Nemesis

The cybernetic organism - once again leading to the question of "what is human?"

A B-movie perhaps, but a decent Sci-Fi B-movie with cyborgs and stylish directing is better than a poke in the eye with a sharp
stick.

"In the future .... it pays to be more than human."

(Also stars Brion "Leon Kowalski" James!)

Trancers

Low-budget cross between BR and "The Terminator", starring Tim Thomerson as "hardboiled detective" trancer-hunter, Jack Deth aka
Future Cop. We revisit the bleak future of L.A. then go back in time.

Given the number of dark, depressing movies on this list, this is perhaps one of those to watch when you are in a good mood and feel
in need of a chuckle.

The Fifth Element

A designed person comes to earth to save us from evil. Although she has to be recreated by Earth scientists in a handy genetic
recreation chamber that works just dandy! There is a lot of shooting along the way and aliens pretending to be humans. Not to
mention the exciting flying car chase amongst the BR inspired cityscape.

Not to be taken too seriously, there is plenty to entertain. Gary Oldman is the epitome of an updated Tyrell. And watch out for
Brion James.

Directed by Luc Besson, you know it will be stylish. Other of his films to try are "Nikita" and the superb "Léon: The Professional"
(international cut).

The City of Lost Children (La Cité des Enfants Perdus)

Brains in jars, artificial humans, strange things happening in a post-apocalyptic style world. Original, surreal fantasy against a
marvellously created backdrop.

Krank is the genius created by a mad scientist, (Tyrellesque?). But as clever as he is, he cannot dream. Children are kidnapped so
that Krank can steal their dreams, but all he gets are nightmares.

Made by the same lot who created the amazing "Delicatessen".

The Batman Movies

Well, there are four of them - surely you must like at least one?

Dark ponderings on the nature of being are mixed into action and combating strange enemies.

Strange Days

Some cyberpunk elements brought forward to link into Y2K. The date may have passed, but the memory experiences are put on discs for
all to share.

James Cameron writes a story exploring that "classic" cyberpunk element of memories, emotions and experiences stored on a disc and
sold. The problem comes when a disc turns up that is witness to murder. An ex-cop, played by Ralph Fiennes, investigates murder,
rape and corruption. The film captures the maximum angst of a world rapidly approaching the year 2000.

"You know you want it."

Nirvana

Rather weird but enjoyable cyberpunk thriller with Christopher Lambert, which among other things, deals with artificial beings
questioning their existence, while Lambert has some issues of his own to deal with. The brooding mood is lifted somewhat by some
nice touches of humour, so the movie never takes itself too seriously.

There are some imaginative futuristic backdrops in the movie, but the BR influence is unmistakable (or should that be
"unavoidable"?).

Judge Dredd

Based on the comic book character, but toned down [a lot] in its Hollywood incarnation. The most interesting thing about the film is
probably it's visual style, which is like a "BR meets Total Recall", picturing a BR-ish overgrown "Mega-City". It also deals with
artificially created humans; Dredd (in this movie, anyway) turns out to be a clone created from an amalgamation of various people -
to become the embodiment of the law. Nice soundtrack by Alan Sylvestri, too.

Freejack

Futuristic chase movie with cyberpunk elements thrown in; a race car driver from the year 1991 (played by Emilio Estevez) is about
to die in a fatal accident, when suddenly he is whisked away to the year 2009 where some rich guy, a powerful multinational's CEO,
wants to use his body for a mind transfer. Estevez escapes, though, and lots of mayhem follow. Very loosely related (as there are a
couple of BR-inspired street scenes in there too...)

Sixth Day

It is an Arnie film so expect plenty of action. But there is far more to this movie than that. Once you accept the premise of
creating adult human cloned duplicates, there are a number of ideas explored in this movie. (Particularly the clone that doesn't
know he is the copy until he is told - sound familiar at all?)

Set in the near future, (they had to bring it even closer because of rapid real world advances in cloning technology), they have
created a very realistic view of how technology may be integrated into our everyday lives in the next decade.

"There's been a Sixth Day violation. A human was cloned. That human was you."

3. Related TV Series

Total Recall 2070

Loosely based on the film "Total Recall" starring Arnold Schwarzenegger AND (perhaps more directly) on "Blade Runner", it looks
somewhat like an unofficial "BR: The Series". Then again, the androids featured in the series seem like direct ancestors of those
seen in the Alien movies, as they are clearly mechanical, with white, milk-like fluid for "blood". Except the latest model, who
becomes a police detective, is different...

Bubblegum Crisis

A highly acclaimed anime OVA ("original video animation") series, like many Japanese SF oriented animation, the series is highly
influenced by BR and that other influential 80's film, "The Terminator". The series is about a team of high-tech vigilantes, a group
of women using high tech exoskeleton suits who are fighting renegade "Boomers", androids built by the ominous Genom Corporation.
One of the main characters is called "Priss" and she has a band called "The Replicants".

Dark Angel

SF action series set in a dystopian near future, featuring people who are created as a result of genetic manipulation. Some of them
escape and try to lead 'normal' lives... Sound familiar?

Mutant X

SF action series set in a world where genetic designers have messed with human DNA to create people with enhanced or extra
abilities.  Genome-X is the official group who exploit the mutants, but a few have broken off to form a counter-group who only want
to help the resultant mutants.

4. Related Games

The old C64 Blade Runner game. [See section V. "The Games"]

The 1997 "Blade Runner" game by Westwood Studios (obviously!). [See section V. "The Games"]

Over the years, the influence of BR (the movie) helped create the whole genre of cyberpunk, which in turn had a large influence on
mainstream culture, spawning lots of books, movies and games. Therefore, most cyberpunk style games tend almost by definition to be
quite "BR-ish".

Some well-known computer games which take place in the familiar cyberpunk settings are:

- "Neuromancer" (based on William Gibson's cyberpunk classic of the same name)
- "Bloodnet" (RPG/graphic adventure)
- "Hell - a Cyberpunk Thriller": A graphic adventure from the mid-nineties.
- "Rise Of The Dragon" (reportedly very BR-ish!)
- "Syndicate" and its sequel, "Syndicate Wars"

Some noir alternatives to Blade Runner are the Tex Murphy series: a number of games situated in a post-nuclear San Francisco in the
near future, starring a hardboiled (well, sort of :) PI called Tex Murphy; the games are, in chronological order: "Mean Streets",
"The Martian Memorandum", "Under a Killing Moon", "The Pandora Directive" and, most recently, "Tex Murphy: Overseer".

For game consoles, there have been a couple of computer adaptations of "Shadowrun", which is a strange mix of cyberpunk SF and
Tolkienesque fantasy but with a genuine BR feel to it.

"Nightlong: Union City Conspiracy". (Graphic Adventure)


IX. Credits

Thanks to:

- "Capitaine Nemo" (AKA Vincent Corlaix) for helping to start this up.
- Netrunner for his contributions and for maintaining the official alt.fan.blade-runner website (http://www.brmovie.com/ )
- "ALZ" for the article about the BR board game and the info regarding the 2000 bootleg album.
- LeBrainBoy for the Gibson interview text.
- Karen ? for her help with the music heard in Taffey's bar.
- Michael Rush for his contribution regarding spinners.
- Jessie Cook for the help regarding Turbo and the BR PC game.
- The regulars of alt.fan.blade-runner in general, for their suggestions and contributions.
- Paul M. Sammon for writing his "BR Bible".
- Ridley Scott and the cast & crew of BR for making the movie this is all about.
- Vangelis for his wonderful music.
- Philip K. Dick for writing DADoES.
- Everybody I forgot to mention.

Sources:

- "Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner" by Paul M. Sammon
- The old Blade Runner FAQ by Murray Chapman
- "Vangelis - The Unknown Man" - Mark J.T. Griffin



END




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