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rec.models.rockets FAQ Part 10 - High Power Rocketry

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Archive-name: model-rockets/high-power
Rec-models-rockets-archive-name: rockets-faq/part10
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 1997 September 12

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
 Rec.Models.Rockets Frequently Asked Questions: PART 10 of 14


Review:  A High Power rocket is a model weighing more than 1500 grams (3.3 lb)
         at liftoff, or containing more than 125 grams of propellant (total),
         or containing any one motor with more than 62.5 grams of propellant.

10.1  I'm a successful model rocketeer.  What do I need to get into HPR?

    When this question was posted to r.m.r a while back, these were the pre-
    dominant suggestions and tips:

    - Start with E/F/G kits with 29mm motor mounts from LOC or Aerotech.
      These should be the easiest to build.
    - Read and become familiar with the NAR and/or Tripoli High Power Safety
    - Get familiar with and use expendable motors before jumping into
      reloadable technology.
    - Join a high power club if possible (local NAR section or Tripoli
    - Be very careful of the construction differences between model and high
      power rockets.  You HAVE to build higher power rockets to be more sturdy
      than model rockets (see the next question).
    - If not already a member, join both the NAR and Tripoli (if you can
      afford high power rocketry, you can afford to join and support both
      these organizations).
10.2    What are the major differences between model and high power rockets,
             besides size and motors?  Are they built differently?

    Above and beyond all else, high power rockets are built much stronger
    than standard model rockets.  This is due to the higher speeds and
    acceleration achieved by these models.  Some of the construction
    differences are:

    - High power rockets have stronger, thicker body tubes.
    - They have MUCH stronger engine mounts, bonded using epoxy rather
      than white or yellow glue.
    - Engine mount rings, adapter rings, etc., are typically made from
      1/8" or thicker aircraft plywood, fiberglass, or phenolic sheet, rather
      than paper or balsa.
    - Fins are typically made from plywood, fiberglass, phenolic, or
      waferglass, not balsa; Thick balsa fins have been used on H/I powered 
      models, but they have to be reinforced with fiberglass/epoxy laminate.
    - Fins are often mounted into slots in the body tube with Through The Wall
      (TTW) mounting.  Most common and recommended method is glued TTW and
      directly onto the motor tube.
    - Parachutes are larger and typically made from some type of fabric
      (plastic chutes are not strong enough, usually).
    - Heavy elastic shock cords or bungee, tubular nylon, or Kevlar shock line
      are used rather than rubber for shock cords, and these are typically
      epoxied to the motor mount or a bulkhead.
    - Positive motor retention systems (clips, bolts, etc.) are important,
      as HPR reload casings start to get pretty expensive.
10.3   How do I get high power certified?

    There are two organizations which may certify you to purchase and use
    high power rocket motors. These are the National Association of
    Rocketry and the Tripoli Rocketry Association. Note that you must be
    a member of the organization to certify for high power with that
    organization.  Once certified, both organizations recognize the 
    certification of the other.

    As of April, 1996, new NAR certification procedures have gone into  

  Current NAR procedures:

   - For Level 1 certification (the first step) one must fly an H or I powered
     rocket successfully, and have it witnessed by two senior NAR members, one 
     of which must be high power certified.  Fill out the proper form, have it 
     signed by the witnesses, and send it in to NAR HQ.
     NOTE:  NFPA 1127 allows an uncertified individual to purchase a single H
     or I motor for certification purposes.
   - For Level 2 certification (the next step up) one must take and pass a
     written exam, and then successfully fly a J/K/L powered rocket. 
     Questions for the examination come from a pool of questions that are
     available for review prior to taking the test at the NAR web site.
   - The NAR does not currently certify to Level 3 (M and up).

    Tripoli certification procedures are scheduled to change on 1 Sep 1996.
    At that time there will be three (3) high power certification levels:

    - Level 1, allowing single motor H and I flights. No clusters or staging.
    - Level II, allowing up through L motors, staging, clustering and hybrids.
    - Level III, unlimited, allowing M power and up.

    A written test will be required for Level II certification, in addition to
    the certification flight. Level III certification requirements will require
    pre-flight approval and review from the Tripoli Advisory Board.
10.4   What is a 'reloadable' motor.  Are they worth the price?  Are they legal?

    A reloadable rocket motor is a metal cylinder with removable end pieces.
    Solid propellant and time delay are purchased separately from the motor
    casing, in 'reload kits'.  These kits contain all of the expendable,
    non-reusable materials for a single flight.  The cost of the reload is
    significantly less than the cost of an expendable motor (when talking
    about F sizes and up).  Quite a number of reloadable motors and reload
    are now certified by NAR or Tripoli. Refer to the approved motor lists of
    each organization to see exactly which motors are currently certified.

    USE RELOADABLE HIGH POWER MOTORS.  See section 3.1.9, below, for
    information on becoming certified to use high power reloadable motors.

             IGNITERS INSTALLED ***
10.5    What are these different 'types' of composite motors I hear about (White
             Lightning, Black Jack, Smokey Sam, etc.)?

    These are all manufacturers' names for various formulations of 'stuff'
    they have added to the propellants to get specific pyrotechnic effects.

    Black Jack (Aerotech): low(er) average thrust engine which produces a
      dense, dark exhaust to aid in tracking.  Also has a distinctive roar.
      Note: BJ motors have a slow thrust buildup and long ignition time. Take
      care when using this type of motor in a cluster. Also play close
      attention to the manufacturer's Maximum Recommended Liftoff Weight
    Blue Thunder (Aerotech):  high level average thrust engines with a bright
      violet-blue flame and very little visible exhaust.  Designed for high
      thrust, high acceleration lift-offs. Ignites quickly. Very fast thrust
    Firestarter (U.S. Rockets): low impulse composite formulation which
      produces large numbers of sparks.
    Hellfire (Vulcan): a high thrust motor which produces a bright red
    Smokey Sam (Vulcan): produces a dark exhaust to aid in tracking.
    Silver Streak (Rocketflite/MRED): produces a fine shower of white sparks
      during boost (these are actually black powder motors). VERY fast 
      ignition and thrust buildup.
    White Lightning (Aerotech): medium average thrust engine producing a
      bright white flame and distinctive roar. Ignites quickly. Moderately
      quick thrust buildup.
10.6    What's an FAA waiver? Which rocket flights require one?

    An FAA waiver is official permission by the Federal Aviation Administra-
    tion allowing the launching of rockets exceeding a certain size.  The rules
    appear in FAR 101.  
    A document describing FAR 101 is available at the sunsite archive:
    The following are the relevant sections of FAR 101, regulating the
    launching of model and high power rockets.

----------------------- FAR 101 Subpart A--General --------------------

 Sec. 101.1   Applicability.

  (a) This part prescribes rules governing the operation in the United
      States, of the following:
    (3) Any unmanned rocket except:
        (i) Aerial fireworks displays; and,
        (ii) Model rockets:
            (a) Using not more than four ounces of propellant;
            (b) Using a slow-burning propellant;
            (c) Made of paper, wood, or breakable plastic, containing no 
                substantial metal parts and weighing not more than 16 ounces, 
                including the propellant;
            (d) Operated in a manner that does not create a hazard to persons,
                property, or other aircraft.
   [Doc. No. 1580, 28 FR 6721, June 29, 1963, as amended by Amdt. 101-1, 29 FR
    46, Jan. 3, 1964; Amdt. 101-3, 35 FR 8213, May 26, 1970]

 Sec. 101.3   Waivers.

    No person may conduct operations that require a deviation from this part
    except under a certificate of waiver issued by the Administrator.

     [Doc. No. 1580, 28 FR 6721, June 29, 1963]

 Sec. 101.5   Operations in prohibited or restricted areas.

    No person may operate a moored balloon, kite, unmanned rocket, or unmanned
    free balloon in a prohibited or restricted area unless he has permission 
    from the using or controlling agency, as appropriate.

     [Amdt. 101-1, 29 FR 46, Jan. 3, 1964]

 Sec. 101.7   Hazardous operations.

    (a) No person may operate any moored balloon, kite, unmanned rocket, or
        unmanned free balloon in a manner that creates a hazard to other 
        persons, or their property.
    (b) No person operating any moored balloon, kite, unmanned rocket, or
        unmanned free balloon may allow an object to be dropped therefrom, 
        if such action creates a hazard to other persons or their property.

       (Sec. 6(c), Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(c)))

       [Doc. No. 12800, Amdt. 101-4, 39 FR 22252, June 21, 1974]

 ---------------   FAR 101, Subpart C--Unmanned Rockets  ------------------

 Source: Docket No. 1580, 28 FR 6722, June 29, 1963, unless otherwise noted.

 Sec. 101.21   Applicability.

   This subpart applies to the operation of unmanned rockets. However, a
   person operating an unmanned rocket within a restricted area must comply only
   with Sec. 101.23(g) and with additional limitations imposed by the using or
   controlling agency, as appropriate.

 Sec. 101.22   Special provisions for large model rockets.

   Persons operating model rockets that use not more than 125 grams of
   propellant; that are made of paper, wood, or breakable plastic; that contain
   no substantial metal parts, and that weigh not more than 1,500 grams,
   including the propellant, need not comply with Sec. 101.23 (b), (c), (g), and
   (h), provided:
       (a) That person complies with all provisions of Sec. 101.25; and
       (b) The operation is not conducted within 5 miles of an airport runway or
        other landing area unless the information required in Sec. 101.25 
        is also provided to the manager of that airport.

        [Amdt. 101-6, 59 FR 50393, Oct. 3, 1994]

 Sec. 101.23   Operating limitations.

   No person may operate an unmanned rocket--
       (a) In a manner that creates a collision hazard with other aircraft;
       (b) In controlled airspace;
       (c) Within five miles of the boundary of any airport;
       (d) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five-
        tenths coverage prevails;
       (e) At any altitude where the horizontal visibility is less than five
       (f) Into any cloud;
       (g) Within 1,500 feet of any person or property that is not associated with
        the operations; or
       (h) Between sunset and sunrise.

       (Sec. 6(c), Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(c)))

      [Doc. No. 1580, 28 FR 6722, June 29, 1963, as amended by Amdt. 101-4, 
       39 FR 22252, June 21, 1974]

 Sec. 101.25   Notice requirements.

  No person may operate an unmanned rocket unless that person gives the
  following information to the FAA ATC facility nearest to the place of
  intended operation no less than 24 hours prior to and no more than 48 hours
  prior to beginning the operation:
       (a) The names and addresses of the operators; except when there are
           multiple participants at a single event, the name and address of 
           the person so designated as the event launch coordinator, whose 
           duties include coordination of the required launch data estimates 
           and coordinating the launch event;
       (b) The estimated number of rockets to be operated;
       (c) The estimated size and the estimated weight of each rocket; and
       (d) The estimated highest altitude or flight level to which each rocket
            will be operated.
       (e) The location of the operation.
       (f) The date, time, and duration of the operation.
       (g) Any other pertinent information requested by the ATC facility.

    [Doc. No. 1580, 28 FR 6722, June 29, 1963, as amended by Amdt. 101-6, 59 FR
     50393, Oct. 3, 1994]

10.7   OK. I want to fly some high power rockets. How do I get an FAA waiver?

    A downloadable, printable copy of 
       Form 7711-2, Application for Certificate of Waiver, is available at:

    From: (J A Stephen Viggiano)
    I'd like to share with those interested what is involved in applying for
    an FAA Waiver. It's not a particularly difficult procedure, and the
    FAA personnel I have dealt with are courteous, professional, and
    helpful. Don't be scared of the bureaucratic red tape, there isn't a
    whole lot of it.

    You can get the forms from the Flight Standards District Office (the "Fizz-
    Doe") at any airport with air traffic control. Phone the tower and ask
    for Flight Standards. Tell them you're interested in launching rockets,
    and need an Application for Waiver, FAA Form 7711-2. They should know what
    you want. While you've got them on the phone, ask for the address of the
    Regional office. You will probably have to file your application with them,
    so it will help to know where it has to go!

    Now, you take a field trip. Get in your car, and drive to the airport. Not
    the passenger terminal, the part where all the private general aviation
    planes are parked. There should be a place there for pilots to pay for
    fuel, buy toothbrushes and other sundry items, including section maps.
    Ask them for the map which includes your launch site. If you're not near
    a section boundary, it should be the same map which includes the airport.
    (It will also be the most popular map there, and they may be out of
    stock.)-: We're covered by the Detroit section map, for example. Never
    mind that it's a few states away, and New York is closer, that's just
    the way they carve things up. It costs about $3, and it's fun to look at
    and try to decipher.

    Locate your launch site on the section map. Are there any airports
    within 5 miles? If so, you'll need a waiver of Section 101.23(c), which
    addresses your proximity to an airport, in addition to waiver of Section
    101.23(b), which covers controlled airspace. You type these section
    numbers on line 4 of the application. Lines 1, 2, and 3 are your name,
    address, telephone number, and all that David Copperfield crap, as
    Salinger called it.

    Line 5 asks for a detailed description of what you want to do. I usually
    put something like the following:

        Normal operations of Model and High Impulse Rockets
        weighing more than 16 ounces (but less than 80 ounces)
        in accordance with the National Association of Rocketry
        Safety Codes (please see attached).

    Line 6 asks for the location. If you've got the latitude and longitude
    to the second, use them. Otherwise, you can refer to a copy of the portion
    section map, like this:

        On the grounds of and directly above the National Warplane
        Museum, Geneseo, NY (please see attached portion of Detroit
        section map).

    You can then copy that portion of the section map, circle the launch site
    in red or some other color, and write the legend, "Area of Proposed
    Operations." (Remember, these folks talk in Bureaucratese.)

    In either case, this is the line on which you request altitude. Again,
    in FAA patois, "No operation under this waiver will exceed 5000 feet AGL"
    are the magic words which have worked for us (along with "please" and
    "thank you"). If you can read the altitude of the terrain on the section
    map, you can add this to the requested altitude above ground level to
    arrive at the altitude above Mean Sea Level (MSL), which might be
    appreciated by the person processing your application.

    On Line 7 you give your starting and ending dates and times, and any
    rain dates. It's not necessary (nor is it desirable) to use Zulu
    (Greenwich Mean) Time, but these folks use that "hundred hour" jazz
    that Colonel Blake on M*A*S*H hated so much. Make sure to indicate
    what time zone you're referencing, for example "1030 EDT".

    Lines 8 through 14 pertain to airshows and the like, so just put an
    "N/A" or two there to let them know these areas aren't blank because of
    an omission. You sign on Line 15, and have an opportunity to say a
    little something about how you're going to be running things. I usually
    write in the following, under "Remarks":

        All operations will be conducted in accordance with the NAR
        Safety Codes and shall be under the control of an experienced
        Range Safety / Launch Control Officer. A spotter will watch
        for aircraft entering the operations area, and will temporarily
        suspend operations in this contingency.

    Make three copies. Keep one for yourself, send your original and two of
    the copies to the Regional Office. Attach three copies of both Safety
    Codes, because the Model Rocket Safety Code covers rockets which will
    be under the terms of the waiver. Also attach three copies of the
    germane portion of the section map, if that's how you're indicating
    where you are going to fly. Include a short letter of transmittal.

    After having some scares about the last two applications I sent in,
    next time I plan to include a receipt postcard. I'm going to put my
    address on the address side, and on the other side it will say:

        Received _________________ (date) an Application for
        Certificate of Waiver or Authorization, FAA Form
        7711-2, at this office. For further information,
        please contact ___________________ (name) at
        _________________ (telephone number, extension).

    Bureaucrats see these things all the time, and they know what to do with

    Mail off this packet to the FAA Regional Office, to the attention of
    Flight Standards (I think!). You need to apply at least 30 days (the form
    says 45 days, so be sure) in advance. If you don't hear back from them
    in two or three weeks, give them a call. We had to do this twice; once the
    form was lost, and another time it was just in the "in" basket.

    If all goes according to plan, you should get back your application, all
    the other stuff you sent (talk about carrying coals to Newcastle!), and
    the Magic Certificate of Waiver! There will be a few strings attached.
    You should be instructed to inform the nearest ATC, and possibly an
    Automated Flight Information Service, a certain time before you start,
    in order to "activate" your waiver. You'll probably be instructed to
    contact them when you're done, too. Usually these things are not a big
    deal, but sometimes you get a person who doesn't know why you're
    bothering them. Just tell them that you're carrying out instructions
    from the Regional Office to give a Notice to Airmen, pursuant to the
    terms of your Certificate of Waiver. A little official-sounding talk
    will make them feel right at home.

    Of course, you have to make sure all fliers are familiar with the terms
    and conditions of your waiver, because it's your butt that's on the
    line, too. It is a standing MARS policy that the waiver certificate
    and application are available for inspection by all fliers.

    After the launch, I usually send a letter to the person who sent me
    the Certificate of Waiver, thanking them for their help, and letting
    them know we had a safe and enjoyable time. It helps grease the skids
    for the next waiver you want, besides being common courtesy.

    It's not hard to obtain a waiver if you make your application in a
    professional manner, and conduct your activities likewise. There's no
    fee, but there is some effort involved. Finally, keep in mind that the
    people working on your application are people, and as such they
    respond to being treated courteously and professionally. I hope you
    find the process relatively simple and painless.

10.8  Is high power rocketry legal in every state, if the proper forms are

    No.  Even with an FAA waiver, HPR is NOT legal in every state.  Check
    with your local fire marshal for requirements/restrictions in your area.
    The NAR and Tripoli  are actively working to get state restrictions on
    model and HPR removed.
10.9   Where do I find out the proper way to use HPR rockets and motors?  I'm
            familiar with the NAR Model Rocketry Sporting Code.  Is there an HPR

    Both the NAR and Tripoli have HPR safety codes.  The two organizations
    are working together to produce a consistent safety code to be presented
    to the NFPA.  These codes specify minimum launch field sizes, minimum
    distance to keep from launchers, etc.  The NAR High Power Rocket 
    Safety Code has been published in Sport Rocketry, and is on their web site.
    The Tripoli safety code is published in their Members handbook, which is 
    sent to all new Tripoli members. 
    BOTH OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS.  There are legal restrictions to buying 
    high power motors.  Only certified members of 'legally qualified' 
    organizations may purchase them.  If you want to fly high power you need 
    to be a member of either the NAR or Tripoli.

    The High Power Safety Codes for both the NAR and Tripoli are based on the 
    NFPA 1127 guidelines. Both organizations recognize the others safety
    code, motor certifications, and HPR user certifications.
10.10    What are some good kits to build when first getting into high power
            rocketry (assuming I have all of the basic model rocketry skills)?

	Popular rec.models.rockets vote:
      LOC Graduator	

    From: (C. D. Tavares)
      AAA Penn. Crude

    From: (Bob Kaplow)
      - Avoid any kit with plastic fins or internal parts.
      - Avoid phenolic tubes, thick cardboard tubes are more familiar
        and easy to work with
      - For Large Model Rockets, try a LOC Graduator or Rocket R&D/THOY
      - For a High Power rocket try a LOC IV or EZI-65, or a Rocket R&D/THOY

    From: JCook@Epoch.C (Jim Cook):
      LOC kits are a good introduction into high power - they are strong
      (banging it several times for emphasis on the table).

    From: (Buzz McDermott)
      If you have never flown anything bigger than an Estes or FSI D
      motor, I would recommend building one or more E-G kits before
      tackling H power and up.  When you go for your NAR or TRA
      certification, choose a rocket where G and H motors are the low
      end or mid-range power options.  Going with a rocket where your
      chosen motor is at the high end or above the rockets recommended
      power range is more likely to fail by over-stressing the design.
      Bigger, slower high power rockets are less stressed and more likely to
      succeed.  In the case of NAR certification, this gets you a rocket
      good for multiple certification levels.  I like the following (any
      are good NAR or TRA certification rockets):
        LOC Mini Magg, 38mm mount              (G-I motors)
        LOC EZI-65, 54mm mount                 (G-I motors)
        THOY (Rocket R&D) Falcon, 54mm mount   (H-J motors)
    From: (Mike Forman)
       I bought, built, flew and certified on a PML Io. Very nice kit. I
       glassed the tube, and would bet it's as close to bulletproof as you 
       could get and still be legal to fly as a hpr. I posted a review of 
       the Io here, and you could probably go to dejanews' archive and 
       retrieve it.  Great rocket, great flights, easy to build.
    From: (Mark U.)
       My favorite 4 in. rocket is the THOY/R&D Falcon. In stock configure it
       easyily will handle H-J and if beefed up a K is not out of the question.
       My second choice would be a PML Quasar this will fly nicely on a H-I 

10.11   When is a Federal Low Explosives Permit required?

    NOTE:  As of 1997, the BATF will be formally clarifying their
    interpretation of what high power rocket motors require a Federal
    Low Explosives Users Permit (LEUP).  At the time that this is written
    (Jan. 9, 1997) it appears that reloadable motor propellant segments 
    less than 62.5 grams in mass will require a LEUP if their intended use 
    is to assemble a motor that has more than 62.5 grams of propellant.
    Furthermore, LEUP fees may be raised.  At the time of this writing, these
    changes are not yet in effect.  The National Association of Rocketry and
    Tripoli Rocketry Association are working together to see what can be done
    to protect the interests of high power rocketry enthusiasts, and will
    be keeping their members informed of the latest developments. 
    The following are excerpts from a joint communique issued by the 
    High Power Rocket Manufacturers and Dealers Association and the Tripoli
    Rocketry Association to the high-power rocket community on 25 April 1994.
    It was posted to CompuServe by Michael Platt, president of the HPRMDA.

     [Based on informal clarification from the BATF, it is our belief that:]

     (a) single-use model rocket motors containing no more than 62.5 grams of
         propellant are exempt from Federal licensing and storage requirements;

     (b) reloadable rocket motor products are also exempt from Federal licensing 
         and storage requirements, provided that the mass of each propellant grain
         is no more than 62.5 grams, and has received a DOT shipping designation
         as Explosive 1.4, but may not be made available to children;

     (c) any single-use motor containing propellant mass greater than 62.5 grams,
         or any reloadable rocket motor product containing a propellant grain 
         which weighs more than 62.5 grams, is subject to Federal licensing and
         storage requirements.

      Users (e.g. consumers, flyers) of high-power rocket motors and reload kits 
      as described in item (c) above, are subject to Federal, and possibly state 
      and local, permit requirements for the purchase and storage of explosives. 
      On the Federal level, this involves obtaining an explosive user permit from 
      BATF, at a cost of $20 for the first year, and $10 for each subsequent 
      three-year period. An important exception to the Federal requirement for a 
      user permit is if the user were to purchase a motor or reload kit in his 
      state of residence as defined by BATF, and either (a) use the motor or 
      reload kit at the site of purchase (e.g. a launch), or (b) transport it to 
      an approved storage facility located within the boundaries of said state.

      Everyone--manufacturers, dealers (distributors), users--who stores (as 
      defined by the BATF) a high-power rocket motor or reload kit as described 
      in item (c) above is subject to Federal, and possibly state and local, 
      requirements for the storage of explosives. All storage of a high-power 
      rocket motor or reload kit must be in accordance with Federal explosive 
      storage requirements, even if a Federal license/permit is not required for 
      purchase. There are no exceptions to this rule.
    A document with questions and answers about the BATF and rocketry is
    available at the sunsite archive:
    Instructions for filling out a LEUP are available on the Rocket Science
     web site:
10.12   How do I get an LEUP? Are there any requirements?

    The following is an excerpt from the June 1994 'Tripoli Report'. Since 
    this deals with Federal Law and not Tripoli rules, I do not believe that 
    there is any violation of Tripoli by-laws in doing this.

    Q: How would a person qualify for a Federal user's permit?
    A: The chief, firearms and explosives licensing center, will approve a
       properly completed application if the applicant:

       1) Is 21 years of age or older,
       2) Is not a person to whom distribution of an affected high-power
          rocket commodity is prohibited under the Act (Federal law),
       3) Has not willfully violated any provisions of the Act,
       4) Has not knowingly withheld any information or has not made any false
          or fictitious statement intended or likely to deceive concerning the 
       5) Has storage for the class (low explosive) of an affected high-power
          rocket commodity, as described on the application, unless he establishes 
          that his operations to be conducted will not require the storage of an 
          affected high-power rocket commodity.
       6) Is familiar with and understands all published state laws and local
          ordinances relating to affected high-power rocket communications
          in which he intends to conduct operations.
      ATF Form 5400.13/5400.16 must be filed to obtain a permit.

    From: (Buzz McDermott)
      You may obtain a users permit with or without a storage magazine. If
      your primary reason for the permit is to be able to buy HPR motors 
      at out of state launches, then you don't need a home storage magazine.
      If you do have a home storage magazine, remember to keep the proper 
      records for all motors added to and removed from the magazine.

      Michael Platt has indicated willingness to help anyone who has any 
      questions regarding the proper filling out of the permits. He may
      be reached at 70233.255@CompuServe.COM.
10.13   How is thermalite affected by the ATF regulatory enforcement?

    From: 70233.255@CompuServe.COM (Michael Platt )
      Thermalite is a brand name for igniter cord. Purchase and storage of 
      igniter cord is regulated by BATF. Purchase and/or storage of igniter 
      cord, IN ANY QUANTITY, requires an explosive license and an approved 
      storage facility, i.e. an explosive magazine. This includes thermalite 
      in any length, including the one inch lengths commonly included with 
      motors produced by various manufacturers. The only exception to this 
      would be the purchase by a user for immediate use in the state where 
      he/she resides.
10.14   How can I get the Orange Book (explaining the ATF explosive laws
             and regulations) and the proper LEUP forms?

    Call you regional BATF office and ask for the Orange Book and an
    application for a Federal Low Explosives Users Permit. Remember that you
    want a Users permit (there are several other types of permits). The 
    regional office will mail these to you at no charge. The documentation
    you receive will indicate where the filled in forms and payment should 
    be remitted.
10.15   Just what is a 'hybrid' rocket motor? Who makes them?

    From: (Kevin Reed)
      A hybrid motor as sold for model rocketry uses a solid fuel grain and a
      liquid oxidizer -- in the case of commercial model motors, nitrous oxide.
      A composite motor uses a solid oxidizer -- ammonium perchlorate -- mixed
      with a rubber binder/fuel to make a unified solid grain.

      I can't think of any 24mm hybrids on the market; the smallest, I think,
      has an "I" rating and fits into a 54mm mount.

      There are two companies currently manufacturing them commercially,
      Aerotech and Hypertek. One system loads the oxidizer tank before loading
      the motor in the rocket, while the other fills the tank after the rocket
      is in launch position.

      Hybrids have a couple of advantages over composites: one is that there is
      virtually no fire hazard transporting or storing the motor: without the
      oxidizer in direct contact with it, the fuel grain is almost inert. It is
      also not covered by the same DOT shipping restrictions, because the tanks
      are DOT certified and the fuel grain poses no environmental or fire

      [Editor's note: The Jan 1996 issue of High Power Rocketry magazine has an
       excellent article comparing the Hypertek and Aerotech hybrid systems.]
Copyright (c) 1996 Wolfram von Kiparski, editor. 
Refer to Part 00 for the full copyright notice. 

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