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COP8 microcontroller FAQ

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Archive-name: microcontroller-faq/COP8
Posting-Frequency: monthly (20thish of each month)
Last-modified: 20June1995

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This article is a draft collection of information sources on the line of
National Semiconductor Corporation ("National") COP8 microcontrollers.

The following topics are addressed:

0)  Changes Since Last Time
0.1)  Why should I read this?

1.1)  Who put this FAQ together?
1.2)  How can I contribute to this list?
1.3)  What newsgroups will this FAQ be posted to?
1.4)  May I post this FAQ to my local BBS?
1.5)  Are there any FAQs pertaining to other microcontrollers?

2.1)  The COP8 microcontroller
2.2)  COP8 flavors / Numbering Scheme
2.3)  COP8 chips and approximate prices (in US $)
2.4)  Advantages in implementing control applications on this
      family of microcontrollers
2.5)  Techy Details
2.5.1) How fast are the parts?
2.5.2) What is the operating voltage of the devices?
2.5.3) How can I guarantee that my program will run reliably?
2.5.4) What kind of power savings features are available?
2.5.5) What about EMI?
2.5.6) Instruction Set
2.5.7) Can I hook up a LED to pins direct?

3.1)  FTP sites
3.2)  BBSs
3.3)  Free languages and development tools
3.4)  Free C compilers
3.5)  Plans for COP8-based boards
3.6)  Commercially available products
3.7)  Contacting National

4.1)  Periodicals
4.2)  Data Books / Application Notes


0)  Changes since Last Time

    Added a reference to (a support line for help on 
    cop8 tools).

    Somebody pointed out to me the other day - Since the COP8 and the 8051
    are modified harvard - they can do a load/store instruction in one
    instruction cycle. A Von Neuman machine can not do that. This makes
    (for memory intensive applications) a harvard machine almost 2 times
    as fast as a Von Neuman running at the same speed..... 

    Maybe architecture does make a difference on a 8-bit controller....

0.1) Why should I read this document?

    The COP8 is a pretty cool 8-bit microcontroller that has never had a
    lot of exposure into the hobbiest/smaller manufactures marketplace.
    I would like to change that. (& on the internet the indiviaul can do

    In a nutshell, some of the strengths of the COP8 are:
     o Efficient Instruction Set - 77% os instructions are single cycle/
       single byte
     o Efficient Input/Output utilization - i.e. on a 44-pin package > 80%
       of this pins are devoted to I/O. Efficient pin usage facilitiates a
       cleaner hardware design and smaller die size = Overall cost reduction
     o Powerful Timers - i.e. processor-independent Pulse Width Modulation
       (PWM) and capture capabiliy - less software and processor overhead
     o Low Poer Consumption (Low Voltage / Low Current)
     o Multi-Input Wake Up (MIWU) - Only COP8 offers this unique feature
     o Wide range of temperature and power supply operation
     o Low cost Basic Family to address low-end 8-bit applications and
       feature family to address mid-to-high end 8-bit market

    And the Opposite side to the coin (have to be fair):
     o Difficult (i.e. none) external memory interface
     o No Multipy / Divide instructions
     o Multiply / Divide hardware only offered on a couple devices
     o Lack of EEPROM, and LCD (Although they are working on it)

1.1)  Who put this FAQ together?

   After reading the excellent FAQs on the 8051 (Intel/Phillips) and
   the 68hc11 (Motorola) put together by Russ Hersch 
   <> (Nice work Russ), I decided to make a FAQ
   on the COP8, National's family of 8-bit microcontrollers.

   I work for National in the Geographic Business Unit (GBU) responsible for
   technical support for New Business Development (NBD), so if you want to 
   call this advertising, and don't want me to continue to post this in 
   the future, please email me (that doesn't mean I will stop, but you 
   will get it off your chest ;-). I think that I have kept most of the 
   hype out - please let me know if you think otherwise.

   This FAQ will hopefully give everyone a brief overview of why you should
   have a further look at the COP8 instead of automatically picking a
   HC11, or 8051. Not that they are bad parts, in fact they are better
   at some things than the COP8. And COP8 is much better at some things
   than the HC11 or 8051. The COP8 is a good chip, and well worth
   learning and developing with. With everyone's help this FAQ should 
   turn out to be a useful document.

   Because I admire Russ's FAQ's and I was too lazy to take the time to think 
   up my own format, I have copied his basic format and a couple of sections 
   (with his permission, of course).

1.2)  How can I contribute to this list?

   I ask that if you have any suggestions or additions, or you would like to 
   correct any of the information contained herein, please send me a note.

        My Email address is:
        My Smail address is:
              Robin Getz
              National Semiconductor Corporation
              MS 16-325
              Santa Clara, CA, 94086

   I certainly hope that those of you who know of interesting items for
   the COP8 will share with everyone by contributing to this list.

   If you are a manufacturer and have an anonymous ftp site available
   that supports the COP8, please let me know by Email so that I can
   add it to this FAQ.

1.3)  What newsgroups will this FAQ be posted to?

   This FAQ will be posted to the following newsgroups:
         comp.realtime       Issues related to real-time computing.
         comp.robotics       All aspects of robots and their applications.
         sci.electronics     Circuits, theory, electrons and discussions.
         comp.arch.embedded  Embedded computer systems topics.

   And sometime later, depending on what people think....

   The first four newsgroups often contain discussions, announcements,
   or information on microcontrollers.  Check them out from time to 
   time. By posting to the *.answers newsgroups, the FAQ will 
   automatically be archived.  The archive name of this FAQ (also 
   included in the header) is: cop8-microcontroller-faq.

   Items will be posted once a month.  I can't promise that
   it will be on time, but I hope to post it on the 25th of each month.

   You may also want to check out the following newsgroups, since they
   occasionally have items of interest for COP8 users.

1.4)  May I post this FAQ to my local BBS?

   I am putting no restrictions on the use of this FAQ except - It must
   be distributed in its entirety with the copyright notice, and no
   financial gain may be realized from it.  After all, I have spent, and
   continue to spend, a lot of time on this, and the only thing that I
   intend to gain from it is more information on the COP8, and getting
   to know my fellow COP8 groupies better.

   For this reason I have appended a copyright statement to the end of
   this FAQ.  I feel pretty silly doing this, but I just want to protect
   myself.  The copyright does not limit the use of this list for 
   non-commercial purposes.  I hereby give my permission to one and all
   to pass this list around and post it wherever you want - as long as
   it is not for financial gain.


1.5)  How about FAQs on other microcontrollers?

   If anyone wishes to start a FAQ on another microcontroller, please
   feel free to copy the format of this FAQ (I did).  With a common 
   format, we will all benefit when trying to find information on a 
   particular microcontroller.  If anyone has any comments on the format
   itself, I'm open for suggestions.

   Other Microcontroller FAQs

     Subject:  68hc11 microcontrollers
     Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
     Archive: :  <plus all mirror sites>
     Maintainer:  Russ Hersch

     Subject:  PIC microcontrollers
     Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
     Maintainer:  Tom Kellett

     Subject:  8051 microcontrollers
     Archive: :  <plus all mirror sites>
     Maintainer:  Russ Hersch

     Subject:  Microcontroller primer and FAQ
     Archive: :  <plus all mirror sites>
     Maintainer:  Russ Hersch

   Additional FAQs of interest

     Subject:  Robotics
     Newsgroups:  comp.robotics
     Maintainer:  Kevin Dowling

     Subject:  Electronics
     Newsgroups:  sci.electronics
     Maintainer:  Filip Gieszczykiewicz

     Subject:  Real-time
     Newsgroups:  comp.realtime, comp.answers, news.answers
     Archive: : pub/usenet/comp.realtime
     Maintainer:  Mark Linimon

     Subject:  Neural Networks
     Archive: : pub/usenet/neural-net-faq
     Maintainer:  Lutz Prechelt

     Subject:  Fuzzy Logic
     Archive: : pub/usenet/fuzzy-logic/
             /ai/fuzzy/part1/faq.html (should be one line)
     Maintainer:  Mark Kantrowitz

   Other useful articles are also available.  One article provides a
   tabular cross reference of features and pin counts. This lists was
   compiled and is being maintained by Roger Nelson

   For more information on various microcontrollers and their features,
   refer to the Microcontroller primer and FAQ listed above. URL:



2.1)  The COP8 microcontroller


   Firstly - COP8 (Control Orientated Processor) actually stands for 
   something. (Although the rest of the numbering scheme leaves something 
   to be desired). This is not a failed microprocessor that was cut down for 
   8-bit control (like some others). This is a full featured microcontroller 
   designed for bit level control. (Although National does make a 32-bit 
   processor (32000), the COP8 has nothing to do with it).

   The COP8 is a powerful 8-bit data, 15-bit address (32K max ROM)
   microcontroller from National with an instruction set that is 
   similar (somewhat) to the 8051, although it is much easier for
   the beginner to understand and pick up (In my unbasised opinion
   of course :)

   Depending on the variety, the COP8 has built-in EEPROM/OTPROM, RAM,
   digital I/O, timers, A/D converter, PWM generator, and synchronous
   and asynchronous communications channels (RS232 and MICROWIRE/PLUS).
   Typical current draw is less than 12ma, with powerdown modes that 
   can reduce current draw to typically less than 1 uA. (Although I 
   have seen ***50nA***)

   A typical COP8 contains:
      - CPU with Boolean processor
      - fully static processor
      -  up to vectored 14 interrupts: 2 are external (8 pins can 
          be ORed into one interrupt, for a total of 9 external)
          - arbitration levels
      - 1,2 or 3 16-bit timer/counters (min 1 max 3)
      - programmable full-duplex serial port (UART/USART or 
      - up to 56 I/O lines (11 pins min + Vcc/GND/Reset/CKI/CKO)
      - up to 512 bytes RAM (64 bytes min)
      - up to 16K ROM/EPROM in some models (768 bytes min)
      - new parts are LOW EMI (typically lower than 14dB emissions)

   The COP8 peripherals are POWERFUL. The timer that you will find on 
   a COP8 is much more powerful than on a typical microcontroller.
   I will get into this a little later.

   The COP8 instruction set is optimized for the one-bit operations so
   often desired in real-world, real-time control applications.  The
   Boolean processor provides direct support for bit manipulation.  This
   leads to more efficient programs that need to deal with binary input
   and output conditions inherent in digital-control problems.  Bit
   addressing can be used for test pin monitoring or program control


    The COP8 is a modified Harvard architecture. With the Harvard 
    architecture, the ROM is separated from the data memory (RAM). Both 
    ROM and RAM have their own separate addressing space with separate 
    address busses (there are two 0 addresses - 1 for ROM, 1 for RAM). The
    COP8, though based on the Harvard Architecture, permits transfers from
    ROM to RAM (hence modified).

    The CPU has an 8-bit accumulator (A) that all arithmetic operations go 
    into. Two 8-bit index registers are present (X, B) to provide indexing 
    to anywhere in the memory map. Having the two index registers means the 
    COP8 is very good for processing data.  Although an 8-bit processor, the 
    COP8 has some 16 bit (and bigger) peripherals (timers, 24 by 8 divide, 
    16 by 8 multiply, 16-bit A/D). An 8 bit stack pointer is also present, 
    and instructions are provided for stack manipulation.

    Feature Family / Basic Family

    The COP8 family is divided into two families - the Basic Family and 
    the Feature Family. There is little difference between the devices 
    although the feature family has the following advantages:
      - 7 more instructions (including PUSH and POP)
      - 2 auto-reload registers on timers / Basic family only has one
      - IDLE Mode (Basic family only offers HALT mode)
      - powerful peripherals ( A/D, UART, high speed timers, WatchDog,
        comparators, etc. )

    Onboard subsystems

    Timer -  Main timer system comprises of a single 16-bit counter
    (2 x 8-bit registers) clocked at tc (1MHz at Crystal frequency of 
    10MHz). Timers have at least one associated register and all Feature 
    Family devices have 2 registers. All timers have at least 1uSec 
    accuracy and some have 100nS - check datasheet for specific details.
    Timers can be configured in the following methods:
       - External Counter (clocked on positive or negative edge)
       - Timer w/ Auto-Load Register (PWM output)
       - Timer with Capture (triggered on positive or negative edge)

    Pulse Stream Generators - Some of the devices have specific timers
    that are 100ns resolution 16-bit PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) outputs 

    Multi-Input Wakeup -The Multi-Input WakeUp (MIWU)  is used to return
    (wakeup) the microcontroller from either HALT or IDLE modes. 
    Alternately MIWU may also be used to generate up to 8 edge 
    selectable external interrupts.  The user can select whether the 
    trigger condition on the pins is going to be either a positive edge 
    (low to high) or a negative edge (high to low).

    A-D Converters - 8-bit, 8-channel (multiplexed input) SAR 
    (Successive Approximation Register). Two dedicated pins Vref and 
    Agnd are provided for voltage reference. The time required for an 
    A/D conversion is dependent on the prescaler (fast conversion = more
    power consumed - you can run the microcontroller fast - and the A/D 
    slow). The A/D converter has the following different modes of 
      - One channel conversion then stop
      - Any specific channel to be scanned continuously
      - Any differential channel pair measurement and then stop
      - Any differential channel pair be scanned continuously

    It also has a device that supports single slope A/D - the device 
    contains a constant current source, a comparator, an analog 
    mutliplexer, and a couple of 16-bit timers. These can be configured to
    give the designer a 16-bit (resolution - not accuracy) A/D converter.

    UART / USART - Asynchronous or synchronous serial communication block.
    Clock generation (for asynchronous operation) is very sophisticated - 
    standard baud rates (300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400) can be generated
    without having to select some obscure crystal frequency (Run the 
    controller at full speed). Synchronous operations occur at 16 x the speed 
    of asynchronous. Framing formats supported are: 1 Start, 7,8 or 9 data, 
    Parity/No Parity, 1 or 2 stop. The Attention Mode (or Network Mode) is 
    also supported, whereby a single master / multi-slave environment is set 
    up. This is a *very* powerful feature that can be used almost anywhere 
    when you need to talk to more than one controller / CPU. Diagnostic 
    mode is also enhanced from a regular UART. Internally, the Transmit 
    Shift Register is "looped back" into the Receive Shift Register. 
    Externally the receiver input pin (RDX) is connected to the 
    transmitter output pin(TDX). This allows the external UART to do a 
    continuity check of the external lines.

    MICROWIRE/PLUS - A Synchronous serial communications port, comprised 
    of Serial Clock (SK), Serial Data In (SI), Serial Data Out (SO) and 
    optional chip selects.  There are many specific MICROWIRE, MICROWIRE/PLUS 
    and SPI devices, (the only difference between SPI and MICROWIRE is 
    when the data is shifted in - and with MICROWIRE/PLUS - you control that) 
    such as A/Ds, D/As, EPROM, FLASH, EEPROM, MUX's.....

    Comparator - A differential comparator, with a pair of inputs (positive 
    and negative) and an output. The comparator can be software disabled (to 
    save power). The output can either be brought outside (via a pin) or left 
    as a bit somewhere inside the controller.

    BrownOut - BrownOut protection is usually an on-board protection circuit 
    that resets the device when the operating voltage (Vcc) is lower than the 
    Brownout voltage.  The device is held in reset and will remain in reset 
    when Vcc stays below the Brownout voltage. The device will resume 
    execution (from reset) after Vcc has risen above the BrownOut Voltage.

    CAN - The COP8 supports applications which require a low speed CAN 
    interface. The interface is compatible with CAN Specification 2.0 part B,
    without the capability to receive/transmit extended frames. However, 
    extended frames on the bus are checked and acknowledged according to the 
    CAN specification. The maximum bus speed achievable with the CAN interface
    is a function of crystal frequency, message length and software overhead. 
    The device can support a bus speed of up to 1 Mbit/s with a 10MHz 
    oscillator and 2 byte messages.

    Hardware Multiply / Divide - This block supports a 1 byte x 2 bytes
    (3 byte result) multiply operation (in one instruction cycle - 1uS) or a
    3 byte x 2 byte (2 byte result) divide operation (in two instruction 
    cycles - 2uS). There are no multiplication errors that can occur ( FFh x
    FF FFh = FE FF 01h which fits in three bytes). Divide errors are trapped
    (overflow FF FF FFh / 1h = FF FF FFh which is bigger than two bytes and
    division by zero)

2.2)  COP8 flavors / Numbering Scheme

    All devices include at least one 16-bit timer, MICROWIRE/PLUS serial
    interface, common pinouts, common instruction set and most are 
    available in ...

    Basic Family Numbering Scheme

    ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ 
       |||||| ||| \-- Package Type : N  - DIP
       |||||| |||                  : WM - Surface Mount
       |||||| |||                  : V  - PLCC
       |||||| |||                  : J  - DIP Windowed
       |||||| |||
       |||||| \\\---- Unique ROM id Code assigned by National
       ||||||         NOTE: OTP and windowed parts do not have
       ||||||               this code
       ||||\\-------- Features : CJ - Brown-out,high speed timers,
       ||||                            comparators,MIWU
       ||||                      C  - 16-bit timer 
       |||\---------- Number of pins : 0 - 28/40/44 (depends on package)
       |||                           : 1 - 28
       |||                           : 2 - 20
       |||                           : 3 - 16
       |||                           : 8 - Indicates Feature Family 
       |||                           : 5 - Indicates Feature Family 
       |||                           : 4 - Indicates Feature Family 
       ||\------------ ROM/RAM : 2 - 1k ROM / 64 btyes RAM 
       ||                      : 4 - 2k ROM / 128 bytes RAM
       ||                      : 8 - 4k ROM / 128 bytes RAM
       |\------------- If 7 is there indicates Programmability (EPROM)
       |               If 6 is there indicates EEPROM for RAM
       |               If nothing indicates ROM device with volatile RAM
       \-------------- Temp range : 6 - Military (-55C to +125C)
                                    8 - Industrial (-40C to +85C)
                                    9 - Commercial (0C to +70C)

    Feature Family Numbering Scheme

    ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ \ - OTP Oscillator Option: R - RC
       || ||| ||| |                            X - Crystal
       || ||| ||| |
       || ||| ||| \-- Package Type : N  - DIP
       || ||| |||                  : WM - Surface Mount
       || ||| |||                  : V  - PLCC
       || ||| |||                  : J  - DIP Windowed
       || ||| |||
       || ||| \\\---- Unique ROM id Code assigned by National
       || |||         NOTE: OTP and windowed parts do not have
       || |||               this code
       || |||
       || ||\-------- Features : F - 2 timers, 8-bit, 8-channel ADC
       || ||                     G - 3 timers, 2 comparators, UART
       || ||                     C - 1 timer, CAN, 2 comparators
       || ||                     S - 1 timer, 1 comparator, UART
       || ||                     L - 2 timers
       || ||                     K - 1 time, Analog block, 1 comparator
       || ||                     W - 2 timers, 4 Pulse Stream Generators
       || ||                         Hardware Multiply divide
       || ||
       || |\--------- ROM/RAM : B - 2k ROM  /  64 RAM
       || |                     C - 4k ROM  / 128 RAM
       || |                     E - 8k ROM  / 256 RAM
       || |                     G - 16k ROM / 512 RAM
       || |
       || \---------- Number of pins : 8 - 40/44 (depends on package)
       ||                            : 5 - 20
       ||                            : 4 - 28
       ||                            : 2 - Indicates Basic Family device
       ||                            : 1 - Indicates Basic Family device
       ||                            : 0 - Indicates Basic Family device
       |\------------- If 7 is there indicates Programmability (EPROM)
       |               If 6 is there indicates EEPROM for RAM
       |               If nothing indicates ROM device with volatile RAM
       \-------------- Temp range : 6 - Military (-55C to +125C)
                                    8 - Industrial (-40C to +85C)
                                    9 - Commercial (0C to +70C)

2.3)  COP8 chips and approximate prices (in US $)

   I am affiliated with the manufacturer of these devices, & you will most 
   likely be purchasing parts from a distributor. If I was to list prices,
   some people would think that was pricing fixing - so I can't (& won't).

   The below prices are subject to lots of things, where you live (prices 
   vary by region), package type (DIP, SO, PLCC), Temperature range 
   (Commerical, Industrial, Military) and volume. Contact your favorite
   National Distributor for more info.

   Basic Family      |ROM|RAM|DI|  |PL|TI|CO|UA|MI|WD|Other
   Device    | 5000  |   |   |P |SO|CC|ME|MP|RT|WU|OG|
   COP8780   | 3.25  | 4k|128|40|  |44| 1|  |  |  |  |
   COP8781   | 2.55  | 4k|128|28|28|  | 1|  |  |  |  |
   COP8782   | 2.30  | 4k|128|20|20|  | 1|  |  |  |  |
   COP8720CJ | 4.00  | 1k| 64|28|28|  | 2| 1|  | Y| Y|
   COP8722CJ | 3.50  | 1k| 64|20|20|  | 2| 1|  | Y| Y|
   COP8740CJ | 5.25  | 2k|128|28|28|  | 2| 1|  | Y| Y|
   COP8742CJ | 4.40  | 2k|128|20|20|  | 2| 1|  | Y| Y|

   Feature Family
   COP8784BC | 7.90  | 2k| 64|28|28|  | 2| 2|  | Y|  |CAN, Power-On-Reset
   COP8788CF | 7.65  | 4k|128|40|  |44| 2|  |  | Y| Y|8-bit 8-chan
   COP8784CF | 7.40  | 4k|128|28|28|  | 2|  |  | Y| Y|A/D
   COP8788EG | 7.85  | 8k|256|40|  |44| 3| 2| 1| Y| Y|
   COP8784EG | 7.60  | 8k|256|28|28|  | 3| 2| 1| Y| Y|
   COP8788CL | 6.70  | 4k|128|40|  |44| 2|  |  | Y| Y|
   COP8784CL | 6.45  | 4k|128|28|28|  | 2|  |  | Y| Y|
   COP8788EK | 9.40  | 8k|256|40|  |44| 3| 1|  | Y| Y|Analog fncts
   COP8784EK | 9.10  | 8k|256|28|28|  | 3| 1|  | Y| Y|(16-bit A/D)

   Otherwise you can call Future Active Industrial @ 800-723-5817. They do
   stock parts on the shelf, and should be able to ship within a day or
   two. To find you favorite local distributor, please call National, and
   I am sure that we should be able to tell you.

   ROMmed - Check with your local National Distributor.

2.4)  Advantages in implementing control applications on this
     family of microcontrollers

   Traditional architecture - Modified Harvard (separate RAM and ROM busses) 
   leads to an easy to learn device as well as speeding the device up. As your
   first microcontroller, this is very well suited to learning.

   More features - a COP8 is typically a "one-chip" solution since it always
   includes such items as serial I/O, PWM, and many I/O lines, and typically 
   includes on board A/D, UARTs, and many timers.

   Fast and effective - the architecture correlates closely with the problem 
   being solved (control systems). Specialized instructions mean that fewer 
   bytes of code need to be fetched and fewer conditional jumps are processed.
   (77% on instructions are single byte/single cycle - this means smaller and 
   faster code).

   Low cost - high level of system integration within one component, only a 
   handful of components needed to create a working system.

2.5) Techy Details

   Not all of the below features are on all of the devices (check the 

2.5.1) How fast are the parts?

   The COP8 has a max Clock input (CKI) of 10MHz. Since the parts have a 
   divide by 10 internal clock, the instruction cycle time (tc) is 1Mhz
   or 1us. Most internal devices are fed with tc. The UART is fed by tc 
   through a very complex divide and prescaler, which allows any standard 
   baud rate to be generated with almost any tc. (i.e. Get the baud rate 
   you want without having to purchase that 9.8746856MHz crystal!) Some 
   timers are fed with CKI, giving a PWM output with **100ns** resolution.
   Hardware multiply/divide are fed with CKI allowing a 3 byte by 2 byte 
   multiply to be completed in 1us, and a 3 byte by 2 byte divide completing
   in 2us.

   The parts are also fast because most of the instructions execute in one
   tc. (1us).

2.5.2) What is the operating voltage of the devices?

    The operating voltage of most of the ROMmed devices is between 2.3 <-> 

    The operating voltage of most of the OTP's is between 4.5 <-> 5.5V. A low
    voltage (2ishV) OTP is expected within 12 months. 

2.5.3) How can I guarantee that my program will run reliably?

   You can't.

   Not COP8, nor any other microcontroller is guaranteed to operate when a 
   10MegaWatt Radar wave is passing through it.  EMI can cause any 
   microcontroller to do *VERY* funny things. What your microcontroller can 
   do is provide a couple features to ensure that the application realizes
   that funny things have gone on.

   The COP8 provides 3 methods of trapping these types of events.
   NOTE: these events are just as likely to happen on a HC11, 8051,
   PIC, ect . . . COP8 just traps them.

   SOFTWARE TRAP - since the Program Counter (PC) is 15 bits in length
   (Max theoretical ROM space of 32K) and the biggest part we make (currently)
   is a 16K part (and most smaller) there is a possibility that the PC could
   point to ROM that does not physically exist.  This will be trapped within 
   one tc (instruction cycle) and cause an interrupt to occur. The interrupt 
   will reload the PC with a known value (0x00FF) and go to that value.  A 
   Software Trap is the only non-maskible interrupt on the COP8. This can also
   be valuable when your program takes 4097 bytes (As most programs do) and
   you have to use a part with an 8K ROM. The upper 4095 bytes of ROM are 
   physically there, but unused. If the PC does the funky chicken and points
   to those ROM locations, is this trapped? (Well - I wouldn't ask the 
   question if I didn't have the answer). Yes, this can be trapped. The 
   best method of doing this is to load all unused ROM locations with 0x00.
   (Software Trap is simple a 00 OpCode). Since this is an interrupt, your
   interrupt handler can do anything it wants. (i.e. re-initialize the device)

   WATCHDOG - In a well thought out program this works wonderfully.  The
   software designer knows exactly how long program execution takes, and
   services a timer every so often.  This time frame (the amount of time
   you have to service the timer) is software selectable between 2k->8k,
   2k->16k, 2k->32k or 2k->64k tc. This means there is two ways to have 
   the watchdog time out - either servicing the clock too fast (more
   than once every 2k tc) or too slow (having more than one selectable
   go by). This is actually very powerful - if your "bug" is in your 
   routine that services the watchdog, you will still find out - on most
   other microcontrollers this is not true.

   When a Watchdog becomes active, nothing happens internally in the device 
   with the exception of on pin going low. This is because if you are 
   controlling a huge metal lathe with your COP8, and you have a watchdog, it 
   is a bad thing. If you reset the part, you continue on business as usual. 
   A Watchdog is a catastrophic failure. Maybe you want to turn off your 
   lathe, and sound an alarm that the lathe needs servicing. 

   This all seems well, but what happens in my real-time controller when my
   crystal starts to fail?  My real-time stops being very real time. (This is 
   another one of those questions that I better have an answer for.)

   CLOCK MONITOR - This is guaranteed not to reject the clock if the 
   instruction cycle clock (1/tc) is greater than 10kHz. This equates to
   a clock input rate (CKI) of greater than or equal to 100kHz. Again 
   this simply brings a pin (/RESET) low on the part - and nothing else.
   This is software selectable (You can turn it off if you want to run 
   the parts slower than 100kHz.)

2.5.4) What kind of power savings features do you have?

    The device can be placed into IDLE/HALT mode by software control.
    In both Halt and Idle conditions the state of the microcontroller
    remains.  RAM is not cleared and any outputs are not changed.

    HALT - 
     In Halt mode, all activities are stopped (including timers and
     counters).  The only way to wake up is by a reset or device
     interrupt (such as an I/O port).  The power requirements of the
     device are minimal and the applied voltage (Vcc) can sometimes be
     decreased below operating voltage without altering the state
     (RAM/Outputs) of the device.  Current consumption is typically
     less than 1 uA.

     A common application of HALT mode is in laptop keyboards.  In
     order to have maximum power saving, the controller is in halt
     until it detects a keystroke (via a device interrupt).  It then
     wakes up, decodes and sends the keystroke to the host, and then
     goes back into halt mode, waiting either for another keystroke, 
     or information from the host.

     The disadvantage of HALT mode is that since *ALL* activities are
     stopped (including your crystal oscillator) it takes some time 
     before your oscillator will start going again - sometimes this can 
     be in the range of 12 - 100mS (that's milli, not micro). In some 
     applications this is a bad thing - and you want to wake up faster.
     (NOTE: this is a function of the oscillator design, not the 

   IDLE - 
     In IDLE mode, all activities are stopped except:
         - associated on-board oscillator circuitry
         - watchdog logic (if any)
         - the clock monitor
         - the idle timer (a free running timer)
     Power supply requirements on the microcontroller in this mode are
     typically around 30% of normal power requirements of the
     microprocessor.  Idle mode is exited by a reset, or some other
     stimulus (such as timer interrupt, serial port, etc.).  A special
     timer/counter (the idle timer) causes the chip to wake up at a
     regular interval to check if things are OK.  The chip then goes
     back to sleep.

     IDLE mode is extremely useful for remote, unattended data logging
     - the microprocessor wakes up at regular intervals, takes its
     measurements, logs the data, and then goes back to sleep.

     Since the crystal is still going during IDLE mode, the time that it
     takes to get going again is two tc (2 uSec) - but the trade off is 
     more power consumption.

2.5.5) What about EMI?

    The control and minimization of Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI)
    is a technology that is, out of necessity, growing rapidly. EMI will
    be defined shortly but, for now, you might be more familiar with the 
    terms Radio Noise, Electrical Noise, or Radio Frequency 
    Interference (RFI). The technology's exploration includes a wide
    frequency spectrum, from dc to 40GHz. It also deals with 
    susceptibility to EMI as well as the emissions of EMI by equipment
    or components. Emissions corresponds to that potential EMi which
    comes out of a piece of equipment or component. Susceptibility, on
    the other hand, is that which couples from the outside to the 

    In COP8 designs to date, we have looked at noise situations ranging 
    from 1MHz to 200MHz. EMI, in some cases, can affect radio reception,
    TV reception, accuracy of navigation equipment, etc. In severe 
    cases, EMI might even affect medical equipment, radar equipment
    and automotive systems.

    EMI is a form of electrical-noise pollution. Think of the time 
    when an electric drill or some other power tool jammed a nearby
    radio with buzzing or crackling noises. This is annoying - but not
    catastrophic. This is much different than when aircraft navigation 
    errors occur from EMI Interruption of air traffic controller
    service or maybe even computer memory loss due to noise could
    cause two aircraft to collide resulting in the loss of lives and

    The ultimate question is - What is National doing to reduce EMI
    emissions on it's COP8? Well, the answer is...LOTS.

    Gradual Turn-On Outputs - The outputs and bi-direction ports (except
    pin G7, CKO) use gradual turn on (GTO) output drives. These drivers 
    generate less EMI than standard drives by having slower turn-on time
    and thereby reducing the peak instantaneous current. They have 
    slightly longer propagation delay than standard drivers.

    Idd CHOKE - The rate of change (di/dt) of Idd to the chip nucleus is
    controlled through the use of a Idd choke block. This block actively
    reduces current transients reaching the supply and thus reduces the
    H field emissions from the system.

    Level shifters are required for all I/O Port pins to ensure that the
    switching is consistent and to ensure that the resultant changes in
    the internal Vcc are not coupled to the port pins.

    The oscillator uses a separate power supply filter to minimize the 
    direct coupling of the oscillator frequency to the supply.

    Low EMI Logic - In order to further reduce EMI, the logic in the
    chip is disabled when inactive (by disabling the clocks). This 
    will reduce switching and hence current consumption and EMI.

    Not all devices have the above described EMI enhancements - *only*
    the newer devices. National holds 11 patents on EMI reducing 
    technology that is incorporated in the COP8.

2.5.6) Instruction Set

    The strength of the instruction set is based on the following 
     o Mostly single-byte opcode instructions minimize program size.
     o One instruction cycle for the majority of single-byte 
       instructions to minimize program execution time.
     o Many single-byte, multiple function instructions such as DRSZ 
       (Decrement Register and Skip if Zero).
     o Three memory mapped pointers: two for register indirect 
       addressing, and one for the software stack.
     o Sixteen memory mapped registers that allow an optimized 
       implementation of certain instructions.
     o Ability to set, reset, and test any individual bit in data memory
       address space, including the memory-mapped I/O ports and 
     o Register-Indirect LOAD and EXCHANGE instructions with optional 
       automatic post-incrementing or decrementing of the register 
       pointer. This allows for greater efficiency (both in cycle time 
       and program code) in loading, walking across and processing 
       fields in data memory.
     o Unique instructions to optimize program size and 
       efficiency. Some of these instructions are: DRSZ, IFBNE, DCOR, 
       RETSK, VIS and RRC.
     o Forty nine basic intructions
     o Ten addressing modes provide great flexibility
     o Easy to Program

    The feature family has seven instructions not available on the 
    basic family devices. These instructions are:
     o Push Data onto Stack (PUSH)
     o Pop Data off of Stack (POP)
     o And Skip if Zero (ANDSZ)
     o Rotate Left through Carry (RLC)
     o If Not Equal (IFNE)
     o Vector Interrupt Select (VIS)
     o Reset Pending Bit (RPND)

    The feature family instruction set contains a faster version of the 
    LD B,# (B>15) instruction than the basic family. In the basic family
    this instruction is 2-bytes/3-cycles. In feature family devices, 
    this instruction is 2-bytes/2-cycles. The feature family supports an
    additional addressing mode for the IFEQ instruction; the memory 
    direct-immediate operand addressing mode (IFEQ MD,#).

     Accumulator Bit Manipulation Instructions - The Accumulator bit 
     manipulation instructions allow the user to shift the Accumulator 
     bits and to swap its two nibbles.
       Rotate Right Through Carry (RRC)
       Rotate Left Through Carry (RLC)
       Swap Nibbles of Accumulator (SWAP)

     Stack Control Instructions
       Push Data onto Stack (PUSH)
       Pop Data off of Stack (POP) 

     Arithmetic Instructions - The arithmetic instructions perform 
     binary arithmetic such as addition and subtraction, with or without 
     the Carry bit.
       Add (ADD)
       Add with Carry (ADC)
       Subtract (SUB)
       Subtract with Carry (SUBC)
       Increment (INC)
       Decrement (DEC)
       Decimal Correct (DCOR)
       Clear Accumulator (CLR)
       Set Carry (SC)
       Reset Carry (RC)

     Conditional Instructions - The conditional instructions test a 
     condition. If the condition is true, the next instruction is 
     executed in the normal matter; if the condition is false, the next 
     instruction is skipped.
       If Equal (IFEQ)
       If Not Equal (IFNE)
       If Greater Than (IFGT)
       If Carry (IFC)
       If Not Carry (IFNC)
       If Bit (IFBIT)
       If B Pointer Not Equal (IFBNE)
       And Skip if Zero (ANDSZ)
       Decrement Register and Skip if Zero (DRSZ)

     Load and Exchange Instructions - The load and exchange instructions
     write byte values in registers or memory. The addressing mode 
     determines the source of the data.
       Load (LD)
       Load Accumulator Indirect (LAID)
       Exchange (X)

     Logical Instructions - The logical instructions perform the basic 
     logical operations AND, OR, and XOR (Exclusive OR). Other logical 
     operations can be performed by combining these basic operations. 
     For example, complementing is accomplished by exclusive-ORing the 
     Accumulator with FFh.
       Logical AND (AND)
       Logical OR (OR)
       Exclusive OR (XOR)

     Memory Bit Manipulation Instructions - The memory bit manipulation 
     instructions allow the user to set and reset (clear) individual 
     bits in memory.
       Set Bit (SBIT)
       Reset Bit (RBIT)
       Reset Pending Bit (RPND)

     Transfer-of Control Instructions - The transfer-of-control 
     instructions change the usual sequential program flow by altering 
     the contents of the Program Counter. The Jump to Subroutine 
     instruction saves the Program Counter contents on the stack before 
     jumping; the Return instructions pops the top of the stack back 
     into the Program Counter.
       Jump Relative (JP)
       Jump Absolute (JMP)
       Jump Absolute Long (JMPL)
       Jump Indirect (JID)
       Jump to Subroutine (JSR)
       Jump to Subroutine Long (JSRL)
       Return from Subroutine (RET)
       Return from Subroutine and Skip (RETSK)
       Return from Interrupt (RETI)
       Software Trap Interrupt (INTR)
       Vector Interrupt Select (VIS)

     No-Operation Instruction - The no-operation instruction does 
     nothing, except to occupy space in the program memory and time in 
       No-Operation (NOP)

2.5.7) Can I hook up a LED direct?

     Yep - you sure can. On all devices is a 8-bit port named D-port.
     D-port pins can sink 10 mA (tested) 40mA (typical), and can
     source 2mA (tested) 22mA (typical). All other ports can sink
     2mA (tested) 17mA (typical) and can source 1mA (tested) 8mA

     You should check the datasheet - some parts differ.



   This section includes descriptions and references to free and
   commercial software for the COP8.  FTP sites and BBSs contain many
   quality packages and code samples for free.  For heavy duty use, you
   might prefer the many commercial packages that are available.  With
   the public domain (or free) stuff, you're usually on your own.  The
   commercial packages usually provide extensive documentation and

   Because not a lot of little companies use COP8, ('cause until about
   a year ago we didn't make OTPs - the COP8 is used primarily by huge
   companies - I don't think there is an American designed and built
   car that doesn't have a COP in it somewhere - and those guys are not
   going to use OTPs) there is not very much free software for the COP8.

    Hopefully this will change. - If you have a good idea for a new 
    product (or are interested in porting your (or somebody else's)
    existing tool to be used with the COP8 - please contact me.)

3.1)  FTP sites

   The following is a list of the various anonymous ftp sites that have
   COP8 source code and programming languages.  There are many others
   that  are not listed here that contain bits and pieces.  Usually you
   can find them using Archie and searching for "COP8", "National", or

3.2)  BBSs

   The following BBSs sometimes have COP8 information:

   National Semiconductor Corporation
       - contains code from Applications Notes and other interesting
       - phone -  (800) - NSC MICRO
                          672 6427
               -  (408) - 781 4818
      - internet - telnet
                 - ftp

   Circuit Cellar, Inc.
       - contains code from their magazine articles and from the
         original Circuit Cellar articles in Byte magazine, also
         contains many other interesting items
       - The BBS is mentioned in the masthead of each issue (on the
         table of contents page).  Excerpts from the BBS appear in Ken
         Davidson's ConnecTime column in every issue with a description
         of how to access the system at the end of every column.
       - (203)871-1988
       - Voice: (203)875-2751
       - Fax: (203)872-2204

   Electronics Now
       - contains code from their magazine articles
       - (516)293-2283
       - 1200/2400
       - 8 Data Bits, No parity, 1 Stop bit

3.3)  Free languages and development tools

    There are none. (Besides the Assembler and Software Utilities that
    National gives away)

    Hopefully this will change. - If you have a good idea for a new 
    product (or are interested in porting your (or somebody else's)
    existing tool to be used with the COP8 - please contact me.
    National has a program in place with incentives for people who do things
    with COP8 - for more information contact

3.4)  Free C compilers

    There are none.

    Hopefully this will change. - If you have a good idea for a new 
    product (or are interested in porting your (or somebody else's)
    existing tool to be used with the COP8 - please contact me.
    See above 3.3)

3.5)  Plans for COP8-based boards

    There are none.

    Hopefully this will change. - If you have a good idea for a new 
    product (or are interested in porting your (or somebody else's)
    existing tool to be used with the COP8 - please contact me.
    See above 3.3)

3.6)  Commercially available products

   Many firms (large and small) offer a variety of COP8 programming
   languages, support packages, and development systems.  No endorsement
   is implied by inclusion in this list.  I have made an attempt to
   include as many companies as possible.  I apologize to those I left
   out;  It's only because I didn't know about you.  If you want to be
   included in this list, just drop me a line - please.  Any corrections

   C compilers - ByteCraft - contains a complete C compiler and integrated
     development environment for the COP8 family of microcontrollers. This 
     system provides ease of use and debugging capabilities not found in 
     other compilers.  AI system generates efficient, tight object code and
     fast execution. Includes linker and built in macro assembler.

     COP8 C-Code Development System
     ByteCraft Limited
     421 King Street North
     Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
     N2J 4E4
     (519) 888 - 6911

     National Semiconductor Corporation
     - available for free on ftp:\\\pub\cop8\assembler\

   Fuzzy Logic
     NeuFuz4 - NueFuz4 software, with up to 4 analog inputs and 1 analog
               output. Generates COP8 assembly Code.
     Contact National, or a National distributor.
     - demo copy on

   In System Emulators
     iceMaster - Metalink - full in circuit emulator supporting all of
       the COP8 basic and feature family. Includes features such as a
       full performance analyzer, 4k - frame trace buffer, symbolic
       debugging, electrically transparent, 32K program space, hardware

     debug Module - Metalink - almost full in circuit emulator (does
       not support hardware breakpoints). Includes features such as 
       8 software breakpoints, 100 frame trace buffer, symbolic debugging,
       Sockets for programming COP8 OTPs in DIP, SO and PLCC.

     Evaluation and Programming Unit (EPU) - Metalink - in circuit 
       simulation (non real-time emulation). Includes features such as
       4k program size, 8 software breakpoints, 100 frame trace buffer,
       Symbolic debugging, 40-pin DIP socket for programming COP8780 and
       COP87M80 OTPs.
     All Metalink Tools can be purchased through National.

   Real-time Operating Systems (RTOS)
    There are none.

    Hopefully this will change. - If you have a good idea for a new 
    product (or are interested in porting your (or somebody else's)
    existing tool to be used with the COP8 - please contact me.)

   Programmers for OTPs and Windowed parts
                    North America     Europe          ASIA
    Metalink        (602) 926-0797  (49) 8141-1030    (852) 737-1800
    Xeltek          (408) 745-7974  (49) 2041-684758  (65) 276-6433
    BP Microsystems (800) 225-2102  (49) 89-8576667   (852) 3888-0629
    Data I/O        (800) 322-8246  (49) 89-85-8020   (33) 432-6991
    Abcom                           (89) 808707
    System General  (408) 263-6667  (31) 921-7844     (886) 2-9173005

3.7) Contacting National

    Worldwide support (in English) on COP8 Tools you can email:

    For pricing, avaliblity, or support in your native language, call:
    Country         Tel                       Fax
    Australia       (3) 558 - 9999            (3) 558 - 9998
    Brazil          (55-11) 212 - 5066        (55-11) 212 - 1181
    Bulgaria        (02) 88 - 01 - 16         (02) 80 - 36 - 18
    Canada          (800) 272 - 9959          (800) 432 - 9672
    Denmark         (57) 67 - 20 - 80         (57) 67 - 20 - 82
    Finland         (0) 759 - 1855            (0) 759 - 1393
    France          (01) 40 - 94 - 88 - 88    (01) 40 - 94 - 88 - 11
    Germany         (0 - 69) 789 - 1090       (0 - 69) 789 - 4383
    Hong Kong       (852) 737 - 1600          (852) 736 - 9960
    Ireland         (01) 260 - 0022           (01) 283 - 0650
    Italy           (02) 57500300             (02) 57500400
    Japan           (043) 299 - 2300          (043) 299 - 2500
    Korea           (02) 784 - 8051           (02) 784 - 8054
    Mexico          (525) 661 - 7155          (525) 661 - 6905
    Puerto Rico     (809) 758 - 9211          (809) 763 - 6959
    Singapore       (65) 225 - 2226           (65) 225 - 7080
    Spain           (01) 7 - 33 - 29 - 58     (01) 7 - 33 - 80 - 18
    Sweden          (08) 7228050              (08) 7229095
    Switzerland     (01) 8 - 30 - 27 - 27     (01) 8 - 30 - 19 - 00
    Taiwan          (02) 521 - 3288           (02) 561 - 3054
    United Kingdom  (0793) 61 - 41 - 41       (0793) 52 - 21 - 80
    United States   (800) 272 - 9959          (800) 432 - 9672



4.1) Periodicals

   Various magazines and journals (journals seems to be THE popular name
   for magazines these days) provide articles from time to time on the
   COP8 line of microcontrollers:

   The Computer Applications Journal (Circuit Cellar Ink)
       - programming and construction articles
       - POB 7694, Riverton, NJ  08077-8784
       - Fax: (203)872-2204
       - Voice orders: (609) 786-0409
       - On-line orders (BBS): (203) 871-1988
       - Email orders:
       - $21.95, $31.95 surface Canada and Mexico,
         $49.95 air all other countries

   Computer Design
       - industry announcements and trends
       - One Technology Park Drive, P.O. Box 990, Westford, MA  01886
       - (508)692-0700

   The Computer Journal
       - programming and construction articles
       - PO Box 535, Lincoln  96648

   Dr. Dobbs Journal
       - programming articles, concepts, and designs
       - 411 Borel Ave., San Mateo, CA  94402
       - (415)358-9500

   Electronic Engineering Times
       - industry announcements and trends
       - 500-B Bi-County Boulevard, Farmingdale, NY  11735
       - (516)293-3000

   Electronics Now
       - construction articles
       - Box 55115, Boulder, CO  80321-5115
       - $19.97 one year

   Elektor Electronics
       - programming and construction articles
       - World Wide Subscription Service Ltd
         Unit 4, Gibbs Reed Farm, Pashley Road
         Ticehurst TN5 7HE, England
       - 27 UK pounds
       - Old Colony Sound Lab, P.O. Box 243, Peterborough, NH 03458
       - Tel. (603) 924-6371, 924-6526
       - Fax: (603) 924-9467
       - $57 USA and Canada per year

   Embedded Systems Programming
       - programming and systems design articles
       - Miller Freeman Publications
       - 500 Howard St., San Francisco, CA  94105
       - (415) 397-1881

   Microcomputer Journal (formerly Computer Craft)
       - programming and construction articles
       - 76 N. Broadway, Hicksville, NY  11801
       - $18.95 one year, foreign $23.00, foreign air mail $76.00

   Midnight Engineering
       - 1700 Washington Ave., Rocky Road, CO  81067
       - (719)254-4553

   Nuts & Volts Magazine
       - A National Publication for the Buying and Selling of
         Electronic Equipment
       - 430 Princeland Court, Corona, CA  91719
       - Mailed third class, USA only:  $17.00 one year
                                        $31.00 two years
       - Mailed first class, one year only:  $34.00-USA
       - Foreign/Air Mail - $70.00;  Foreign/Surface - $39.00
       - (800)783-4624
       - Email:

4.2)  Data Books / Application Notes

   If you know of any books that cover the COP8, or if you can provide
   any details on the books listed here, please send me a note.  Thanks.

   Books provided by National about the COP8

   COP8 Databook
     - Lit # 400007-001
     - Current databook for COP8
   COP8 Advertisement
     - Lit #620900-001
     - Introduces 8-bit microcontrollers and COP8

   Utility Disk
     - Mac Version - Lit #630000-001
     - Win Version - Lit #630001-001
     - Typical microcontroller application and sample application code

   Product Overview Disk
     - Mac Version - Lit #630004-001
     - Win Version - Lit #630005-001
     - Self-lead COP8 overview. Shows product features/benefit and 
       includes an electronic selection guide.

   COP8 Selection Guide
     - Lit # 630006-001
     - Selection guide including 20 application examples

   COP8 Selection Sheet
     - Lit #620899-001
     - Selection guide only

   COP8 Designers Information Kit
     - Lit #630007-005
     - Includes databook, Selection Guide, Independent Software Analysis
       Utility and Overview disks

   Independent 8-bit Instruction Set Analysis
     - Lit #630008-001
     - Independently prepared software analysis of National's COP8,
       Motorola's M68HC05, Intel's 8051 and Microchip's PIC16C5X.

   8780 EPU Product Brief
     - Lit #610506-001
     - Metalink's COP8780 Evaluation / Programming Unit

   Debug Module Product Brief
     - Lit #610520-001
     - Fact sheet on Metalink's Debug Module

   iceMaster Product Brief
     - 630074-001
     - Fact Sheet on Metalink's in-circuit emulator

   COP8C Product Brief
     - Lit #610505-001
     - Fact Sheet on ByteCraft's C compiler for COP8

   NueFuz Product Information Pack
     - Lit #633101-002
     - Intro to NeuFuz4 (disk, app-not and fact sheet)

   Application Notes
     - Lit #100823-001 - Timekeeping using a COP800
     - Lit #100643-001 - EMI / RFI Board Design
     - Lit #100959-001 - Battery charger with Neufuz
     - Lit #400007-001 - Others can be found in the 1994 databook. 

   Programmer's Reference Guide
     - Programmer's Reference Guide includes block diagrams, connection 
       diagrams, memory map, instruction set, bytes and cycles per
       instruction, and device features.
     - Lit #630018-001 - COP820/840
     - Lit #630019-001 - COP888CL / COP888CF / COP888CG

   COP800 Basic Family Users Manual
     - Doc #420410703-001
     - Describes all basic family devices, in-depth features and
       common pitfalls

   COP888 Features Family Users Manual
     - Doc #420411060-001
     - Describes all feature family devices, in-depth features and
       common pitfalls

   COP8 Assembler / Linker / Librarian Users' Manual
     - Doc #424421632-001
     - Printed version of COP8 Assembler Manual.

   NeuFuz User's Manual
     - Doc #424421645-001
     - Manual for Neural / Fuzzy software

   Dial-A-Helper User's Manual
     - Doc #420410902-001
     - Manual for National's BBS


Some parts Copyright (c) 1994 by Russell Hersch,<>
   all rights reserved. (Used with permission)

The rest is Copyright (c) 1995 Robin Getz all rights reserved.
Robin Getz -

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