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[comp.os.linux.advocacy] FAQ and Primer for COLA, Edition III


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Archive-name: linux/advocacy/faq-and-primer
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Copyright: (c) 2002 The FAQ and Primer for COLA Team -- All Rights Reserved

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
        Frequently Asked Questions and Primer for comp.os.linux.advocacy

                                  Edition III

                                 April 19, 2002

              +-------------------------------------------------+
              | Beware of those who would call you a friend for |
              | many will eat your bread while working against  |
              | you. They will take credit for your good works  |
              |      and blame you for their own misdeeds.      |
              |               - TheGreat Unknown                |
              +-------------------------------------------------+

Contents

     * 1 Introduction
          * 1.1 Availability
          * 1.2 Welcome to comp.os.linux.advocacy
          * 1.3 Contributing to this FAQ and Primer
          * 1.4 The Charter of comp.os.linux.advocacy
     * 2 COLA
          * 2.1 On Topic Subjects
          * 2.2 Kinds of People Who Read and Post to COLA
               * 2.2.1 Linux Advocates
               * 2.2.2 Ordinary User
               * 2.2.3 Sysadmin
               * 2.2.4 Anti-Linux Propagandists
               * 2.2.5 Wintroll and Winvocate
          * 2.3 Conduct Acceptable in COLA
     * 3 Linux
          * 3.1 The Kernel
          * 3.2 Doesn't Linux "turn back the clock?"
          * 3.3 The Linux way of software development
          * 3.4 Linux is Good
          * 3.5 Intrusive Suggestions for Changing Linux
          * 3.6 Wanting to Spread Linux to Everyone
          * 3.7 Benefits of the Command Line Interface
          * 3.8 Linux's Success is Not Prevented by Microsoft
               * 3.8.1 Linux is Successful
               * 3.8.2 Linux Does Not Have to be More Like Windows
               * 3.8.3 Linux Stability
               * 3.8.4 Linux Dependability
               * 3.8.5 Linux Flexibility
               * 3.8.6 Longevity
               * 3.8.7 Linux supported hardware
          * 3.9 Linux's Compatibility With Other Operating System
               * 3.9.1 Compatible With Windows
               * 3.9.2 Compatible With *DOS
               * 3.9.3 Compatible With MacOS
               * 3.9.4 Compatible With NetWare
               * 3.9.5 Compatible With Other Unixes
               * 3.9.6 Compatible With Other Operating Systems
          * 3.10 Linux Leaves Users Wanting Less
          * 3.11 Linux Provides Modern Operating System Features
               * 3.11.1 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
               * 3.11.2 Logical Volume Manager
               * 3.11.3 Journaling Filesystems
               * 3.11.4 Sparse Files
               * 3.11.5 Disk Fragmentation
               * 3.11.6 Symmetric multi-processing
               * 3.11.7 Clusters
               * 3.11.8 Graphical User Interface
               * 3.11.9 Networking
          * 3.12 Cost of Linux and Where Can it be Obtained
               * 3.12.1 Downloading Linux is not Software Piracy
               * 3.12.2 Purchasing Linux
               * 3.12.3 Linux Distributions.
               * 3.12.4 Distributions are not the Same
               * 3.12.5 How Many Times a Copy of Linux Can be Installed.
               * 3.12.6 You Don't Need a Distribution
          * 3.13 Linux Software
     * 4 Who uses Linux
          * 4.1 Businesses who use Linux
          * 4.2 These Governments and Agencies use Linux
          * 4.3 Schools, Colleges and Universities
          * 4.4 Sources of information
          * 4.5 Charitable Organizations
          * 4.6 Why Amateur Radio Operators use Linux
          * 4.7 Types of new Linux users drawn to Linux
     * 5 Linux Documentation and Resources
          * 5.1 Internal
          * 5.2 man and info
          * 5.3 Developer Provided Documentation
          * 5.4 Linux Documentation Project
          * 5.5 Online Magazine Articles
          * 5.6 Mailing Lists
          * 5.7 Newsgroups
          * 5.8 The Web
          * 5.9 Internet Relay Chat
          * 5.10 File Transfer Protocol
          * 5.11 Online Radio Shows
          * 5.12 The Source
     * 6 Contributing to the Linux Community
          * 6.1 There are Many Reasons to Contribute
          * 6.2 It is Not Crazy to Contribute
     * 7 Anti-Linux Propagandists and Trolls
          * 7.1 Disinformation
          * 7.2 FUD
          * 7.3 A Common FUD of the Anti-Linux Propagandists
          * 7.4 The Effect of the Trespassers
               * 7.4.1 Effect on Readers of COLA
               * 7.4.2 Effect Upon Posters
               * 7.4.3 Effect of the X-No-Archive header
          * 7.5 Where the Disrupters Should Go
          * 7.6 Trespasser Disinformation Tactics
          * 7.7 Methods to Counter Disinformation
               * 7.7.1 Use of Trespasser Disinformation Tactics List
               * 7.7.2 Refute Disinformation Where Possible
               * 7.7.3 Stay On Topic
               * 7.7.4 What Have they Contributed to Linux
               * 7.7.5 Use Your Newsreader Scoring and Killfile Features
     * 8 Linux's BSD cousins.
     * 9 Credits
          * 9.1 Friends of COLA and this Project
     * 10 Pesky Details

                                 1 Introduction

   This is the FAQ for the comp.os.linux.advocacy newsgroup and a primer for
   new readers of this newsgroup, providing information about this newsgroup
   and the Linux community as a whole.

1.1 Availability

   This document is posted on a weekly to the comp.os.linux.advocacy,
   comp.answers, and news.answers newsgroups. In addition it is archived at
   rtfm.mit.edu ftp archive and its mirrors and is also available on the
   Internet FAQ Consortium's website at www.faqs.org.

1.2 Welcome to comp.os.linux.advocacy

   If you are new to Linux and/or comp.os.linux.advocacy, welcome. It is
   hoped that you will will enjoy your time in comp.os.linux.advocacy and
   find it educational. We also hope that you will find Linux as useful for
   you. and that in the ripeness of time that you will become a contributing
   member of the Linux community.

   COLA is like a meeting hall for Linux advocacy. A place where those who
   advocate the use of Linux can meet and discuss all things Linux. In
   addition it is a place were individuals interested in Linux can come to
   gain an understanding of the Linux and the Linux community and to learn
   about the capabilities of Linux from those who are experienced with the
   use, administration, and development of Linux.

   By using Linux as a user or sysadmin you are a member of the Linux
   community of which this newsgroup is an asset. The Linux community is
   world-wide and interconnected by the internet and other networks gated to
   the internet.

   The description that your news server delivers to you for
   comp.os.linux.advocacy, or COLA for short, is "Benefits of Linux compared
   to other operating systems". That description is derived from the charter
   of COLA. Sometimes advocacy groups are viewed as a place where the
   bickering undesirables of other newsgroups are directed, in order to
   remove a disruption from another group on the same general subject. That
   is incorrect for COLA.

1.3 Contributing to this FAQ and Primer

   All those who advocate the use of Linux are invited to submit material and
   suggestions to be considered for future versions of this document.
   Submissions should be sent by email to mjcr@mindspring.com. You may also
   post your submissions in COLA; however, in that case you should still
   email your submission as well, so that the submission will not be missed
   as can happen if it were posted in COLA only.

   Submissions offered by those who may deemed to be hostile to Linux,
   including but not limited to anti-Linux propagandists, will not be
   accepted.

1.4 The Charter of comp.os.linux.advocacy

   The charter of comp.os.linux.advocacy is:

     For discussion of the benefits of Linux compared to other operating
     systems.

   That single sentence is the one and only charter of the newsgroup
   comp.os.linux.advocacy. The newsgroup's charter is for the newsgroup as a
   place for supporters of Linux to gather to discuss Linux, for the
   betterment of the Linux community and the promotion and development of
   Linux. It supports this as a place for those who would like to learn more
   about Linux to come to learn from those who know Linux. It does not call
   for it to be a place where the anti-Linux propagandists to gather in order
   to discredit Linux.

   You may have heard of another charter sometimes called by some the
   "original charter," that opens the newsgroup to the abuses that are
   inflicted on Linux by those who oppose Linux. That other charter never
   existed, it was a proposed charter for another newsgroup that never was
   created that would also have been called comp.os.linux.advocacy.

   On 14 Feb 1994, Danny Gould dgould@helix.nih.gov posted
   comp.os.linux.advocacy-RFD1@uunet.uu.net a Request for Discussion entitled
   "Request for Discussion (RFD) on comp.os.linux.advocacy" to the
   news.groups newsgroup. That RFD was cross posted to the appropriate
   newsgroups and a number of other inappropriate newsgroups as well. It
   included the following proposed charter:

     The proposed group will provide a forum for the discussion of Linux. In
     addition, it will allow comp.os.linux.misc to deal with Linux-specific
     issues. Discussion will include (but not be limited to) the discussion
     of the pros and cons of Linux and applications for Linux, and the
     comparison of Linux with other operating systems and environments such
     as Microsoft DOS and Windows, SCO UNIX, Coherent, NeXTstep, Macintosh
     System, etc. It will be an unmoderated forum.

   The call for votes on the proposal was not posted, the issue died without
   a vote.

   On 4 Oct 1994, Dave Sill de5@ornl.gov posted 37mn57$dhs@rodan.UU.NET a
   Request for Discussion entitled "REQUEST FOR DISCUSSION (RFD)
   comp.os.linux reorganization." Thus far comp.os.linux.advocacy was not yet
   proposed. Note that unlike Danny, Dave posted the Request for Discussions
   to appropriate newsgroups only, that is a hallmark of a serious effort.

   On 14 Oct 1994, Dave Sill de5@de5.ornl.gov posted 37mn57$dhs@rodan.UU.NET
   a revised version of this Request for Discussion, this revised posting
   called for the creation of comp.os.linux.advocacy among other
   comp.os.linux.* groups. Dave proposed this charter for
   comp.os.linux.advocacy:

     For discussion of the benefits of Linux compared to other operating
     systems.

   The Call for Votes went out in the required form, and on 13 Dec 1994
   posted the results ikluft@amdahl.com with greater than 8 to 1 in favor of
   the creation of comp.os.linux.advocacy (our COLA) with Dave's proposed
   charter. On that date, that charter became effective and that other
   charter that was proposed for the other comp.os.linux.advocacy that never
   was created, never became anything that affects this
   comp.os.linux.advocacy.

   Those who oppose Linux and have invaded comp.os.linux.advocacy in order to
   try to subvert the purpose of this newsgroup will continue as they have to
   insult the intelligence of the Linux advocates by citing that other
   proposed charter of that other newsgroup that never came into existence.
   They also have continued to quote from the introductory paragraph of the
   Danny's Request for Discussion as though that were a part of any actual or
   even a part of the failed, proposed charter. Perhaps they feel that the
   introductory section provides them with a greater impact.

   When someone posts citations from that failed Request for Discussion in
   order to make it appear that the anti-Linux propagandists are sanctioned
   to be posting in COLA, as was done by an anti-Linux propagandist on
   January 13, 2002 in article pMr08.457$Wf1.316644@ruti.visi.com, then once
   again by another anti-Linux propagandist on February 13, 2002 in article
   d6761fb5.0202131955.6c3b9f22@posting.google.com they are not only using
   disinformation they are also insulting the intelligence of everyone who is
   a reader COLA.

                                     2 COLA

2.1 On Topic Subjects

   On-topic is anything anything regarding Linux that is of interest to a
   person who advocates the use of Linux, or requests for information about
   Linux by a person who would like to learn about it. COLA is also a great
   place to share your Linux success stories.

   COLA is not a place to advocate the use of other operating systems, there
   are other newsgroups for advocating them. COLA is not a place to vent real
   or imagined complaints regarding Linux. There are other newsgroups created
   for that purpose.

   COLA is not a place to post advertisements or other promotions for
   financial gain or for promoting anything other than the use of Linux
   operating system and growth of the Linux community.

2.2 Kinds of People Who Read and Post to COLA

   While reading articles in COLA you will often see references to various
   types of people. To someone new to COLA, these classification may be
   confusing.

  2.2.1 Linux Advocates

   A Linux advocate is a person who advocates the use of Linux. They are
   those who enjoys sharing the experiences they have had with Linux. These
   experiences range from an easy first-time install through regular
   day-to-day experiences, all the way to solving thorny or uncommon
   technical issues by using Linux.

   Linux advocates may from time to time offer assistance to persons who ask
   for technical support within COLA. Many of the Linux advocates of COLA
   find offering such assistance difficult to resist and many the those
   advocates are also the same persons who provide such support through other
   channels. However, technical support is not part of the official chartered
   purpose of COLA so someone requesting technical support will more often
   than not be redirected to other Linux support channels.

  2.2.2 Ordinary User

   A user of Linux that does not have superuser access. When you login into
   Linux using your personal account, you are an ordinary user. When a person
   who is a sysadmin logs into his personal account, he is an ordinary user
   as well.

  2.2.3 Sysadmin

   The term "sysadmin" is a contraction of "system administrator." This is
   the traditional title used for the person responsible for the operations
   of a unix computer. In general, that is the person who knows the superuser
   account password. That superuser account is used for system maintenance.
   As the superuser a person is granted more privileges than the other users,
   but only when using the superuser account. For normal work the sysadmin
   should use his own personal account and become the superuser only when
   needed. The most common name for that account is "root", but it can be
   anything. The superuser account is distinguished by its user
   identification number, which is always 0.

  2.2.4 Anti-Linux Propagandists

   Anti-Linux Propagandists are those who regularly post argumentative,
   insulting, distracting, untrue, and generally unpleasant articles to COLA
   containing propaganda designed slow and even prevent to acceptance of
   Linux by the general computing public. For more information see Anti-Linux
   Propagandists and Trolls.

  2.2.5 Wintroll and Winvocate

   The term "wintroll" and "winvocate" have commonly used in COLA to to refer
   to anti-Linux propagandists who champion Windows. Wintroll are the ones
   who appear to behave at a lower level of sophistication than the
   winvocate. Winvocate is someone who would be considered a true Windows
   advocate, if they were to post in an appropriate Windows advocacy
   newsgroup rather than posting off-topic in COLA.

2.3 Conduct Acceptable in COLA

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

                                    3 Linux

   Linux is an operating system based on the unix class of operating systems.
   It can be argued that Linux is the kernel of the operating system;
   however, in common usage the word Linux is used to refer to entire
   operating system as a whole, an operating system comprised of the kernel,
   systems utility software, user utility software and to a lesser extent the
   applications software. This is the practice that will be followed in this
   document. Specific instances of this from given vendors are referred to as
   Linux Distributions.

   Linux as stated above, is based on unix, but is not legally a clone of the
   unix operating system. On the other hand it looks like unix, behaves like
   unix, feels like unix enough to functionally be considered a unix. Linux
   is more compatible with both major classes of unix, BSD and AT&T, than
   they are with each other. Linux fully operates with with the other unixes
   as an equal peer via networking.

   Linux runs software compatible with those other unixes and in most cases
   the very same software does run on each of those unixes and Linux as well.
   Where the other unixes have deviated from each other with various
   utilities or services, Linux typically supports both of their styles of
   utilities. Often Linux is more compatible with the various unixes, than
   they are with each other.

   Linus Torvalds started developing Linux from scratch as a better unix than
   than the Minix that was then available. Minix is a contraction of Minimal
   Unix, and is the name of a very minimal unix that was licensed for
   educational purposes. The name Linux is in turn a contraction of Linus's
   Minix, although the actual results of Linus's early releases had already
   so far out classed Minix so that Linus's Unix would have been a better
   base to form the contraction Linux.

   One of the major goals of creating Linux was to create a unix that was
   free from the encumbrances of existing unixes and the licensing that
   restricted the use of Minix. So it was necessary to write the Linux kernel
   from scratch.

   The Linux operating system provides all the features that users and
   administrators should expect from any modern, high-performance operating
   system. Many of these features have been a part of Linux and stable for
   years. While the developers of various, so-called popular operating
   systems claim to be innovating, they are only playing catch up with Linux.
   As this document is being written, Linux is increasing its lead with the
   development on the 2.5.x series developmental/experimental kernels.

3.1 The Kernel

   The Kernel is the core of the operating system. That is the part that
   communicates with devices, handles memory management, schedules processes,
   and provides other basic services to the systems utility software, user
   utility software and applications software. Thanks to the fact that the
   kernel handles the hardware and provides a uniform view of it to higher
   level software, regardless of your hardware platform, Linux will present
   the user with a uniform environment. That means that once you as a user of
   Linux learn to run it on a PC, or a Mac, or a minicomputer, or a mainframe
   computer you will be able to sit down to use Linux on any other of the
   supported platforms, and feel right at home. The hardware may look and
   feel different such as a different key layout or a different pointing
   device, but Linux knowledge is portable across hardware platforms. Members
   of the team that produced this document can attest to this, through their
   first hand experience on multiple hardware platforms running Linux.

   Many versions of the Linux kernel have been released, in fact since the
   release of the Linux kernel version 1.0.0 in there have been over 600
   official main line kernels released, including the AC series of Linux
   kernels there have been almost 900 releases in that time. The reason for
   so many releases has to do with the development of the kernel being an
   open process, this way you don't have to wait for months or years for a
   needed patch to be provided or for a feature that you really need to be
   made available.

3.2 Doesn't Linux "turn back the clock?"

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.3 The Linux way of software development

   Some think that we must maximize our user base at all costs, to include
   all potential users. This is a pitfall of the commercial programming mind
   set, which leads to kitchen sink programming, where you have a little
   something for everyone and a lot of nothing for anyone, with a product
   that fails to fully serve anyone's needs. That is not the the Linux way to
   develop software.

   Software development with Linux is, as it should be, about creating a
   program that suits its users' needs perfectly. If that program is a text
   editor and your editor serves the needs of 100 people and it pleases them
   completely, then you have achieved complete success. Don't worry about
   somehow getting the rest of the Linux community to use your editor, other
   editors serve their needs better. If they do find that your editor serves
   them better, many will switch away from their other editors in favor of
   yours. Then there is nothing wrong with using multiple editors for
   different tasks. They could use your editor for some tasks they they think
   it is suited for and other editors for other tasks that they think those
   other editors are best suited for. There is nothing wrong with that
   either, that is freedom of choice in action and that is the Linux way.

   You will have more satisfaction for your development efforts by having a
   smaller user base comprised of users who are absolutely pleased with the
   software that you have created, than with a user base of tens of millions
   of users who can barely tolerate what you have developed, with not one of
   them being truly pleased with it.

   There is some software that runs on Linux that has fallen into the kitchen
   sink programming trap. These programs are conspicuous because they are the
   exceptions to the rule.

   There is a developing commercial software market for Linux; Let us hope
   that those developers learn the Linux way, and do not fall into the trap
   of believing that they must each try to capture the marketplace to the
   exclusion of all others. But if they do fall into that trap, there will
   still be the programmers who do know the Linux way, and users who
   appreciate that way. Those companies who fall into the same old trap that
   has dominated a sizable portion of the computer marketplace of the 1980's
   and the 1990's, will find their efforts thwarted by the Linux way.

   Due to the freedom of choice that is a keystone of Linux, let each user
   choose the programs that suit their needs best.

3.4 Linux is Good

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.5 Intrusive Suggestions for Changing Linux

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.6 Wanting to Spread Linux to Everyone

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.7 Benefits of the Command Line Interface

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.8 Linux's Success is Not Prevented by Microsoft

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.8.1 Linux is Successful

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.8.2 Linux Does Not Have to be More Like Windows

   A common question asked by some is, "Why is Linux so much like unix and so
   different than Windows?". The answer is simply, Linux does not have to be
   more like Windows. Linux only has to be like Linux (and unix). Why is
   Linux so much like Unix? Because that is what it was designed to be from
   the beginning of its development.

   If you want a Windows (pick your favorite version of Windows) clone
   operating system that is as free reliable, and stable as Linux, then Linux
   may not be for you. Freedows or Freemen Windows would be better operating
   systems for you.

   Both the Freedows OS Project and Freemen Windows are a projects to create
   free and stable operating systems that are clones of Windows. It is true
   that neither of these projects have not yet produced a single release nor
   have they released any files yet. You should look into them at
   sourceforge.net/projects/freemenos and sourceforge.net/projects/freedows,
   contact their development teams and offer your services to help with their
   development. That way everyone will be much more happy.

  3.8.3 Linux Stability

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.8.4 Linux Dependability

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.8.5 Linux Flexibility

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.8.6 Longevity

   Free software has a characteristic that proprietary software
   lacks-longevity.

   In the early 1990's PC class computers were sold with the MS-DOS operating
   system and often with Microsoft Works. Both have since either died, or
   changed into programs unrecognizable from their origins. DOS exists only
   as a command prompt in Windows and OS/2-except for the open source
   FreeDOS. Works exists only as a Windows product that uses Microsoft Word
   for word processing. Its file formats are completely foreign to Works'
   original file formats. The way users interact with these programs has also
   changed-the feature sets have changed dramatically (which can be seen as
   both good and bad). There are hundreds, maybe thousands, of programs that
   are no longer available. Some of those programs were once the kings of the
   desktop. WordStar is one example.

   In the free software world useful programs tend to last a very long time.
   Emacs, has been around for at least 20 years. Unix, whether in free or
   proprietary incarnations, has been around since 1969. The C language has
   been around for nearly as long-it was created specifically to enable
   porting Unix to different hardware platforms (not that these are
   revelations for the COLA readership-I mention them only as contrasting
   examples). The TEXtypesetting system has been around since the 1970's.

   These differences in longevity of software have implications for user's
   expectations about it-in the effort they are willing to invest in learning
   it, and in their trust that the software will be around in five or ten
   years.

   If many in the Linux community thought Linux and other free software was a
   fly-by-night phenomenon, they probably would not invest much time or
   energy learning it or advocating its use. But the more that one realizes
   that it and its applications are here to stay, the more they are willing
   to invest time and energy learning specific pieces of software. Knowing
   that what they learn today will continue to be useful to them for years
   and decades to come.

   Why invest time in an "easy to learn" text editor that might die in a
   couple of years or a seemingly more difficult editor that has proved
   through longevity and developer support that it will be around for a long
   time to come? The first impulse upon starting to use Linux is to pick the
   easy editor (such as nedit). They do not want to invest the energy or time
   to learn Emacs or Vim. assuming that they would be supplanted by graphical
   editors. But then they started longing for better features in their
   editors. They could ask the developers to add features, pay someone to add
   them, or add those features themselves. But why, when editors with all the
   wanted features, and more, are a mouse click away?

   And what's the hurry? The software isn't going anywhere. It won't be
   outdated next year or the year after. It has proved its utility and
   longevity. Even more important in the long run is that this software has a
   stable user interface. New features have been and continue to be added
   over the years and the pre-existing features are still there. They won't
   have to learn a new way to use their computer just because developers
   might decide that break dancing provides a better way to interact with
   computers or that animated paper clips or some dweeb named Bob make life
   easier for new users.

   In Linux, some things remain constant-BASH, Emacs, Vim, the core
   utilities, and languages for programming and typesetting. New features get
   added, graphical interfaces are developed, new programs are born. But the
   latest whiz bang hypeware doesn't kill the tried and true work horses that
   made the system useful. Marketing doesn't determine a Linus program's
   lifetime, feature set, or implementation. Utility and need are the sole
   arbiters of a program's life cycle.

   There are many who would chomp at the bit to point out that most people
   just want to use their computers without having to invest time and energy
   learning 20-year-old software. The good news is-they can-even with Linux.
   The breadth of command-line, text, and graphical software for doing
   everything gives users choices in how to interact with the system. New
   users coming from other systems can adapt Linux to their style. There is
   no need to learn new ways to do anything. Complete novices can be
   productive very quickly thanks to KDE, GNOME, and BASH.

   Fortunately, there are many ways to get most things done and Linux
   provides an environment that allows gradual accumulation of knowledge and
   skill and adapts easily to any working style. And the knowledge and skill
   gained over time is not made obsolete by sweeping changes in software
   availability, feature sets, or user interfaces.

  3.8.7 Linux supported hardware

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.9 Linux's Compatibility With Other Operating System

   Linux is compatible at different levels with many other operating systems,
   ranging from the networking level all the way to running the same
   software.

  3.9.1 Compatible With Windows

   Linux can run Windows software by running that software under the actual
   Windows operating system (requiring a properly licensed copy of Windows)
   that is in turn running as a guest operating system in a PC emulator such
   as VMware. Linux can also run Windows software on Linux itself with an
   implementation of the Windows Application Programming Interface (API) via
   Wine. It is also possible to compile the source code for Windows based
   software on Linux and link it against the Wine libraries to produce a
   Linux executable of that Windows software. One note about Wine, Wine can
   only run on PC style hardware, since it is not a PC emulator hardware, and
   runs the Windows software directly on the underlying processor.

   Linux can provide network printers and act as a fileserver for Windows
   computers by running Samba using TCP/IP networking. You can also use
   MarsNWE to provide printers and network volumes using IPX/SPX networking.
   Linux can also access shares and printers provided by computers running
   Windows by the use of Samba and the Samba filesystem. Linux can also be a
   file, and print server to Windows clients by using Samba. Linux machines
   can access Windows machines that are emulating NetWare file servers by
   using the NetWare core protocol filesystem.

   Linux can read and write to Windows hard drive partitions that use the
   filesystems of MS-DOS and Windows 9x. The NTFS filesystem are a bit
   problematic because of their nature and they way their specifications
   change from version to version. Linux can read Windows NT, Windows 2000,
   and Windows XP NTFS partitions well; however, writing directly to such
   partitions is possible but not recommended.

   There is an indirect method for Linux to read and write to NTFS
   partitions. Running Windows under a PC emulator such as VMware, give that
   copy of Windows access to the NTFS partition or partitions and have that
   copy of Windows running as a fileserver. Then let Linux access the
   fileserver through a virtual or actual network connection.

   Linux understands the Windows extensions to the CD-ROM standards. Linux
   can both read them and generate them. Linux can also access Windows
   diskettes and other disk media, either by mounting them as any other Linux
   partition can be mounted, or by the use of the mtools.

  3.9.2 Compatible With *DOS

   Linux can run DOS (Pick your favorite DOS) software by running that
   software under actual DOS (requiring a properly licensed copy of DOS) that
   is in turn running as a guest operating system in a PC emulator such as
   VMware. An older and popular option for Linux on PC style hardware is to
   run DOS software with DOSEmu. DOSEmu is a PC emulator that uses the
   underlying Intel style processor to execute programs. With it you will
   need a properly licensed copy of actual DOS, such a copy is easy to come
   by since contrary to popular belief DOS is not dead. There are commercial
   versions of DOS being sold and there is FreeDOS. DOSEmu can also run other
   real mode PC software that boot and run independently of any operating
   system and depends on PC hardware.

   Linux can provide network printers and act as a fileserver for Windows
   computers by running Samba using TCP/IP networking. You can also use
   MarsNWE to provide printers and network volumes using IPX/SPX networking.
   You can also use Linux's as a NFS fileserver and lpr printserver for DOS.
   In each case DOS will require the applicable networking client software.

   Linux can read and write to DOS hard drive partitions, diskettes and other
   disk media, either by mounting them as any other Linux partition can be
   mounted, or by the use of the mtools.

  3.9.3 Compatible With MacOS

   Linux can provide network printers and act as a fileserver for Macintosh
   computers. Linux can access Macintosh based print servers and fileserver.

   Linux can read and write Macintosh floppies, hard drives, and other disk
   media.

  3.9.4 Compatible With NetWare

   Linux can work in a NetWare based network as a fileserver, a print queue
   server or a IPX/SPX router with the use of MarsNWE and the IPX/SPX
   networking protocols. With NCP utilities Linux can communicate with other
   printer queues as a print server. Linux can also print through a
   Novell-style printserver. Linux can be a client in such a network, using
   the existing NetWare file and print queue servers. Linux supports the DOS,
   Windows, OS/2, and NFS names spaces of NetWare. Linux can access NetWare's
   hard drive partitions.

  3.9.5 Compatible With Other Unixes

   Linux software is Unix software. Some source code many need to be ported
   to Linux, but that is no different than moving such a program from one
   Unix to another. If the software in question is too low level then it
   might require a complete rewrite to run on Linux, but that is the same as
   it is between any other two Unixes already. Most other Unixes can also run
   programs written for Linux, some of the other Unixes have even started to
   support running Linux binaries. Yes, Linux and other Unixes are very
   compatible with each other's software.

   In all ways that matter, Linux is a Unix, so if the other Unix computers
   in the networks are running a version of Unix that is compatible with
   normal Unix networking services, Linux will fit right in.

   Linux can access the filesystems of a variety of other Unixes, that means
   that Linux can read their drives. Linux can access even a variety of those
   that do not use the native partitioning scheme that Linux uses on the
   given hardware platform that it is running on.

  3.9.6 Compatible With Other Operating Systems

   Linux can access the floppy drives and hard drives of a variety of other
   operating systems. Any operating system that can use TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
   DECnet networking can communicate with or through a Linux host.

3.10 Linux Leaves Users Wanting Less

   From them 1950's through the 1970's users would expect their computers to
   operate as specified in the manuals and the specification sheets. The POP
   manuals (Principal of Operations manuals) and the rest of the
   documentation of those computers were considered to be faithful
   representations of the operations of those computers.

   There was one computer that was installed in 1964, the organization that
   owned it decommisioned it in 1984, and wanted to donate it to a college
   computer science department but they had lost the installation media of
   the machine's operating system. The computer was running twenty-four hours
   a day and seven days a week for those twenty years without a single reboot
   or any down time. There were components that had failed: individual tape
   drives and card readers/punches had worn out and were replaced, CRT
   terminals were added and the most of the card readers, the old model 26
   keypunch stations and most of the model 29 keypunch stations were retired.
   Disk drives were added to that computer years after the initial
   installation, None of that needed any downtime or reboots.

   In the 1970's there was the development of microprocessors and
   microcomputers, most of them matched their operating systems in what ever
   form they came in and were as reliable as the computers of the prior
   decade. Some of the hardware was problematic but the operating systems
   would generally operate as specified.

   In the early 1980's something started to change. Today many users have
   come to accept and even expect their computers and operating system to
   fail frequently, many shops now use regular reboot cycles as an attempt to
   use pre-emptive reboots to avoid crashes at unexpected times. They have
   come to expect their operating systems and systems software and
   applications software to not work as documented. What is even worse, they
   often see nothing wrong with that madness. In prior decades, if such
   undependability and unreliability were experienced, it would not have not
   been acceptable and the vendor would have to replace those useless systems
   and often had to pay for the customer's losses as well.

   Now flash forward to present day, users have come to expect very little
   from their computers. Such poor performance has led them to expect less
   and less while wanting more and more with little prospect of getting it.
   But in addition to such unreliable operating systems, there is Linux,
   leaving its users wanting less and less because it provides more and more
   all the time.

     * A stable operating system
       Linux users no longer want for a stable operating system because Linux
       is as stable operating system. Twenty four hours, seven days a week
       non-stop operation for years at a time with off the shelf PC hardware
       is not anything unusual for Linux. As members of the FAQ and Primer
       team can attest to from personal experience.

     * An operating system that doesn't require me to spend a fortune on new
       hardware.
       Linux can run on hardware with just the computing power needed or that
       is available. Linux sysadmins upgrade to more powerful hardware to
       have more power available for their users, not to regain yesterday's
       performance from today's operating system.

     * An operating system with a decent graphical user interface.
       Or rather one that can be configured to work the way you want it too.
       With the look and feel you seek. Linux does not actually have any
       graphical user interfaces, but the X Windowing System is commonly run
       on Linux and other unixes. There are also other graphical user
       interface besides the X Window System that can run on Linux, including
       some next generation test bed systems. If a Linux user wishes he can
       run today a user interface that won't be available elsewhere for years
       or even decades, that is if he likes to live on the bleeding edge.

     * An operating system with lots of useful stuff built in.
       Much of what a person needs to purchase to get some other operating
       systems to be useful comes with the common Linux distributions.
       Sometimes in surprising ways, such as the little program named "cat"
       that concatenates files and is the more powerful original that the DOS
       command "type" was copied from. The program "cat" also provides by
       itself much of the functionality of Norton Ghost.

     * An operating system that doesn't try to prevent me from using my
       computer.
       Linux does not second guess or interfere with the human decision
       making process. It respects the wisdom of the human sysadmin and the
       user. There are utilities available to automate that, but in the end
       humans are the bosses. There has been a call for more "Windows like"
       automation to take over from human authority, one distribution that
       used that philosophy was Corel Linux. It is now a hated distribution
       by its own users as a result.

     * An OS not prone to viral infections
       While in theory no operating system can be 100all worms and viruses,
       Linux by is nature is immune enough that the possibilities that such
       little beasties exist have become like urban legends in the Linux
       community. Even if such infections could target Linux, the
       multifaceted code base would in itself limit the spread, if a sysadmin
       selects the software to run without regard to distributions and does
       not use precompiled binaries, he has just increased the level of
       immunity of his systems. The worst an attacking worm could do is crash
       a server program, but the worm creator could not actually control
       anything with the worm because he could not predict the memory layout
       of the program he is attacking on systems so independent from
       distributions. That same would generally be true with binaries
       supplied from a different distribution or different version than the
       one he is targeting.

     * An operating system which I can program and hack easily
       Anyone can have access to the source code of the Linux kernel and most
       if not all the programs they run on Linux. If one is a programmer,
       Linux provides all the tools and the source code to add or alter any
       feature he pleases. If he wants to write a new program and has
       questions, about the operation of the library functions, or the
       kernel, he can refer to the documentation, ask for help on-line, or
       just read the applicable source code. If he has a device for which he
       want to create a driver for, he can write it. If he wants to see how
       similar drivers work, there is the Linux kernel source code and the
       code of the other drivers available.

     * An operating system which doesn't decay over time.
       Since the late days of DOS programs and the coming of Window NT and
       Windows 95, there has been a pheonoma known as software rot, also
       known as bit rot. With late DOS programs it could take an individual
       program on a production system out of commission needing to be
       reinstalled. Windows 95 and Windows NT elevated the software rot
       phenomenon from causing the decay of individual programs to the decay
       of the entire operating system. This is not a factor with Linux.

   All these items are things that Linux users are not wanting for any
   longer, because Linux has given to them what they have been wanting for up
   to a decade. So yes, Linux leaves its users wanting less, because it
   provides so much more of what they have been hoping for from their prior
   operating system.

3.11 Linux Provides Modern Operating System Features

   Linux provides the features that have come to be expected from modern
   operating systems and features that many other operating system will only
   match after years of playing catch up. These features include:

  3.11.1 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

   Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, or RAID for short, is a method of
   combining multiple disk devices or partitions into a single logical disk
   device. This can be done to provide more contiguous disk space, although
   LVM is a better and more flexible option for that. RAID also provides
   fault tolerance for drive failures because the data is stored in redundant
   locations across multiple physical drives, if an individual drive fails
   the data is not lost. RAID can also increase disk I/O improvements by
   spreading the workload across multiple drives, channels, and host
   adaptors.

   Naturally Linux supports hardware only RAID implementations since in that
   case the hardware RAID box presents itself to the drive controller as a
   single drive, or if the controller implements the hardware only RAID it
   presents its connected drives to the computer as a single drive. Linux
   also provides within the kernel a software RAID implementation. The Linux
   implementation of software RAID provides support for linear, RAID-0,
   RAID-1, RAID-4, and RAID-5.

  3.11.2 Logical Volume Manager

   Logical Volume Manager is commonly called LVM. Linux provides a Logical
   Volume Manager as a modern operating system should. Multiple partitions
   and entire drives can be assigned as physical partitions to LVM. LVM
   permits you to combine all of the partition and drives assigned to it into
   a single virtual drive. You that single combined logical drive can then
   allocated to appear to be many partitions, known as logical volumes, or
   even one gigantic partition. If one logical volume is running short of
   space, you can enlarge it to consume more disk space. You can also reduce
   the size of logical volumes that don't need the space assigned to them.
   Partitions and drives can be added or removed from LVM control at will
   without having any software beyond LVM knowing any difference.

  3.11.3 Journaling Filesystems

   The stable Linux kernels support two journaling filesystems, The third
   extended file system and the reiser filesystem.

  3.11.4 Sparse Files

   A feature of Linux filesystems design is to support for efficient storage
   allocation for sparse files. How much disk space should be allocated for
   an uncompressed 10-megabyte file that contains 10-kilobytes of data with
   the remainder of the file empty? How about storing that file in
   10-megabytes? With the Linux native filesystem this is possible. Assume
   that file contains its data in two 5-kilobyte segments, one at the
   beginning of the file and one at the end of the file. Assume that the file
   was written to disk with a sparse file aware program. That file is stored
   in the filesystem as having three fragments, the first and third fragments
   are stored on disk as normal, the second fragment is the empty part of the
   file so it is allocated no actual disk space. When a program reads from
   the empty part of the file, it will to be given by the kernel a block
   containing all zero bytes. When a program writes to a part of the empty
   fragment that fragment is divided into two or three fragments depending on
   the location within it that was written to. The newly written to segment
   is in a fragment that is allocated disk space and the other one or two
   fragments generated now are allocated no disk space. The result could be a
   single file that may be continuous on disk but would be reported as being
   very fragmented.

  3.11.5 Disk Fragmentation

   The Linux Native filesystems such a the Second Extended filesystem, the
   Third Extended filesystem, and the Reiser filesystem are all designed to
   be resistant to the disk fragmentation that plagues the filesystems of
   some other operating systems. In normal use with a typical Linux
   installation disk fragmentation levels rarely approach 20unreasonable
   expectation. Sparse file handling tends to increase the apparent amount of
   disk fragmentation that is reported. So true fragmentation is often
   considerably lower than is reported by the various Linux filesystem
   utilities.

   A Linux disk defragmentation utility does exist. Most Linux sysadmins who
   know about the disk defragmentation program don't use it; because disk
   fragmentation to serious percentages without the figure being inflated by
   the existence of sparse files are rare enough that Linux sysadmins just
   don't see a need to defragment their filesystems. Such a utility needs to
   be used on an unmounted partition, that would mean that the host, to have
   its partitions defragmented, would have to go out of service for the
   duration of the procedure, that is seen as being unacceptable by many
   sysadmins. Also, defragmenting files can hurt system performance and disk
   space availability. The disk defragmentation utility undoes the benefits
   of sparse files and if the filesystem is spread across multiple physical
   drives defragmentation could move all the allocated file space a single
   drive.

   Not many in the Linux community even know about the existence of the disk
   defragmentation utility. Because of the low rate of fragmentation, and
   defrag's inconvenient and possibly detrimental side effects experienced
   sysadmin don't feel a need for it and so do not search for it.

   Most of those who do want to use that utility are among the new Linux
   sysadmins who are still approaching Linux from a DOS/Windows mind set. It
   is not recommended, but if you have a special situation and feel you
   needed it, you can locate the utility by performing a search for defrag on
   www.freshmeat.net using "defrag" for the search key. Note that defrag has
   not been maintained since 1997, so it can not handle more recent
   developments in Linux filesystems. You have been warned.

  3.11.6 Symmetric multi-processing

   Linux's Symmetric multi-processing or SMP as it is often called
   facilitates the use of all the processors on a computer with multiple
   processors. Unlike many other operating systems that support SMP only in
   their high end versions, if at all, with Linux any and every installation
   can support SMP.

   SMP was not even considered before the 2.0.x series of Linux kernels, when
   a spin-lock was placed, essentially, around the entire kernel and no
   processor switching/activation occurred between system calls.

   In 2.2.x series of Linux kernels that was changed so that individual locks
   were placed on critical system calls and sometimes were moved to critical
   sections of the system call, leaving the before and after sections
   available for simultaneous use by another CPU.

   The 2.4.x series of Linux kernels has gotten even more fine grained.
   Enough so that the scheduler and clock ticking were seen as prominent
   bottlenecks.

   The development 2.5.x series of Linux kernels already (as of January 2002)
   has a scheduler which is at least 10 times as good without any tuning,
   which will get over the next few months, and the system and CPU clocks
   have been decoupled a great deal, there is even talk of having different
   clock speed CPUs in the same system.

   This rapid advancement is evidence of what can happen when no contributor
   does more than they can easily afford but the efforts of all of them
   combined give a push that not even the largest corporations like IBM,
   Intel, and Microsoft can hope to match.

  3.11.7 Clusters

   Linux supports clustering to utilize a number of common off-the-shelf
   computers to provide the computational power of even a super computer.
   Imagine tying together a number of computers that some other operating
   systems would have you consider obsolete, and you have the makings of a
   supercomputer.

  3.11.8 Graphical User Interface

   To be precise, Linux does not have a Graphical User Interface (a GUI).
   However there are multiple GUI's that run on Linux. The most popular is
   the Xfree86 distribution of the X Window System, also called X windows or
   simply X. There is often a call to fully integrate a GUI into the Linux
   kernel; that would be highly undesirable for multiple reasons such as
   reduced stability and forcing a GUI on to those who do not want or need a
   GUI. That would also be locking Linux into supporting that one GUI alone,
   thereby locking out the rest. A common argument for full GUI integration
   is that X is too ingrained into the Linux community to permit any other
   GUI to develop, that argument exposes nothing more a lack of understanding
   of the Linux way. The reality of the matter is that other GUIs already
   exist. Such as the virtual reality based shell, 3Dsia.

  3.11.9 Networking

   Linux, as other unixes, has support in the kernel for networking. Linux
   supports TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, Appletalk, DECnet, X.25, AX.25 level 2, and unix
   domain networking protocols. Linux hosts can operate as single home host,
   multi-home hosts, bridges and routers, firewalls, and NAT boxes. Linux can
   access non-Linux fileservers and printserver and other network servers.
   Linux can serve as a fileserver and a print server using a number of unix
   and non-unix protocols.

   Besides the common Ethernet network interface, Linux can network via
   serial ports with SLIP and PPP, performing either as a dialup client, or a
   dialup server. For an organization that needs to provide TCP/IP networking
   access for their workers, member, and clients and does not want the
   traffic to cross the internet, a Linux computer with a number of modems
   serving as a dialup server is a perfect solution. Linux also uses parallel
   ports for networking with the PLIP driver.

3.12 Cost of Linux and Where Can it be Obtained

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.12.1 Downloading Linux is not Software Piracy

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.12.2 Purchasing Linux

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.12.3 Linux Distributions.

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.12.4 Distributions are not the Same

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.12.5 How Many Times a Copy of Linux Can be Installed.

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

  3.12.6 You Don't Need a Distribution

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

3.13 Linux Software

   There is very little Linux specific software, that is software that can
   only run on Linux, but there is a great variety of software that is
   available for Linux. Much of the software for Linux is the standard unix
   fare that will be familiar to anyone who has used any unix. There is also
   much software written for Linux that will compile and run on other
   platforms as well. To see a partial list of the software available for
   Linux, go to the Freshmeat website at www.freshmeat.net activate the
   browse link, and start looking around.

                                4 Who uses Linux

   All those sysadmin and computer users who have it installed are working on
   a computer on which Linux is installed. That includes individuals, room
   mates, families, clubs, schools, charitable organizations, small
   businesses, corporations, government agencies, and governments.

4.1 Businesses who use Linux

     * 58k.com, Inc
     * Advance Packaging Corporation
     * Affordable Computers
     * Amazon.com
     * Bertelsmann Foundation
     * Bharti Telesoft Limited
     * BRW, Inc.
     * Borders
     * Cameraman Photos & Video
     * Credit Suisse First Boston
     * Citywebsites
     * Computer & Communication GmbH
     * Crisis Prevention Institute
     * e-smith, inc
     * Erol's Internet Services
     * GKN Westland Aerospace Ltd
     * Google.com
     * Harbor Capital Advisors, Inc.
     * Hewlett Packard
     * Intekk Communications
     * Koch Industries, Inc.
     * Marconi Aerospace - a divison of GEC Marconi
     * Merrill Lynch & Co.
     * Meyer Tool, Inc.
     * NBM Technologies
     * New Star Service Co.
     * New York Stock Exchange
     * PC & Web Xperience, Inc
     * REDE-RS - Internet provider network
     * Replay Media
     * Robert Reford
     * Shell Oil Exploration
     * The Astrolog
     * The Strand Companies
     * Tier 3 Solutions
     * TRW

4.2 These Governments and Agencies use Linux

     * Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority
     * Fermi National Laboratory
     * Los Alamos National Laboratory
     * National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
     * Oak Ridge National Laboratory
     * Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
     * Sandia National Laboratories
     * National Areonautics and Space Administration

4.3 Schools, Colleges and Universities

     * Auckland University
     * St. Mary's Catholic School (Rockledge, Florida)
     * Seton Hill College
     * Staffordshire University
     * University of British Colombia
     * University of California at Berkeley
     * University of California at San Francisco
     * University of Columbia
     * University of Notre Dame
     * University of Macedonia
     * University of Waterloo

4.4 Sources of information

     * www.forbes.com/home/2002/03/27/0327linux.html
     * www.netcraft.com
     * www.linux-mandrake.com/bizcase
     * www.copyleft.co.nz/should.html
     * Message-ID: <33551CC9.3416@ericsson.com>
     * www.li.org/success
     * www.linuxmall.com/?0,6,3
     * www.stmarys-school.org
     * dot.kde.org/1015251670

4.5 Charitable Organizations

   Linux is perfect for the needs of many schools and charitable
   institutions. When a company using PC hardware finds that is hardware is
   "too weak" to support the latest release of Windows and Windows based
   program, or at least does not support them productively; they will often
   replace that hardware and donate their older hardware to charitable
   institutions. That leads to a problem for the charitable institutions,
   because Microsoft does not permit the transfer of the licenses for the
   older version of Windows that the hardware runs from the company to the
   charitable institutions. The charitable institutions can then find it
   difficult to find copies of Windows that will run on that hardware; for
   the same reason that the company considered that hardware useless tends to
   lead the charitable institutions to the same conclusion.

   What can the charitable institutions do? Install Linux, and that hardware
   would be productive. If that organization is short of funds, a single
   purchase of a Linux distribution is the most it should take to run most of
   the 386+ PC hardware they have. What if they have 80286, or 8086/8088
   based hardware? They can be turned into telnet based terminals to provide
   access to their other computers that are running Linux or other unix
   operating systems. The software to do this is also free. They would need a
   copy of pctelnet (freeware), a copy of of DOS, if they do not have it,
   they can get a copy of FreeDOS (it is free), and a network packet driver,
   this driver could be provided by their network interface card
   manufacturer, or they could use one of the standard and free packet
   drivers, that have been time tested and stable.

4.6 Why Amateur Radio Operators use Linux

   Yes, this is true. More and more amateur radio operators (usually referred
   to as 'hams') are making the switch to Linux. This kind of comes under
   'specialized things you can do with Linux that are really cool'.

   There are many reasons for the use of Linux in the amateur community. It
   is beyond the scope of this FAQ to try and list all of them, but a fairly
   good summary is certainly called for.

   Right now, Linux offers kernel support of digital ham radio modes. This
   means that although they are usually not activated by default, recompiling
   the kernel allows support for these modes from within the kernel itself,
   no modules or drivers required. It is worth noting two facts here: this
   support is not available in any other OS from within the kernel, and it is
   available due to the efforts of amateurs around the world who have
   contributed to the development of the Linux kernel.

   Amateur radio literally has something for everyone. There are hams running
   bulletin board systems that are networked all over the world over-the-air.
   There are hams working OSCAR Satellites in near earth orbit, or making
   contact with the space shuttle as it flies missions. There are hams
   bouncing signals off of the moon and back to the earth again. There are
   hams that communicate with each other using digitally modulated data
   transmissions, rather than analog voice transmissions.

   This last kind of communication is in a class known as 'digital mode'.
   Probably the most common digital mode is known as packet radio. Packet
   radio, also known as AX.25, is actually very similar to the internet in
   function. An AX.25 protocol "packet" of data is encoded by a computer,
   modulated by a modem (packet modems are known as TNC's or Terminal Node
   Controllers), and transmitted by a radio in a 'data burst' that sounds
   like a psychotic cricket on speed. You know that sound that your computer
   modem makes when you are connecting up on a dial-up connection? data
   bursts sound like that but are very, very short. Typically half a second
   to three seconds in length. The process of receiving packets is the same,
   but in reverse. A ham can 'node hop' from one unattended (or attended, it
   really doesn't matter) packet station to another. A member of the team
   that produced this document has hopped all the way from the Southern
   California basin (USA) to central Texas. Every station in between takes
   the packet and ships it on it's way to the next node, like a bucket
   brigade used to fight fires in the old days.

   On the long range radio spectrums, other protocols are used, but they
   function similarly. Stations can communicate digitally with other stations
   on the other side of the earth.

   Pictures, weather fax and Amateur television are also digital modes.
   Digital modes have long been used by law enforcement to communicate car to
   car, and access databases while mobile; this all started with the
   venerable AX.25 protocol. Remember Packet?

   "What", you may ask, "has this got to do with Linux"?

   Everything! For one thing, Linux can be easily modified to fit specific
   tasks. The kernel code can be changed quite easily. But since Amateur
   radio support is already a feature of Linux, no modification is necessary
   for most digital modes of communication. The significance of this may not
   be immediately apparent. Let me give a specific example.

   It has already been mentioned that a special modem called a TNC is needed
   to translate (modulate/demodulate) the digital language of the computer
   into a sound pattern that represents the original data. These TNC's are
   not needed with Linux. Linux is the only OS that supports amateur radio
   from the kernel, allowing the Ham to leave the TNC in storage and packet
   away in style.

   A laptop running Linux can be used as a mobile packet station. Only a
   radio and antenna are needed to go on the air, anywhere in the world. The
   laptop's (or desktop's) soundcard takes the place of the TNC as data
   modem. This saves power and space and is one less thing that might fail.

   There are many other digital modes supported by Linux. The reader can
   expect more will be supported as new kernel are released.

   Hams all over the world answer their communities call for help, when
   disaster hits, and reliable communications are needed. Linux is a stable,
   reliable OS, and this emergency use has borne the fact out many times
   over. When you are a data link for local law enforcement, or Red Cross,
   you can't afford a blue screen of death.

   After hurricane Andrew, Packet radio was used to provide wireless data
   links between national guard, red cross shelters, and law enforcement to
   coordinate the relief effort. Hurricane Iniki benefitted similarly from
   packet. Packet also well served the rescue workers and the families of
   those lost in the sneak attack that destroyed the World Trade Center and
   surrounding area on September 11, 2001.

   Linux is now, and will continue to be in the future, the OS of choice for
   Hams. The reliability, versatility and open source nature of Linux makes
   it ideal. For hams running BBS's and Internet gateways to Amateur Radio,
   the security offered by Linux is essential. Our systems must remain
   secure; at the very least, an illegal transmission can earn us a tongue
   lashing from an FCC official observer. At the worst, a misuse of an (often
   unattended) station by an intruder could mean our license.

   The kernel support for data handling of all digital modes is found nowhere
   else. You can certainly use other operating systems. The question is,
   don't you want to use the best one for the job? Linux is the clear winner.

   For more information on Amateur Radio, contact The American Radio Relay
   League at www.arrl.org

4.7 Types of new Linux users drawn to Linux

   Of the variety of new users, who are willing to try Linux here are a few
   common types.

     * Type 1a - the almost happy windows user
       Those who use and love Windows but need more stability or can not
       afford the software for it they need. They are not looking for Linux,
       they are looking for safe, stable, and free Windows. Of these there
       are two sub types. One sub type is happy if Linux is close enough to
       what they have had before and are pleased to find all the things that
       Linux has given them what Windows did not have or they could not
       afford.

     * Type 1b - the windows acolyte
       The other sub type wants WINDOWS and Linux to be a WINDOWS clone in
       all aspects. Like this comment I have heard and read so many times,
       until Linux can run all the same software as Windows and Look just
       like Windows and act just like Windows it is doomed. They very soon
       will tend to dump Linux because it is not just like Windows. Wine does
       provide much of that for those who want it, however, for that same of
       that crowd I hope that Freedows get its act together and provide what
       these people are looking for.

     * Type 2a - almost happy Macman
       Same as above, about Windows, but about MacOS instead.

     * Type 2b - the macolyte
       Same as above, about Windows, but about MacOS instead.

     * Type 3 - gimme choice and freedom!
       Those who don't like Windows or MacOS, or are truly sick of them-for
       the cost, for the licensing problems, for the fragility, etc-they come
       seeking something better, they are seeking stability, they are seeking
       power, they are seeking value for their time effort and money, and
       they are seeking freedom of choice without. They are NOT seeking what
       they have left behind.

     * Type 4 - gimme unix back
       Those who have used unix before, either as a sysadmin or as a user.
       They are not interested in a Windows clone, they want a unix they can
       run on whatever hardware they have.

     * Type 5 - teach me unix
       Those who for personal or other reasons want to learn Linux/unix.

     * Type 6 - the unixman
       Those who need to run a unix to setup an environment at home equal to
       what they need to use at work or school.

     * Type 7 - the misdirected cracker
       There is a false impression by some that Linux is a cracking tool.
       This is a view that is fostered by Windows supporters and is part of
       their propaganda against Linux. There are those who are in the
       computer cracking scene, who will think that Linux is a hidden,
       underground cracking tool. Once they don't find Linux to be that, most
       of them will abandon Linux.

                      5 Linux Documentation and Resources

   Contrary to an all too common misperception that is promoted by the
   anti-Linux propagandists is that Linux is undocumented, but nothing could
   be further from reality. There is a wealth of information available in
   your machine, on the net and in books and magazines. If you purchased your
   copy of Linux you should have the ability to getting assistance from the
   company who created and maintains that Linux distribution.

5.1 Internal

   Many programs have builtin documentation passing them the appropriate
   command line option, three common command line options for this purpose
   are -? -h and -help. Some programs will present you with that
   documentation when you execute them without providing them with the
   expected arguments. Some programs have that same information available as
   an interactive help function.

5.2 man and info

   Linux has a comprehensive built-in documentation system inherited from
   prior versions of unix that is known as the manual page system (man). The
   man documentation is divided into several chapters.

   
   
          functions described in chapter 2.

   
   
          available on the system.

          packages, tables, C header files, the file hierarchy, general
       concepts, and other things which don't fit anywhere else.

          by the superuser, like daemons and machine or hardware related
       commands.

   
   As is in keeping with the unix standard, each software package should
   provide its own applicable man pages for installation into your man pages
   manual system. Contrary to the unix standard provision of the man pages,
   the FSF has developed a different documentation format known as info
   pages. Info pages are a primitive hypertext system providing. All packages
   on your linux system should have a manual or info page associated with
   them, although occasionally you might find something which is documented
   in a different way.

5.3 Developer Provided Documentation

   Besides the man and info pages, the developers of Linux and unix software
   will usually provide additional documentation with the source code of the
   software in the form various text files. Some software will place a copy
   of that documentation in /usr/doc, /usr/share/doc, /usr/local/doc, or
   /usr/local/share/doc, when it is installed from source. Many of the
   precompiled binary packages place these documents into these same
   directories.

   The standard location of documentation of the Linux kernel is in
   /usr/src/linux/Documentation. However, various Linux distributions are now
   placing the contents of /usr/src/linux/Documentation into /usr/doc,
   /usr/share/doc, /usr/local/doc, or /usr/local/share/doc.

5.4 Linux Documentation Project

   The Linux Documentation Project's (also known as LDP) website at at
   www.linuxdoc.org provides Guides, How-To's and other documentation. The
   documentation that you will find there are provided as HTML for on-line
   reading and archived for download in various formats, for use as you need
   them.

   Many linux distributions provide a How-To collection in in ASCII format
   within /usr/share/doc/HOWTO. The guides at the Linux Documentation Project
   website include the Network Administrator's Guide and the System
   Administrator's Guide, that have been printed as books and sold in book
   stores.

5.5 Online Magazine Articles

   The Linux Gazette at www.linuxgazette.com was started by a newbie user,
   John Fisk, to help other newbies in getting the most from their Linux
   systems. It was so successful that it has been adopted by the LDP as part
   of their family of documentation.

   A slightly more recent online magazine is Linux Focus at
   mercury.chem.pitt.edu/ tiho/LinuxFocus/English/index.html, concentrating
   in international coverage, with many translations.

5.6 Mailing Lists

   There are various Linux centered mailing lists. Many of the major Linux
   distributions provide one or more mailing lists for their users and for
   the Linux community in general. You can go to their web pages to find out
   what they offer, you can also do a web search for Linux mailing lists.

5.7 Newsgroups

   There are over 419 Linux newsgroups well. In addition to reading the
   newsgroups and posting requests to the newsgroup, don't forget to check
   the newsgroup archives at groups.google.com where the chances are someone
   else has already posted the same question and received an answer.

5.8 The Web

   A major resource to get information regarding Linux is the web. Remember
   to try the homepage for your chosen Linux distribution.

   Freshmeat at www.freshmeat.net is probably the most comprehensive software
   website containing both bleeding edge development and mature software a
   like. If you are seeking software for use with Linux or other unix
   freshmeat should be your first (or second stop). If you're looking for
   that obscure package which will change your life, then look here.

   If you're planning a new project, it's wise to use their search engine to
   see if another person or team has already started work on something
   similar.

   Freshmeat also has occasional articles which are typically of high
   standard. The main page of Freshmeat's site provides a continuously
   updated listing of announcements of the latest new or updated software
   submitted to their site. You can access both, the announcements and the
   articles by either the web, or by newsgroups.

   Here are a few handy Linux websites:

           e.themes.org

           freshmeat.net

           fvwm.themes.org

           gcc.gnu.org

           linux.com

           linuxtoday.com

           www.cert.org

           www.debian.org

           www.dosemu.org

           www.enlightenment.org

           www.freshmeat.net

           www.fvwm.org

           www.gnu.org

           www.kernel.org

           www.leafnode.org

           www.linmodems.org

           www.linux-mandrake.com

           www.linux-usb.org

           www.linux.com

           www.linux.org

           www.linuxdoc.org

           www.linuxdocs.org

           www.linuxfromscratch.org

           www.linuxgrill.com

           www.linuxguruz.org

           www.linuxhardware.net

           www.linuxheadquarters.com

           www.linuxhelp.org

           www.linuxhq.com

           www.linuxiso.org

           www.linuxnewbie.org

           www.linuxvideo.org

           www.open4success.com

           www.redhat.com

           www.sistina.com/products_lvm.htm

           www.themes.org

           www.winehq.com

           www.xfree86.org

5.9 Internet Relay Chat

   Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is practically unknown by many of the relatively
   new users of the internet. Internet Relay Chat offers a large range of
   channels where help can be had in near real-time.

   For more information, try www.openprojects.net The openprojects Internet
   Relay Chat network hosts more than 4000 channels, so there's almost
   certainly one which will meet your needs. This website also has beginners
   information for those new to Internet Relay Chat.

   This site has a listing of linux Internet Relay Chat channels on various
   networks, www.helsinki.fi/ rvaranka/Computer/Linux/IRC.shtml

   Also, don't forget the non-Linux IRC networks, there are some very useful
   Linux channels available on them as well. Some of the best help is
   available from some the quieter channels. The primary thing to remember
   when seeking assistance from such a channel is to ask your question and
   then wait. Waiting for the reply is important, since too many people will
   ask a question and leave the channel a minute latter. By the time the
   regulars notice that the question has been asked the questioner has parted
   from the channel.

   An good IRC channel for one-on-one help is #linuxsupport on EFnet.

5.10 File Transfer Protocol

   While not the most modern or trendy internet protocol, the old style FTP
   archives are still hard to beat for holding and distributing files and
   documentations. In many cases FTP is the work horse behind the web file
   distributions.

   Some of the FTP sites useful to Linux users:

           ftp.debian.org

           ftp.funet.fi

           ftp.gimp.org

           ftp.gnome.org

           ftp.gtk.org

           ftp.kde.org

           ftp.kernel.org

           ftp.mozilla.org

           ftp.redhat.com

           ftp.rpm.org

           ftp.slackware.com

           ftp.sourceforge.net

           ftp.suse.com

           ftp.tux.org

           ftp.x.org

           ftp.xfree86.org

           metalab.unc.edu

           non-us.debian.org

           prep.ai.mit.edu

           tsx-11.mit.edu

5.11 Online Radio Shows

   You can even follow Linux by listening to The Linux Show your on internet
   radio broadcasts. See webwww.thelinuxshow.com. It's broadcast live once
   per week in the wee hours (UTC), however archives are available for those
   of us not living near to the Pacific.

5.12 The Source

   If all else fails, you can use the ultimate documentation, use the source.
   Most Linux software is open source meaning that you have free access to
   the source code of that software. If you can read the source code, you can
   consult it to learn what you need to know.

   If you learn that the software is not designed to do what you want it to,
   you have the choice of changing the program to do what you want it to do.
   This is something that came in handy when setting up the software needed
   to support the production and publication of this document. There was a
   key program that was needed and could not be located. There were several
   close matches to the requirements for the project, but no workable match.
   So, the software that was the best match was selected and patched to
   provide the features that were needed but were missing from that software.

   Even if you can't understand the source code, you can find someone who
   does. The developer/maintainer(s) will generally be willing to help you if
   you've exhausted all the information sources above. If you've found a bug,
   then tell them anyway - you'll generally be amazed at how quickly they get
   fixed.

                     6 Contributing to the Linux Community

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

6.1 There are Many Reasons to Contribute

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

6.2 It is Not Crazy to Contribute

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

                     7 Anti-Linux Propagandists and Trolls

   The comp.os.linux.advocacy newsgroup is a newsgroup that is under siege by
   one or more factions of anti-Linux propagandists. In the past those
   factions have appeared to be confident and smug; however, as of late it
   appears that they are becoming ever more desperate. The reason for their
   desperation appears to be as a result of growth of the mind share of Linux
   and the continuing failures of their chosen cause. Besides the true
   anti-Linux propagandists there are also the occasional classic newsgroup
   troll.

   It can be difficult to determine what type of person a particular
   disruptive personality is; an anti-Linux Propagandist or just a troll.
   That is because they both use some of the same tactic. What it not
   difficult to determine is what their purpose is when they post to COLA.
   They are doing it to disrupt the newsgroup and sidetrack its purpose of
   existence. Regardless of their reason for the disruption, they are trying
   to prevent: the free exchange of knowledge and support based on experience
   of using Linux that would otherwise be happening in COLA, if it were not
   for their interference.

   The free and open discussions between the experienced users and the new
   users and the would be users of Linux that is our goal. That is the goal
   of all those who would be Linux advocates as well as all others who come
   to COLA to discuss Linux. All of us, Linux users new and old, those
   curious about Linux, and others, have come to COLA as students and as
   teachers. All that is except for the anti-Linux propagandists and the
   trolls, they have come to COLA to destroy it and prevent its being an
   asset to the Linux community.

   As has been stated else where in this document, all are welcome in COLA,
   except those who come to COLA to destroy Linux, COLA, or the Linux
   Community.

7.1 Disinformation

   If COLA were a physical location like a building where those who would
   advocate the growth of the Linux operating systems and the Linux community
   gather, the anti-Linux propagandists would be raiding that building. They
   would be vandalizing the building, painting graffiti on the walls,
   defecating and urinating on the floors and furniture, breaking down the
   doors, setting fire to the building and physically assaulting the resident
   Linux advocates and the visitors who happen to be in the building at the
   time of the raid.

   COLA is not a physical location, so they have had to adapt their methods
   so that they can do an on-line version of what was described in the prior
   paragraph. A key method used by anti-Linux propagandist to attack Linux,
   its users, sysadmins, developers, advocates and those who have come to
   COLA to lean about Linux. is a form of propaganda known as disinformation.
   One of their favorite version of disinformation is known as FUD.

7.2 FUD

                            +---------------------+
                            | Removed for rewrite |
                            +---------------------+

7.3 A Common FUD of the Anti-Linux Propagandists

   An example of dishonesty of the anti-Linux propagandists is their common
   claim that the Linux proponents in COLA oppose the use of any other
   operating system. They also would have you believe that the Linux
   proponents in COLA oppose everyone who does not use Linux all the time.
   Those are some of the lies that they use to try to discredit Linux users
   who post in COLA.

   The truth is that a user of one or more operating systems other than Linux
   are not opposed in COLA for that reason alone. Many of the Linux Advocates
   in COLA have experience on many other operating systems besides Linux.
   Many do use multiple operating systems on a regular basis. It is due to
   this experience that any disinformation regarding the capabilities of
   Linux, or that of other operating systems are easily detected by the Linux
   advocates.

   It is not difficult to tell the difference between an anti-Linux
   Propagandist and a true advocates of another operating system. Occasional
   mention of other operating systems is fine. However, it is the frequent or
   continuous promotion of other operating systems that turns a welcome
   poster into an unwelcome troll or anti-Linux propagandist.

7.4 The Effect of the Trespassers

   If the purpose of the anti-Linux propagandists was to create a disruption
   in order to seek attention or for some other of the excuses that people
   have used for trolling newsgroups, they could be ignored and in time they
   would go away. However that is not their intent and the classic "just
   killfile them" tactic does not work with anti-Linux propagandists. If
   every regular poster did just killfile them, they would have freedom to
   abuse the new Linux users and the rest of the COLA readership unopposed.

  7.4.1 Effect on Readers of COLA

   The anti-Linux propagandists fill the newsgroup many useless, empty, or
   abusive articles, making it difficult for the readership of COLA to find a
   thread discussing serious issues. In this way they are damaging the
   utility of COLA as a valuable resource for the benefit of the Linux
   community.

  7.4.2 Effect Upon Posters

   By using their time refuting and otherwise dealing with the disinformation
   posted by the anti-Linux propagandists, the Linux proponents posting in
   COLA don't have that time available that they would otherwise have to
   write and post proper advocacy article, to develop software for Linux, or
   otherwise promote and improve Linux.

  7.4.3 Effect of the X-No-Archive header

   The X-No-Archive header was created for a valid purpose, but has been
   abused by the anti-Linux propagandists who are posting in COLA. By the use
   of that header in their articles, they avoid having them archives in the
   Google newsgroups archives and other such archives that may exist. This
   means that their lies and other dishonest tactics are no stored in those
   archives. Therefore, they can repost the same lies over and over again.
   When they switch from one identity to another they can post the same lies
   all over again feeling confident that without the ability to have their
   prior use of those lies confirmed in the archives, they can fool at least
   some of the readership of COLA.

   They are also feel that by avoiding the usenet newsgroup archives that
   there is no evidence to prove their misdeeds if and when complaints are
   filed regarding their deeds. Deeds that are in violation of the agreements
   that they have entered into with their internet service providers and some
   deeds that are also criminal in nature.

   All of this has been admitted by the anti-Linux propagandists. Once again
   they are confident that proof of those admissions can not be retrieved
   from the archives.

   One anti-Linux propagandist who uses this header has posted to COLA with 6
   confirmed false identities and has posted using the email address of
   another person in his from header, causing that other person to be email
   bombed by many complaints for the actions of that anti-Linux propagandist.

   Another anti-Linux propagandist who has done the same and far worse for
   years and has used over fifty false identities for repeating the same lies
   over and over again.

7.5 Where the Disrupters Should Go

   Many of the readership of COLA would like to tell the anti-Linux
   Propagandists and trolls just where they can go. But that balmy place that
   makes the planet Venus appear to be the Antarctic by comparison is not a
   valid destination.

   A common excuse made by the propagandists for their posting to COLA is,
   ``If not in COLA where will I go to post?''. The answer to that question
   for any particular propagandist or troll can be simple or it can be
   complex, it depends on what that person claims to be his motivation to be
   posting in COLA.

   Unfortunately, their claimed motivations and their true reasons for
   posting in COLA do not often agree. What appears to be their motivation on
   first consideration is most often only a smoke screen to hide their true
   motivation as an anti-Linux propagandist with their intended purpose to
   disrupt COLA and prevent the continued growth and acceptance of the Linux
   community.

   Here are some of the claimed motivations of the propagandists and trolls,
   along with where they should be posting based on those motivations:

     * The trespasser has come to COLA in order to criticize Linux and vent
       about his experiences with it. For that purpose three newsgroups have
       been created.

          * alt.comp.linux-sucks
          * alt.linux.sucks
          * alt.linux.sux

     * The trespasser has come to COLA in order to advocate Windows. For that
       purpose a newsgroup has been created.

          * comp.os.ms-windows.advocacy

     * The trespasser has come to COLA in order to advocate Windows NT. For
       that purpose a newsgroup has been created.

          * comp.os.ms-windows.nt.advocacy

     * The trespasser has come to COLA in order to vent his dislike of
       Microsoft and/or Windows. For that purpose several newsgroups have
       been created.

          * alt.crimehip.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.emircpih.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.flame.ms-windows
          * alt.h.i.p.c.r.i.m.e.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.h0pcr0me.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.h1pcr1me.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.h2pcr2me.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.hh.ii.pp.cc.rr.ii.mm.ee.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.hipclone.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.hipcrime.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.microsoft.crash.crash.crash
          * alt.microsoft.sucks
          * alt.os.windows95.crash.crash.crash
          * comp.misc.microsoft.sucks
          * microsoft.sucks.
          * sk.sux.microsoft

     * The trespasser has come to COLA in order to entertain himself with
       debates, arguments and fights. For that purpose a large number of
       newsgroups have been created.

          * alt.arguments
          * alt.flame
          * alt.flame-wars
          * alt.flame.operating-systems
          * 258 other flame newsgroups
          * 20 debate newsgroups

       So as you can see there are many placed where a propagandist can go to
       and actually be welcomed for a change. Perhaps they have lost their
       way, so be helpful and tell the trespassers in COLA where they can and
       should go.

7.6 Trespasser Disinformation Tactics

   This is a list of the disinformation tactics that the that the anti-Linux
   propagandists who post in COLA have been using. All of these tactics have
   been used in COLA by the anti-Linux propagandists against the Linux
   advocates and the rest of the COLA readership to further the cause of the
   anti-Linux propagandists. This list has been worded as though you are one
   of them, so that you can better see through their eyes how they think.

          Act offended or claim that opposing viewpoints are incredible and/or
       unbelievable. When you are unable to valid argument to refute a Linux
       advocate, use empty statements such as:
          * "OH PULEEEZE!"
          * "Only a Linonut would say that"
          * "And they wonder why no one takes Linux seriously!"
          * "How dare you say that!"
          * "That's the way to offend thousands!"

          Distract your opponent from the issues at hand by accusing your
       opponents of being "petty", "pathetic", "childish" or any of a number
       of other such terms.

          Put your opponent off guard by insulting him.  The liberal use of
       profanity and vulgarisms can be very effective, particularly when used
       against you more dignified opponents.  Your experience as a school
       yard bully can be handy here

          Be patronizing, condescending and present an air of superiority. It
       may hide your inferiority to the casual reader.  Use phrases like
       "kid" or "son", to elevate your relative apparent authority by
       attempting to diminish that of the Linux advocate you are addressing.

          Discredit your opponent or his position through the use of
       inappropriate laugher and other non-verbal grunts.

          When your tactics are turned on you, call you opponents trolls.  Do
       not accept the fact that by calling someone using your tactics a troll
       that makes you the real troll.

          Keep posting non-stop.  Flood the group with your idiocy and nonsense.
       Some readers may equate your volume with proof of quality.  You will
       tie good Linux advocates in knots trying to refute you and they won't
       have time for real advocacy.

          Brag about destroying newsgroups and threaten to do the same to
       comp.os.linux.advocacy.

          Drive as many good Linux Advocates out of the group as possible.

   10. Refuse to admit your errors
       Never ever admit your errors no matter how blatant they are.  If you
       find no way out and have to admit that you are wrong, phrase it so
       that you can accuse your opponent of being wrong.

   11. Never apologize for your misbehavior
       Never ever apologize no matter how out of line you have been behaving.
       If you should ever find it to your advantage to apologize, phrase it
       as a slap in the face of the person who you have already wronged.

   12. Blame your stupidity and lies on your opponent
       Blame your own stupidity on the Linux advocate you are dealing with.
       Such as when you have made an unsupportable claim that suggest a list
       of details and your are asked to present your non-existent list reply
       with, "I don't have to list them for you; you aren't bright enough to
       know what you're missing by using X instead of a real Y, I'm not going
       to explain it to you." Then hope that nobody reading the thread
       realizes that your statement translates as, "I lack the knowledge or
       facts needed to counter your position or your position is too complete
       and accurate to be refuted.  So, I will say things to sound superior
       to avoid admitting you are right."

   13. Embarrass your opponent
       Locate or create apparently embarrassing information or detail and
       utilize it out of all proportion-trying to create a scandal around it,
       to hijack a thread or drive everyone to distraction.

   14. Blackmail your opponent
       Locate or create apparently embarrassing information or detail and
       threaten your opponent with exposure to force him to do as you want
       him to. This tactic can be combined with the "Embarrass your opponent"
       tactic if you can no longer get your way though Blackmail.

   15. Avoid answering direct questions
       Avoid answering a direct questions that you fear by claiming to not
       have seen the question then refuse to address it for other reasons.
       Keep it up along with other tactics until your opponent is distracted
       from the question.

   16. Turn a question asked of you back on your opponent
       Better yet, turn the questions back on the Linux Advocate with a
       question like: "What do you think is the `right' answer, lamer?" You
       have now taken the heat off of your ignorance and you have cast doubt
       on the credibility of your opponent.

   17. Don't substantiate your claims
       Refuse to present evidence to support your invalid claims. Repeat your
       invalid claims and have your anti-Linux propagandist comrades do the
       same. Do the same for any invalid claims that you have notice your
       anti-Linux propagandists comrades make.

   18. Don't discuss evidence counter to your position
       Avoid examining or discussing evidence counter to your position. This
       is especially effective when combined with 3.2.8, Dancing Fool,
       wherein you change your position with every post.

   19. Present multiple personalities
       Change your position with every few article you post to
       comp.os.linux.advocacy. Appear to be supporting all sides of the
       issues. You can make a statements or opinion in one posting then
       follow it up with a another post with a contrary opinion. You can even
       get into an argument with yourself. This could cause readers to
       dismiss the subject of the thread.

   20. Narrow the scope of threads so that you can handle it. Narrow the
       scope of the issues that are being addressed in a thread to details
       you feel that you can refute, ridicule, or dismiss leaving the main
       issues unaddressed.

   21. Widen the scope of threads to swamp out the original issue.
       Widen the scope of the issues discussed in a thread to the point that
       the original issues are buried away and hopefully soon forgotten.

   22. Use invalid statistics
       Introduce statistics to try to hurt Linux, Linux Advocates, and/or the
       Linux community at large. Do not about them be valid or real. It would
       be nice if you can find those statistics on-line, but if you can't
       find any, invent them out of whole cloth.  If they are discredited,
       don't let that bother you, keep citing them. If you see a fellow
       anti-Linux propagandist using statistics, cite them as well, no matter
       their lack of validity.

   23. Lie
       Lie, lie, lie, lie.  If you do it often enough you may create the
       appearance of truth.

   24. Ignore dictionaries when they don't support you
       Rage against the use of dictionaries or other such documents, their
       use can only hurt you and expose your ignorance.

   25. Attack new posters who favor Linux
       Some of these Linux Advocates may be new to Linux and COLA. Show no
       mercy. Pounce upon their innocence with every single one of these
       tactics. If you are lucky you might turn them to your side, at the
       very least you may be able to drive them out of COLA and neutralize
       them as a threat.

   26. Attack typos and ignore the content of the message.
       Point out your opponent's grammatical flaws and spelling errors. By
       doing this you can concentrate on form while ignoring substance. This
       is a very handy method to discredit your opponent and by extension his
       position, without once again exposing your ignorance of the issues
       begin discussed in the thread.

   27. Use Spelling and Grammatical Errors to Distract
       Make statements like, "Why do you nea d to dbug the cernal? Is lienux
       not working agen!" When this tactic works, you have disarmed the
       supporters of Linux who have chosen to ignore you because of your
       idiot act, others may react to your style and fail to refute your
       disinformation. Meanwhile, you have posted your disinformation in
       support your cause.

   28. Start trolling threads
       Start threads with subjects like "Linsux Sux", "Linux fonts are bad",
       etc. Manufacture false evidence to back up your claims when possible,
       but don't worry that that is not important. All that is important is
       that you consume the efforts and resources of Linux Advocate as they
       try to refute your trolling threads and that you scare the new and
       casual readership of COLA.

   29. Unreasonably proclaim your reasonableness
       If your method to deliver anti-Linux propaganda is not among the more
       article style, you can try to claim to be reasonable. Of course if you
       really were reasonable, you would not be an anti-Linux propagandists
       in he first place; however, compared to your more radical comrades you
       may seem to be more reasonable. You can not be certain that the
       readership of COLA will accept your actions as being reasonable
       without your prompting them to think of you that way. So you need
       frequently mention how reasonable you are.

   30. Expose yourself on COLA.
       Post articles in COLA containing ASCII art depicting your body
       including your genitals, either in the message body or in the sig.
       Discuss your bodily functions and your bodily wastes, the more
       disgusting the better. It will tend to drive away more of the casual
       and new readers. The Linux Advocates who are frequent posters may
       become disgusted enough to avoid threads that you involve yourself in.

   31. If it makes Microsoft or Windows look bad call it a rumor
       Claim that anything that tends to make Microsoft or Windows look bad
       is an unfounded rumor and that you opponent is being unfair.  If the
       information is obscure enough claim that it is an urban legend, hoping
       that no one knows that many legends are based on fact.

   32. Promote Windows at every opportunity
       Microsoft Windows needs a lot of help to be successful in the mind
       share of its targeted user base. Point out to everybody on COLA how
       wonderful it is. Ignore the meaning of the name of the newsgroup and
       its charter.

   33. Claim false Alignment
       Remind Everyone that you are a long-time Linux user and advocate. Of
       course it is not true, so you will be accused of being what you really
       are.  When that happens and you are accused of working against Linux.
       Deny!  Deny! Deny!

   34. Use of false identities
       Create throw away identities to enter the newsgroup to spread discord
       and after a few days or weeks, stop using that identity. If you are
       losing an argument create a new identity to support the position of
       your main identity. If things are getting slow, create a few
       identities counter to your primary identity.  Start a n-on-1 argument
       with your primary identity being outnumbered.  Then have each of your
       new identities be convinced by your primary identity to the error of
       their ways.

   35. When thing get too hot go away
       When all else fails and things get too hot, disappear from the group.
       This is not as drastic as it sounds.  You might stay away for a few
       months and then return hoping that the other wintrolls have softened
       up the field a bit.  If you don't want to stay away at all.  Create a
       new primary identity and drop the use of the other one.

   36. Enter COLA as a sleeper.
       If you are a new anti-Linux propagandist, or at least your current
       false identity is new, then make your entrance as a dedicated Linux
       user. After a little while, claim to have seen the light and "convert
       back to Windows".  Then you can promote Windows all you want for a
       while, before your true nature is commonly known. Sometimes this works
       for several hours before you are shouted down and have to move on to a
       new identity or continue on as "normal" anti-Linux propagandist.

   37. Enter COLA as a false disgruntled Linux user.
       Create a throw away false identity to enter the newsgroup in order
       claim to be short or long term Linux users who "have had enough of
       Linux and are returning to Windows." Stir things up for a day or two
       and disappear forever.

   38. Never leave a Linux positive thread unchallenged.
       If there is a thread developing that is positive for Linux, hijack
       that thread at all cost.  Even if it means sacrificing your current
       identity.  One method to do this is to ramble on about other topics,
       with or without the use embedded insults.  Even if you fail to hijack
       the thread, you may be able to derail it enough to cancel the
       positive-for Linux-impact that it could have had.

   39. Lie about what you know
       Claim credit for experience, knowledge, or education that you do not
       have. It will impress readers who are not knowledgeable on the topic
       of the moment. Be careful to not engage someone who is truly
       knowledgeable on the subject in conversation or your actual ignorance
       will be exposed.

   40. Avoid providing any help.
       Because you claim to be such an expert so often, you may from time to
       time be asked for assistance.  Don't provide it, you would only
       destroy the image you have lied so long to create.  Treat an honest
       request based on a real situation as an argument: Restate the request
       for assistance in a real situation as a hypothetical situation that
       you can argue against.

   41. Use of Undefined Terminology
       Use terms such as "indoctrinated" as a substitute for "educated" or
       "experienced" when referring to a Linux Advocate.  Use "pedantic" in
       place of "correct", "precise", or "accurate" when referring to a Linux
       Advocate.  Create and use personal definitions such as "commercial
       quality" for impressive sounding terms to mislead the unwary.  But
       never share your definitions for your inappropriate terminology. This
       is commonly known as Troll-speak.

   42. Use fake email addresses.
       Use a fake email address, not just a de-spammed address like real
       advocates use, but a completely fake and made-up one. If you feel the
       need for the appearance of normality use a real appearing email
       address-maybe not one of yours, but you can try to explain your act of
       identity theft as an accident.

   43. Citing vapor postings
       Cite the statements that you had "intended" to include but never
       actual written into your past posting. Gamble on the possibility that
       nobody will remember what you posted and that nobody will do the
       research to determine what you have posted. If you loose that bet, use
       another disinformation tactic to deflect the results of your using
       this tactic.

   44. Use being an idiot as an excuse
       When you are criticized for using disinformation tactics, claim
       ignorance of the disinformation tactics and use your apparent idiocy
       as an excuse for your actions. Do the same for your comrades, when a
       Linux Advocate corners one of your fellow anti-Linux propagandists
       tell that advocate something like "What are you doing? It's only John
       Doe for goodness sake!"

   45. Criticize Linux Advocates but ignore anti-Linux propagandist
       transgressions
       Always criticize the behavior of Linux Advocates, but, ignore the same
       and even worse transgressions are being committed by your fellow
       Trespassers.

   46. Accept the claims of other anti-Linux propagandists as face value
       Always treat other anti-Linux propagandist's statements as being true.
       Accept their interpretations without question, don't bother verifying
       their statements. If they claim something against a Linux advocate
       always side with the anti-Linux propagandists.

   47. Don't do your own homework
       Make your opponent do your research for you. Depending on who much
       credibility you still have will determine how successful you will be
       at this tactic.

   48. Don't let your ignorance stop you from posting
       No matter how little you understand of the issues being discussed in a
       thread, post anyway. If you don't know what you are talking about just
       pretend that you do.

   49. Restate the issues to support your preconceptions
       If the issues being discussed in a thread are not exploitable by you
       for your purpose, restate the issues to support your ability to attack
       Linux Advocate opponent.

   50. Claim god like attributes
       Claim god like attributes, such as being all knowing. If you don't
       want to make that claim, behave as though you are, any way.

   51. Claim only you understand what the issues are.
       Claim and other wise present the attitude to imply that only you know
       what the issues really are. Attempt to project the attitude that would
       tend to discredit your opponent at the same time.

   52. Invoke the mythical average user
       Always use the mythical average users as your yardstick for usability.
       No matter what is being discussed about Linux, restate the abilities
       of the average users to fall short of that needed.

   53. Use extortion to build an army
       Use extortion against a group to generate an army of flunkies to do
       your bidding and do you fighting for you. Such as when things are not
       going the way you want in COLA, crosspost a threat in another
       newsgroup a thread of your intention of making thing miserable for
       them if they don't take up your battle for you. This is a dangerous
       tactic for you the anti-Linux propagandists. If they don't react the
       way you wanted them to, you will either have to forget it or you could
       carry our your threat. If you forget it, you will loose even more
       credibility. If you carry out your threat you will still loose
       credibility and you could open yourself up for reprisal from those
       your are hurting by carrying out your threat. Even if you do form your
       army, you will be held responsible for the results of their actions on
       your behalf. A recent case (as of this writing) of this tactic being
       used by a anti-Linux propagandists can be revived by reading the
       thread that resulted with the crossposting of Message-ID:
       ozub8.40974$Wf1.7452626@ruti.visi.com to comp.os.linux.advocacy and
       comp.os.linux.misc.

   54. The devil made me do it
       When you are caught in a situation for which you can not explain you
       actions without a confession of your dishonesty and your alignment,
       blame it on someone else. Create a boogyman to take the blame. A
       variation of this tactic was used in the thread cited above, in which
       the failed extortionist blames all the Linux Advocates in COLA for
       forcing him into attempting extortion.

7.7 Methods to Counter Disinformation

   Now that you have seen some of the tactics that that the anti-Linux
   propagandist who post in COLA use against Linux advocates, the rest of the
   COLA readership, and the Linux community at large, you may be wondering
   how to counter them. There are several methods that have successfully
   curtailed the activities of the anti-Linux propagandists. Those of you who
   have been reading COLA for the past few months before the initial posting
   of this document may have noted varying, sometimes puzzling, reactions to
   the disinformation tactics of the anti-Linux propagandists by various
   Linux advocates. These were experiments gauging the reactions of
   anti-Linux propagandists to the methods the are being recommend in this
   document.

   The methods of dealing with the anti-Linux propagandists are being
   presented in the order of their apparent effectiveness. You can mix and
   match them to suit your personality.

  7.7.1 Use of Trespasser Disinformation Tactics List

   A method that has worked successfully is to counter the use of
   disinformation tactics by the anti-Linux propagandists is to identify
   which tactic or tactics that an anti-Linux propagandist is using in a
   particular message. Use the trespasser disinformation tactics list, Do not
   address their individual comments in the message you are replying to
   rather examine all their comments in that article under consideration.
   Create a list of tactics that they have used in that article and place the
   list of the tactics they have used in a single comment block.

   As an example:

           +--------------------------------------------------------+
           | Joe.Propagandist wrote in comp.os.linux.advocacy:      |
           | >[snipped disinformation text]                         |
           | Disinformation tactics you have used are:              |
           | 2. Distract from the issue by using personal attacks   |
           | 3. Use profanity                                       |
           | 12. Blame your stupidity and lies on your opponent     |
           | 16. Turn a question asked of you back on your opponent |
           | 22. Use invalid statistics                             |
           | 48. Restate the issues to support your preconceptions  |
           +--------------------------------------------------------+

   It is recommended that you use this tactic as soon as possible in the
   thread, supply no other comments to the anti-Linux propagandist. Anything
   you say to them can be latched on to as the basis for their continued
   spreading of disinformation. This method has been very successful in field
   tests.

  7.7.2 Refute Disinformation Where Possible

   Post a refutation of the disinformation early in the thread. Use only
   verifiable facts and include the proof of the validity of your statements
   including references to the source documents when possible. When citing a
   past article that is not an immediate predecessor to your article in the
   thread, include the message ID of that cited article. Including a URL to
   it can also be helpful but does not replace the message ID. The URL may
   remain viable or not overtime, the message ID will remain viable.

   When you are lucky, the anti-Linux propagandist will drop the issue after
   that; however, that is not too common. Most of the time, anti-Linux
   propagandists will continue on ignoring your efforts or employ another of
   their disinformation tactics. If that is the case, it is often best to
   ignore drop the issue, unless you see an opening that you can use to
   further expose the dishonesty of that anti-Linux propagandist.

   This is a powerful method, as long as you don't let yourself get drawn in
   to a situation that you can not handle.

  7.7.3 Stay On Topic

   All too often a Linux Advocate will respond to a anti-Linux propagandist,
   and in no time at all, the anti-Linux propagandist gains near complete
   control of the discussion. Continuing to follow the thread as the
   anti-Linux propagandists lead, you will find yourself in a mirror maze of
   twisted logic aiding neither yourself the others of the COLA readership.
   The only persons aided by your efforts would be the anti-Linux
   propagandists.

  7.7.4 What Have they Contributed to Linux

   If an anti-Linux propagandist or even a classic troll makes repeated
   complaints about Linux, ask them what they have done to improve the
   situation that they are complaining about.

   For example, if one of them were to start complaining about typographical
   errors of a How-To, ask that person if he has contacted the author of that
   document to help proof read that document. The applicability of this
   method is rather limited compared to the others, however, it has been
   successful in those cases where it applies.

  7.7.5 Use Your Newsreader Scoring and Killfile Features

   The great bulk of the anti-Linux propagandists produce nothing but noise.
   You can use your newsreader's killfile, scoring, or filtering facilities
   to to filter out their posts. This will almost eliminate the anti-Linux
   propagandists problem for you. That is good for you, but does nothing to
   help cure the overall problem and is leaving the others in COLA to deal
   with it in your stead. If all of the pro-Linux regular posters of COLA
   were to do this, it would leave all of the disinformation of the
   anti-Linux propagandists unchallenged and possibly misleading the neophyte
   members of the COLA readership.

                             8 Linux's BSD cousins.

   Much of what is covered in this FAQ and Primer that is not too Linux
   specific and is not COLA specific also applies to the other free unixes
   such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD. Each of these unix operating systems
   runs mostly the same software as Linux. The user environment is mostly the
   same, with the exception of some features of Linux that is not yet
   available on the BSD's. Each of these other unix operating systems are
   similar to Linux in many ways, so that often an ordinary non-root user,
   who is not a programmer and is not involved in the lower systems level
   operations would be hard pressed to know whether he is on a Linux or a BSD
   host, unless it is a hardware platform that Linux supports and the BSD's
   do not, or vice versa.

   We are all friends, in fact many who run Linux also run a BSD. As long as
   the fans and advocate of a BSD or other unix do not behave as anti-Linux
   propagandists do, they are welcome in COLA, as hopefully Linux advocates
   are just as welcome to visit their newsgroups.

                                   9 Credits

   This document was made possible by the efforts of the following
   individuals:

   +-------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                         Maintainer                          |
   | mjcr              mjcr@mindspring.com                       |
   |-------------------------------------------------------------|
   |                   Team Associate Members                    |
   | TuxTrax           ARCTIC@zerojunkTUXTRAX.COM                |
   |-------------------------------------------------------------|
   |                        Contributers                         |
   | Charlie Ebert     kd5ob@localhost.localdomain               |
   | Darren            DarrenR114@Frankenstein.com               |
   | Ed Allen          eallen@allenhome.kc.rr.com                |
   | Edward Rosten     u98ejr@ecs.ox.ac.uk                       |
   | Jerry Nash        jnash@memento.org                         |
   | Mark Bickel       Mark.Bickel@ericsson.com                  |
   | Mark S Bilk       mark@cosmicpenguin.com                    |
   | Mark Kent         mark@NOHAM.otford.kent.btinternet.co.uk   |
   | Mart van de Wege  mvdwege.usenet@drebbelstraat20.dyndns.org |
   | Scott Bicknell    sbicknel@prodigy.net                      |
   | Roy Culley        rgc@swissonline.ch                        |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------+

9.1 Friends of COLA and this Project

   #linuxsupport on EFnet
   LinuxGuruz http://www.linuxguruz.org

                                10 Pesky Details

   While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document,
   The Frequently Asked Questions and Primer for comp.os.linux.advocacy Team
   and the members thereof, assumes no responsibility for errors or
   omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information
   contained herein. The information is on an "as is" basis.

   All trademarks and service marks mentioned in this document are the
   property of their respective owners. The use in this document of a terms
   that are trademarks or service marks should not be regarded as affecting
   the validity of any trademark or service mark.

   The COLA FAQ and Primer team reserves the right to edit and/or reject any
   submission that is offered for consideration to be included in this or any
   future edition of this document. Any material so offered may be included
   in piecemeal, in its entirety, or not at all, at the discretion of the
   team.

   The use of the masculine pronoun in this FAQ and Primer is intended to be
   gender neutral unless a particular person is being specified. The use of
   male pronouns this way is more dignified that using "it", and leads to
   cleaner sentences than using "he or she", "him or her", or even
   "he/she/it".

   This FAQ and Primer was produced and is being maintained entirely with the
   use of software running on the Linux operating system.

   Copyright (c) 2002 The Frequently Asked Questions and Primer for
   comp.os.linux.advocacy Team - All Rights Reserved.

     ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    2002-04-19

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