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soc.culture.lebanon FAQ, part 1/5

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 )
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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Archive-name: lebanon-faq/part1
Last-modified: 1997/4/6
Version: 2.37


_______________________________________________________________________________



       Many FAQs, including this one, are available on the archive site
rtfm.mit.edu in the directory pub/usenet/news.answers.
The names under which this FAQ is archived are "lebanon-faq/part1", 
"lebanon-faq/part2", "lebanon-faq/part3","lebanon-faq/part4"
and "lebanon-faq/part5"

If you do not have ftp, you can request messages from rtfm by using
the local mail server.  Send mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu
containing the line "send usenet/news.answers/lebanon-faq" to get
this file.  Send a message containing "help" to get general
information about the mail server.

This FAQ could also be obtained via regular anonymous ftp at the sites: 
                  ftp.leb.net (206.127.55.2) in /pub/scl, rama.poly.edu 
                  (128.238.10.212) in pub/scl/ and ftp.u.washington.edu in 
                  /pubilc/scl filenames lebanon-faq/part1, lebanon-faq/part2 
                  lebanon-faq/part3, lebanon-faq/part4 and lebanon-faq/part5.

This FAQ could also be obtained via a WWW server, URL is: 
   http://www.leb.net/lebanon-faq 

Version:          Version 2.37

Changes since last posting:


Thanks  to all  contributors to  this FAQ,  namely: Naji Mouawad  (who
started the effort), Basil Hamdan (who maintained this faq before me),
Bassem Medawar, Samir   Fahs, Mazen Saghir,Edmond J.  Abrahamian, Alex
Khalil, Olivier  M.J.  Crepin-Leblond, Hassan  Hammoud,Mazen  Mokhtar,
Barre Ludvigsen,  Ghassan Semaan,  Elie Wardini, Fady  Harfoush,Debbie
Masri, Pauline  Homsi  Vinson,  Youssef  Fawaz, Mike,  Nasri,   Rached
Zantout,May  Nasrallah,   Khalil  El-Khoury,   Danny  Chahal,   Haidar
Harmamani,   Wadih  Shaib,Walid   Nasrallah,  Kamie  Kitmitto, Ibrahim
Ballouz,  Nadim Maluf, Fadi  Andraos, Boudi Sahyoun, Naji Rizk, Berthe
Choueiry, Jamal Zemerly,   Wassim Alami, philo, George  Fisher,  Roger
Adbel-Hay, Knut Vik|r, Walid Keirouz, Jihad Kawkabani,Joseph Mouhanna,
Ayman Kayssi,  Hayssam  Taha, Elie Mourad,   Jihad Daba,  Salah Sadek,
Chaabouni Moez, Rania  Masri,  Kamel Saidi, Mohamad   Hannaoui, Joseph
Adi, Wassim  M. Jabi, Ziad G  Kassir, D. G.  Lubar, Charly Brady, Loai
Said, Philip  Abi-Rached, Enrico Westenberg, Ramzi (cudlbear7), Shafik
Sirajeddeen, Fadi Kurdahi, Nabil Bukhalid, Kale Charles Khoury, Edward
Abouzeid, George  Fadel, Rabih  Boudargham, Andreas Waczynski,  George
Chammas,  Bassam Tabbara, Pierre  Barkett,  Adonis  El Fakih,  Kristin
Hariri,  Karim  El-Boustani, Nagi  Sukkarieh, Jocelyne  Farhat, Antoun
Kanawati,  Maan M. Hamze,  Mohamad   I. Khatib, Carole, Cynthia   Moe,
Daniel Alam,  Samer Solh, A'mad  Audi, Kamal Dib, Kimmo Ketolainen and
Alaa Dakroub (sorry if I missed anyone).

This FAQ file was compiled and edited by Alaa Dakroub.

******************************************************************************
DISCLAIMER:

This  FAQ is  presented with no  warranties or  guarantees of ANY KIND
including  correctness or  fitness for  any  particular purpose.   The
author(s) of this document have attempted to verify correctness of the
data contained  herein; however, slip-ups can  and  do happen.  If you
use any information included in this FAQ, you do so  at your own risk.
The   FAQ authors cannot  and   have NOT  used  all  the  the services
suggested in the FAQ, nor  have they checked  them for accuracy.  They
were all included mostly verbatim at the suggestion of contributors to
this FAQ.

You can reprint any FAQ posting of mine  anywhere you want, as long as
the following conditions are met:

1. You use as recent a version of the FAQ as possible.

2.  My name (as  well as the  "credits" section, if any, listing other
    people who have contributed) stays on it.

3.  Any modifications (other than  typesetting changes) you make to it
    are clearly   designated  as  your  modifications.  If     you are
    significantly reformatting the  information  in the FAQ, then  you
    don't have to explicitly show  every change from the original, but
    you make  clear that what you are  printing is derived from my FAQ
    rather than a direct copy of it.

4. You tell people where  to find updated versions  of it, i.e.,  what
   newsgroups it appears in.

******************************************************************************
_______________________________________________________________________________

First  of all,   for the patriotic  among  you,  here  is  a uuencoded
Lebanese flag gif file, with  instructions on how  to display it using
xv, all provided kindly by Naji Rizk.

A nice way to use this flag is to have it  displayed in the background
of your workstation.


   Here is the procedure:

   1) Cut the file out (between Cut Here signs)  so that the following
      line be the first line in the file:

      begin 400 flag.gif

      and save on your filespace as a file named say, "leb.uu". 

   2) Once the file leb.uu  is  saved after these modifications,  type
      under the unix prompt:
      uudecode leb.uu, this procedure will automatically create
      the Lebanese flag gif file "flag.gif".on your filespace.

   3) If you are using xv as a gif viewer, type: xv flag.gif &

      In order to have the flag in the background (tiled), type this:
      xv  -rmode 1 full-path-name-of-flag.gif   &
      xv  -rmode 1 full-path-name-of-flag.gif   &
                   ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
      If the file is in your home directory called /users/lebanese
      then the full path name is: /users/lebanese/flag.gif

___________________  Cut Here  ______________________________
begin 400 flag
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#   [

end

___________________  Cut Here  ______________________________

 
                             
Here is a listing of questions : 

1.  Can I post/receive to/from this newsgroup or other newsgroups if I don't 
    have the permission or I don't have a direct access to a news server ?

2.  Are there any rules or conventions to post into this news group?

3.  What is the value of a Lebanese pound in terms of US$, Can$, UK lb,
    etc.?

4.  What is the address and phone number of the Lebanese Embassy
    and/or Consulates in the US, Canada, France, etc....
    and how can I contact Lebanese universities etc. ?

5.  How can I phone Lebanon and which carrier gives the cheapest rates?

6.  What are the airlines servicing Beirut ?

7.  Where can I find tickets for Lebanon at a good price ?

8.  What are the e-mail and telnet IP addresses for sites in Lebanon ?

9.  What are the phone numbers to call to get Lebanon news ?

10. What are the radio frequencies and broadcast times of Lebanese
    related radio programs  ?

11. What are the various Lebanese organizations and how can I contact them ?

12. What are the projects you can contribute to help rebuild Lebanon ?

13.  Are there any information about The Cedars of Lebanon and/or 
     organizations that deal with this matter??

14. Are there any information about ski resorts in Lebanon ??

15. What are the various Lebanese magazines and newspapers ?

16. Where can I find Lebanese magazines and newspapers ?

17. What has been written by Lebanese and/or on Lebanon ?

18. Where can I find works written by Lebanese and /or on Lebanon ?

19. Are there Arabic word processors, Arabic software ?

20. Is there a standard Arabic alphabet representation in Latin ?

21. Are there any availble sources to learn Syriac ?

22. Where can I find Lebanese songs and music ?

23. Where can I find a Lebanese restaurant ?

24. Where can I find a Lebanese grocery store?

25. Is there a good Lebanese recipe book ?

26. Are there recipes available on the net ?

27. Is there an ftp archive site for Lebanese art works ?

28. What is the best way to deal with multiple system TVs and VCRs and 
    where can I get my VCR tape converted to a format that works in Lebanon ?

29. What are the Arabic TV channels that can be received in Northern and 
    central America
 
30. What are newborn names that could be used for Lebanese children living
    abroad that would work in both Lebanon and Western societies ?

31. I plan to go home soon and I have heard rumors that the draft
    will be re-instituted, do you have any additional information about this ?
    I was born in 1923 and I am afraid that I would be subject to the draft !!!

32. Where can I get a copy of the English translation of 
    the Lebanese Constitution ?

33. Where can I get a copy of the English translation of the 
    Taef Agreement ? 

34. I need to ship a car/ or some merchandise to Lebanon, do you
    know of a shipping company that handles this ?

35. I suddenly develop an urge for Middle-Eastern cuisine,
    can you help me quench this horrifying thirst ?

36. Where can I find information about US State Department visa regulations
    for foreigners.

37. Where can I get the latest travel advisory for Americans wishing
    to visit Lebanon or the Middle-East ?

38. Are there available statistical and basic general information about 
    Lebanon, and what are they ? 

39. I know someone's name, and I think they might have an electronic mail 
    address somewhere.  How can I find it?

40. Are any there published CDs (Compact Disks) about Lebanon and the levant
    in general ?

41. What are the adresses of World Wide Web/FTP/Gopher sites of Lebanese
    people and dealing with Lebanon in general ?

42. Where can I find Arabic Musical Instruments ?

43. Are there any arabic instrumental music CDs ?

44. Are there Lebanese movies ? Where I can find them ? Can you give
    some opinions about these movies ?

45. Where can I find Lebanese and Arabic books ?

46. Do you have any information about the Lebanese community in Canada? 

******************************************************************************

1.  Can I post/receive to/from this newsgroup or other newsgroups if I don't 
    have the permission or I don't have a direct access to a news server ?

    There are some sites that allow public connections, there was for a while
a list maintained by lesikar@tigger.stcloud.msus.edu in which it was listed 
the public news sites. This list is no more availble because of the refuse of
sys adminstrators to publish the address of their public sites. Eventhough 
reading news still possible through gopher, a search using term USENET or news
whith veronica will be enough to find a bunch of news sites through gopher.

    There are still probably two ways of posting to SCL(1), the first is to 
use an anonymous server something that was not that appreciated by most of 
SCLers, and the other is to send your post soc-culture-lebanon@cs.utexas.edu, 
please note the hyphens instead of periods, I was not testing this way since a
while so there is no garantee that your post make it to scl.

(1) Of course in case you don't have direct access to a news server.

Recently a guide for using Internet via E-mail was mentionned on SCL,
It's :

                 Accessing The Internet By E-Mail
           Doctor Bob's Guide to Offline Internet Access
                    3rd Edition - December 1994


              Copyright (c) 1994,  "Doctor Bob" Rankin

Finding the Latest Version
--------------------------

This document is now available from several automated mail servers.
To get the latest edition, send e-mail to one of the addresses below.

To: listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu (for US/Canada/etc.)
Leave Subject blank, and enter only this line in the body of the note:
  GET INTERNET BY-EMAIL NETTRAIN F=MAIL

To: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu (for Eastern US)
Leave Subject blank, and enter only this line in the body of the note:
  send usenet/news.answers/internet-services/access-via-email

To: mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk (for UK/Europe/etc.)
Leave Subject blank, and enter only this line in the body of the note:
  send lis-iis e-access-inet.txt

You can also get the file by anonymous FTP at one of these sites:

Site: ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
   get NETTRAIN/INTERNET.BY-EMAIL
Site: rtfm.mit.edu
   get pub/usenet/news.answers/internet-services/access-via-email
Site: mailbase.ac.uk
   get pub/lists/lis-iis/files/e-access-inet.txt


Also on SCL a server (? 2) were mentionned here it goes an expert of the
mentionned message:

As I mentioned in a previous posting you can post throught E-mail by sending 
your E-mail

TO : soc.culture.lebanon.usenet @ decwrl.dec.com 

Also you can read the postings of any Usenet Newsgroup . Send your E-mail 

To : listproc@www0.cern.ch 
or
To: listserv@www0.cern.ch

- leave the Subject empty.

- If you just want to read  the titles first write in the body of your E-mail 
the following :

send news:soc.culture.lebanon          
- If you want to read all the postings write in the body of your E-mail the 
following:

deep news:soc.culture.lebanon

- If you pay for the Usage of E-mails received please be careful with using 
the (deep) statement. The amount of E-mails will be equal to number of postings 
and 
it could expensive. If you do not pay per E-mail received then enjoy the 
service . 



*******************************************************************************

2.  Are there any rules or conventions to post into this news group?

	Rules of thumb for posting on Soc.Culture.Lebanon
		Date of last revision: 24 Jan 96
		(previous revision: 20 Feb 94)

This post proposes some rules of thumb for posting on this newsgroup, 
Soc.Culture.Lebanon (scl).  The purpose of the rules is to maintain 
the friendly atmosphere and to encourage quality posts.

- New subscribers are encouraged to monitor the group for a certain time
  before engaging in discussions. They are also encouraged to briefly
  present themselves. The said presentation might include but not
  limited to:
  the person's name, location, nationality, occupation, motivation,
  expectations etc.

- Avoid posting test messages. There are groups to post such tests,
  such groups are: alt.test, fr.test, bit.listserv.test, de.test etc..
  In general posting test messages on a discussion forum of USENET is
  considered to be against the Net-etiquette.
  If it is definitely necessary to post your test to Soc.Culture.Lebanon
  you can do it by posting anything that might be interesting to the
  others like a joke, song lyrics that you like, etc. 

- Use descriptive Subject headers and change the subject when replying
  if necessary.  Remember that people are not interested in a vague or
  unfocused subject.  For example, from recent posts, a Subject that reads 
  "None" does not convey any useful meaning.  "Tfouh" seems like a flame, 
  but is it worth reading?  A person, replies "Tfouh 3ala min? :-) Re: Tfouh." 
  Now that is more interesting, it peeks the curiosity of the reader.  
  "avant de partir" could've been "[French poem] avant de partir (before 
  leaving)."

- Quote text from the article that you are replying you to provide context 
  but keep quoted text to a minimum (that which is absolutely necessary). 
  Most people prefer a short and focused message to a longer and diluted 
  post.
 
- Avoid cross-posting to other newsgroups.  Good reasons to cross-
  post are:
	- if you are posting a periodic message (such as a FAQ)
	- if you are required by net rules to cross-post as in the case
	  of newsgroup creation announcements
  There are rarely any additional good reasons to cross-post.

- Do not use abusive language in your posts.  Pretend you are addressing
  your mother. :-)

- Avoid posting messages that are not related to Lebanon or to the culture
  of the Lebanese people.  In other words, Middle East discussion belongs in
  talk.politics.mideast, soc.culture.israel, or soc.culture.palestine,
  whichever is more appropriate.  Religion discussions belong in the 
  appropriate religion group (soc.religion.islam, soc.religion.christian, 
  talk.religion.christian, soc.culture.jewish, talk.religion.misc, or even
  alt.religion.emacs :-)  Posts on scl should really pertain to Lebanon.
  
- Flaming gives a poor image of yourself, and you are likely to stay on your
  own in the garbage bin.

If you chose to ignore these rules of thumb, you're likely to find your
mailbox full with advice urging you to read this post.  I am confident
that we will manage to maintain a high level of maturity and respect in our 
posts.

If you don't wish to see this message again, put it in your kill file.
If you have a bone to pick with these rules of thumb, reply to this message 
BY EMAIL.

This message will repeat every week.  It constitutes a part of the group's
FAQ (question 2). It is archived for anonymous ftp on 
rama.poly.edu (128.238.10.212) as /pub/scl/The_Rules_Of_Thumb, and
huez.eurecom.fr (193.55.112.27) as /SCL/The_Rules_Of_Thumb or
http://huez.eurecom.fr:8080/scl-faq/question.02

*******************************************************************************

3. What is the value of a Lebanese pound in terms of US$, Can$, UK lb,
   etc.?

  It is in a steady state since several months, and it's gaining slowly
  (on a periode of a year, 03/95--03/96, it gained 3.6% against the
   US dollar)
  Typically, a good way to keep a view of the 'latest' figures is to:

 - Consult the following http address, it gives the rates between
   55 currencies of the world:
         http://bin.gnn.com/cgi-bin/gnn/currency?Lebanon

 - Annahar news paper in Arabic (the economy part)
   (http://www.annahar.com.lb/  needs subscription)

 - Look at the Wall Street Journal

 - Look at Al-Hayat News paper (see address in Question 13)


   From Annahar of Saturday May 18th 1996 (Year 63, issue number 19442):

         | $US    | &UK    | DM     | JY     | FF     | CHF    | SK     |
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  | LBP  | 1577.0 | 2388.0 | 1031.2 | 14.8   | 304.5  | 1257.9 | 234.0  |  
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------
         | IL     | BF     | DG     | Can$   | 1000 AF| SP     |
   ------------------------------------------------------------
  | LBP  | 1.0    | 50.1   | 922.5  | 1151.7 | 485.53 | 12.75  |  
   -----------------------------------------------------------

  LBP  = Lebanese Pound
  $US  = US dollar
  &UK  = United Kingdom Sterling
  DM   = Deutsch(German) Mark
  JY   = Japanese Yen
  FF   = French Franc
  CHF  = Swiss Franc
  SC   = Swedish Krona
  IL   = Italian Lira
  BF   = Belgian Franc
  DF   = Dutch Guilder
  Can$ = Canadian Dollar
1000 AF= 1000 African Francs  
  SP   = Spanish Peseta

*******************************************************************************



4.  What is the address and phone number of the Lebanese Embassy
    and/or Consulates in the US, Canada, France, etc....
    and how can I contact Lebanese universities etc. ?


  For Canada:

Embassy of Lebanon
640 Lyon St.
Ottawa, Ontario
              K1S 3Z5
(613) 236-5825

Consulate of Lebanon
40 Cote St. Catherine
Montreal, Quebec

(514) 276-2738

  For the USA:

  Washington DC Embassy:

Embassy of Lebanon
2560 28th Street NW
Washington D.C.  20008

Phone: (202) 939-6300
Fax: 202-939-6324.


Consulates:

New York

Consulate General of Lebanon
9 East 76th St.
NY, NY 10021   <-- Zip code was missing

Phone: (212) 744-7905

Detroit

Consulate General of Lebanon
1959 E. Jefferson
Suite 4A
Detroit, Michigan 48207

Phone: (313) 567-0233

Los Angeles

Consulate General of Lebanon  
7060 Hollywood Boulevard, Suite 510
Hollywood, CA 90028

Phone: (213) 467-1253 

  For the  United Kingdom:

Lebanese Councilor Section
15 Palace Garden Mews,
London W8 4QQ. 

England UK

Phone: 00 44 (0)71 7276696

  For Germany:

 BOTSCHAFT DES LIBANON
 RHEINALLEE 27
 53173 BONN
 TEL. (0228)352075-77

--> update
For France:

AMBASSADE DU LIBAN

42 rue Copernic			Tel: +33 1 40 67 75 75 
75116 Paris			Fax: +33 1 40 67 16 42

Consulat du LIBAN (Paris)

123 Av Malakoff 
75116 Paris			Tel: +33 1 40 67 26 26


Consulat General du Liban (Marseille)

424 rue Paradis
13008 Marseille			Tel: +33   91 71 50 60

For Sweeden:

Libanons Ambassad              phone +46 8 665 19 65
Kommendorsgatan 35             telex 16407 LIBANEM S
114 58  Stockholm

Chile,

Avda Isidoro Goyenechea 3607, Casilla 3667, Santiago;tel 
(2)232-5097;telex 440118

Algeria,
9 Rue Kiad Ahmad, el-Biar, Algiers; Telex;5416


Here are the AUB, addresses and telephone numbers at NY Beirut:

Beirut:
American University of Beirut
P.O.Box 11-0236
Beirut Lebanon

Phone numbers in Beirut: (note: 865-250 no longer works)
+961-1-340-460
+961-1-350-000
+961-1-354-911
+961-1-340-740

You can fax directly to Beirut, via a NY number:
	 (212) 478 1995

NY:

American University of Beirut
850 Third Avenue, 18th fl.
New York, NY 10022-6297

  Phone: (212) 319 2425
  Fax  : (212) 486 2867

Here is the address of the Lebanese American University (Ex BUC):

Lebanese American University
P.O.BOX 13-5053,BEIRUT LEBANON
LAU has campuses in Beirut, Jbeil and Saida

Tel # of the almuni association of LAU (BUC) in NY is: 1 212 870 2592

Here it the Hariri Foundation address in washington: 
Hariri Foundation
1020 19th St., NW
Suite 320
Washington, DC 20036

Fax:  202-659-9228

Universite St Joseph:

Le retorat:

Rectorat de L'USJ,
Rue de Damas 
BP .175208,
Beyrouth, Liban
Tel: +961 1 426 456/7/8/9
Fax: +961 1 423 369

(posted on 31 Jan 1996)

Le directeur de L'Institut de Langues et de Traduction est le Pere
Rene Chamussy . C'est aussi le doyen par interim de la Faculte des
Lettres et des Sciences Humaines dont l'adresse est:

Campus des Sciences Humaines
Rue Huvelin
BP 293
Beyrouth, Liban


Lebanese University
Faculty of Engineering I (Tripoli)

E-mail: lueg1@cnrs.edu.lb

*******************************************************************************

5. How can I phone Lebanon and which carrier gives the cheapest rates ?

     Using the *local* Lebanon number 04-961345 as example, you dial:

            011 961 4 961345   (to use AT&T)
     10 222 011 961 4 961345   (to use MCI)
     10 333 011 961 4 961345   (to use SPRINT)

 Note how the Metn area code 04 has been used *without* the leading
zero. These calls do not require an operator.

Telephone Area codes in Lebanon:

1 Beirut
3 Cellular Network area code,   <--- New
  it covers (or should cover soon) all Lebanon. 
4 Metn
5 Al-shouf
6 The North
7 the South
8 Al-biqqaa
9 Keserwan


For France :
you have to Dial the 19 to get the international tone, Lebanon's code,
the area code and your correspondent number. To call the same number
as above you will have to dial :

19 961 4 961345 

the rates are as follows (time is French time +1 GMT, +2GMT summer time):

Day      00:00  08:00                  21:30       00:00
--------------------------------------------------------
Mon-Sat  |xxxxxxxx|**********************|xxxxxxxxxxx|       
--------------------------------------------------------
Sun &    |xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx|
holidays |
--------------------------------------------------------

* : normal rate : 15.19 FF/min
x : reduced rate: 12.52 FF/min

rate via an operator (call 19 33 961): 21.30 FF/min


Some useful information about Cellular phones in Lebanon:
[by Wadih "Eddi" Rmaili, update by Kimmo Ketolainen]
1- Can I use my GSM-phone with my SIM-card in other country ?
 
If you have a  GSM-phone , you  can use it in  every other country who
has a valid GSM-Network, in one condition, that your home GSM-operator
has  a  contract with the  GSM-operator(s)  in this country. You don't
need to change your SIM-card(chip card), your phone will automatically
find an available GSM-network(s) that you can use.

You    can   use your  GSM-phone     in   about  80 countries,   check
http://www.gsmworld.com/


Lebanon valid contracts with the other operators in Europe, and around
the wrold.

2- Do all the GSM phones work in the GSM-networks in Lebanon ?

Most GSM-phones   use a  frequency   band  around 900  MHz,  but  some
countries has began to use   another additional frequency band to  the
900 MHz,to support more customers, because the  900 MHz band is almost
full.  The new band is 1800 MHz (1,8 GHz). PCS system, mainly in North
America and some other countries uses the Band of 1900 MHz.

Are  you going to send a  GSM-phone to Lebanon  , you have to choose a
900 MHz GSM-phone. The 1800 MHz phones are not supported. Nevertheless
you can check  for roaming to be  able to use your card  on a 900  MHz
phone in Lebanon.


3- How much did a GSM-phone cost in Lebanon ?

Note:  The price comparison contained here  is out of date, it remains
in the FAQ just for the  historical sake. It is  to be noted that most
of European operators offers reduction on  GSM phones, of course under
teh condition of subscribing with them for a year or  so, this kind of
reductions is not applied  in  Lebanon (I  guess because there  is  no
marketing need for that !)  The most popular GSM phones in Lebanon.


Ericsson GH337      = 900$.              
Ericsson GF337 (the same as GH337,better design) = 950$ - 1000$.
Nokia 2110          = 1000$.                 
Philips  747 (same phone as Nokia 2110) = 950$.                 
Motorola 7200(7500  = 800$.        
Motorola 8200       = 1200$.


Other Phones

Nokia 2010
Motorola 5200
Sharp TGQ400 (the same as Ericsson GH337), 
Siemens S3+, 
Alcatel HB200,HB100
Orbitel. 


4- How much did a GSM phone cost in Sweden ? (May 1995 =min),(June 
1995=max)

Motorola 5200   = 900  kr(min) - 5000 kr(max)  = 125$ - 700$
Motorola 7200   = 1100 kr(min) - 6000 kr(max)  = 155$ - 850$
Motorola 8200   = 5000 kr(min) - 10000kr(max)  = 690$ - 1400$
Motorola Flare  = 2000 kr(min) - 5000 kr(max)  = 280$ - 700$
Ericsson GH337  = 4000 kr(min) - 9500 kr(max)  = 555$ - 1300$
Ericsson GF337  = 5000 kr(min) - 10500kr(max)  = 690$ - 1450$
Ericsson GH198  = 2000 kr(min) - 6500 kr(max)  = 280$ - 900$
Sharp TQG400    = 3000 kr(min) - 10000kr(max)  = 420$ - 1400$
Nokia 2110      = 3000 kr(min) - 9000 kr(max)  = 420$ - 1250$
Nokia 2010      = 1400 kr(min) - 5000 kr(max)  = 200$ - 700$
Siemens S3      = 1000 kr(min) - 5000 kr(max)  = 140$ - 700$
Siemens S3+     = 1500 kr(min) - 6500 kr(max)  = 215$ - 900$

The prices depends on which operator and your 12 months contract with him 
to use his network and the kick back they pay to the stores. The offer 
was only under May. Now the prices are back to normal(max).
This price war will be back in August/September. And so do I.


My favorites phones : 1- Ericsson GF337/GH337. 2-Nokia 2110. 3- Motorola 
8200.   4- Ericsson GH198. 5- Motorola 7200.

----

France Telecom announced that it has [will ?] have a program in which
subscribers can designate three numbers which they call usually, you
pay 15 FF per two months and you have 15% of discount on the calls made to
these destination. it might be of intreset but i did not check the
exact info yet stay tuned.



There was a couple of announcement on sc.lebanon about other operators
who offers the rate of $1.33/mn any day any time, the announcer claimed
that calls are billed in 6 seconds increments.

The same kind of systems can be used also outside the US, by using a
"callback" company. It's useful if you want to call another
country. The "callback" company gives you a trigger number in the US,
when you call this number it rings without any answer (so the call is
not billed by the local operator) then you hang up. The system calls
you back on a pre-determined number and gives a US dial tone which you
can use to call where you want.  The rates of calling France is $0.41
(from the US, since it's the system who calls you) added to the $1.33
(US --> Lebanon) it ends up to $1.74 plus usually 20 cents => $1.94 or
sometimes $1.86 approx 9.0 FF which is good compared to the above
rates (73% and 52% of the rates of France Telecom) specially that it's
at any time any day, it makes a difference.


I received the following in my mailbox about Cyberlink and MCI:
-------------
MCI (800-672-8054) lowest rate is $1.76 per minute excluding a possible 20%
discount to three numbers for calls made between 5pm and 8am US time. There
is a $3 per month charge for this and calls outside this period cost
$2.33/min.

--> Update (09/95)
Cyberlink (800-963-8437, fax 612-378-7514) offers $1.33 per minute
flat rate (any time, any number, 6 sec billing) without monthly
charges or minimums or switching carriers. People in France can email
to phone4less@aol.com or leave their address/faxnumber at 05-910807.

Cyberlink provides this service and has been in business since 1986. It has a
billing volume of more than $100 million. You can get business references
from Dunn (rating company). Calls are charged to a credit card. Most
creditcards offer extra protection for unauthorized charges or in case you
have disputes with the merchant.
-------------
*******************************************************************************

6. What are the airlines servicing Beirut ?

  Most European and Arab airlines are now flying to Lebanon.

  *Some* are: MEA(obviously), Air-France, Swiss-air,  
     Austrian Airways, Alitalia, Sabena, Royal Jordanian, Egypt Air.
  Britsh Airways, recently annouced that it will resume its flights to 
  beirut by December 1994. BA is the last Europeen airlines to resum 
  flights to beirut. 
  State Department of the US banned MEA from operating from
  its NY offices, and travel from the US with MEA has become
  very difficult.  Here is a related UPI article:

  Subject: Lebanese air-carrier chief urges lifting U.S. embargo
  Date: Mon, 24 May 93 13:17:16 PDT

BEIRUT, Lebanon (UPI) -- The president of the Lebanese national air
carrier, Middle East Airlines, said Monday that a U.S. order to suspend
MEA activities in the United States has left tens of thousands of
Lebanese stranded there and caused millions of dollars in losses.
MEA President Abdel Hamid Fakhoury called on the U.S. Administration
to exempt his company from a U.S. embargo imposed on Lebanon following
the hijacking of a TWA airliner in 1985.
Accordingly, MEA flights to New York and back to Beirut were
suspended while all other carriers were prevented from selling tickets
from its U.S. offices for destinations in Lebanon.
Fakhoury said MEA abided by the embargo but its U.S. offices 
``continued to issue tickets, with the knowledge of the U.S. officials,
placing either Damascus or Cyprus as destination countries.''
``But we were surprised last month of a new U.S. order to cease
immediately all commercial activities, which left tens of thousands of
Lebanese trapped there and inflicting losses estimated at $15 million,''
Fakhoury said.
The new order was apparently in retaliation to a decision by the
Lebanese Military Court on April stating that the 1983 bombing of the U.S. 
Embassy in Beirut was covered by a general amnesty law.
The Lebanese Parliament approved the amnesty law as part of a
national reconciliation drive to end the Lebanese civil war.
The U.S. expressed dissatisfaction with the Military Court decision
and accused MEA of violating the embargo imposed during the
administration of President Ronald Reagan.
A month later, the Lebanese Supreme Court overruled the Military
Court decision concerning the U.S. Embassy bombing in which at least six
people were accused of involvement.
A suicide bomber drove through the gate of the U.S. Embassy in the
Muslim sector of Beirut on April 1983, killing 63 people and wounding
123 others.
activities in the U.S. as peace and security were restored in the
country.
He said contacts with U.S. officials have so far failed to alter the
order and called for launching a campaign ``to save the company and
allow the Lebanese residents in the U.S. to visit their homeland.''


The following is a summary of an article which appeared
in Middle East International (MEI - No. 450, p. 9-10);

The background is that Lebanese investigators had
recently identified 15 suspects in the 1991 truck
bombing of the US embassy in Beirut, and the US
government was anxious to see them prosecuted. 
However, on April 24, Beirut's military court ruled
that the suspects were included in the general amnesty
covering "political" war crimes approved by the
Lebanese parliament in 1991.  The US was incensed that
the court's ruling would render them immune from
prosecution, and warned Lebanese leaders that the
prospect of normalizing relations with the US, which
seemed likely following Secretary of State
Christopher's March visit to Beirut, were no longer
realistic.  

The impact on travel stems from the fact that Middle
East Airlines (MEA), which had hoped that it for the way it had
issued tickets to Beirut (actually entered on tth
connecting flights to or from Europe.  Although
technically a violation of the US travel ban, this
subterfuge had been used without objection for many
years.  Suddenly, MEA was told to stop selling tickets
or doing any other business, and warned that it was
subject to fines of $1000 per day for the entire period
during which it had sold such tickets.  The Beirut
government is having a second look at the amnesty law,
and may find a way out of the difficulty, but until it
does so, it may be impossible to get tickets to Beirut
in the US, and MEA is threatened with millions of
dollars of fines, an amount which MEI characterized as
"potentially crippling".

The Lebanese Supreme Court has already reversed the earlier ruling
making the suspects once again not covered by the General Amnesty law
but the US has yet to relax its position with regard to MEA operations
in the United States.

*******************************************************************************

7. Where can I find tickets for Lebanon at a good price ?

Travel Agency        Number(s)         Contact person(s),
     Name                                  location,
 (if available)                         and/or comments 
                                          (if supplied)
_______________________________________________________________________________

Admiral :      (800) 822 2727     (located in Marietta GA)
                                  (ask for Hassan Ramadan)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All Travel:    (800) 344 7060     (ask for Matthew)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Atlantis :     (212) 972 5540 TEL  141 East 44th Street  #702
               (212) 972 5543 FAX  NYC, NY 10017
               (800) 543 9362     (Alitalia and British Airways)
                                  ($ 1100 round trip ticket from
                                   San Francisco to Beirut bought
                                   in Christmas 92/93).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Blue Mediterranean
Travel :       (213) 876 5601     (deals mainly with Alitalia,
                                   recommended for its good prices).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Char Tours:    (800) 323 4444
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Corporate :    (800) 532 8455
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Farra Travel:  (213) 463 9211
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Golden Arch:   (800) 749 2724     (may be out of business ?)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Haddad Travel: (213) 466 4662     (experienced but beware)

	update: 1-617-354-3399
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Int'l Travel &                    3601-E Chain Bridge Road
Trade, Inc. :                     FairFax, Virginia 22030
               1-800-248-8462     (Example of price, for a ticket
               (703) 385-0340     Jul-Aug 1996, through Switzerland,
          FAX: (703) 385 0343     San Francisco <-> Zurich (RT) $875 [American
                                  Airlines]
                                  Zurich<->Beirut (RT) $555 [MEA]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lotus :        (800) 344 2220     (located in Los Angeles area)
                                  (deals mostly with ALIA, the
                                   Royal Jordanian Airlines, can get
                                   relatively good prices if you are willing
                                   to endure traveling on ALIA)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Modern Travel Co.
                                   Contact: Edward Abouzeid
               (617) 323-0073      241 Grove Street
          FAX: (617) 323-1654      West Roxbury, MA 02132

Deals only with tickets from/to the East Coast of the US (Boston, NY, D.C).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mill-Run Tours:(800) 645 5786     (Ask for Jean Zodo.  She's Lebanese,
                                   and she has been very helpful).
                                   They are located in Chicago, IL.)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oxford Travel &                   (ask for Sami Silfani)
Tours :        (800) 245 7264 TEL (located in the Atlanta area)
               (404) 266 8783 FAX (Sami was quite informed and
                                   worked hard to get the
                                   cheapest fare possible.
				   Strongly recommended by myself (Basil).
				   Example of a fare: $ 1080 U.S., round trip
				   on Air France from Cleveland, 
				   travel date: April 13, 1993).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Service Plus Travel (ask for Dolly Tarabay) at 1-800-256-2865
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sharif Travel: (714) 635 0837     (could be the same as the reference
                                   that shows up later as Moursi Sharif 
                                   - other reference has an 800 number -
                                   Recommended as super nice and cheap)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sunship :      (800) 344 9428     (deals mainly with British Airways)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TMA travel, (ask for Salim) at (313) 584-3260
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Travel All(??):(800) 621 4795
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Travel Corner: (800) 843 3214     (from outside Atlanta)
or             (404) 952 4044     (Atlanta)
or             (404) 924 4207     (Atlanta)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"This is just FYI for those interested in getting tickets overseas that
Lina Makhlouf, formerly of travel corner in Atlanta, has opened her own
travel agency and can now be reached at 1-800-810-0081. She received the 
prize as the most recommended travel agent."

Update: Lina Makhlouf got married and moved to Knoxville TN, her married
name is Lina Makhlouf Shatara (sp?) and her new number is 1-800-235-0571

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Travel Nework: (201) 628 7071 TEL  1581 Route 23 South
               (201) 628 7827 FAX  Waynes, NJ 07470
                                  (Ask for Ms. Peggy Healy)
                                  (tell her Tommy's sister recommended!)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vista Int'l :  (800) 228 4782     (located in West Virginia ??)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
World Express Travel:             (ask for Annie - she is from Lebanon).
               (800) 942 4992 TEL (located in Houston, Texas) 
               (713) 556 5700 TEL
               (713) 556 0895 FAX
_______________________________________________________________________________
No name given
for travel agency:                (ask for Garbiz Askanian)
               (212) 685 4499     (gave the best deal to someone)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (617) 354 3399     (ask for Malek Haddad)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (800) 426 8831     (ask for Hala)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (202) 625 0770     (ask for Marwan or Maha)
                                  (located in the Washington DC area)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (514) 398 0771 TEL (ask for Pierre or Nathalie)
               (514) 398 0795 FAX (located in Montreal-Canada)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (800) 332 5302     (ask for Moursi Sharif)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (212) 370 5353     (ask for Ali Srour)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (904) 763 2933     (located in Florida)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
No name given
for travel agency:
               (305) 856 3434
_______________________________________________________________________________
Negative Recommendations
_______________________________________________________________________________

D'International:                    (located in West Roxbury, Ma.)
                                     Travel agent is a Lebanese person.
                                     She booked flight on non-existing
                                     flight from Paris to Boston.
                                     The traveler had to pay a $ 100.00
                                     penaly, and agent did not reimburse him
                                     even though she had made the mistake.
                                     Traveler also found out she had done
                                     the same thing with several other people.
_______________________________________________________________________________

for 800 number directory call 1 (800) 555 1212

In France the following Travel Agency has been recommended as giving
good prices for travel to Lebanon:

Nouvelle Frontiere  with prices ranging from 3000 to 3500 F.F., round
trip, Paris-Beirut for Summer of '93 travel.  No phone number was given,
it is assumed that the agency is listed in the phone directory.
(I was not able to get the phone number of this agency since the directory
says that there is a nouvelle frontiere but their numbers are on the red list)
*******************************************************************************

8. What are the e-mail and Telnet IP addresses for sites in Lebanon?

--> new info:

The American University of Beirut, which is the .lb domain
administrator, keeps a track of subscribed Internet providers and
networks in Lebanon. I try here to list infos as perceived on SCL.
You can always check AUB's web site at: http://www.aub.ac.lb/

During Jan 1996 a provider was annouced on SCL they are IncoNet, and
they call their program NetHopper. For more info check
http://www.inco.com.lb/


Lateset info on Data management posted to SCL end of nov 1995:

1-  Yes, you can have an Internet access right from home.
2-  Yes, we set up personal and public accounts.
3-  You need a local telephone line, a computer and a modem.
4-  We have different rates it depends on the service you choose:


SERVICE          MONTHLY           FREE        ADDITIONAL
DESCRIPTION        FEE             BYTES       CHARGES
---------------------------------------------------------
local      Int.                               Hour    Kch.

E-MAIL
Local&Intl E-mail   $15  Unlimited 1Mbyte       $7   $0.02
------------------------------------------------------
BASIC
Local&Intl E-mail
and local web       $25  Unlimited 1Mbyte       $7   $0.02
---------------------------------------------------------
GLOBAL 
Local & Intl E-mail
and www             $50  Unlimited 10Mbytes     $7   $0.02
--------------------------------------------------------


5- The quality of the connection is good, we use dial up at 9600bps.

We hope that the above is statisfactory, and that we will hear from you
very soon. If you need additional information do not hesitate to e-mail us
at: data@dm.net.lb

Humm the table above is unclear ?

As you are aware now we have 3 types of services: e-mail
(local/international), local web (includes e-mail), and global
includes e-mail and local.

Subscription is $15,25,50 per month for the above services.

Now, to make things simple, we have one hourly charge $7, for any of
the services. We do offer bundle prepaid hours for users for any of
the 3 services mentioned above. The bundles are: for 10 hours $6/hr
and $5.5/hr for 20 hrs.

This translates in the following: If a user choses e-mail and buys
prepay 10 hrs he will pay $15+60 = $75.

If a user chooses global and a 20 hours bundle and logs during the
month for 23 hrs. (He will get e-mail, local web and www), he will pay
$50 + (20x5.5=$110)+3x5.5=$16.5=$176.5 if my computation is correct!

For now, there is a limitation per month, on Kb for the International:
1MB on e-mail, and 10MB on global. i.e if a user logs in for 2 hrs and
downloads 10MB during this time and logs again and dowloads 2 mb, he
will be charges for each additional KCh above 10Mb $0.02 per Kch.

As far as the connection is concerned our user access Data Management
at 9.6kbps. (We have nothing to hide!)PTT lines do support this speed.

If you need any other info pls do not hesitate to e-mail us.

 
Data Management sal - http://www.dm.net.lb
Phone/Fax: 961-1-334 881/331621/219670  
******************************************************
******************************************************
This is how you can reach Data Manaement:

ADDRESS:       
=========
Data Management
Borj Al Ghaza, Fouad Chehab Avenue
Tabaris, Beirut, Lebanon

E-MAIL:
=======
data@dm.net.leb

TELEPHONE & FAX:
================
961-1-334881
961-1-331621
961-1-219670


--------

We received the following info recently [10 Jul 95]:
Please find below BIGnet Startup & operating fees :

$ 20.-		Startup fee (Includes Software, user manual, 60' free connect)

Local Service:
--------------
Plan 1 -	$ 10.- per 60' of connection time (no monthly fixed)

Plan 2 -	$ 15.- per month (Includes 300' of connection time)
		$  2.5 per each additional 60' of connection time

International Service (Access To CompuServe or Internet):
---------------------------------------------------------
$20.-		per month
LL 1500		per 1' of connection time
* A member who subscribes to the International service gets free access to
  the local service.

Internet Mail
-------------
LL 1,600.-	1st 2000 bytes
LL   600,-	Each additional 1000 bytes
* Any BIGnet member may have access to the Internet Mail service without
  subscribing to the International Service.
  Charges are for Outgoing & Incoming messages.

We might be changing our carriers which promises much cheaper connect rates
to the Internet and other on-line services. At the moment this is what's
available.
--------

  The American University of Beirut has Internet connectevity.  AUB
has now its own web server: http://www.aub.ac.lb/ You can find on it
the information about AUB network and the LARN (Lebanese Academic and
Research Network). Contact person for AUB for Internet matters is:
Nabil Bukhaled <nabil@layla.aub.ac.lb>, Manager of Personal Computer
Support Unit.

Follows is relativaly "old" communication with Nabil Bukhaled
[September 29th 1994]

--------
The American University of Beirut link to the internet started to be 
fully operationaland stable  early March 1994. Our internet link is still 
running on a 9.6kbps X.25 leased line (TCP/IP over X.25). 

AUBNET consist of 4 class C networks all located behind a firewall. Users 
on the AUBNETs are around 140 users at present and we are adding 20 to 30 
user per month. AUBNET users can telnet, ftp, send/receive mail, nslookup, 
ping and finger to the internet. We are blocking the access to the internet 
news, gopher  and mosaic. The restrictions are dictated by the link 
bandwidth limitations and the prohibitive communication cost. 
 
Accessing AUBNET from the internet is also blocked except for a number 
of research affiliated Universities. Ditto cost restriction.

Our future plans are to upgrade our link from X.25 9.6kbps to a VSAT 
64kbps leased line. We are also working on connecting other Universities 
and research institutions to the internet. The technical set up is ready 
but the legal part is still pending. 

The number of hosts on AUBNET is 80 at present, around mid October 1994 we
excpect to have around 170 new hosts. i.e. AUB fiber optic backbone is
scheduled to reach two major isolated clusters of LANs end of September
1994. By July 1994, all of the campus building will be on the net, around
450 hosts.
-------
AUB had a help account but was obliged to disable it because of the high
traffic rate.
here what Nabil Bukhaled said about it:
"Yes help@layla account was disabled 4 months ago, I beleive that I should 
reactivate this account. We do understand that Lebanese world wide are 
anxious to communicate with the mother land via the Internet and we are 
more than ready to answer their questions/requests. The message should be 
clear to them that AUB is paying dearly to keep this link."

AUB is paying the traffic even if the user is unkown. In fact
they pay the incoming/outgoing traffic. So a mail with an erronious
destination will cost AUB twice. An advice is not try sending e-mails
unless you are sure of your destination. AUB promissed to annouce any major
changes in the situation of its net.


Following is info on the X.25 net in Lebanon, it's rather old info so prices
and other infos could be not that exact. If you know a newer info please feel 
free to forward to the FAQ maintainer .....

Through the X.25 network in Lebanon, one *can* access CompuServe, MCI-mail,
AT&T mail and possibly Internet (that's how AUB is gaining access).

Connection cost to the Lebanese X25 network: $600
Monthly fee for the Lebanese X25 network and the server in France: $50 
The connection to France will be used until Internet will be available
in Lebanon.
Each 1024 characters to the states cost 2.1 F.F (around $0.39)
plus around 500 Lebanese Pounds for X25.
But no Telnet or ftp can be done.
However the subscription offers you a 10,000 PC and Macintosh programs to
down load. They are updated on a daily basis. 
There are Forums and debates in French. You can also access the NEWS
of the INTERNET.
You will have an Easy Link, Mercury Link, X400 , Telex address as well
as the Usenet one.
Also you can send faxes through the net....All in one subscription.
It seems that the costs for now are rather expensive, unless they are
borne by a business or a corporation.

*******************************************************************************

9. What are the phone numbers to call to get Lebanon news ?

  There is a mailing list called Leb-Net that sends digests to subscribers
  every two days on the average. It is usually quite thorough.
  To subscribe, send a short request to:

         Leb-Net@cumesa.mech.columbia.edu

*******************************************************************************
end of part 1/5


_____________________________________________________________________
Alaa Dakroub     | 'al-'arD waTanI wa al-'insAnyah 'usratI          
Sophia Antipolis | La terre est ma patrie et l'humanite' ma famille 
France           | The earth is my fatherland and humanity my family
                 | (Gibran Khalil Gibran)                           
------------------ http://www.eurecom.fr/~dakroub/ ------------------

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