Frequently Asked Questions on Soc.Culture.Jewish
Part 8: Jews and Israel
[Last Change: $Date: 1995/10/19 15:24:16 $ $Revision: 1.2 $]
[Last Post: Fri Mar 5 11:07:10 US/Pacific 2004]
The FAQ is a collection of documents that is an attempt to answer
questions that are continually asked on the soc.culture.jewish family
of newsgroups. It was written by cooperating laypeople from the
various Judaic movements. You should not make any assumption as to
accuracy and/or authoritativeness of the answers provided herein. In
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The FAQ was produced by a committee and is a cooperative work. The
contributors never standardized on transliteration scheme from Hebrew,
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word might appear with a variety of spellings. This is complicated by
the fact that there are regional variations in the pronunciation of
Hebrew. In some places, the common spelling variations are mentioned;
in others--not. We hope that this is not too confusing.
In general, throughout this FAQ, North American (US/Canada) terms are
used to refer to the movements of Judaism. Outside of North American,
Reform is Progressive or Liberal Judaism; Conservative is Masorti or
Neolog, and Orthodoxy is often just "Judaism". Even with this, there
are differences in practice, position, and ritual between US/Canada
Reform and other progressive/liberal movements (such as UK
Progressive/ Liberal), and between US/Canada Conservative and the
conservative/Masorti movement elsewhere. Where appropriate, these
differences will be highlighted.
The goal of the FAQ is to present a balanced view of Judaism; where a
response is applicable to a particular movement only, this will be
noted. Unless otherwise noted or implied by the text, all responses
reflect the traditional viewpoint.
This list should be used in conjunction with the Soc.Culture.Jewish
reading lists. Similar questions can be found in the books
referenced in those lists.
There are also numerous other Jewish FAQs available on the Internet
that are not part of the SCJ FAQ/RL suite. An index to these may be
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Reproduction of this posting for commercial use is subject to
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This portion of the FAQ contains answers to the following questions:
Section 14. Jews and Israel
1. Who is an Israeli? Who may enter Israel under its Law of
2. What is Zion?
3. What is Zionism?
4. Are all Jews Zionists?
5. Do Diaspora Jews (Jews outside Israel) support Zionism?
6. I've heard there were/are very Orthodox Jews who were/are
against the state of Israel. How could this be? Who are they?
7. Did Zionism end with the establishment of Israel?
8. Are antisemitism and anti-Zionism the same thing?
9. Is Zionism racist?
10. What are the roots of Arab opposition to Zionism?
11. Can't you criticize Israel without being antisemitic?
12. Why is opposition to Israel often seen as being antisemitic?
13. Why is Jerusalem so important to Jews?
14. I want to move to Israel. Can I become a citizen?
15. What is the Wailing Wall and why is it so important?
16. Questions on aliyah, military service for olim and more
Subject: Question 14.1: Who is an Israeli and who may enter under her Law of
Israelis are citizens of Israel. Jews may automatically become Israeli
citizens under the terms of the Law of Return (as long as they have
not renounced the Jewish faith), as may those associated with Jews,
such as certain close family members. The Law of Return does not grant
immediate citizenship to Jews who, sadly, practice other religions. In
the case of people whose status as Jews is uncertain, Israel will
still rescue them, especially if they risk being killed as a result of
There have been efforts to amend the law of Return to exclude from
automatic citizenship people whose conversions to Judaism would be
unacceptable by Orthodox halachic standards. While this might only
affect tens of people, it is an extremely sensitive issue.
Subject: Question 14.2: What is Zion?
Zion is a hill in Jerusalem, and one of the names by which Jews have
always referred to their homeland, the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel).
The name 'Zion' is used in Tanakh both for the land of Israel and for
its national and spiritual capital, Jerusalem.
Zion (Pronounced 'tsee-yohn' in Hebrew) has had a continuous Jewish
population for thousands of years. For many centuries the majority of
the Jewish people have lived dispersed in countries all over the
world. Yet, powerful national-spiritual bonds--expressed mainly in
liturgy and literature--have constantly linked these Jewish
communities with their ancestral homeland.
After centuries of decline and neglect under foreign occupation, Zion
is flourishing once again, with the large increase in its Jewish
population over the past 100 years, and the restoration of its
political independence in 1948.
Subject: Question 14.3: What is Zionism?
Zionism is the modern expression of the 1,900 year old dream of
rebuilding a Jewish state in Israel, after Rome put an end to Jewish
independence in the Land of Israel. It expresses the conviction that
the Jewish people have the right to freedom and political independence
in its homeland.
Political Zionism is the ongoing effort, through political means, to
develop and secure the Jewish people's national existence in the Land
Zionism recognizes that Jewish peoplehood is characterized by certain
common values relating to religion, culture, language, history and
basic ideals and aspirations, although secular and religious Zionists
emphasize these aspects differently.
Additional information may be found in the Zionism Reading List,
available at http://www.scjfaq.org/rl/zio-index.html.
Subject: Question 14.4: Are all Jews Zionists?
Jews are Zionists in the sense that the restoration of the Jewish
people in its homeland is a fundamental tenet of Judaism. Most Jews
support the state of Israel--the basic realization of Zionism. Some
Jews, however, do not accept Zionism as a political movement, but
believe that independence will only come with the advent of the
Messiah. There are still other Jews who feel that the question of an
independent Jewish state is independent of the question of the
Messiah. Lastly, some Jews do not support Zionism for historical
Zionism developed into an organized political movement, in a period
marked by growing recognition of national movements in Europe, when
Jews felt the time was ready for the reassertion of Jewish National
As a movement, it was further spurred by growing antisemitism in
Europe in the latter part of the 19th century, as groups of Jews
emigrated to what became Israel. It was formally organized into a
national movement in 1897, with the call for the restoration of the
Jewish national home.
Subject: Question 14.5: Do Diaspora Jews (Jews outside Israel) support
Diaspora Jews, on the whole, support Zionism in one way or another
through active participation in aspects of the movement itself, or
through public and/or financial support of Israel.
Some Diaspora Jews realize their belief in Zionism by immigrating to
the Land of Israel (making 'aliyah' - "going up") to participate
directly in the task of rebuilding the nation.
Diaspora Jews, whether or not associated with Zionist activities, have
been enriched culturally, socially and spiritually by the
reestablishment of Israel in its ancestral homeland. Even non-Zionist
and anti-Zionist Jews find Israel an excellent place for Torah study.
Subject: Question 14.6: I've heard there were/are very Orthodox Jews who
were/are against the state of Israel. How could this be? Who are
It is pointless to single out this situation as something terrible
about Orthodoxy or even the so-called "ultra-Orthodox". In the early
1900s, Reform was officially opposed to Zionism, and even today, there
are numerous secular Jews who are strongly anti-Zionistic. Nowadays,
most Reform, Conservative, and Reconstructionist Jews support Zionism
(in fact, Reform has its own Zionist movement, ARZA/World Union).
Many Orthodox Jews support religious Zionism, and even those Orthodox
Jews indifferent or opposed to Zionism (particularly secular Zionism)
often send their sons and daughters to study Torah in Israel.
Anti-Zionist Orthodox Jews believe that Israel can only be regained
miraculously and view the present state as a blasphemous human attempt
to usurp G-d's role, and they work to dismantle Israel. However,
unlike many gentile anti-Zionists, they firmly believe in the Jewish
right to Israel, but only at that future time of redemption. The
best-known of the religious anti-Zionists are the Neturei Karta.
There are two common religious grounds given for anti-Zionism. One is
that today's Zionism is a secular Zionism, packed with non-Jewish
influences, and lacking key features like Moshiach and the rebuilt
Temple. Groups based on those groups are more on the non-Zionist, as
opposed to the anti-Zionist, side. The other grounds are that that
Talmud (Meseches Kesuvos 111a), as part of a discussion of Song of
Songs 2:7 verses mentioning oaths, states that when Israel went into
the second exile, there were three vows between Heaven and Earth:
1. One that Israel would not "go up like a wall" [conquer Eretz
Yisrael by massive force]
2. One that G-d made Israel swear that they would not rebel agains
the nations of the world [would obey the governments in the exile]
3. And one that G-d made the non-Jews swear not to oppress Israel
"too much" [translation of phrase yoter midai]
Groups holding to those grounds are more on the anti-Zionist side.
Note that there was a fourth oath in that piece: one G-d made of the
nations that would recieve us, that they would not try to exterminate
us. Some believe that oath was violated in WWII, therefore bringing
into question whether the other three oaths are still binding, or if
the "contract" was already violated. However, many think that gaining
statehood by UN proclamation does not constitute a violation of the
oath, and is a stronger argument.
The religious counter-reply to the above is that secular Zionism is a
preliminary stage of religious Zionism, and that the vows no longer
apply since the gentiles violated their part (by such actions as the
Roman persecutions, the Spanish Inquisition, and the Nazi Holocaust).
The Balfour declaration of 1917 and the United Nations vote of 1948
are also regarded as having given permission to the Jews to
reestablish the state by the non-Jewish rulers of the area. Once this
permission was granted it could not be revoked. It should also be
noted that these oaths are only mentioned as a side point in one place
in a discussion in the Gemoroh and as the viewpoint of an individual.
Further, Talmudic texts come in two flavors: halachah (religious law)
and aggadah (other topics, primarily ethics, values, philosopy and
mysticism). The oaths are mentioned within an aggadic discussion. Yet
there is a halachah that one ought to try to settle and gain
sovereignty over Israel. There is little precedent for taking an
aggadic statement over a halachic ruling. So, many people feel that
these oaths do not apply in any case.
Some Religious Zionist Jews see the formation of the secular state as
accelerating the process of redemption, with themselves playing a
major role in doing G-d's will by serving the state, whose creation is
often seen as miraculous.
So-called "non-Zionist" Jews are pleased that Israel exists from a
practical standpoint--as a haven for oppressed Jews and as a land
imbued with holiness well-suited for Torah study. But they don't
generally assign religious significance to the formation of the modern
state, and often decry aspects of its secular culture.
[Note: Zionism is used in the strict sense of the Jews should have a
homeland, preferably Israel (Israel is where "Zion" is, hence
Zionism). Criticizing today's Israeli government regarding policies X,
Y, Z is not the same as anti-Zionism.]
Subject: Question 14.7: Did Zionism end with the establishment of Israel?
The reestablishment of the State of Israel meant the realization of
the major element of Zionist ideology: the restoration of Jewish
sovereignty in the Land of Israel.
The Zionist ideal, however, contains facets that are still in the
process of being realized. The Zionist ideal aspires to:
* An Israel at peace with all its neighbors
* An Israel enjoying full political and economic independence
* The social and economic well-being of all citizens and communities
residing in Israel.
For the religious zionists, there is also the wish for a modern,
halachic, Jewish state.
Subject: Question 14.8: Are antisemitism and anti-Zionism the same thing?
There is a dangerous confluence between anti-Zionism and antisemitism,
even though the two concepts are not always identical. Anti-Zionism is
directed against the political realization of Zionism--the State of
Anti-Zionism has also become a catchword for antisemitism and has
provided antisemites with a convenient cloak behind which to conceal
their hatred of Jews.
Subject: Question 14.9: Is Zionism racist?
No. Zionism is a process with the ultimate goal of a Jewish homeland.
Participation in this process is not restricted to Jews alone.
Furthermore, the question is an example of how even simple questions
can use inflammatory terminology, as "racist" has a pejoritive sense
and is an imprecise term.
A central tenet of Zionism is that there should exist a place in the
world where Jews have sovereignty. This is no different from the
ethnic desires of other minority and ethnic groups; I'm sure you can
name numerous examples. Recent history has demonstrated the need for
such a homeland; alas, humanity doesn't appear to be moving in a
direction that would eliminate that need.
Is the desire for a Jewish homeland "racist"? No. Racism is a belief
that race is the primary determinant of human traits and that racial
differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Judaism is not a race--adherents come from multiple ethnic
backgrounds. More importantly, there is no notion in Zionism that Jews
are superior to other races (unlike, for example, the Nazis, who held
that the Aryan race was superior).
Please remember that Zionism is distinct from the state of Israel; if
you look at the history of Zionism, you will see that for some of the
zionistic movements, Israel was not the target homeland (in fact,
you'll discover that at one time, Uganda was an option). Israel is
modern political state that strives to provide a pluralistic and open
society, comprising many ethnic and religious groups. It doesn't
always succeed in this goal, but neither do other democratic states.
As a modern state, Israel is subject to various political realities
that dictate its laws and regulations. Discussion of these laws and
regulations is less germane to the focus of S.C.J and is more
appropriate for talk.politics.mideast. However, the primacy of
Jewish law in Israel is no more "racist" than the primacy of Catholic
law in Vatican City, the primacy of the Church of England in Great
Britain, or the primacy of Islam in many Arabic countries.
So what is the connection between Zionism and Israel? Zionism helped
found the state, and provided the underlying zeal for many of Israel's
leaders. The Zionist zeal still helps provide funding for the state,
as many Jews outside of Israel support Zionist organizations operating
Subject: Question 14.10: What are the roots of Arab opposition to Zionism?
Most Arab nations demand Arab sovereignty over the entire
Middle East, to the total exclusion of Jewish rights.
Historically, Islam has not recognized the right to sovereignty
of any non-Muslim people in any part of the "Islamic world."
Jew, like Christians, have been relegated to the position of
dhimmis--protected subjects--peoples under Muslim domination.
Islam, therefore, rejects the concept of a Jewish state in what
it regards as the Islamic-Arab world.
For information on Islam and its beliefs, interested readers
are referred to the soc.religion.islam FAQ, available as:
Subject: Question 14.11: Can't you criticize Israel without being
Criticism that habitually singles out Israel for criticism while
ignoring far worse actions by other countries (especially other Middle
Eastern countries) is generally perceived as anti-Jewish. Likening
Israel to Nazi Germany, or to traditional anti-Jewish stereotypical
behavior is another sure sign of Jew-baiting.
It's also better to criticize within the Jewish community, rather than
airing dirty laundry that can be twisted and used against us. Jewish
newspapers are regularly filled with lively debate on Israel.
See the superb essay "Judging Israel" by Charles Krauthammer, Time
magazine, February 26, 1990.
Subject: Question 14.12: Why is opposition to Israel often seen as being
The vast majority of the Jews in Israel wound up there as refugees
with no other options.
Many Jews went there to flee the Holocaust, at a time when countries
like America and Great Britain had shut their doors to Jews.
And many of the Holocaust survivors wound up as displaced persons
after World War II. While America was supporting the former Nazis with
the Marshall plan, the survivors were largely ignored. Many of them
found a welcome in Israel.
And then, after Israel was founded, most of the Arab nations pushed
out their Jewish populations. They had no place to go but Israel. The
best example of this, of course, is what happened to the Jews in the
"West Bank." The Arab armies pushed out all of the Jews in the
territories they conquered in the 1947-48 war. In particular, they
destroyed Jewish communities that had been inhabited continuously for
thousands of years. East Jerusalem, where many now wish to deny Jewish
settlement rights, had a Jewish majority before 1947.
And recently, many Jews have gone to Israel to escape persecution in
Russia and Ethiopia. Again, there were no other options.
So opposition to Israel, or an insensitivity to its security needs,
does carry with it an indifference to the fate of these Jews who have
had no other refuge from death or serious persecution. Such
indifference is, indeed, a form of antisemitism: if the Arabs succeed
in driving the Jews into the sea, they will be merely continuing what
Subject: Question 14.13: Why is Jerusalem so important to Jews?
According to tradition, the Jews are commanded to worship at the
Temple (Beis Hamikdash) at the place G-d specifies. When this central
site is extant, sacrifices may be brought only there. Also, Jews are
commanded to go to the central site for the three "pilgrimage
festivals", it is the only place where the Pesach sacrifice may be
eaten, and it is the only place where the "second tithe" may be eaten.
After David united the tribes into a kingdom, he conquered the city of
Jerusalem and made it his capital. He then wanted to build the temple
rather than leaving the ark in the temporary quarters it had been in
until that time. G-d informed him that while he was not allowed to
build the temple, his son, Solomon, would, and that temple would
remain the central site for the Jewish people.
After the temple was destroyed the Jews were not allowed to go back to
bringing sacrifices at local altars (called bamos or high places).
Thus, the second temple had to be built on the site of the first. When
the second temple was destroyed, the restriction still held. Thus,
according to tradition, it is the only place where the temple can be
rebuilt when the Moshiach comes.
In the time of Avrohom, the city was the center of the remnants of
monotheism from the days of Noah. It was the site of the Yeshivah of
Shem and Ever (Noah's son & grandson) where they taught about G-d and
the laws G-d had given to Noah.
Subject: Question 14.14: I want to move to Israel. Can I become a citizen?
Jews are granted automatic citizenship. Gentiles may also become
citizens, but after a standard naturalization process. You can get
more information from the Jewish Agency for Israel, at
Subject: Question 14.15: What is the Wailing Wall and why is it so important?
The term "wailing wall" is not used by Jews, who instead prefer the
term "kotel/kosel hamaaravi," Western Wall.
The Western wall is a remainder of the wall on the outer perimiter of
the mountain (although some people mistakenly believe it was the only
remaining structure from the second temple left standing after the
Roman destruction). Since the Jews are currently considered to be in a
state of "ritual impurity" until a special ritual/procedure can be
performed (notably the ashes of the red heifer), the traditional view
is that no Jew may set foot on the actual site of the temple and this
is the closest they can come to praying at the temple site. [Note:
According to Rav Shlomo Goren, Jews can go on the southest 120 meters
of the temple mount. This is the result of intersecting all the ideas
of all the POSKIM.]
Subject: Question 14.16: Questions on aliyah, military service for olim and
First, a good place to start is Jacob Richman's Aliyah pages at
http://www.jr.co.il/aliyah/. This page will provide links to
mailing lists for people with questions, as well as information on
aliyah centers, appliances, housing, jobs, learning Hebrew, olim,
organizations, useful addresses, web links, and more. You might also
check the Aliyah forum at Virtual Jerusalem,
Second, the most important thing to know about rights for Olim, army
service etc. is that the rules keep changing!. Therefore, if you are
considering Aliya or coming as a tourist and possibly later changing
your status, go and speak to the local Aliya shaliah and bother them
about making sure that the answers they are giving you are up to date!
Currently, length of army service is calculated based on variables
such as age when you become an oleh (temporary resident or citizen),
age when you become a citizen (after 3 years or more as temp.
resident), marital status, number of children, and physical profile.
Subject: How do I obtain copies of the FAQ?
There are a number of different ways to obtain copies of the FAQ:
* WWW. If you are reading this on Usenet, and would like to see an
online, hyperlinked version, go visit http://www.scjfaq.org/.
This is the "web" version of the FAQ; the version posted to Usenet
is generated from the web version. Note that the www.scjfaq.org
version is a copy of the actual master version; if you want to
access the master, visit http://master.scjfaq.org/.
* Email. Scjfaq.org also provides an autoretriever that allows one
to obtain a copy of the FAQ by return Email. To use the
autoretriever, you send a retrieval request to
email@example.com with the request in the body of the
message. A more reliable way to retrieve these files is through
the FAQ autoretriever
(http://www.mljewish.org/bin/autoresp.cgi). For the FAQ, the
request has the form:
send faq partname
For the reading list, the request has the form:
send rl partname
"Partname" is replaced by the name of the part, as shown in the
general index. The following is a short summary of the mapping to
partnames for the FAQ:
+ 01-FAQ-intro: Section 1: Network and Newsgroup
+ 02-Who-We-Are: Section 2: Who We Are
+ 03-Torah-Halacha: Sections 3, 4: Torah; Halachic
+ 04-Observance: Sections 5, 6, 7, 8:
Jewish Holidays; Jewish Dietary Law and Kashrut; Sabbath and
Holiday Observance; Woman and Marriage
+ 05-Worship: Sections 9, 10, 11: Jewish
Worship; Conversion, Intermarriage, and "Who is a Jew?";
Miscellaneous Practice Questions
+ 06-Jewish-Thought: Section 12: Jewish Thought
+ 07-Jews-As-Nation: Section 13: Jews as a Nation
+ 08-Israel: Section 14: Jews and Israel
+ 09-Antisemitism: Sections 15, 16, 17: Churban
Europa (The Holocaust); Antisemitism and Rumors about Jews;
+ 10-Reform: Section 18: Reform/Progressive Judaism
+ 11-Miscellaneous: Sections 19, 20: Miscellaneous;
References and Getting Connected
+ 12-Kids: Section 21: Jewish Childrearing Related
+ mail-order: Mail Order Judaica
The following is a short summary of the mapping of partnames for
the Reading Lists:
+ general: Introduction and General. Includes book sources,
starting points for beginners, starting points for non-Jewish
readers, General Judaism, General Jewish Thought, General
Jewish History, Contemporary Judaism, Noachide Laws, Torah
and Torah Commentary, Talmud and Talmudic Commentary,
Mishnah, Midrash, Halachic Codes, Becoming An Observant Jew,
Women and Judaism, and Science and Judaism.
+ traditional: Traditional Liturgy, Practice, Lifestyle,
Holidays. Includes Traditional Liturgy; Traditional
Philosophy and Ethics; Prayer; Traditional Practice; The
Household; Life, Death, and In-Between; and The Cycle Of
+ mysticism: Kabbalah, Mysticism, and Messianism. Includes
Academic and Religious treatments of Kabbalah, Sprituality,
and the Jewish notion of the Messiah.
+ reform: Reform/Progressive Judaism
+ conservative: Conservative Judaism
+ reconstructionist: Reconstructionist Judaism
+ humanistic: Humanistic Judaism (Society for Humanistic
+ chasidism: Chassidism. Includes general information on
historical chassidism, as well as specific information on
Lubavitch (Chabad), Satmar, Breslaw (Breslov), and other
+ zionism: Zionism. Includes Zionism and The Development Of
Israel, The Founders, Zionistic Movements, and Judaism in
+ antisemitism: Antisemitism. Includes sections on
Antisemitism, What Led to The Holocaust, Medieval Oppression,
Antisemitism Today (Including Dealing with Hate Groups),
Judaism and Christianity, and Judaism, Freemasonry and other
+ intermarriage: Intermarriage. Includes sections on "So
You're Considering Intermarriage?", The Traditional
Viewpoint, Conversion, and Coping With Life As An
+ childrens: Books for Jewish Children. Includes sections
on Birth and Naming, Raising a Child, Family Guidebooks,
Upsheren, Bar/Bat Mitzvah, Confirmation, Holiday Books for
Children, Liturgy for Children, Bible and Torah for Children,
Jewish History for Children, Jewish Theology for Children,
Israel, Learning Hebrew, and Jewish Stories.
Alternatively, you may send a message to
firstname.lastname@example.org with the following line in the body
of the message:
Where (portionname) is replaced by the appropriate subdirectory
and filenames; for example, to get the first part of the reading
list, one would say:
* Anonymous FTP: All portions of the FAQ and of the reading lists
are archived on rtfm.mit.edu and are available for anonymous
FTP from the pub/usenet/news.answers/judaism/FAQ directory (URL
Similarly, the parts of the reading lists are stored in the
pub/usenet/news.answers/judaism/reading-lists directory (URL:
ts). Note that the archived versions of the FAQ and reading lists
are the posted versions; that is, they are each one large ASCII
Subject: Who Wrote the FAQ?
The original version of the Frequently Asked Questions was developed
by a committee consisting of Mike Allen, Jerry Altzman, Rabbi Charles
Arian, Jacob Baltuch (Past Chair), Joseph Berry, Warren Burstein,
Stewart Clamen, Daniel Faigin, Avi Feldblum, Rabbi Yaakov Feldman,
Itzhak "Jeff" Finger, Gedaliah Friedenberg, Yechezkal Gutfreund, Art
Kamlet, Joe Kansun, CAPT Kaye David, Alan Lustiger, Hillel Markowitz,
Len Moskowitz, Colin Naturman, Aliza Panitz, Eliot Shimoff, Mark
Steinberger, Steven Weintraub, Matthew Wiener, and headed by Robert
Levene. The organization and structuring of the lists for posting
purposes was done by Daniel Faigin, who is currently maintaining
the lists. Other contributors include Aaron Biterman, A. Engler
Anderson, Ken Arromdee, Seymour Axelrod, Jonathan Baker, Josh Backon,
Micha Berger, Steven M. Bergson, Eli Birnbaum, Shoshana L. Boublil,
Kevin Brook, J. Burton, Harvey Cohen, Todd J.Dicker, Michael Dinowitz,
Rabbi Jim Egolf, Sean Engelson, Mike Fessler, Menachem Glickman,
Amitai Halevi, Walter Hellman, Per Hollander, Miriam Jerris, Robert D.
Kaiser, Yosef Kazen, Rabbi Jay Lapidus, Mier Lehrer, Heather Luntz,
David Maddison, Arnaldo Mandel, Ilana Manspeizer, Seth Ness, Chris
Newport, Daniel Nomy, Jennifer Paquette, Andrew Poe, Alan Pfeffer,
Jason Pyeron, Adam Reed, Seth Rosenthall, JudithSeid@aol.com, David
Sheen, Rabbi John Sherwood, Michael Sidlofsky, Michael Slifkin, Frank
Smith, Michael Snider, Rabbi Arnold Steibel, Andy Tannenbaum,
email@example.com, Meredith Warshaw, Bill Wadlinger, Arel Weisberg,
Dorothy Werner, and Art Werschulz, and the
soc.culture.jewish.parenting board. Some material has been derived
from other sources on the Internet, such as
http://www.jewishwebsite.com/, http://www.jewfaq.org/, and
http://www.menorah.org/. Comments and corrections are welcome;
please address them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
A special thank you... Special thanks for her patience and
understanding go to my wife, Karen, who put up with me hiding at the
computer for the two months it took to complete the July/August 2000
remodel of the entire soc.culture.jewish FAQ and Reading Lists. If you
think the effort was worth it, drop her a note c/o
Please mail additions or corrections to me at email@example.com.
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