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soc.culture.jewish FAQ: Introduction to the FAQ and s.c.j Newsgroups (1/12)

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               Frequently Asked Questions on Soc.Culture.Jewish
            Part 1: Introduction to the FAQ and Soc.Culture.Jewish
         [Last Change: $Date: 1995/10/19 15:23:13 $ $Revision: 1.3 $]
                    [Last Post: Sun Mar 28 11:07:14 US/Pacific 2004]

   The FAQ is a collection of documents that is an attempt to answer
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   of newsgroups. It was written by cooperating laypeople from the
   various Judaic movements. You should not make any assumption as to
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   local rabbi is a good place to start.
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   the fact that there are regional variations in the pronunciation of
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   in others--not. We hope that this is not too confusing.
   In general, throughout this FAQ, North American (US/Canada) terms are
   used to refer to the movements of Judaism. Outside of North American,
   Reform is Progressive or Liberal Judaism; Conservative is Masorti or
   Neolog, and Orthodoxy is often just "Judaism". Even with this, there
   are differences in practice, position, and ritual between US/Canada
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   Progressive/ Liberal), and between US/Canada Conservative and the
   conservative/Masorti movement elsewhere. Where appropriate, these
   differences will be highlighted.
   The goal of the FAQ is to present a balanced view of Judaism; where a
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   This list should be used in conjunction with the Soc.Culture.Jewish
   [5]reading lists. Similar questions can be found in the books
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   There are also numerous other Jewish FAQs available on the Internet
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   found at [6]
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Subject: The following is an index to all the sections of the SCJ FAQ. It is grouped by the files available through the SCJ FAQ Autoretriever. [3]Introduction 01-FAQ-intro [1] [4]Network and Newsgroup Introduction 02-Who-We-Are [2] [5]Who We Are 03-Torah-Halacha [3] [6]Torah [4] [7]Halachic Authority 04-Observance [5] [8]Jewish Holidays [6] [9]Jewish Dietary Law and Kashrut [7] [10]Sabbath and Holiday Observance [8] [11]Woman and Marriage 05-Worship [9] [12]Jewish Worship [10] [13]Conversion, Intermarriage, and "Who is a Jew?" [11] [14]Miscellaneous Practice Questions 06-Jewish-Thought [12] [15]Jewish Thought 07-Jews-As-Nation [13] [16]Jews as a Nation 08-Israel [14] [17]Jews and Israel 09-Antisemitism [15] [18]Churban Europa (The Holocaust) [16] [19]Antisemitism and Rumors about Jews [17] [20]Countering Missionaries 10-Reform [18] [21]Reform/Progressive Judaism 11-Miscellaneous [19] [22]Miscellaneous [20] [23]References and Getting Connected 12-Kids [21] [24]Children and Judaism [25]Archival Information [26]Credits and Acknowledgements 2000 The following separate FAQ related to Judaism is also published as part of the S.C.J. FAQ: Jewish Resources by Mail Order and Computer Steve Seidman [27]<> The following is an index to the questions and other information contained in each section: Section 1: Network and Soc.Culture.Jewish Information 1. [8]What is USENET? How is it different than "the Web"? 2. [9]What are the major Jewish newsgroups on USENET? 3. [10]Why soc.culture.jewish? Wouldn't soc.religion.jewish be more appropriate? 4. [11]What are the charters of the various Jewish newsgroups? 5. [12]Are there other newsgroups about which Jews should be aware? 6. [13]I notice that some of these newsgroups are moderated. Isn't moderation censorship? 7. [14]How do I submit postings to a newsgroup? 8. [15]Some of these newsgroups have quite a bit of traffic? How do you cope with it? 9. [16]What topics are appropriate for S.C.J? 10. [17]What topics are not appropriate for S.C.J? 11. [18]When should I post to talk.politics.mideast? 12. [19]Is it appropriate to discuss Israel in soc.culture.jewish? 13. [20]How should I respond to inappropriate articles? Somebody posted an inappropriate article to S.C.J or T.P.M. 14. [21]But I don't get T.P.M? Now what? 15. [22]A. Random Jew posted X to a.b.c; I disagree. What should I do? 16. [23]Can non-Jews post to S.C.J? 17. [24]May I post this great Jewish essay I just read? 18. [25]I have a question nogaiah hilchos maaser kesafim b'zman hazeh... Eem yeish lee meah or fewer shekalim and some are hefker ... 19. [26]I've just found Jesus/ LaRouche/ Muhammad/ Marx/ Moon/ L.RonHubbard/ Cthulhu and I'd like you to find him, too. Here's an essay written by someone raised in a Jewish home who converted to my faith... 20. [27]I've just gotten this antisemitic email. What should I do? 21. [28]What are the Do's and Don'ts? Section 2: Who We Are 1. [8]Who reads the soc.culture.jewish newsgroups? 2. [9]What are the major Jewish movements? 3. [10]What is Conservative Judaism? 4. [11]What is Orthodox Judaism? 5. [12]What is Reform/Progressive Judaism? 6. [13]What about other movements? 7. [14]What are some of the Orthodox sub-groups? 8. [15]What is Chassidism and how does it differ from other Orthodox groups? 9. [16]What is Lubavitch Chasidism and Chabad? 10. [17]What is Breslov Chasidism? 11. [18]What is Satmar Chasidism? 12. [19]What other forms of Chasidism? 13. [20]What are OCR (O-C-R) wars? Why all the flames? 14. [21]But Reform Judaism isn't Judaism? Why don't they see that? 15. [22]But Orthodox Judaism isn't Judaism?Why don't they see that? 16. [23]Why shouldn't I say "ultra-Orthodox", "Reformed Judaism", or "Humanist Judaism"? 17. [24]How does a Chassid differ from Misnagid? 18. [25]What is a "Torah Jew?" 19. [26]What about homosexual Jews? 20. [27]Is it true that Jews are all (fill-in-the-blank)? 21. [28]How many Jews are there today in the U.S.A.? 22. [29]How many Jews are in the world? 23. [30]Who was the first Jew? 24. [31]What is Judaism all about? Section 3: Torah 1. [8]What is the Written Law? 2. [9]What are the books of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh)? 3. [10]Why, in the Tanakh, does G-d have so many Names? 4. [11]Who wrote the Torah? 5. [12]What is the Oral Law? 6. [13]How was the Oral and Written Law passed down to us? 7. [14]What is the Great Assembly (Anshe Knessest HaGedolah)? 8. [15]Who are the Zugot (pairs)? 9. [16]What is the Mishna? 10. [17]What is the relationship between the Mishna and the Torah? 11. [18]What are the Orders of the Mishna? 12. [19]What is the Tosefta? 13. [20]What is the relationship between the Tosefta and the Mishna? 14. [21]What is the Gemara and what is the Talmud? 15. [22]What is the Talmud? 16. [23]What is Talmud Yerushalmi? 17. [24]What is Talmud Bavli? 18. [25]What is Rashi's commentary on the Talmud? 19. [26]What is the Tosafot? 20. [27]Who wrote the Tosafot? 21. [28]What is the relationship of the Tosefta to the Talmuds? 22. [29]What are Baraitot? 23. [30]What are the extra-canonical (minor) tractates? 24. [31]What is a Midrash? 25. [32]What are Halakhic (or Tannaitic) Midrashim? 26. [33]What are the main Halakhic Midrashim? 27. [34]What are the main Exegetical Midrashim? 28. [35]What are the main Homiletic Midrashim? 29. [36]What are the Midrashim on the Five Megillot (aka The So-Called Rabbot)? 30. [37]What are some other important Haggadic works? 31. [38]What is the Sefer Yetzirah (The Book of Creation)? 32. [39]What is Sefer haBahir, The Bahir (The Book of Illumination)? 33. [40]What is The Zohar? 34. [41]What are the Major Codes of Jewish Law? 35. [42]What is the Rif (Hilkhot of Rav Alfassi)? 36. [43]What is the Mishneh Torah (Yad Ha-Hazaqah , Sefer Mehoqeq)? 37. [44]What is the Sefer Mitzvot Gadol (The Semag)? 38. [45]What is the Arba'ah Turim (The Tur , The Four Rows)? 39. [46]What is the Shulkhan Arukh? 40. [47]What is the Hamappah of Rabbi Moshe Isserles? 41. [48]What is the Kitzur Shulkhan Arukh? 42. [49]What is the Mishnah Berurah? 43. [50]What Other Codes of Jewish Law Are Used by Non-Orthodox Jewish Movements? 44. [51]What is the Meaning of 'All is Futile' from the beginning of Ecclesiastes? 45. [52]What does it mean in the psalm of Habakkuk when it says that G-d hides His power? 46. [53]What is meant by G-d's throne and the Serphim worshiping him in Isaiah 6:1-6? 47. [54]Why is G-d referred to in the plural in the book of Genesis? 48. [55]What is the Mekhilta on Deuteronomy? Section 4: Halachic Authority 1. [8]What is "Halacha"? How is it determined? 2. [9]Traditionally, what are the levels of halacha? 3. [10]Traditionally, what are the different rabbinic eras? 4. [11]How can differing halachic rulings all be considered valid? 5. [12]How does the Conservative movement deal with Halachic questions? 6. [13]What is the difference between two Orthodox rabbis who disagree and an Orthodox and a Reform who disagree? 7. [14]Who is RAMBAM that is mentioned and what are his 13 principles? 8. [15]Who was Rashi? 9. [16]Who was the Ramban? 10. [17]What is Kabbalah and how can I learn about it? 11. [18]Who is allowed to study Kabbalah? 12. [19]Who was Rabbeinu Tam? 13. [20]What are she'elot u'teshuvot? 14. [21]What is the midrash halachah and the midrash agadah? Section 5: Jewish Holidays 1. [8]What are the different holidays? 2. [9]What are the dates of the upcoming Jewish holidays? 3. [10]How can I get a Jewish calendar 4. [11]Why do some people take off one day, and others two? 5. [12]Why does the Jewish day start at sundown? 6. [13]What are the origins of the Chanukah Dreidel? 7. [14]Is it appropriate for Christians to "celebrate" Pesach using the form of a seder meal? 8. [15]What are the months of the Jewish Year? 9. [16]How does Judaism measure the day? 10. [17]Are the Four Questions asked on Pesach in the Torah? 11. [18]What are the different days of the Jewish week? 12. [19]How are Yahrzeits observed in Leap Years? 13. [20]What happened to the observance on 14 Nisan as Passover? 14. [21]For Mother's Day, how should one bless their mothers? Section 6: Jewish Dietary Law and Kashrut 1. [8]What is Kosher? Doesn't a rabbi just bless the food? 2. [9]How can I learn about Kashrut? Is there a "Kosher" FAQ? 3. [10]There are a wide variety of kosher symbols. How do I learn who's behind them? 4. [11]I'm going to be in (insert city here). How do I find the kosher restaurants? 5. [12]Do I need to have a kosher kitchen and kosher home to keep kosher? 6. [13]I have heard that Polish Orthodox Jews wait 6 hours between eating milchig and fleishig and Dutch Orthodox Jews wait about an hour. Why? 7. [14]Why do Sephardim and Ashkenazim have different customs regarding permissible foods on Pesach (Passover)? 8. [15]I'm a vegetarian health-food proponent. Is kosher food healthier? 9. [16]Is vegetarianism kosher? 10. [17]What process is involved in Kosher Slaughter? 11. [18]I work in a prison, and I have an inmate that is demanding Kosher Food? How do I know if his claim is justified? 12. [19]What are the issues involving Filet Minion? 13. [20]Why don't Jews eat Pork? 14. [21]Would the laws of Kashrut prevent Mad Cow Disease? 15. [22]Is Monkfish Kosher? 16. [23]Why do Jews separate Milk and Meat? 17. [24]Must Jews use wine? 18. [25]Are there parts of a kosher animal that cannot be eaten? 19. [26]I have a friend coming over that keeps Kosher. What do I do? Section 7: Sabbath and Holiday Observance 1. [8]What is the Jewish Sabbath and why is it on Saturday? 2. [9]Why do my Orthodox Jewish friends leave work early on Fridays and before Jewish holidays? 3. [10]Why can't Jews use electrical appliances and motor vehicles on Shabbat? 4. [11]Why are there 18 minutes from the time candle lighting starts on Shabbat until the last time you can light? 5. [12]I've heard that Jews can't tear on Shabbat? Why? What is "work"? 6. [13]How do people know when to light candles in the Arctic? 7. [14]What is the significance of Challah? 8. [15]Why do women wave their hands three times before lighting Shabbat [or Holiday] candles? 9. [16]What is an Eruv? 10. [17]If your home is burning, can you put out the fire on Shabbat? 11. [18]What Medical Procedures May Be Performed on Shabbat? 12. [19]What happens on Shabbat? 13. [20]Do Conservative Jews play musical instruments on Shabbat? 14. [21]Why is there a prohibition on travel on Shabbat? 15. [22]Can an observant Jew use a camera on Shabbat? Section 8: Woman and Marriage 1. [8]What role do women play in Judaism? 2. [9]What is the Conservative view of the role of women in Judaism? 3. [10]What is the Reform view of the role of women in Judaism? 4. [11]What is the Orthodox view of the role of women in Judaism? 5. [12]Is it true that Orthodox men bless G-d every morning for not making them a woman? What do you mean, this isn't terrible? 6. [13]I've heard polygamy is permissible among Sephardic and Yemenite Jews. Doesn't Judaism mandate monogamy? 7. [14]What does clean/unclean refer to? 8. [15]What is "Niddah"? 9. [16]I've heard that Orthodox men can't touch women. Is this true? 10. [17]Are there any rituals for purification after childbirth for women? 11. [18]What is the Jewish position on contraception and abortion? 12. [19]How does Judaism view Marriage? 13. [20]How do Jews find Mates? 14. [21]What is a Jewish Marriage? 15. [22]What happens before a Jewish Wedding? 16. [23]What happens during a Jewish Wedding? 17. [24]What happens after a Jewish Wedding? 18. [25]What should I wear to a Jewish wedding? 19. [26]Why is the glass broken at Jewish weddings? 20. [27]What is a Ketubah? 21. [28]What are the "Seven Blessings"? 22. [29]What does Judaism say about premarital sex? 23. [30]What are some good wedding greetings? 24. [31]Can a wife refuse to have marital relations with her husband? 25. [32]What should a man do if his wife leaves him for another man? 26. [33]Can a Jewish woman who has not been to a mikvah get married in an Orthodox wedding? 27. [34]Is it possible for a Cohanim to marry a divorced Jewish woman? 28. [35]I've heard Jews can't get married on certain days. What are they? 29. [36]What is the role of the parents or the rabbi at a wedding? 30. [37]How long after a spouse dies can the surviving partner remarry? Must they marry their spouse's younger brother? 31. [38]What relationships are prohibited? 32. [39]What is the restriction on woman to sing in public and infront of men? 33. [40]What can be done if the wife refuses to sign the get (divorce decree)? Section 9: Jewish Worship 1. [8]How does a rabbi differ from a priest? 2. [9]Do you need a rabbi for a wedding? 3. [10]Do you need a rabbi for a divorce? 4. [11]How do Jews pray? 5. [12]Is there a distinctly Jewish form of meditation? 6. [13]Does Judaism have a strong tradition of religious art and music? 7. [14]What is a synagogue? 8. [15]What will I find in a synagogue? 9. [16]How is a synagogue operated? 10. [17]What functions does a synagogue serve? 11. [18]What is the name of the Jewish God? 12. [19]What is the reason for a "minyon" (a quorum of 10 men requried for certain prayers)? 13. [20]What is the "Shema"? 14. [21]Where can I learn about the prayers before eating? 15. [22]What is the structure of the morning service? 16. [23]When should morning services start? 17. [24]Why do people put their tallit over their heads when they pray? 18. [25]What is the importance of collective worship in Judaism? 19. [26]What is the difference between Conservative Prayer and Orthodox Prayer? 20. [27]What is the Timeline of Women in the Rabbinate? 21. [28]Are extremely observant men permitted to pray at home? 22. [29]What is the Qetzatzah Ceremony? 23. [30]What time of day were the sacrifices offered? Section 10: Conversion, Intermarriage, and "Who is a Jew?" 1. [8]Does Halacha (Jewish law) permit intermarriage? 2. [9]I'm a Jew who married a gentile. Am I still Jewish? 3. [10]I'm a Jew who accepted the tenets of another religion, but now wants to practice Judaism again. Am I allowed? Am I still Jewish? 4. [11]OK, then apart from halachic considerations, why do many Jews of all types oppose intermarriage? 5. [12]Is objection to intermarriage a form of bigotry? 6. [13]But I still want to intermarry? Do you know of a Rabbi that performs intermarriages? 7. [14]How does one convert? 8. [15]What about adults who are not circumcised? 9. [16]What does the word "Jew" mean? 10. [17]Who is a Jew? 11. [18]What is the origin of Matrilineal Descent? 12. [19]I've heard that Jewish parents consider an intermarried child as "dead". Is this true? 13. [20]Why is the conversion process so complicated? The matriarchs didn't have to convert. Section 11: Miscellaneous Practice Questions 1. Dress 1. [8]Why do some Jewish women wear wigs or cover their hair with a snood, beret, tichel, turban, kerchief or hat? 2. [9]Why do many Jewish men wear head coverings (variously referred to as "yarmulkas," "skullcaps," and "kipot")? 3. [10]What is a Tallis? Tzit-tzit(those fringes)? Why do Jews wear them? 4. [11]What are those black boxes and leather straps Jewish men wear? 5. [12]Why do many Jewish men sport beards and/or long sideburns? 6. [13]Why do some Orthodox Jews, especially Chassidim, wear a distinctive style of clothing (i.e., fur hats, black coats, gartel)? 7. [14]What is Shaatnez? 8. [15]Are there any special dress rules or customs for women? 9. [16]What is a Kittel? 10. [17]What is the large high ceremonial hat that the Rabbi wears in the synagogue called? 2. Sex and Purity 1. [18]What's this I've heard about a hole in a sheet? 2. [19]Can a Jewish man only uncover his wife a hands-breadth? 3. [20]What is a "mikveh"? 4. [21]What are Jewish hygene practices? 3. Writing 1. [22]Why do some people write "G-d" with a hyphen instead of an `o'? 2. [23]Why do some Jews write "J-s-s" and "Xianity"? 3. [24]Why are somethings written in Hebrew, and others in Aramaic? 4. Practices towards others 1. [25]Does Judaism permit slavery? 2. [26]What does "eye for an eye" mean? 3. [27]Is it permitted for a Jew to sell Christian objects? 5. Weddings + This material has been moved to [28]Section 8. 6. Death and Burial 1. [29]Is it true that someone with tattoos cannot be buried in a Jewish cemetery? 2. [30]I've heard about a custom of putting stones on the grave. Do you know where this custom originated? 3. [31]Is "stone setting" at the cemetery within a year after death is a Jewish tradition? 4. [32]What are the Jewish mourning customs after the death of an immediate relative? 5. [33]What are Jewish funeral customs? 6. [34]Is getting cryogenically frozen against Judaism? 7. [35]Are Jews buried facing West? 8. [36]Can Jews be cremated? 9. [37]What is the Jewish position on Suicide? 10. [38]Can pregnant women attend a funeral? 11. [39]If a Jewish person lives in an area where there is no synagogue, no Jewish funeral home, and no Jewish cemetery, what would the rules be in regard to burial? 12. [40]Can Jews and Non-Jews be buried together? 13. [41]Must the Chevra Kedisha be family members? 14. [42]How have burial customs changed over time? 15. [43]Why do Jews emphasize burial within 24 hours? 7. Charity 1. [44]What are the levels of giving? 8. Sacrifices 1. [45]When did Jews stop making animal sacrifices? 2. [46]What replaced animal sacrifices in Jewish practice? 3. [47]How do sacrifices relate to compassion for animals? 4. [48]Will sacrifices be restored if the Temple is rebuilt? 9. Symbols 1. [49]Why are Jews called Jews? 2. [50]What does the Star of David represent and what is its symbolism? 3. [51]What is the signficance of "Chai" and the number 18? 4. [52]What is a Mezuzah? 5. [53]What is a Menorah? 6. [54]What is the significance of the number 5? 7. [55]What is the significance of the number 3? 8. [56]What is the significance of the number 40? 9. [57]What is the significance of the number 7? 10. [58]Are there any Jewish housewarming rituals? 11. [59]What is the significance of blue in Judaism? Are there other special colors? 12. [60]What is the significance of the number 8? Section 12: Jewish Thought 1. [8]What is the Jewish concept of G-d? Do Jews think of G-d as an angry old man with a long white beard? 2. [9]Can one doubt G-d's existence and still be a good Jew? 3. [10]Does modern science (e.g., "big bang" theory, evolution, the age of the world) contradict traditional readings of the Torah? 4. [11]Does modern science contradict liberal readings of the Torah? 5. [12]Can one be Orthodox and a scientist too? 6. [13]I've heard that Jews consider themselves "chosen." What does that mean? 7. [14]What is the Jewish concept of the Messiah? 8. [15]What do Jews say happens when a person dies? Do Jews believe in reincarnation? In hell or heaven? Purgatory? 9. [16]What was the job of a prophet? 10. [17]It seems that prophecy was once central to Judaism; why don't we have prophets today? 11. [18]Who were the prophets? How many? 12. [19]What is the Jewish view on the question of "free will."? 13. [20]What about angels, demons, miracles, and the supernatural? 14. [21]What do Jews hope/expect of the future? 15. [22]How can Jews reject (insert true belief here)? 16. [23]Why do Jews need organized religion or Jewish laws? Isn't it good enough to be a good person? How about gentiles? 17. [24]How does Judaism differ from Xianity, Marxism, Communism, Humanism and other -isms? 18. [25]Where can a Gentile learn about Judaism? 19. [26]What does Judaism say about non-Jews and their role? What does G-d demands of gentiles to get to Olam Ha'aba ["The World-to-come"]? What are the Noachide laws? 20. [27]What do Jews believe about Good and Evil? 21. [28]What is the Jewish position on Capital Punishment? 22. [29]What is the Jewish position on communicating with the dead? 23. [30]What is the significance and importance of suffering and punishment in Judaism? 24. [31]Why are there different names for G-d? 25. [32]What is the "Book of Life"? 26. [33]How does one atone for sins? 27. [34]What does Judaism say about the punishments in the Torah? 28. [35]What does the Torah mean by Abomination? 29. [36]Why does the Torah talk about Other Gods? 30. [37]What is the purpose of life? Why did G-d create man? 31. [38]How does tithing work in Judaism? 32. [39]Does Judaism permit organ donation? 33. [40]Is numerology part of Jewish Mysticism? 34. [41]What is Jewish thought on Gog and Magog? 35. [42]What does Judaism believe about Satan? 36. [43]In Judaism, what are some of the laws related to gleaning and tithing for the poor? 37. [44]What is the Jewish view of Salvation, i.e., how a person from a given religion is ''saved''? 38. [45]Can a Jew donate blood? 39. [46]How does halacha, the messiah, and the prophets affect the daily life of a Jew? 40. [47]What must one do to lead "a good life" in Judaism? 41. [48]I've heard about 36 taddiks? 42. [49]What is the theological understanding regarding the affect of the expulsion from Eden? Section 13: Jews as a Nation 1. [8]What are the different racial and cultural groups of Jews? 2. [9]What are the differences between Sephardim and Ashkenazim? 3. [10]Where did the Beita Yisrael (Falashas) come from? 4. [11]Who were the Khazars? Are Ashkenazi Jews descended from the Khazars? 5. [12]Who are Crypto-Jews (also known as "marranos")? 6. [13]How does the Sephardi/Ashkenazi differences differ from the O/C/R differences? 7. [14]I've heard of a group called the "Black Hebrews". Who are they? 8. [15]What about the black jews in South Africa? 9. [16]Who Are The Jews of India, And What Are Their Origins? 10. [17]Are Jews a Nation or a Religion? 11. [18]Who are the Edot Mizraxi? 12. [19]What About Yeminite Jews? 13. [20]Who was Donna Gracia? Section 14: Jews and Israel 1. [8]Who is an Israeli? Who may enter Israel under its Law of Return? 2. [9]What is Zion? 3. [10]What is Zionism? 4. [11]Are all Jews Zionists? 5. [12]Do Diaspora Jews (Jews outside Israel) support Zionism? 6. [13]I've heard there were/are very Orthodox Jews who were/are against the state of Israel. How could this be? Who are they? 7. [14]Did Zionism end with the establishment of Israel? 8. [15]Are antisemitism and anti-Zionism the same thing? 9. [16]Is Zionism racist? 10. [17]What are the roots of Arab opposition to Zionism? 11. [18]Can't you criticize Israel without being antisemitic? 12. [19]Why is opposition to Israel often seen as being antisemitic? 13. [20]Why is Jerusalem so important to Jews? 14. [21]I want to move to Israel. Can I become a citizen? 15. [22]What is the Wailing Wall and why is it so important? 16. [23]Questions on aliyah, military service for olim and more Section 15: Churban Europa (The Holocaust) 1. [8]Why do Jews seem to treat the Holocaust as their tragedy alone? 2. [9]Where can I get information on the Holocaust? 3. [10]How do I get tickets to see the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum? 4. [11]Is there any online information available on Yad Vashem? Section 16: Antisemitism and Rumors about Jews 1. [8]Why is antisemitism used to mean anti-Jewish? 2. [9]Is there any truth to the myth of the Jewish American Princess? 3. [10]What is the connection between Judaism and Freemasonry? 4. [11]How do I counter antisemitic postings such as the infamous "Protocols"? 5. [12]Did the Jews kill Jesus? 6. [13]Can you tell me about the Disputation at Barcelona? Section 17: Countering Missionaries 1. [8]Are groups calling themselves "Jews for Jesus" or "Messianic Jews[sic]" Jewish movements? 2. [9]Is belief in Jesus-as-G-d compatible with any Jewish movements? 3. [10]Countering the Question: Why Don't Jews Believe in Jesus as the Messiah? 4. [11]What do missionary groups believe? 5. [12]What sort of deceptive terminology do missionaries use? 6. [13]How can these missionaries be countered? 7. [14]Who is financing "Jews for Jesus" and similar groups? 8. [15]Are the key Christian beliefs derived from Judaism? Section 18: Reform/Progressive Judaism * [8]Introduction to the Reform/Progressive FAQ 1. General Questions 1. [9]What is Reform Judaism? 2. [10]What, if any, are the fundamental principles of Reform? 3. [11]Is a Jew affiliated with Reform Judaism less "religious" than one affiliated with another movement? 4. [12]How is Reform Judaism structured in the North America? 5. [13]How is Reform Judaism structured in the rest of the world? 6. [14]How big is Reform Judaism? 2. History 1. [15]How did Reform Judaism start? 2. [16]Why did Reform Judaism start? 3. [17]I've heard reference to "Classic German Reform". What is it? 4. [18]What is Reform Judaism today? 3. What is Reform Judaism's position on... 1. [19]The authority of Torah? 2. [20]The authority of Talmud? 3. [21]What is acceptable practice? 4. [22]What is unacceptable practice? 5. [23]The necessity of belief in G-d? 6. [24]The role of Israel? 7. [25]Other Jewish movements? 8. [26]Homosexuality 9. [27]Intermarriage 10. [28]Abortion 11. [29]Mixed (Interfaith) Marriages 12. [30]The role of women 13. [31]Outreach 14. [32]How an individual's Jewish status is determined 15. [33]The Messiah 4. Stereotypes: The fallacy verses reality 1. [34]Fallacy: Reform Jews choose practice based solely on convenience 2. [35]Fallacy: Either patrilineal or matrilineal descent is accepted 3. [36]Fallacy: Reform Conversions take no study, and are for convenience only 4. [37]Fallacy: Reform Judaism encourages intermarriage 5. [38]Fallacy: Intermarried couples have exactly the same rights as non-intermarried couples in Reform Congregations 6. [39]Fallacy: Reform Judaism has Rabbis and congregations that don't believe in G-d 7. [40]Fallacy: There are no 3rd or 4th generation Reform Jews. 8. [41]Fallacy: An atheist could be considered a "good" Reform Jew 9. [42]Fallacy: Reform Jews don't have Bar Mitzvahs 10. [43]Fallacy: Reform totally ignores "Jewish" divorce (i.e., gets) 11. [44]Fallacy: All Reform Congregations Are Rich 12. [45]Fallacy: Reform Rabbis do not study Halacha 13. [46]Fallacy: Reform Jews don't care about Jewish ideals and principles. 14. [47]Fallacy: Reform Jews don't need to attend synagogue. 15. [48]Fallacy: Reform Jews don't believe in Zionism and don't support Israel. 16. [49]Fallacy: Reform Jews have no concept of the Messiah. 17. [50]Fallacy: Reform Jews do not observe Shabbat 18. [51]Fallacy: Reform Jews ignore the laws of Kashrut 19. [52]Fallacy: Reform rejects most of Maimonides 13 Principles of Faith 5. Differences from Traditional Judaism 1. [53]Why does Reform liturgy say "m'chayey hakol" [who gives life to all] instead of m'chayey meytim" [who gives life to the dead] ? 2. [54]What other changes to liturgy reflect Reform ideals? 3. [55]Why does Reform generally celebrate Rosh Hashanah for one day? 4. [56]How does a Reform conversion differ from an Orthodox conversion? 6. The Rabbinate 1. [57]How does one become a Reform Rabbi? 2. [58]What is the course of study for the Rabbinate? 3. [59]How does one become a Reform Cantor? 4. [60]What is the course of study for cantors? 5. [61]What other courses of study are available? 6. [62]Can Reform Rabbis be sanctioned for their beliefs 7. For Further Information 1. [63]How do I contact the main organizations in Reform Judaism? 2. [64]How do I find a Reform congregation? 3. [65]Are there any Reform Rabbis on the network who will answer questions? 4. [66]How do I start the conversion process? 5. [67]I'd like to do some further reading. Where do I start? * [68]Special Credits for the Reform/Progressive FAQ Section 19: Miscellaneous 1. [8]I want to become more observant. Where do I start? 2. [9]Why is "shabbat" spelled sometimes shabbath, shabbath, shabbos, 3. [10]What are some common Hebrew and Yiddish phrases I see on S.C.J? 4. [11]What do all those abbreviations like Z"L mean? 5. [12]Is "shvartze" offensive? Is "goyim" offensive? 6. [13]What does "shiksa" and "shaygetz" mean? 7. [14]I am going to be in (name your city), where can I eat, stay for Shabbat? 8. [15]What do bagels, lox, pastrami, falafel, garlic pickles, kishka, and kasha have to do with being a Jew? 9. [16]What does Warren Burstein's signature mean? 10. [17]Who was the sixth Marx brother? 11. [18]Why do Hebrew clocks run clockwise, not counter-clockwise? 12. [19]I'm not Jewish. How do I show my love for the Jewish people? 13. [20]What is the origin of the word "kike"? 14. [21]What is the meaning of the part of the book of Ruth where the guy at the gate takes off his shoe? 15. [22]I'm a health care provider? What do I need to know for Jewish patients? 16. [23]What would be a good housewarming gift for a Jewish friend? 17. [24]What is the meaning and origin of the phrase B'shaah Tova? Section 20: References and Getting Connected 1. [8]I'd like to learn more? Do you have any books to recommend? 2. [9]What are the different hechsher symbols? 3. [10]Where can I find Jewish-oriented mailing lists? 4. [11]What are the good Jewish search engines? 5. [12]What are some good Jewish links on the WWW? 6. [13]Is S.C.J available via a Listserv or other e-mail means? 7. [14]What divrei Torah are posted to Usenet? 8. [15]Where can I find collected divrei Torah? 9. [16]What software is available for Hebrew applications? 10. [17]What other Jewish software is available? 11. [18]Are there any Jewish Libraries on the Internet? 12. [19]I'm interested in ordering books or music on the internet. Where should I look? 13. [20]Boy, you did a wonderful job on the FAQ? How do I show my appreciation? Section 21: Children and Judaism * [8]Introduction to the Jewish Childrearing FAQ 1. Entering the Covenant 1. [9]What is circumcision? 2. [10]Why are Jewish boys circumcised? 3. [11]Who performs the circumcision? 4. [12]When is the circumcision done? 5. [13]But doesn't it hurt? 6. [14]But shouldn't the child make its own decision? 7. [15]But circumcision is only required for boys. What about girls? 8. [16]What are our options for welcoming our new baby girl? 9. [17]Can we hold a welcoming ceremony on the 8th day for a girl? 10. [18]What is a pidyon haben? 11. [19]When is a pidyon haben required? 12. [20]What about babies who are stillborn or die shortly after birth with respect to pidyon haben? 13. [21]What about an adopted child? 14. [22]Does Judaism have a tradition of Godparents? 15. [23]Is Circumcision required for a boy to be Jewish? 2. Naming 1. [24]What are the Ashkenazi customs regarding the naming of children? 2. [25]But my grandmother was named (insert old-fashioned out of use name here? No one uses that name today? How do I name after that relative? 3. [26]Is it appropriate to name a child after a relative of the opposite sex? 4. [27]Is it appropriate for multiple children (i.e. cousins) to be named after the same relative? 5. [28]My spouse has a living relative with the same name as my deceased relative. Can we name our children after my relative? 6. [29]What are the Sephardi customs regarding the naming of children? 7. [30]What about babies who are stillborn or die shortly after birth? 8. [31]Are there any distinctly non-Jewish names? 3. Playtime 1. [32]Can I let my kid swim on Shabbat? 2. [33]Can I let my kid play in the sandbox on Shabbat? 3. [34]Can children play sports such as Soccer on Shabbat? 4. [35]What is appropriate dress for swimming? 5. [36]Can my kid play with Playdough during Pesach? 4. Eating 1. [37]Where can I find kosher baby food? 2. [38]Where can I find kosher for passover baby food? 5. Holidays 1. [39]What are good activities for children for the major Jewish holidays? 6. Schooling 1. [40]How do I determine the right type of religious program: day school vs. afterschool? 2. [41]How are teachers in Chasidic schools trained? 7. B'nai Mitzvah 1. [42]What is a bar/bat mitzvah? 2. [43]What's a good gift for a b'nai mitzvah? 3. [44]What is appropriate dress to wear to the b'nai mitzvah ceremony? 4. [45]What are the characteristics of a good b'nai mitzvah program? 5. [46]How do I select a good b'nai mitzvah tutor? 6. [47]I need to speak at my child's bar/bat mitzvah? What do I say? 8. Other childhood lifecycle rituals 1. [48]I've heard of a ceremony called "Consecration". What is it? 2. [49]I've heard of a ceremony called "Confirmation". What is it? 3. [50]What is Upsherin? I know it relates to the cutting of the hair of boys at age 3, but tell me more. 4. [51]I've been invited to a Bat Barakah. What is it? 9. Coping with other religions 1. [52]My child says all of his friends have Christmas Trees, and he wants one too. What do I say? 2. [53]My child's non-Jewish grandparents have asked her to help trim the tree. What do I do? 3. [54]My child has been invited to an Easter Egg roll? What do I do? 4. [55]My child has been invited to the Easter Egg roll on the White House lawn? What do I do? 10. Growing Older 1. [56]My child wants to start dating? How do I ensure proper behavior? 2. [57]My child wants a tattoo. What forms of body modification are allowed? Tattoos? Earrings? 3. [58]When do I need to start worrying about issues of modesty? 11. Resource References 1. [59]I need some information on Jewish Genetic Diseases. Where do I start? 2. [60]Are there any recommended online resources on Jewish Childrearing or specifically for Jewish children? * [61]Special Credits for the Jewish Childrearing FAQ
Subject: Question 1.1: What is USENET? How is it different than "the Web"? Answer: USENET refers to a network of systems that exchange "news" via a protocol called the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). This protocol, and its predecessors, predate what is commonly called "the web", but are now incorporated into it as one of the supported protocols in Universal Resource Locators (URLs). News is a form of broadcast protocol. Articles are posted, and are exchanged on stored on newsservers throughout the network. Your ISP quite likely has a newserver; for example, if your ISP is "", look for a machine named "" or "". Uses use news reading agents to connect to the newsservers; these agents read and display news. In the Unix world, common agents are programs such as rn, trn, vn, and various newsreaders with Emacs, such as gnus. In the PC world, there are programs such as Agent. Most browsers also provide support for news. Configure your browser to connect to a newsreader (look at the configuration options), and then try using the URL <[5]news:soc.culture.jewish>. If you need a newsreader, a good source to try is The Ultimate Collection of Winsock Software, TUCOWS, located at [6] If you do not have the ability or desire to add software, or you do not have access to a newsserver, you can visit [7] to access a web-based newsreader. So, how is news different than the web. In news, one typically subscribes to newsgroups, and then reads the articles in that group, in a manner similar to a bulletin board. In some ways, this is more active (you still need to retrieve the article, but finding the articles of interest is easier). It also supports more discussion, and threading of discussion. The web (and by this we mean normal HTML pages) is more interactive: one must hunt down the pages one wants. One can implement bulletin boards and forums via web pages in a manner similar to news; however, such pages do not use the news protocols and cannot be accessed by newsreaders.
Subject: Question 1.2: What are the major Jewish newsgroups on USENET? Answer: The following are the main "positive" Jewish newsgroups. "Positive" refers to the fact that the newsgroups tends to take a positive attitude towards Jews/Judaism; the goal of the group is not to make fun of Judaism, to have non-Jewish discussions, or to be anti-Jewish. This list also does not include regional newsgroups. * Unmoderated Newsgroups. These newsgroups provide no outside control over content; posting appropriate content is left to the discretion of the article author. Alas, this results in a high level of noise in such groups; however, some individuals find the noise an acceptable price to pay to avoid the oversight of a moderator. + [5]soc.culture.jewish. The granddaddy of all the Jewish newsgroups. This group is pretty freewheeling, and is moderated only by user self-control, usually guided by this FAQ. Any sort of Jewish topic is discussed here. + [6]alt.humor.jewish. The unmoderated Jewish humor group. Expect anything in this group, including Jewish jokes of questionable taste. There are a number of more questionable subgroups under alt.humor.jewish. + [7] This unmoderated group focuses on the discussion of Jewish music and Jewish musicians. + [8]alt.personals.jewish. This unmoderated group is a forum for Jews looking for Jews, inorder to form relationships of various sorts. * Moderated Newsgroups. In a moderated newsgroup, all submissions are sent to a moderator or moderation team, who must review the submission according to some standards to determine if it is appropriate for the group. Only if it is appropriate is it posted to the newsgroup. + [9]soc.culture.jewish.moderated. This newsgroup is for discussions of anything Jewish, but with the gentle hand of a moderator to filter out the noise and personal attacks. + [10]soc.culture.jewish.holocaust. This newsgroup is specifically for discussion of issues related to the "shoah" or "holocaust"; i.e., the massacre of Jews that occurred during World War II. + [11]soc.culture.jewish.parenting. This newsgroup, an offshoot of both and soc.culture.jewish, provides a moderated forum for the discussion of Jewish parenting issues. + [12] This newsgroup is for the discussion of Jewish and Jewish-style cooking and related issues. + [13]rec.humor.jewish. Got a good Jewish joke? Then this is the place for you. + [14]soc.geneology.jewish. This newsgroup is for individuals researching their family trees. + [15]alt.religion.judaism.orthodox. This newsgroup (a rare moderated newsgroup in the alt hierarchy) is for discussion of things Orthodox. It is a good source of traditional Torah commentaries.
Subject: Question 1.3: Why soc.culture.jewish? Wouldn't soc.religion.jewish be more appropriate? Answer: The name "soc.culture.jewish" (S.C.J) is a net.historical relic. In the early years of Usenet, there was only one Jewish newsgroups, and it was named net.religion.jewish. In the late 1980s, the Usenet namespace was reworked in what was called the "Great Renaming". This renaming took the flat namespace of net.* groups, and created the new top-level groups: comp, rec, soc, talk, sci, misc, and news. At this time, there was a common belief that renaming net.religion.jewish to talk.religion.jewish would be detrimental to the group's success, for it was believed that talk. groups would have lower propagation and be less likely to be carried by administrators. So the net's collective "yidisher kop" [or "yidisher kop"] did an end run around this, and proposed that the group be moved into the soc.culture.* hierarchy. And here we are. At time has passed, a number of split-offs from soc.culture.jewish have been created. Some of these have been created in the soc.culture.jewish hierarchy, for various reasons (e.g., s.c.j.parenting, s.c.j.holocaust, s.c.j.moderated). Others have been created in other hierarchies, with a clear identification of their Jewish nature (, rec.humor.jewish, soc.geneology.jewish). Other newsgroups have been created in the free-for-all "alt" hierarchy, with almost any name. So, while Jews have argued forever about whether Judaism is more of a "culture" or a "religion" or a something else, the choice of name for this newsgroup is not proof of anything. So if you start arguing "but this group is soc.culture.jewish, so...," please, as a well known character in a 1970's US television comedy series says: "just stifle."
Subject: Question 1.4: What are the charters of the various Jewish newsgroups? Answer: A charter of a newsgroup bounds the content of the newsgroup. The following are the charters of the main Jewish newsgroups. Note that the charter descriptions listed here are abridged (condensed); usually, a pointer is given to the source of the full charter. * Unmoderated Newsgroups: + [5]soc.culture.jewish. S.C.J does not have a formal charter; it predates the time when charters were required as part of group creation. This FAQ serves as the primary guideline regarding acceptable content for the group. + [6]alt.humor.jewish. This group appears to have no regularly posted charter. + [7] This group appears to have no regularly posted charter. + [8]alt.personals.jewish. This group appears to have no regularly posted charter. * Moderated Newsgroups: + [9]soc.culture.jewish.moderated. This is a moderated newsgroup for the discussion of all aspects of Judaism, including its history, philosophy, culture, practice, and law. In general, any post which contains substantive Jewish content is appropriate. The following posts are unacceptable in SCJM, unless they have substantive Jewish content: (1) inappropriately crossposted discussion (more than 3 groups, or to any group on a list of banned groups, with some exceptions, such as the FAQ); (2) posts whose connection to Judaism consists solely of the Jewish identity of one of its participants or subjects (personal announcements are an exception); (3) political discussion, including Israeli, Middle Eastern, and Arab politics; (4) posts whose connection to Judaism consists solely of a relationship to Israel; (5) offensive or derogatory statements aimed at any individual or group (criticism of ideas or actions, however, is acceptable, provided they meet the other requirements); (6) posts that deny or question the existence or extent of the Holocaust (responses are similarly off-topic, but discussion of how Jews can/ought to respond to such ideas is OK); (7) proselytizing or witnessing for any non-Jewish religion (discussion of how Jews can/ought to respond to such attempts is OK); (8) discussion of the beliefs or doctrines of Jews for Jesus, Hebrew Christianity, Messianic Judaism, or other similar groups (again, discussion of how Jews should respond to such groups is OK); (9) binary posts, with some small exceptions; (10) commercial posts for non-Jewish items. Note that Gnosticism falls under category (8), and is not considered a Jewish movement in the contemporary sense, for there is no contemporary communal organization, no contemporary Jewish religious literature, no contemporary social setting, and no contemporary educational context for gnosticism, even though it may have been a "Jewish movement" in the first few centuries of the Common Era. There is also a prohibition about posting of material that constitutes a probable copyright violation. Additionally, discussion of the moderation policy of the newsgroup and the moderators' decisions are also unacceptable in SCJM; such discussion belongs on a side mailing list, [10] Specifically, this list is for discussion of potential changes to the charter or moderation policy, changes to the composition of the moderation panel, changes in the way the moderation guidelines, or any other subjects regarding the way in which the group is moderated. [The restriction about Meta-discussion to the scjm-policy list was an interpretation of the original charter's definition of "discussion of all aspects of Judaism..."] To subscribe to the scjm-policy list, send a message to [11] with the body text "subscribe".] For more information: The charter and moderation policy is regularly posted in the newsgroup, and is available on the groups webpage, [12] + [13]soc.culture.jewish.holocaust. This newsgroup focuses upon the events leading up to the Holocaust, the events of the Holocaust itself (such as Kristallnacht and the concentration and death camps), and closely-related events and consequences following the Holocaust (such as the search for and imprisonment/execution of Nazi criminals who fled). Discussion about the historical and social contexts of these events, such as antisemitism within and without Nazi Germany and the response of the outside world is also welcome. Other topics that are encouraged include religious and philosophical reactions and responses to the Holocaust (i.e. how was faith strengthened or weakened by the Shoah), discussions by Holocaust concentration camp liberators, and book reviews of texts that focus on the Holocaust. The following posts are unacceptable in SCJH: (1) discussion of Holocaust denial (euphemistically "revisionism"), or ways to counteract such denial [Such discussion belongs in [14]alt.revisionism]; (2) ad hominem attacks, flames, or foul language; (3) commercial messages unless they are of high informational value to the SCJH community; (4) copyrighted material without permission of the copyright holder. Cross-posted messages will be considered, but not cross-posted. For more information: [15] The charter is regularly posted in the newsgroup. + [16]soc.culture.jewish.parenting. This group provides a forum for discussing issues specific to rearing children within a Jewish context. Topics for discussion range from very specific requests for advice and information to broader questions about Jewish education and practice. In the context of soc.culture.jewish.parenting, the phrase "within a Jewish context" is intended to indicate either an environment in which the child's primary belief system is Judaism (without regard to the belief systems of the child's caretakers), or the Jewish aspects of a multifaith child's environment. The group also uses a broad definition of Judaism is used, ranging from Humanistic Judaism to more traditional forms, but excluding combined faith systems such as "Messianic Judaism" (sic). Unacceptable posts include (1) questions or statements attacking, showing a lack of respect for, or questioning the fundamental Jewish validity of an individual's outlook, affiliation, or practices; (2) posts that criticize a parent for any circumcision decision made for their son; (3) medical arguments for or against circumcision; (4) questions unrelated to Jewish traditions and practices in the context of raising a child (with one exception: introductions of participants); (5) submissions that attack an individual as opposed to an individual's position; (6) commercial announcements (regional announcements and commercial product reviews are permitted on a limited basis); (7) questions regarding general practices of Judaism not pertaining to raising children (redirected to soc.culture.jewish or other appropriate groups); (8) extended discussions about halacha (religious law) when they no longer deal with parenting-related issues; (9) questions pertaining to general parenting practices (redirected to or other appropriate groups); (10) questions and discussions regarding how to raise children in an intercultural environment that do not focus on Jewish aspects of the child's upbringing; and (11) questions about non-Jewish religious traditions. Other notes: This group is mirrored with the SCJ-PARENTING mailing list, managed through the listproc as To subscribe, send a message of the form "subscribe scj-parenting yourfirstname yourlastname" to [17] For more information: The FAQ for SCJP is regularly posted; it is also available through the SCJFAQ autoretriever. Send the command "send scjp-faq" to [18] + [19] is for the discussion of various aspects of Jewish food. These include: sharing of recipes from Jewish ethnic streams (Sephardic, Ashkenazic, Yemenite, etc.) and communities around the world; adaptation of classic Jewish recipes to current lifestyle demands, such as the problems often faced by vegans and vegetarians during Passover; adaptation of new recipes to the requirements of keeping a kosher kitchen; Sabbath, holiday and holy day cooking and cuisine; recipes and menus for life-cycle celebrations (births, Bar/Bat Mitzva, weddings); sourcing suppliers, delicatessens and restaurants (locations, specialties, reviews and recipes); Jewish cooking history, traditions, cookbooks and related reference materials. Discussions may also include tips on setting up a kosher kitchen, kosher-food preparation, recipes, ingredient substitutions in non-kosher recipes, techniques, existence of rabbinic approval or labeling of specific food products, keeping kosher when traveling, kosher restaurants, caterers and hotels. Interpretation of the religious laws is beyond the scope of RFCJ. Recipes posted to the newsgroup are expected to respect the basic framework of the Jewish dietary laws: no recipes calling for pork or pork products, shellfish, catfish or crustaceans, and no recipes mixing meat or poultry with dairy products. The group expects that sensitivity will be exhibited both by those who observe the Jewish dietary laws and those who do not; inflammatory postings about one's degree of observance or the philosophical merits of "kashruth" are strictly outside this group's framework. The group is a lightly moderated group; unacceptable postings include antisemitic posts; other inflammatory diatribes; vulgarity; commercial advertisements that do not relate to Jewish food in any way; posts that attempt to coerce anyone to alter their spiritual practices; get-rich-quick schemes and similar spam; messages that have been known to perpetuate such urban myths as the Neiman-Marcus chocolate chip cookie recipe; cross-posts to other groups; and posts from anonymous addresses. For more information: RFCJ Archives at [20] and regular moderation guideline posts to the newsgroup. + [21]rec.humor.jewish. RHJ is for anyone who wants to share and discuss humor, primarily humor as it pertains to Jews, their culture, Israel, and the Jewish religion. Non-Jewish humor will also be accepted. The whole idea is to make people laugh! Unacceptable postings are in the following areas: (1) antisemitic posts; (2) revisionist posts (holocaust deniers); (3) posts from individuals/groups that have openly advocated harm against the Jewish people; (4) website announcements unrelated to Judaism, with some exceptions; (5) excessively crossposted articles; (6) trolls, spam, off-topic or offensive posts; (7) personal messages; (8) off-topic threads; (9) posts that offer or promote conversion to another religion; (10) large binaries and formats incompatible with the moderation software; (11) posts with explicit sexual content; (12) exact duplicates of posts recently submitted; (13) posts not in English; (14) advertisements and/or announcements and/or endorsements for profit or non-profit endeavours; (15) copyrighted works. Posters are expected to maintain a basic tone of civility, not make derogatory remarks about religious practices or the lack of them, and refrain from making derogatory comments about other religious, racial, or ethnic groups. For more information: [22] The charter and an RHJ FAQ are regularly posted in that newsgroup. + [23]soc.geneology.jewish. The JewishGen(r) Discussion Group is a computer-based forum devoted to Jewish genealogy. Users can request help with genealogical problems, post information about new sources for research, and network with other Jewish genealogists globally. The only acceptable content are messages that are related to research in Jewish genealogy such as: offering or requesting information on resources; inquiries about geographical locations or families; information on research techniques; brief reports about research trips; and concise summaries of meetings and seminars. Additional notes: This newsgroup is a mirror of the JewishGen mailing list. To subscribe to the JewishGen mailing list on Internet, you can use the web subscription form at [24] or by sending an e-mail message to [25] containing the message body (NOT the subject field): "SUBSCRIBE JewishGen FirstName LastName". For more information: See [26] and [27] + [28]alt.religion.judaism.orthodox. This newsgroup is for discussions concerning Orthodox Judaism and the surrounding education (Halakha, Talmut Torah etc.), including discussions regarding the various Orthodox recognised movements within Judaism and educational discussion. Educational discussion includes discussion of the Parashat Hashavua; Weekly Haftora discussions; Tehillim examination; Different topics in Halakha; Holidays. Unacceptable topices include: (1) Middle East politics, especially international issues concerning Israel; (2) Material that is available from a listserv; (3) "witnessing" or preaching; (4) discussions of so-called "Messianic Judaism[sic]," and the Christian missionary organization calling itself "Jews for Jesus,"; (5) revisionist teachings (i.e., those teachings that attempt to deny that the holocaust ever happened); (6) personal attacks, Lashon Hara, and Motzei Shem Ra. For more information: [29]
Subject: Question 1.5: Are there other newsgroups about which Jews should be aware? Answer: The following newsgroups are not considered "Jewish" newsgroups. However, they are more appropriate forums or venues for discussions that often take place on SCJ and its family of newsgroups. * Unmoderated Newsgroups. + [5]alt.revisionism. This unmoderated newsgroup is for discussions related to holocaust deniers and their theories. If you want to claim it never happened, do it in alt.revisionism. If you want to battle those who claim it never happened, do it in alt.revisionism. + [6]alt.messianic. This unmoderated newsgroup is for discussions related to what is called "Messianic Judaism", or similar groups such as Jews for Jesus. + [7] and its family of newsgroups. These are the appropriate places for parenting discussions unrelated to Judaism. [8]soc.culture.israel. This unmoderated newsgroup is for discussions related to the culture of the state of Israel. + [9]soc.history. This unmoderated newsgroup also has a fair bit of revisionist discussions. + [10]talk.politics.mideast. This unmoderated newsgroup is for the discussion of Israeli politics, and the politics of other countries in the Middle East. * Moderated Newsgroups. + [11] This moderated newsgroup is a low-traffic parallel to, and is also for parenting discussions unrelated to Judaism.
Subject: Question 1.6: I notice that some of these newsgroups are moderated. Isn't moderation censorship? Answer: It depends on your definition of censorship. The Merriam-Webster dictionary (at [5] defines censorship as follows: Main Entry: cen∑sor∑ship Pronunciation: 'sen(t)-s&r-"ship Function: noun Date: circa 1591 1 a : the institution, system, or practice of censoring b : the actions or practices of censors; especially : censorial control exercised repressively 2 : the office, power, or term of a Roman censor 3 : exclusion from consciousness by the psychic censor "Censor" is defined as: Main Entry: 2censor Function: transitive verb Inflected Form(s): cen∑sored; cen∑sor∑ing /'sen(t)-s&-ri[ng], 'sen(t)s-ri[ng]/ Date: 1882 : to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable Hence, under this broad definition, moderation can be viewed as a form of censorship: objectionable material is not permitted in the particular venue. However, there are some arguments against calling moderation censorship: * Censorship usually implies removable of objectionable material by the government. When done by a private enterprise, such as the editor of a magizine, it is viewed more as editorial control. * Although the particular moderated group may be "censored", USENET as a whole is not censored, as for each moderated group there is a suitable unmoderated forum to which the material can be posted. These are listed below: + mod: soc.culture.jewish.moderated unmod: soc.culture.jewish + mod: soc.culture.jewish.parenting unmod: soc.culture.jewish or + mod: soc.culture.jewish.holocaust unmod: soc.culture.jewish, alt.revisionism, soc.history + mod: unmod: other newsgroups, soc.culture.jewish + mod: rec.humor.jewish unmod: alt.humor.jewish + mod: soc.geneology.jewish unmod: soc.roots, soc.culture.jewish + mod: alt.religion.judaism.orthodox unmod: soc.culture.jewish Do people prefer a moderated newsgroup? Some do and some don't. It is only recently that moderated spinoffs from soc.culture.jewish have developed. This is due to the increased traffic on Usenet, and the changing nature of the Usenet audience from the early academic focus. Many on S.C.J feel that part of its appeal and taam (flavor/tang/spice) comes from the freewheeling unmoderated approach which brings together posters from all parts of the spectrum. However, many have tired from the intrusion into the group by others with specific agendas to push that are decidedly non- or anti-Jewish.
Subject: Question 1.7: How do I submit postings to a newsgroup? Answer: For all newsgroups, both moderated and unmoderated, your news reader software should provide an interface to "post" an article to a group. This is the primary way of submitting postings. If the newsgroup is unmoderated, the article is submitted immediately; note that it will take up to a week to propagate through the network. If the newsgroup is moderated, the article will be Emailed to the moderation address on record for the group. Once the moderator approves the article (usually within 24 hours you will have an answer), the article is injected at the moderation site. Again, it can take a week to propagate through the entire network. If you do not have a newsreader, you can visit [5] to access a web-based newsreader. For moderated groups, there is an additional submittal mechanism: mailing the article directly to the moderation submittal address. These addresses are as follows: * [6]soc.culture.jewish.moderated. Posts can be sent to [7] * [8]soc.culture.jewish.holocaust. Posts can be sent to [9] * [10]soc.culture.jewish.parenting. Posts can be sent to [11] * [12] Posts can be sent to [13] * [14]rec.humor.jewish. Posts can be sent to [15] * [16]soc.geneology.jewish. Posts can be sent to [17] * [18]alt.religion.judaism.orthodox. Posts can be sent to [19]
Subject: Question 1.8: Some of these newsgroups have quite a bit of traffic? How do you cope with it? Answer: There are two ways to cope with it. Some escape to moderated groups, and either never or only periodically check in with their unmoderated cousins. Others continue to "fight the good fight" in all forums. However, the comments below apply to filtering of both moderated and unmoderated newsgroups. The approach to take depends on your particular newsreader and setup for news. Some provide kill or filtering mechanisms, and some do not. Those that do not (if this information is wrong, please inform the FAQ maintainer at [5] include Free Agent, the Netscape newsreader, and the web-based [6]Deja and [7]MailandNews readers. Most Unix-based readers provide filtering mechanisms, as does the Agent reader. [Both Agent and Free Agent are available at TUCOWS, [8]] For most of the Unix readers, you need to use a "kill file." It's an algorithm which scans articles and eliminates those meeting criteria you specify. If you read news with "rn" or one of its offspring, you create a file News/soc/culture/jewish/KILL consisting of lines such as: /talk.politics/h:j # skip all articles cross-posted to talk.politics.* /J. Random Luser/h:j # skip all articles written by J. Random Luser /egitimate/j # skip all articles with "egitimate" in Subject If you use rn, trn, or any of its varients, you can find a useful explanation of how to make a kill file in the Killfile FAQ. This is available on or The URL is: * [9] e-faq This can be retrieved by sending Email to [10] with the following line in the body of the message: send usenet/news.answers/killfile.faq Other newsreaders implement this feature differently. For example, the "gnus" package from within Gnu Emacs would have a killfile like: (gnus-kill "Xref" "talk\\.politics") (gnus-kill "Author" "joe_user@site\\.com") (gnus-kill "Subject" "\\blegitimate\\b") (gnus-expunge "x") If you use Gnus, you can find out more information on the killfile facility by typing M-x info within gnus. If you use the newsreader nn, James Kahn wrote that you can just type K (that is, a capital K), and nn will then prompt you for various things, such as whether to kill by name or by subject, etc. If you use a different newsreading program, you may be out of luck. In that case, your best bet is to ask someone at your local site how to create killfiles, or read the manual about your newsreading program. You might consider writing a perl script to preprocess your news for you.
Subject: Question 1.9: What topics are appropriate for S.C.J? Answer: Now, our discussion turns specifically to appropriate content for the unmoderated newsgroup soc.culture.jewish, although these comments in general can provide good advice for other Jewish newsgroups. Soc.culture.jewish is for discussions concerning Judaism and the surrounding culture (Yiddishkeit, Hebrew, Jewish motherhood, etc.). This includes discussions regarding the various recognized movements within Judaism, debates over halacha, Torah interpretations, etc. "Divrey Torah" - long or short sermons relating to Judaism and Torah, are especially welcome. Survey questions are also appropriate, such as "How does your community organize its free loan societies and scholarships for poor Jews who want a Jewish education?" Discussions about aliyah and Zionism are appropriate, but only if they remain in a Jewish context. If you want to talk about the more political or secular aspects of these subjects, it is more appropriate to use soc.culture.israel. Factual discussions of the holocaust (shoah) are allowed in S.C.J; however, those wishing to discuss that issue might want to explore instead the newsgroup [5]soc.culture.jewish.holocaust. S.C.J.H is a moderated newsgroup that serves as a storagehouse for all kinds of information from various sources on the Holocaust in Europe that occurred between 1942-1945 (along with the events leading up to it that happened in the early 30's). The newsgroup includes Holocaust materials from both personal testimonies of survivors and their families and "hard" facts from historians and observers. It is moderated to prevent any anti-Semitic or race-baiting comments from Neo-Nazis or self-proclaimed "academic" Holocaust deniers or revisionists, and is not be a forum for discussing whether or not the Shoah happened; instead, S.C.J.H is a place for intelligent and factual discussion of the Shoah. For those Usenet readers who wish to debate the existence of the Holocaust, they are encouraged to read the groups [6]alt.revisionists and [7]soc.history.
Subject: Question 1.10: What topics are not appropriate for S.C.J? Answer: Middle East politics, especially international issues concerning Israel, belong in [5]talk.politics.mideast (T.P.M), not S.C.J. You certainly should not crosspost between S.C.J and T.P.M. Discussions of internal Israeli politics belong in [6]soc.culture.israel (S.C.I). Again, they should not be crossposted to S.C.J. Pick whichever one is appropriate. Discussions of Israeli Culture are inappropriate for S.C.J; rather, they belong in S.C.I. Crossposting between S.C.I and S.C.J is appropriate only for articles dealing with Jewish, as opposed to secular Israeli, issues. If the group [7] exists, it is also appropriate for discussions of Israeli culture, but note that its distribution is limited to Israel and sites receiving the il distribution. Material that is available from a listserv is inappropriate to post to S.C.J (that is, the entire newsgroup shouldn't receive the list). However, a single weekly message listing the lists available is reasonable. One sample from a new list is allowed. Readers of S.C.J are committed to their religion; it is inappropriate to "witness" or preach. Discussions of so-called "Messianic Judaism[sic]," and the Christian missionary organization calling itself "Jews for Jesus," and similar topics belong in [8]alt.messianic or the appropriate talk.religion.* group; don't crosspost them to S.C.J. Revisionist teachings (i.e., those teachings that attempt to deny that the holocaust ever happened) are inappropriate for S.C.J. They belong in [9]alt.revisionism. For more information on how to cope with those holding revisionist beliefs, the interested reader is referred to [Lip93] (Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory.) in the [10]Antisemitism portion of the reading list. Lastly, try to avoid personal attacks. Don't write "Lashon Hara", derogatory information about people or groups. (If slanderous and false, it's called "Motzei Shem Ra") It is also forbidden to embarrass others in public. (Rare exceptions exist, so read a book such as R' Pliskin's Guard your Tongue for details.) As Josh Backon reminded us: The Bible states (Leviticus 19:17): "You shall surely rebuke your neighbor and not bear sin because of him". The Talmud comments that you may reprove your neighbor as long as you do not insult him but if you embarrass him by making him blush or turn pale from shame or fury then you have incurred guilt because of him (Sifra, Kedoshim 4:8; Talmud Arachin 16b). The Talmud (Shevuot 36a) mentions a general prohibition against insulting a fellow man. Pirke Avot (3:11) states that he who causes embarrassment to a fellow man has no share in the world-to-come. The Talmud (Bava Metzia 58b) compared the slanderer to a shedder of blood, and the Rambam (Hilchot Chovel Umazzik 3:7) characterized all slanderers as wicked and stupid. The later scholars instituted disciplinary floggings for cases of slander (Choshen Mishpat 420:41). Eliot Shimoff expressed it this way: Lots of people read what we post; there are many lurkers who read and don't post. Keep them in mind when you write. If you are offended by some aspect of the Reform movement, it does little good to post a vituperative attack on that G-dless crew of evil people; your audience is far more likely to be offended than to either learn or think. Similarly, it does little good to write a missive pointing out how backward, narrow-minded and medieval those Orthodox Jews are; you are offending, but not teaching or informing. If your goal is to increase the influence of Reform Judaism, discuss its strong points rather than attacking Orthodoxy; the greatest enemies of Reform are those who advocate it by denigrating (usually inaccurately) Orthodoxy. Similarly, if your goal is to spread the Orthodox understanding of Torah, don't try to do so by attacking non-Orthodox movements; instead, try to explain the Orthodox position, and to show its strengths. In addition to the lurkers, there is also the Lurker; we should all try to ensure that whatever we write should not only be accurate, but should also be kiddush haShem, a sanctification of G-d's name. We should always write in a form that will get readers to say, at least, "I disagree with this person, but he/she is a fundamentally decent human being who is trying, to the best of his/her ability, to be a good person (although there are some non-Jewish posters), a good Jew."
Subject: Question 1.11: When should I post to talk.politics.mideast? Soc.culture.Arabic? Answer: [5]Talk.politics.mideast was created specifically for discussions of the politics of the interaction of middle eastern countries. The Arab-Israeli conflict, the Turkish-Armenian conflict, and similar battles are appropriate topics for the list, at least until separate groups are created for those subtopics. A post about the PLO or terrorism probably belongs in T.P.M. Internal Arab politics generally belong on [6]soc.culture.arabic. Internal Israeli politics should be discussed in [7]soc.culture.israel.
Subject: Question 1.12: Is it appropriate to discuss Israel in soc.culture.jewish? Answer: Only if it is in the context of Jewish religion or Jewish culture. General discussions about Israel, and discussions of Israeli politics belong in [5]soc.culture.israel. Discussions about the religious basis for Zionism and religious legislation in Israel are OK for S.C.J. Interaction with other countries is really a matter for [6]talk.politics.mideast. Note that there is a lot of information available about Israel, in particular, the subjects of Aliyah and Zionism, from [7]Virtual Jerusalem, located at [8]
Subject: Question 1.13: How should I respond to inappropriate articles? Somebody posted an inappropriate article to S.C.J or T.P.M. Answer: Respond once where the person directed followups, or where the article was posted. Set the Followup-To: header line to the appropriate group, and start your article with a note that you are re-setting followups to the appropriate group, and will not continue discussion in the inappropriate group.
Subject: Question 1.14: But I don't get T.P.M? Now what? Answer: You don't get T.P.M? First, whomever owns your newsserver has made a strategic decision about the costs of getting S.C.J and T.P.M. You have no right to overrule that decision. You can discuss it with your site management, but please, leave S.C.J out of it. T.P.M was created a spinoff from S.C.J, just to get rid of the endless Mideast discussions. However, you can still get to T.P.M if you have access to the web. Simply go to one of the websites that provide public news access, such as Deja ([5] or Mailandnews ([6] Note that internal Israeli politics, or discussions about the IDF, are not considered "Mideast politics".
Subject: Question 1.15: A. Random Jew posted X to a.b.c; I disagree. What should I do? Answer: Although the poster may be Jewish, that is not a valid reason to include S.C.J in your list of followup newsgroups. If you are disputing what the poster said, it is always best to (after pausing to reflect) respond via private Email. If you feel the answer has wide public interest, you should followup the response in the groups to which the article was originally posted.
Subject: Question 1.16: Can non-Jews post to S.C.J? Answer: All Usenet readers have equal right to post to S.C.J.. However, as with all newsgroups, you should note that the collective readership has a general consensus on what types of posting are acceptable. In the case of S.C.J., this consensus reflects the fact that most of the readers are Jewish. Also, don't post general questions which can be answered in this FAQ or in a library. If your motivation is simply to get an answer to a question, you can send e-mail to a few regular posters, or drop a note to [5] If you choose to ask your question of the S.C.J readership, you may be placed under suspicion of being a missionary, especially if you "innocently" ask something like "Someone please explain to me why Jews stubbornly refuse to accept my faith, when it's written right in your Bible..." We've seen it all a thousand times before, and unsolicited declarations of belief in <your religion> in S.C.J convey the message "<your religion> supports harassing Jews." You're welcome to observe, participate, and learn about Judaism. Proselytizing is inappropriate.
Subject: How do I obtain copies of the FAQ? Answer: There are a number of different ways to obtain copies of the FAQ: * WWW. If you are reading this on Usenet, and would like to see an online, hyperlinked version, go visit [2] This is the "web" version of the FAQ; the version posted to Usenet is generated from the web version. Note that the version is a copy of the actual master version; if you want to access the master, visit [3] * Email. also provides an autoretriever that allows one to obtain a copy of the FAQ by return Email. To use the autoretriever, you send a retrieval request to [4] with the request in the body of the message. A more reliable way to retrieve these files is through the [5]FAQ autoretriever ([6] For the FAQ, the request has the form: send faq partname For the reading list, the request has the form: send rl partname "Partname" is replaced by the name of the part, as shown in the general index. The following is a short summary of the mapping to partnames for the FAQ: + [7]01-FAQ-intro: Section [8]1: Network and Newsgroup Information. + [9]02-Who-We-Are: Section [10]2: Who We Are + [11]03-Torah-Halacha: Sections [12]3, [13]4: Torah; Halachic Authority + [14]04-Observance: Sections [15]5, [16]6, [17]7, [18]8: Jewish Holidays; Jewish Dietary Law and Kashrut; Sabbath and Holiday Observance; Woman and Marriage + [19]05-Worship: Sections [20]9, [21]10, [22]11: Jewish Worship; Conversion, Intermarriage, and "Who is a Jew?"; Miscellaneous Practice Questions + [23]06-Jewish-Thought: Section [24]12: Jewish Thought + [25]07-Jews-As-Nation: Section [26]13: Jews as a Nation + [27]08-Israel: Section [28]14: Jews and Israel + [29]09-Antisemitism: Sections [30]15, [31]16, [32]17: Churban Europa (The Holocaust); Antisemitism and Rumors about Jews; Countering Missionaries + [33]10-Reform: Section [34]18: Reform/Progressive Judaism + [35]11-Miscellaneous: Sections [36]19, [37]20: Miscellaneous; References and Getting Connected + [38]12-Kids: Section [39]21: Jewish Childrearing Related Questions + [40]mail-order: Mail Order Judaica The following is a short summary of the mapping of partnames for the Reading Lists: + [41]general: Introduction and General. Includes book sources, starting points for beginners, starting points for non-Jewish readers, General Judaism, General Jewish Thought, General Jewish History, Contemporary Judaism, Noachide Laws, Torah and Torah Commentary, Talmud and Talmudic Commentary, Mishnah, Midrash, Halachic Codes, Becoming An Observant Jew, Women and Judaism, and Science and Judaism. + [42]traditional: Traditional Liturgy, Practice, Lifestyle, Holidays. Includes Traditional Liturgy; Traditional Philosophy and Ethics; Prayer; Traditional Practice; The Household; Life, Death, and In-Between; and The Cycle Of Holidays. + [43]mysticism: Kabbalah, Mysticism, and Messianism. Includes Academic and Religious treatments of Kabbalah, Sprituality, and the Jewish notion of the Messiah. + [44]reform: Reform/Progressive Judaism + [45]conservative: Conservative Judaism + [46]reconstructionist: Reconstructionist Judaism + [47]humanistic: Humanistic Judaism (Society for Humanistic Judaism) + [48]chasidism: Chassidism. Includes general information on historical chassidism, as well as specific information on Lubavitch (Chabad), Satmar, Breslaw (Breslov), and other approaches. + [49]zionism: Zionism. Includes Zionism and The Development Of Israel, The Founders, Zionistic Movements, and Judaism in Israel. + [50]antisemitism: Antisemitism. Includes sections on Antisemitism, What Led to The Holocaust, Medieval Oppression, Antisemitism Today (Including Dealing with Hate Groups), Judaism and Christianity, and Judaism, Freemasonry and other rumors. + [51]intermarriage: Intermarriage. Includes sections on "So You're Considering Intermarriage?", The Traditional Viewpoint, Conversion, and Coping With Life As An Intermarried. + [52]childrens: Books for Jewish Children. Includes sections on Birth and Naming, Raising a Child, Family Guidebooks, Upsheren, Bar/Bat Mitzvah, Confirmation, Holiday Books for Children, Liturgy for Children, Bible and Torah for Children, Jewish History for Children, Jewish Theology for Children, Israel, Learning Hebrew, and Jewish Stories. Alternatively, you may send a message to [53] with the following line in the body of the message: send usenet/news.answers/judaism/(portionname) Where (portionname) is replaced by the appropriate subdirectory and filenames; for example, to get the first part of the reading list, one would say: send usenet/news.answers/judaism/reading-lists/general * Anonymous FTP: All portions of the FAQ and of the reading lists are archived on [54] and are available for anonymous FTP from the pub/usenet/news.answers/judaism/FAQ directory (URL [55] Similarly, the parts of the reading lists are stored in the pub/usenet/news.answers/judaism/reading-lists directory (URL: [56] ts). Note that the archived versions of the FAQ and reading lists are the posted versions; that is, they are each one large ASCII file.
Subject: Who Wrote the FAQ? Answer: The original version of the Frequently Asked Questions was developed by a committee consisting of Mike Allen, Jerry Altzman, Rabbi Charles Arian, Jacob Baltuch (Past Chair), Joseph Berry, Warren Burstein, Stewart Clamen, Daniel Faigin, Avi Feldblum, Rabbi Yaakov Feldman, Itzhak "Jeff" Finger, Gedaliah Friedenberg, Yechezkal Gutfreund, Art Kamlet, Joe Kansun, CAPT Kaye David, Alan Lustiger, Hillel Markowitz, Len Moskowitz, Colin Naturman, Aliza Panitz, Eliot Shimoff, Mark Steinberger, Steven Weintraub, Matthew Wiener, and headed by Robert Levene. The organization and structuring of the lists for posting purposes was done by [2]Daniel Faigin, who is currently maintaining the lists. Other contributors include Aaron Biterman, A. Engler Anderson, Ken Arromdee, Seymour Axelrod, Jonathan Baker, Josh Backon, Micha Berger, Steven M. Bergson, Eli Birnbaum, Shoshana L. Boublil, Kevin Brook, J. Burton, Harvey Cohen, Todd J.Dicker, Michael Dinowitz, Rabbi Jim Egolf, Sean Engelson, Mike Fessler, Menachem Glickman, Amitai Halevi, Walter Hellman, Per Hollander, Miriam Jerris, Robert D. Kaiser, Yosef Kazen, Rabbi Jay Lapidus, Mier Lehrer, Heather Luntz, David Maddison, Arnaldo Mandel, Ilana Manspeizer, Seth Ness, Chris Newport, Daniel Nomy, Jennifer Paquette, Andrew Poe, Alan Pfeffer, Jason Pyeron, Adam Reed, Seth Rosenthall,, David Sheen, Rabbi John Sherwood, Michael Sidlofsky, Michael Slifkin, Frank Smith, Michael Snider, Rabbi Arnold Steibel, Andy Tannenbaum,, Meredith Warshaw, Bill Wadlinger, Arel Weisberg, Dorothy Werner, and Art Werschulz, and the soc.culture.jewish.parenting board. Some material has been derived from other sources on the Internet, such as [3], [4], and [5] Comments and corrections are welcome; please address them to [6] A special thank you... Special thanks for her patience and understanding go to my wife, Karen, who put up with me hiding at the computer for the two months it took to complete the July/August 2000 remodel of the entire soc.culture.jewish FAQ and Reading Lists. If you think the effort was worth it, drop her a note c/o [7]
Subject: Copyright Notice The soc.culture.jewish FAQ and reading lists are not to be reproduced for commercial use unless the party reproducing the FAQ agrees to the following: 1. Use of latest version. They will contact the [1]FAQ maintainer ([2] to obtain the latest version for their collection. 2. Tell us where it is. They will provide the [3]FAQ maintainer ([4] with information on what collection the copy of the FAQ is in, and how that collection may be obtained. 3. No modifications. They will agree, in writing, that the FAQ will be included in the collection without modification, and that acknowledgements of contributors to the FAQ remain in the FAQ. 4. Don't make money off of it. They will agree, in writing, that the collection including the FAQ will be distributed on either a non-profit basis, or have some percentage of profit donated to Tzedakah (Charity) To support this, this FAQ is Compilation Copyright (c) 1993 through 2002 by Daniel P. Faigin (the FAQ maintainer) on behalf of soc.culture.jewish. ------------------------------------------------------------ -- Please mail additions or corrections to me at End of S.C.J FAQ Part 1 (FAQ Intro and S.C.J Intro) Digest ************************** -------

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