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Welcome to! Read this FAQ *before* posting.

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Archive-name: jobs/welcome-faq
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 1997-09-01

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Welcome!  This is the introductory posting for,,, and  It answers
frequently asked questions about these newsgroups including the posting


	Q-1   What is (and isn't)
	Q-2   Why have posting guidelines?
	Q-3   What are the posting guidelines?
		Q-3.1 The Subject: line must have a specific format.
		Q-3.2 All postings must be for actual positions.
		Q-3.3 The organization posting must be identified.
		Q-3.4 Do not post to inappropriate newsgroups.
		Q-3.5 Job offerings must be verifiable.
		Q-3.6 Location of the position must be provided.
		Q-3.7 A salary or salary range must be provided.
		Q-3.8 A word about skill and legal requirements.
		Q-3.9 Is there a time cut-off?
		Q-3.10 A word about abbreviations and terms.
		Q-3.11 How to redirect followups.
		Q-3.12 Should I combine multiple openings into one posting?
		Q-3.13 What about character sets?
		Q-3.14 Do I need to respond to every resume I receive?
		Q-3.15 Anything else I should include?
	Q-4   What is
	Q-5   What is
	Q-6   What is
	Q-7   How many people will see my posting?
	Q-8   How often can I re-post an article?
	Q-9   How do I update an article with new information,
	      correct a mistake, or otherwise improve it?
	Q-10  What do I do once the job is filled (or I find a job)?
	Q-11  How do I cancel an article?
	Q-12  What is a "Keywords:" line, and how do I make one?
	Q-13  I have this great idea to make money.
	Q-14  What about multi-level marketing?
	Q-15  How do I find out the cost of living in another city?
	Q-16  Where can I get more information about this network?
	Q-17  Is archived anywhere?
	Q-18  Is there a mailing list?
	Q-19  What are the country codes?  (for subject lines)
	Q-20  Codes for US states and Canadian provinces.  (for subject lines)

Q-1  What is

	It is a news group for the posting of job offerings by individuals,
companies, or other organizations with positions to offer.  Job offers may
be made by any organization with a job opening, or by a professional third
party recruiting firm which has been hired to fill the opening.  Third party
recruiters, however, should note that their being allowed to do business via
Usenet is an unusual exception to the general rule which forbids using Usenet
for commercial profit.  They should therefore be especially careful to adhere
to the guidelines for posting.  Violations and abuses upset readers, who may
call for prohibiting these commercial postings.

	Readers may note that postings are mostly computer related.  This is
due to Usenet being a computer-based medium.  (You have to use a computer to
use Usenet, and computer users are more likely to have computer related jobs
to offer.)  Offers of non-computer jobs are appropriate here.

What isn't

	It is not a discussion group or a group for posting resumes.  General
discussions concerning jobs should be held in  Resumes
should be posted in  Your co-operation is greatly
appreciated.  If you feel you must followup an article posted here,
please edit the "Newsgroups:" line:

    Newsgroups: is for offering jobs, not business opportunities.
The posting must meet all legal requirements of the country where the
work will be done.  Before complaining about alleged illegalities in a
posting, readers should remember that Usenet is an international network,
and that what is illegal in their country may be legal in the poster's
country.  If a posting is illegal, readers should inform the poster via
mail.  For more serious problems, contacting the news administrator of the
poster's site and/or posting a followup article to may
be appropriate.

Q-2  Why have posting guidelines?

	Given the very high number of postings in these groups, it is no
longer reasonable to attempt to read all the postings manually.  According
to stats from uunet, had 8824 articles totaling 11062.9 kB
during a two week period in December 1994. had 4286 articles
totaling 18282.0 kB.  With this amount of information to examine, it is now
essential to be able to use the computer to quickly screen articles.
As in buying a house, for many people the three most important things
about a job are: location, location, and location.  Someone in New York City
may not be interested in relocating to Berlin, and visa-versa.  Brief job
descriptions are also useful as a first-level screen.  Thus, it is important
that the location and brief job description appear in the Subject line.
In order to allow computerized searches, it is important to use the syntax
provided in section Q-3.1 below.

	If you follow the guidelines when posting, it is easier for a reader
to find your article.  The reader will have enough information to know
whether or not they are interested in the position.  Conversely, many readers
will ignore articles that do not follow the guidelines.  Many readers will
give up attempting to find a position through Usenet if they cannot use the
computer to search for the articles they are interested in, or if the
articles do not have enough information to tell if it is worth contacting
you.  Following the guidelines will get you more good leads, and fewer poor
leads.  Thus, it is to your benefit, as well as the reader's, to follow these

	The same logic applies to  You need to use a
good subject line to allow prospective employers to easily find the
articles they are interested in reading.

	These guidelines embody the consensus of opinion as to the proper
form for postings of job offers.  The guidelines are based on what the
readers want.  They are not the opinion of the FAQ maintainer.

Q-3  What are the posting guidelines?

Q-3.1 The Subject: line must have a specific format.

	Three pieces of information belong in the Subject: line.
	In order: the location, a brief job description, and the hiring
	organization.  The location and job description are required,
	the hiring organization may be left out of the Subject: line
	by third party recruiters, or to make room for a better
	job description.


	   Subject: COUNTRY-STATE/PROVINCE-City Job_Description Company


	   Subject: US-IL-Chicago   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Inc

	   Subject: US-NY-NYC   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Inc

	   Subject: US-DC-Washington   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Inc

	   Subject: DE-Munich   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Ag

	   Subject: UK-London   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Ltd

	   Subject: offsite   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget

	Use, in order, the country code, state or province code (if applicable),
	and the city.  Do not leave out the country code.  If the country is
	US or CA, then do not leave out the state/province code.  (The state/
	province code is optional for countries other than US and CA.)  Do not
	leave out the city.  Use the dash ('-') character to separate the
	portions of the location.  Use one or more blank space characters (' ')
	between the location and the job description, and between the job
	description and the company.  In order to allow computerized searches,
	it is important that everyone use the same standardized syntax shown
	above.  Do not invent your own unique format.

	If the job is in a small town or suburb near a larger, better known,
	city, you may choose to use the larger city in the Subject line.
	(Providing that the larger city is not in a different country, state,
	or province than the smaller city.)  If there is enough room on the
	Subject line, you may choose to include both the large city and the
	suburb on the Subject line by thinking of the suburb as a further
	division of the metropolition area.  For example:

	   Subject: US-IL-Chicago-Lisle   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Inc

	The same idea can be used to include some other subdivision of a
	large city:

	   Subject: US-NY-NYC-Midtown   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Inc

	The standard format shown above allows both humans and the computer
	to tell whether, for example, "CA" means "California" or "Canada":

	   Subject: CA-		means Canada
	   Subject: US-CA-	means California

	...and to distinguish between cities with the same name:

	   Subject: CA-BC-Vancouver
	   Subject: US-WA-Vancouver

	If you need to know what the country code for a particular
	country is, I have included a list of them in section Q-19.
	Section Q-20 contains a list of US state codes and
	Canadian province codes.

	See also section Q-3.6.

	The job description is not currently standardized, although there
	has been some discussion of this in

	Note that most newsposting software will provide the string
	"Subject: " for you.  If you actually type "Subject: US-GA-At..."
	your posting will look like:

	  Subject: Subject: US-GA-Atlanta  Peach Pickers ...

	...which is not what you want.

Q-3.2 All postings must be for actual positions.

	Any job which is offered or alluded to must actually exist,
	and be "approved", if applicable.  Do not submit postings for
	positions which do not exist.  Do not submit vague postings
	in order to receive a supply of resumes.  If you want a
	source of resumes, read the newsgroup

Q-3.3 The organization posting must be identified.

	The name of the company making the offer must be present in
	the posting.  Professional recruiters must place the string
	"3rd party recruiter" on the "Keywords:" (see Q-12) line.  (Recruiters
	do not need to identify themselves as such on the subject line.  The
	Keywords: line is sufficient.  Third party recruiters are not required
	to name the hiring organization (client) in their postings, although
	they are welcome to if they choose.)  Many universities are legally
	restricted from handling commercial traffic.  This will enable
	universities to comply with the law.  This is especially true if there
	is a placement fee required of the person accepting the position.  Other
	posters should use the "Organization:" line to indicate the name of the
	company making the offer, and also include the name of the company in
	the body of the posting.


	   Subject: US-TX-Dallas   Foobar Developer,  Acme Widget Inc
	   Organization: Foobar division, Acme Widget Inc

	   Subject: US-TX-Dallas   Foobar Developer
	   Keywords: 3rd party recruiter
	   Organization: Matchmaker Personnel Inc

Q-3.4 Do not post to inappropriate newsgroups.

	All job offers should be restricted to
	(Except for contract jobs which go to instead.)
	Discussions of job offers, and resumes requesting positions,
	should likewise be limited to the appropriate groups.  Followup
	articles to postings in .offered or .resumes should go to, or to the poster via email.  Again,
	judicious use of the Followup-To: is heartily encouraged.

	The exception is a job which can be filled by either an
	"employee" or a "contractor".  In this case, it is correct to
	cross-post the article to both and

	For the case of a job which will begin as a "contract" job,
	but may become a "direct employee" (aka "permanent") position
	later, the majority of readers want it to be posted to, and *not* cross-posted to

	Readers want the split between .offered and .contract to be
	based on the tax status.  In the US, form W-2 jobs go to .offered,
	form 1099 jobs go to .contract.

	It is also acceptable to cross-post to a dedicated jobs newsgroup
	in the local heirarchy serving the area where the job will
	be performed.  Do not, however, cross-post to random local
	heirarchies, or to newsgroups that are not dedicated to jobs.

	Your posting may be the first time a potential employee has
	heard of you.  Posting to the wrong group does not make a good
	first impression.

Q-3.5 Job offerings must be verifiable.

	The name and phone number or address of the person responsible
	for the position must be given.  Provide information that is
	usable from anywhere in the world; e.g. a *complete* mailing
	address, and a phone number usable from anywhere. (1-800 phone
	numbers are often only callable from specific geographic areas,
	and some readers may need the country code.) Further information
	should be available upon request.  The more information which you
	provide in your posting, the better the response will be.

	The poster must be willing to receive electronic mail at least
	for administrative purposes.  The "From" or "Reply-To" header lines
	will be used for this purpose.  It is very strongly recommended that
	you provide an electronic mail address in the body of the article,
	and allow resumes to be	sent via electronic mail.  It is recommended
	that you list the formats you are able to deal with, e.g.
	ASCII, PostScript, etc.

Q-3.6 Location of the position must be provided.

	The location of the job must be clearly stated both in the
	"Subject:" line of the header and in the article.

	In the Subject line, use the format shown in section Q-3.1.

	In the article, provide more detail if necessary to provide
	the reader with the job location to within commuting distance
	resolution.  In many cities, this would mean a specific section
	of the city or a specific suburb.  The street address of the
	company is usually sufficient.  Providing the county and/or the
	longitude and latitude may be helpful.

	If the position is not of sufficient interest to the entire world,
	please use the Distribution: line to limit the distribution of
	the article appropriately.  Limiting the distribution is especially
	encouraged in cases where a government regulation makes it difficult
	to hire someone from outside that government's boundary.  (If your
	posting software does not provide a list of distributions, see the
	news administrator for your site.)

	Furthermore, you may wish to consider using a local or intracompany
	newsgroup as a source of candidates.  An example would be
	for jobs within the Research Triangle Park area.  

	If where the worker lives is not significant, use "offsite"
	as the location in the "Subject:" line.  For example, a job
	consisting mostly of work that can be done at home or some
	other location of the worker's choosing, or a job that is
	mostly travel would use "offsite" as the location.
	The details would be provided in the body of the article.
	Note that not requiring a worker to show up on site will
	give you a larger pool of workers to select from.

	If some work can be done offsite, but the worker is
	required to report onsite on a frequent basis, put
	the onsite location in the "Subject:" line and explain
	the telecommuting details in the body of the article.

	Third party recruiters sometimes claim that they cannot provide
	the location without "giving away" the identity of the employer.
	This is not a sufficient reason.  The location MUST be provided.
	Job seekers who do manage to figure out who the employer is are
	reminded that employers choose to use third party recruiters for
	a reason, and may not be receptive to applicants attempting to
	bypass the recruiter.

Q-3.7 A salary or salary range must be provided.

	Salary is a useful screen for matching jobs with workers.
	Simply saying "competitive" or "commensurate with experience"
	is not helpful.  Give a specific salary or range.  Again,
	remember that this is an international network and provide
	the monetary units (Dollars (US? Canadian?), Pounds, Deutschmarks,
	etc.) involved.

	Is the opening salaried or hourly?  If the position is likely to
	require overtime, state how your organization handles it.
	Overtime pay?  Time off later?

	Is the position full-time?  part time?  temporary?  summer?


	Salary: US$70-90k  This is a full-time position with paid overtime.

Q-3.8 A word about skill and legal requirements.

	It is usually helpful to list both ideal or desired requirements
	and the minimum you will accept.  There is a lack of uniformity
	in how people map academic experience into commercial experience.
	If this is important to you, it may be helpful to explicitly state
	how they map at your organization.  If you wish entry-level persons
	to apply, (or not apply) say so explicitly.  Note that people
	sometimes go back to school for a Masters or Phd after working for
	a few years.  Therefore, the phrase "No entry level positions at
	this time." is probably more accurate than "Recent graduates need
	not apply."  The definition of "entry-level" varies, but usually
	means 0-2 years of experience.

	If there are requirements such as being a citizen or "permanent
	resident" of a particular country, say so.  If your organization
	has a dress code or standard working hours, say so.  If your
	organization has unusual requirements, such as handwriting analysis,
	drug testing, polygraph tests, loyality oaths, etc. say so up front.
	Many people find such requirements offensive, (guilty until proven
	innocent) and will refuse to work for organizations which require
	them, despite being able to pass them.  Stating these requirements
	up front will save both of you time and effort.  All requirements
	must be legal in the country where the work will be done.

	If the position requires travel, tell the reader how much
	and where, for example, "20% travel, US west coast", or
	"70% travel, Europe".  Add more detail if appropriate.


	   Desired				Required

	   5 years doing foo			2 years doing foo
	   3 years doing bar			1 year doing bar
	   1 year doing baz			knows what a baz is
	   2 years commercial experience	2 years commercial experience

	   We have no entry level positions available at this time.

Q-3.9 Is there a time cut-off?

	If there is a particular date which applications must be
	received by, state what it is.  Arrange for your posting to
	disappear at this time.  (See section Q-11 for one method.)

	If the worker must begin work by a particular date (or cannot
	begin until a particular date) provide this information as well.

Q-3.10 A word about abbreviations and terms.

	Abbreviations can be useful in the Subject line, but there is
	far less need for them in the body of your article.

	If you use abbreviations, make sure that they are commonly
	used ones.  Do not make up your own.

	To quote from an article by Igor Chudov:

             f u cn rd ths, u cn gt a gd jb n cmptr prgrmmng.

	Do not shorten terms so much that information is lost.  For
	example, there are many computer programs with "DOS" in their
	name.  If you mean MS-DOS, say "MS-DOS", not "DOS".  If you
	are referring to a particular computer display windowing
	system, tell the reader which one.  Say "X-Windows" or
	"MS-Windows", or whatever, not just "windows".  The term "PC"
	can mean "generic personal computer, including IBM-PCs,
	MacIntoshes, Ataris, etc.", it can mean "Intel based personal
	computer hardware platform running any of a wide variety of
	software", or it can mean "Intel based personal computer
	running MS-DOS".  In electronics it may mean "printed circuit".
	In non-computer contexts it may mean "politically correct".
	If you use the term "PC" be sure it is clear what you mean.

Q-3.11 How to redirect followups.

	From time to time it is necessary to remove a conversation from
	a particular newsgroup for one reason or another.  Two of the
	most common reasons are that discussions are not permitted in
	the newsgroup which the posting originated in and another is
	that the topic of discussion has strayed from the original
	sufficiently to warrant a change in newsgroups. and are for the posting of
	job offers and resumes only.  This means that all postings
	should include a Followup-To: line.  This can be done by adding
	the line

		Followup-To: poster

	to the article header.  The rn newsreader provides an empty
	space which you can use to put the appropriate groups in.
	Other newsreaders do not and you should add one by hand.
	This line should be added after the Newsgroups: line.

Q-3.12 Should I combine multiple openings into one posting?

	The main issue here is allowing the user to do automated
	searches among the thousands of openings available.  The majority
	of computer searching is done using the Subject line.  If the
	jobs have the same location, general description, and company,
	then they can share the same Subject: line, and thus can be
	combined into one posting.  Otherwise they will need separate

	For example, if your company needs 2 senior wine tasters, 3
	intermediate wine tasters, and 2 junior wine tasters, you could post

	   Subject: FR-Paris   wine tasters   Acme Grapery

	and then in the body of the posting explain that you need
	various skill levels.

	Conversely, if you were to combine two unrelated jobs into a
	single posting, such as this bad example:

	   Subject: FR-Paris   wine taster, COBOL programmer  Acme Grapery

	A wine taster might have their KILL file set up to throw away
	postings looking for COBOL programmers, and a COBOL programmer
	might have their KILL file set up to throw away postings
	looking for wine tasters.  Thus you wouldn't get any resumes.

Q-3.13 What about character sets?

	This is a problem.  Usenet is an international network, but there
	are many limitations which prevent displaying arbitrary images
	to the reader.  Limit your posting to 7 bit ASCII.  Do not use
	fancy escape sequences that do "nice" things on your screen, since
	they may put someone else's terminal into an unusable mode.  Keep
	lines shorter than 80 characters.  Do not assume that your software
	does this for you.  Also remember that the reader's display probably
	shows a different number of lines than yours does.  Do not include a
	"control-m" at the end of lines.  Avoid using large quantities of
	ALL CAPS.  Normal usage of upper and lower case text is easier to
	read and is perceived as "friendlier" by most people.  Using all
	upper case is perceived as unfriendly shouting.

	If you need to display images that ASCII cannot handle,  I recommend
	a page description language such as PostScript, which can describe
	any image by encoding it into ASCII (which can be transmitted over
	the net and will not confuse terminals).  Realize that the reader
	will need a suitable previewer (e.g. Ghostscript, available at many
	ftp sites) or printer to read your posting, and that it is more
	trouble for them, tempting them to skip your article unread.

Q-3.14 Do I need to respond to every resume I receive?

	Is it not required that you respond to every resume you receive,
	but it is recommended that you send at least a simple "We got
	your resume and will consider it." acknowledgement.  This lets the
	job hunter know that you received their resume.  Some job hunters
	may send another copy if they think you didn't get the first copy.  

	In addition, it is a common courtesy that your competitors are
	probably doing.  You are competing for the best workers just as
	you compete for customers.  You don't want to be viewed as "Brand X."

Q-3.15 Anything else I should include?

	Try to anticipate the questions prospective employees will have and
	answer them.  If your organization is not well-known, job seekers may
	want to know how large it is, something about corporate culture,
	dress code, and so on.  Most people know that Los Angeles is warm and
	sunny, Seattle is rainy, and Chicago is cold and snowy.  But if the
	local climate is not what most people would expect it would be useful
	to point that out.

		Acme Widgets is a 6-person progressive company that specializes
		in writing X Windows widgets for entering hexadecimal quantities.
		Dress code: blue jeans required.

		National Gossip Agency is the world's largest employer of
		historians.  It has 100,000 employees all of whom wear business

Q-4  What is is a place for individuals seeking employment
to post their resumes (or curriculum vitae, aka "cv").  If you feel you need
to post a followup article to an article in, it should go
to  Discussion of belongs in

	Many of the suggestions made above apply here as well.  Be concise,
limit distribution, and most of all, remember you only get to make one
first impression.  Provide a useful Subject line.  A Subject line of "resume"
will not help potential employers find your article.  Employers will judge
you based on the effort you make when constructing and posting your resume.
Posting your resume to or will not make a
good impression.  Howver, if you want to receive comments/review/critique
regarding your resume, then post it instead to with a
clear statement that you are seeking comments rather than employment.  If
you post a resume to without such a statement, readers may
assume that you are seeking employment, but cannot be troubled to find the
correct newsgroup to post to.

	Also, not everyone has the latest text formatting software.  Try to
limit your resume to simple ASCII format, or provide a separate companion
posting if you wish to post your resume in troff, LaTeX or PostScript.

Q-5  What is

	This group exists for job related discussion.

	Do not look for a job by posting resumes to

	Do not look for workers by posting job offers to

	Do not post ads of any sort in

	If you are seeking comments/review/critique regarding your resume
(or job offer), you may post it to with a clear statement
that you are seeking comments.  Without this statement, readers may assume
that you cannot find the correct newsgroup to post to, and judge you

	Most topics relevant to seeking employment, seeking workers, or the
workplace are appropriate here.  For example: which items should/shouldn't
be included on a resume, appropriate dress for an interview, salaries,
references, degree vs. experience, working from home, corporate culture,
cubicles vs offices, dating coworkers, layoffs, giving notice, and so on.
Also, followup articles from the .offered and .resumes groups go here.
Discussion regarding the groups goes here as well.

	Some topics can easily turn into flamefests, for example drug
testing and affirmative action policies.  Please note that other people
have had different experiences than you, and that there is more than one
valid opinion on many of these topics.  Even if there is only one valid
opinion, chances are that you will not convince your opponent.  Sometimes
you may need to agree to disagree.  Also consider that potential employers
and employees may be reading your article.  Do they see a reasonable person?
Or do they see someone they would never consider hiring or working for?

Q-6  What is

	This group is for discussion of contract work, as opposed
to an "employee" full or part-time position.  Currently it serves
for offers of contract work, offers of availability of contract
workers, and general discussion.

	Job offers in should follow the same
guidelines as offers in

Q-7  How many people will see my posting?

	According to the December 1990 statistics compiled by Brian
Reid, is the third-most read newsgroup, read by an
estimated 140,000 readers worldwide. is read
by an estimated 50,000 people worldwide, is read
by 71,000 people, and is read by 37,000.  See
the newsgroup "news.lists" for the latest estimates.

Q-8  How often can I re-post an article?

	If you do not get any (or any interesting) responses from
your job posting or resume, you may want to post it again.  But
first, be patient.  It can take 15 days for an article to reach uunet,
which is a *very* well connected site.  Presumably it can take even
longer for an article to reach less well connected sites.  Then, even once
an article arrives, not everyone reads every group every day.  If you need
to re-post an article, wait until 30 days have passed from the previous
posting.  Frequent repostings waste resources and annoy readers.

Q-9   How do I update an article with new information,
      correct a mistake, or otherwise improve it?

	Once your article has been posted, you cannot go back and edit it.
However, Usenet allows articles to be "canceled".  If you have posted
an article and later decide you need to correct a mistake, update the
information, or otherwise improve it, you can cancel the original article
and then post a new, improved article.  (Or use a "Supersedes:" header
line.)  See also: Q-11.

Q-10  What do I do once the job is filled (or I find a job)?

	Once the position is filed (or you find a job), you should
cancel your job posting (or resume/cv).  This will save people
time responding to your posting, and will save you time responding
to them.  See also: Q-11.

Q-11 How do I cancel an article?

	The usual way to cancel an article is to bring it up in your
newsreader, and then issue a cancel command.  In the "rn" newsreader,
the cancel command is "C".  If you are using another newsreader, see the
documentation for the newsreader, or contact the news administrator
or technical support staff for your site.  I cannot assist you with other

	In "rn", you can search for an article with the following commands:

/search-pattern/     searches Subject: lines forward from current article
/search-pattern/h    searches all header lines forward from current article
/search-pattern/a    searches entire articles forward from current article

?search-pattern?     searches Subject: lines backward from current article
?search-pattern?h    searches all header lines backward from current article
?search-pattern?a    searches entire articles backward from current article

You may add an 'r' to also search articles you have already read.



For newsreader software other than "rn" please see the documentation
or contact technical support.

Q-12  What is a "Keywords:" line, and how do I make one?

Usenet articles have two sections: a header and a body.  The
header contains lines used by the news system itself, like
which newsgroups an article is posted to.  The header comes first,
then comes a blank line, then the body of the article.

The Subject: line and the Keywords: line are both header lines.
Most/all news posting software will provide you with a Subject: line,
but not all will provide you with a Keywords: line, a Followup-To:
line, or a Reply-To: line.

The Keywords: line can hold important words or phrases that a reader
might want to search for, but which don't fit in the Subject:

Your software should allow you to change header lines, and to add
additional header lines to your article before posting it.
The "rn" newsreader allows you to edit the entire article,
including both the header and the body, using your favorite text
editor, such as emacs.  Other news software may have other methods.
I cannot assist you with other software.  Read the documentation
and/or contact technical support.  If your software does not allow
adding and editing header lines, you need better software.  You
can obtain a variety of Usenet news software free of charge from a
number of anonymous uucp and anonymous ftp sites.


	Followup-To: poster
	Subject: US-FL-Tampa   Orange Juice Tasters   Acme Juice Inc.
	Keywords: 3rd party recruiter
	Organization: Matchmaker Personnel Inc

	Our client, the Acme Juice Corporation, needs additional
	orange juice tasters.  There are 7 open positions.
	No experience necessary.  Salary: US$100,000 /year


	Human Resources Dept.
	Acme Juice Inc.
	PO Box 123
	Tampa, Florida, US

	Jane Doe
	Matchmaker Personnel
	PO Box 456
	St. Petersburg, Florida, US

Q-13  I have this great idea to make money.

The following guideline is borrowed from Gene Spafford's article
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions", in news.announce.newusers.

    I have this great idea to make money.  Alternatively, wouldn't an
    electronic chain letter be an nifty idea?

    In a few words: don't even think about it.  Trying to use the net
    to make vast sums of money or send chain letters is a very bad
    idea.  First of all, it is an inappropriate use of resources
    (arguably, so are most of the newsgroups), and tends to use up
    vast amounts of net bandwidth.  Second, such usage of the net
    tends to produce extremely negative reactions by people on the
    net, adding even more to the volume -- most of it directed to you.
    Users, particular system admins, do not like that kind of
    activity, and they will flood your mailbox with notices to that
    effect. Third, it's just stupid -- even more so than the other
    stupidity on the net.

    And last, and perhaps most important, some of this activity is
    against the law in many places.  In the US, you can (and will) be
    reported by hacked-off system administrators for suspicion of wire
    fraud or mail fraud (if you are asking people to mail something to
    you or others).  In one incident, at *least* a half dozen people
    reported the person to the Postal Service inspectors; I'm not sure
    what the outcome was, but it probably was not a nice experience.

    Bottom line: don't try schemes to sell things, solicit donations,
    or run any kind of pyramid or Ponzi scheme.  Also, don't start or
    support electronic chain letters.

And if the preceeding didn't convince you:

    Newsgroups: news.announce.important
    Subject: 'Make Money Fast' Scam

    [Moderator's note:  this posting is approved on behalf of the FBI, which
    has stepped in to investigate the massive spree of fraud being committed
    by the MAKE.MONEY.FAST posters.]

    To the USENET Community:

    You may be familiar with a rash of postings to various newsgroups by
    various entities purporting to describe a scheme by Mr. David Rhodes
    of Oxford, Kentucky on the subject of "Make Money Fast."  These schemes
    have as their theme a list of people to whom you, the mark, should send
    money -- followed by reposting of the article with your name added to
    the list.  In this wise, the scam purports, everyone who participates
    will become fabulously rich.

    The FBI wishes to inform you that under no circumstances should you:

         1) Believe that this scam will work.  It won't.  It's a classic con
              principle to promise massive returns on your meager investment.
         2) Participate in the re-posting of the article.  If you do so, you
              are guilty of a Class IV felony.
         3) Propagate this scam further in any way.

    We wish to further inform you that cases are pending in the federal courts
    against several individuals who disregarded U.S. statutes and attempted to
    defraud their fellow citizens.

    Finally, we wish to inform you that David Rhodes himself is in a Federal
    Correctional Institution for his part in the origination of this scam and
    will not see the light of day until the year 1997, barring parole or
    pardon from higher authority.

    Thank you for doing everything you can to stamp out this scam.  Confidence
    men benefit no one but themselves.  Don't fall victim to schemes like this.


Q-14  What about multi-level marketing?

	Discussion of multi-level marketing belongs in the newsgroup  It does not belong in

Q-15  How do I find out the cost of living in another city?

[ These two sources are useful for the USA.  Pointers to similar info
  for cities in other countries welcome.  -Snoopy ]

Rand McNally's _Places_Rated_Almanac_, by Richard Boyer and David Savageau
is very helpful.  Try the library or your local bookstore.

Mark Linimon forwarded the following info from Mike Mattox:
   A very good source that lists the cost of living for over 225 cities is:

         "Inter-City Cost of Living Index"  

   It is produced by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association.
   According to the 1987 edition(the latest copy the Texas A&M library has)
   it is published quarterly(since 1968) and cost $75/year to subscribe.

   Subscription information is available from:
                        Louisville Area Chamber of Commerce
                        One Riverfront Plaza
                        Louisville, KY  40202

Q-16  Where can I get more information about this network?

	The groups are part of Usenet.  Usenet is not
the same as the Internet, although many sites use the Internet
to transport news between sites.  There are other methods of
transport used, UUCP is popular.

	Read the articles in the newgroup news.announce.newusers.
If you still have questions, ask the news administrator, technical
support person, or other knowledgeable person at your site.

Q-17  Is archived anywhere?

	I am not aware of any sites which archive, or
any sites which make available via anonymous uucp or anonymous
ftp.  If someone knows of such a site, please let me know and I will add
the information to this posting.

	The following resource is probably not an archive, but may
be useful to job searchers.  This information provided by Ruth Shipley,!rshipley.

	In an article titled, "Top U.S. sources for an online job search."
	in DATABASE (Oct/Nov, 1994, p. 34), the authors say the are "searchable/displayable at Gopher or try lynx gopher://"
	(p. 40)

	I gophered to the UNT (University of Northern Texas) site and found through the following menu choices:

	Employment Opportunities (UNT & remote)
	  Opportunities Outside UNT
	    Employment Opportunities Postings in Usenet
	      Search MISC.JOBS.OFFERED Article Titles

	I didn't find any jobs under the string I searched on, so I can't
	tell you what the final output looks like.

Q-18  Is there a mailing list?

	The groups are Usenet newsgroups, they are not
mailing lists.  While it should be possible to gateway them into
a mailing list, I am not aware of anyone who has done so.

Q-19  What are the country codes?  (for subject lines)

The following is a list of country codes.  This information has been
extracted from the 1994-10-24 version of a document called
"FAQ: International E-mail accessibility", compiled by Olivier M.J.
Crepin-Leblond,   For more info, please see that
document, or ISO 3166.

The latest version of the country code FAQ is retrievable by
sending an E-mail to , blank subject line
and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes

The country codes have been derived from the
International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 3166.

Code    Country
AD   Andorra
AE   United Arab Emirates
AF   Afghanistan (Islamic St.)
AG   Antigua and Barbuda
AI   Anguilla
AL   Albania
AM   Armenia
AN   Netherland Antilles
AO   Angola (Republic of)
AQ   Antarctica
AR   Argentina
AS   American Samoa
AT   Austria
AU   Australia
AW   Aruba
AZ   Azerbaijan
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina
BB   Barbados
BD   Bangladesh
BE   Belgium
BF   Burkina Faso
BG   Bulgaria
BH   Bahrain
BI   Burundi
BJ   Benin
BM   Bermuda
BN   Brunei Darussalam
BO   Bolivia
BR   Brazil
BS   Bahamas
BT   Bhutan
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana
BY   Belarus
BZ   Belize
CA   Canada
CC   Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF   Central African Rep.
CG   Congo
CH   Switzerland
CI   Ivory Coast
CK   Cook Islands
CL   Chile
CM   Cameroon
CN   China
CO   Colombia
CR   Costa Rica
CS   Czechoslovakia
CU   Cuba
CV   Cape Verde
CX   Christmas Island
CY   Cyprus
CZ   Czech Republic
DE   Germany
DJ   Djibouti
DK   Denmark
DM   Dominica
DO   Dominican Republic
DZ   Algeria
EC   Ecuador
EE   Estonia
EG   Egypt
EH   Western Sahara
ER   Eritrea
ES   Spain
ET   Ethiopia
FI   Finland
FJ   Fiji
FK   Falkland Isl. (Malvinas)
FM   Micronesia
FO   Faroe Islands
FR   France
FX   France (European Ter.)
GA   Gabon
GB   Great Britain (UK)
GD   Grenada
GE   Georgia
GF   Guyana (Fr.)
GH   Ghana
GI   Gibraltar
GL   Greenland
GM   Gambia
GN   Guinea
GP   Guadeloupe (Fr.)
GQ   Equatorial Guinea
GR   Greece
GS   South Georgia  and  South Sandwich Islands
GT   Guatemala
GU   Guam (US)
GW   Guinea Bissau
GY   Guyana
HK   Hong Kong
HM   Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN   Honduras
HR   Croatia
HT   Haiti
HU   Hungary
ID   Indonesia
IE   Ireland
IL   Israel
IN   India
IO   British Indian O. Terr.
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran
IS   Iceland
IT   Italy
JM   Jamaica
JO   Jordan
JP   Japan
KE   Kenya
KG   Kyrgyz Republic
KH   Cambodia
KI   Kiribati
KM   Comoros
KN   St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla
KP   Korea (North)
KR   Korea (South)
KW   Kuwait
KY   Cayman Islands
KZ   Kazachstan
LA   Laos
LB   Lebanon
LC   Saint Lucia
LI   Liechtenstein
LK   Sri Lanka
LR   Liberia
LS   Lesotho
LT   Lithuania
LU   Luxembourg
LV   Latvia
LY   Libya
MA   Morocco
MC   Monaco
MD   Moldova
MG   Madagascar (Republic of)
MH   Marshall Islands
MK   Macedonia (former Yugo.)
ML   Mali
MM   Myanmar
MN   Mongolia
MO   Macau
MP   Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ   Martinique (Fr.)
MR   Mauritania
MS   Montserrat
MT   Malta
MU   Mauritius
MV   Maldives
MW   Malawi
MX   Mexico
MY   Malaysia
MZ   Mozambique
NA   Namibia
NC   New Caledonia (Fr.)
NE   Niger
NF   Norfolk Island
NG   Nigeria
NI   Nicaragua
NL   Netherlands
NO   Norway
NP   Nepal
NR   Nauru
NU   Niue
NZ   New Zealand
OM   Oman
PA   Panama
PE   Peru
PF   Polynesia (Fr.)
PG   Papua New Guinea
PH   Philippines
PK   Pakistan
PL   Poland
PM   St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN   Pitcairn
PR   Puerto Rico (US)
PT   Portugal
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay
QA   Qatar
RE   Reunion (Fr.)
RO   Romania
RU   Russian Federation
RW   Rwanda
SA   Saudi Arabia
SB   Solomon Islands
SC   Seychelles
SD   Sudan
SE   Sweden
SG   Singapore
SH   St. Helena
SI   Slovenia
SJ   Svalbard & Jan Mayen Is
SK   Slovakia (Slovak Rep)
SL   Sierra Leone
SM   San Marino
SN   Senegal
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname
ST   St. Tome and Principe
SU   Soviet Union
SV   El Salvador
SY   Syria
SZ   Swaziland
TC   Turks & Caicos Islands
TD   Chad
TF   French Southern Terr.
TG   Togo
TH   Thailand
TJ   Tadjikistan
TK   Tokelau
TM   Turkmenistan
TN   Tunisia
TO   Tonga
TP   East Timor
TR   Turkey
TT   Trinidad & Tobago
TV   Tuvalu
TW   Taiwan
TZ   Tanzania
UA   Ukraine
UG   Uganda
UK   United Kingdom
UM   US Minor outlying Isl.
US   United States
UY   Uruguay
UZ   Uzbekistan
VA   Vatican City State
VC   St.Vincent & Grenadines
VE   Venezuela
VG   Virgin Islands (British)
VI   Virgin Islands (US)
VN   Vietnam
VU   Vanuatu
WF   Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS   Samoa
YE   Yemen
YT   Mayotte
YU   Yugoslavia
ZA   South Africa
ZM   Zambia
ZR   Zaire
ZW   Zimbabwe

Q-20  Codes for US states and Canadian provinces.  (for subject lines)

AK Alaska
AL Alabama
AR Arkansas
AZ Arizona
CA California
CO Colorado
CT Connecticut
DC District of Columbia
DE Delaware
FL Florida
GA Georgia
HI Hawaii
IA Iowa
ID Idaho
IL Illinois
IN Indiana
KS Kansas
KY Kentucky
LA Louisiana
MA Massachusetts
MD Maryland
ME Maine
MI Michigan
MN Minnesota
MO Missouri
MS Mississippi
MT Montana
NC North Carolina
ND North Dakota
NE Nebraska
NH New Hampshire
NJ New Jersey
NM New Mexico
NV Nevada
NY New York
OH Ohio
OK Oklahoma
OR Oregon
PA Pennsylvania
RI Rhode Island
SC South Carolina
SD South Dakota
TN Tennessee
TX Texas
UT Utah
VA Virginia
VT Vermont
WA Washington
WI Wisconsin
WV West Virginia
WY Wyoming

AB Alberta
BC British Columbia
MB Manitoba
NB New Brunswick
NF Newfoundland
NS Nova Scotia
NT Northwest Territories
ON Ontario
PE Prince Edward Island
PQ Quebec
SK Saskatchewan
YT Yukon Territory

Thank-you for your time and adherence to these guidelines.  If a poster
should fail to comply, readers are encouraged to first reply to the poster by
mail.  You may wish to include a copy of this FAQ since they probably haven't
seen it.  Send a Cc to the news administrator for the poster's site if needed.

With your help, we can keep the quality of postings high, the unemployment
rate low, and most importantly, the peace.

Posters should reread the FAQ from time to time, as posting guidelines are
added or modified from time to time to correct problems as they come up
or in response to user suggestions.

If after reading this FAQ, you still have questions, post them to  Helpful people hang out there and someone should
be able to help you.

If you have suggestions concerning ways in which this posting may be
improved, please send mail to me directly.  Note that the headers
have been modified to discourage spammers.  My userid is "snoopy",
my machine is "sopwith.uucp", given this info you should be able
to compile a mail address.

    |___|     Snoopy

Copyright (C) 1995-97  All rights reserved.
Distribution for profit requires a license.
The Microsoft Network does not hold a license.

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM