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Archive-name: james-bond/FAQ
Posting-Frequency: 15 Days
Last-modified: 2003/09/05
Version: 6.07
Copyright: (c) 2003 P. Michael Reed
Maintainer: Michael Reed <>

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
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                          ALT.FAN.JAMES-BOND FAQ
                               Version 6.07

       Last Updated September 5, 2003 / Created September 18, 1996

                        Maintained by Michael Reed

                  Based on the work by the original creators
           Panos Sambrakos, Bryan Krofchok, David C. Morefield,
                        Deane Barker & James Rumley

               Special thanks to Mac for multiple submissions

                Submissions by others credited where noted

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

NOTE  You should use a MONOSPACED typeface setting to read this FAQ, so the
lists contained in it will line up properly.

  Brief #2 Section 9 - Blofeld's voice in Thunderball
  Many text and grammar corrections throughout
  Reformatted the document

1  This Newsgroup
2  Other Bond Newsgroups
3  The FAQ
4  The Character of James Bond

Brief #2  THE FILMS
1  The latest James Bond film
2  EON & its trademarks
3  List of EON's James Bond films
4  List of other James Bond films
5  The actors who have played James Bond
6  The actors who could have played James Bond
7  The actors who have played Felix Leiter
8  Repeat offenders
9  Over dubbing
10  Specific films FAQ
   A  Casino Royale  the television episode
   B  Casino Royale  the movie
   C  Dr. No / Live And Let Die
   D  From Russia With Love
   E - Goldfinger
   F  Thunderball / Never Say Never Again
   G  On Her Majesty's Secret Service
   H  Diamonds Are Forever
   I  For Your Eyes Only
   J - Octopussy
   K  Licence To Kill
   L  Tomorrow Never Dies
   M  Die Another Day
11  List of theme songs & artists
12  Soundtracks & scores
13  Bond meets an Oscar
14  What's in a name?

Brief #3  THE BOOKS
1  The latest James Bond novel
2  Ian Fleming
  A  List of Ian Fleming novels
  B  Stories to read in order
  C  Who wrote The Spy Who Loved Me?
  D  The Kennedy myth
  G  Does Bond die in From Russia With Love?
3  Post-Fleming periods
  A  Kingsley Amis' novel
  B  List of the John Gardner novels
    1  Stories to read in order
  C  List of the Raymond Benson novels
    1  Stories to read in order
  D  Other Glidrose novels featuring Bond
  E  Reference books
4  Fan fiction

1  Films and books  links or broken links?
2  Explain the names "M" & "Q"
3  What other "00" agents are mentioned?
4  The Walther and other machinations
5  Bright Leiter

1  The websites
2  The fan clubs

Your mission is to send in any corrections, questions or comments directly
to the FAQ maintainer at .
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


If you are checking out the newsgroup, welcome. This is the official FAQ for

1  This Newsgroup
Anything regarding James Bond is a valid topic here, including films and
books, spoofs, actors, filmmakers and authors, collectibles, music, and on
and on. The newsgroup has been the place for finding Bond information since
1992. As a result, you will find many of the denizens here have been
acquainted for a while and have knowledge from the effortless to the arcane.
Do not be put off by this.

Being a non-moderated newsgroup, the only way to fail to ingratiate yourself
is to troll or further trolling behavior, ask for everyone's "favorite" this
or that or to fail to check out this FAQ for the simple questions contained
herein. The FAQ does not aim to answer anything except FREQUENTLY asked
questions. So if it is in here it has been asked before, repeatedly.

2- Other Bond Newsgroups is NOT a binaries newsgroup and you should not post large
binary files. If you want multimedia files look for alt.binaries.james-bond,
which is the place to find them. If your news server does not carry it you
might suggest to them to start doing so.

3  The FAQ
David Marsh wrote version 1.0 of the FAQ in November 1994. From there, it
became the purview of Panos Sambrakos and the others listed at the top of
the document starting December 18, 1996. They maintained it until version
5.0 was released October 13, 2000. Starting with version 2.2, the FAQ has
carried the status of an "official" Internet FAQ. You are reading an
original work based upon the previous incarnations.

It is crossposted to the news.answers and alt.answers newsgroups and it is
being archived at many places around the net. Look for it at:


You can also get it by email by sending a message to:
<> and writing in the body:
"send usenet/news.answers/james-bond/FAQ"

The FAQ also has it's own place on the Web, as part of "MR. KISS KISS BANG
BANG!" Visit <> and you will also find a web-only
supplement full of even more 007 information than is presented here. It can
be found at <>

4  The character of James Bond
James Bond is a fictional British secret agent. He holds the "double-o"
prefix, which gives him a licence to kill in the course of his duties for
MI6. He first appeared in novel form in 1953, created by author Ian Fleming.
More information regarding Fleming and the books can be found in Brief #3,
Sections #2 and #2A.

Fleming based James Bond on an amalgamation of people he knew while in the
Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, along with some of the exploits Fleming
wanted to participate in himself. Fleming never got to spend much time in
the field and unlike his creation's affinity for high stakes gambling,
Fleming typically played for small change.

The name of his handiwork came to pass by simple observation. His wife
enjoyed a coffee table book entitled "Field Guide To Birds Of The West
Indies". Fleming wanted a simple, straightforward name for his workmanlike
agent. He saw the author of that book was an ornithologist named James Bond
and borrowed it. His character has no middle name. He later told the real
James Bond that should a particularly foul species of bird be discovered, he
would graciously lend his name to it. The Bond film "Die Another Day"
features the actual book and the agent posing as the ornithologist.

He chose the "00" designation after a real life occurrence. During his
Whitehall tenure he pursued secret documents prefixed with "00". (Submitted
by Rhino <>)


While Ian Fleming's creation began as a pulp fiction hero, there can be no
denying that it has been the big screen that has made James Bond among the
most recognizable characters in history. The films rank among the most
profitable and longest running for any series, and have made far more
adventures for fans than any other in the last half-century.

1  The latest James Bond film
"Die Another Day" was released November 22, 2002, the twentieth EON release.
It opened with the largest box office receipts, not adjusted for inflation,
of any Bond film, and is the biggest money maker to date.

It bears repeating, you should NEVER expect to see Sean Connery, Roger
Moore, or any previous leading man make a return appearance as a villain,
family member or assistant to 007. Check 007News
<> for further updates.

At this time it appears Pierce Brosnan should return for a fifth (and likely
final) turn as Bond. But let's not get ahead of ourselves.

2  EON and its trademarks
EON Productions, Ltd., is the maker of James Bond films, dating back to the
first silver screen effort in 1962. EON is supposedly an acronym of
"everything or nothing". Producers Albert R. "Cubby" Broccoli and Harry
Saltzman formed the company in 1961. Saltzman sold out his shares in 1975,
and passed on in 1994. Broccoli died in 1996 and Barbara Broccoli and
Michael G. Wilson, daughter and stepson to Cubby, now run EON. While
Broccoli was American and Saltzman Canadian EON is considered a European
company since it is a subsidiary of Danjaq, S.A., and EON is a British-based
outfit. Danjaq is a contraction of DANa Broccoli and JAcQueline Saltzman,
wives of the founding producers.

As you will read in a bit, EON has not made every Bond film. But they have
created the trademarks closely associated with Bond and have complete
control over future Bond films.

Among the trademarks are the distinctive James Bond theme song, to be
documented in Brief #2, Section #11 A "The James Bond Theme Debate", and the
gun-barrel image opening every film. Please note it is not a camera shutter
or gun-sight, but a gun-barrel. Maurice Binder, who designed the majority of
the title sequences in the movies, also created the opening sequence,
initially using a real gun-barrel opened to allow a camera to peer through,
with a gun from a Piccadilly shop.

The sequence has been filmed a few times. The first one was in the first
film, "Dr. No". However, it is not Sean Connery who turns and fires. Working
in a hurry, Binder used Connery's stunt double Bob Simmons. After that, the
actor portraying Bond did his own firing. Here is the list of gun barrel

"Dr. No"  the original, with stuntman Bob Simmons doubling for Connery
"Thunderball"  featuring Connery, shot in scope format like the film
"On Her Majesty's Secret Service"  George Lazenby, dropping to one knee
"Live And Let Die"  Roger Moore, for the first time
"The Spy Who Loved Me"  Moore again, and again re-shot in scope
"The Living Daylights"  Timothy Dalton's turn
"GoldenEye"  Pierce Brosnan's debut, using a computer generated gun-barrel
image by Daniel Kleinman, who took over following Binder's death

For final proof to naysayers, watch the opening of "GoldenEye"'s credits as
the theme song begins. The bullet is shown exiting the gun barrel.

While it appears that the shot of the actor is the same, "Die Another Day"
features a bullet from Bond's Walther going through the barrel.

3  List of EON's James Bond films
Here is the chronological list of EON's James Bond films. Note that the
release year of "Dr. No" shown below is for England; the film debuted in the
U.S.A. in 1963.

TITLE                           YEAR STAR           TIME ACRONYM
-----                           ---- ----           ---- -------
Dr. No                          1962 Sean Connery   111  DN
From Russia With Love           1963 Sean Connery   118  FRWL
Goldfinger                      1964 Sean Connery   111  GF
Thunderball                     1965 Sean Connery   129  TB
You Only Live Twice             1967 Sean Connery   116  YOLT
On Her Majesty's Secret Service 1969 George Lazenby 140  OHMSS
Diamonds Are Forever            1971 Sean Connery   119  DAF
Live And Let Die                1973 Roger Moore    121  LALD
The Man with the Golden Gun     1974 Roger Moore    125  TMWTGG
The Spy Who Loved Me            1977 Roger Moore    125  TSWLM
Moonraker                       1979 Roger Moore    126  MR
For Your Eyes Only              1981 Roger Moore    127  FYEO
Octopussy                       1983 Roger Moore    130  OP
A View to a Kill                1985 Roger Moore    131  AVTAK
The Living Daylights            1987 Timothy Dalton 130  TLD
Licence to Kill                 1989 Timothy Dalton 135  LTK
GoldenEye                       1995 Pierce Brosnan 130  GE
Tomorrow Never Dies             1997 Pierce Brosnan 119  TND
The World Is Not Enough         1999 Pierce Brosnan 128  TWINE
Die Another Day                 2002 Pierce Brosnan 132  DAD

Posters in the newsgroup use the acronyms in the above list VERY FREQUENTLY.
You should become familiar with them quickly.

4  List of other James Bond films
Some of the films featuring James Bond were made apart from EON. For an
answer why, go to Brief #1, Section #10 and select the appropriate film.
Here are the films in order of release date.

TITLE                  YEAR STAR           TIME ACRONYM
-----                  ---- ----           ---- -------
Casino Royale          1954 Barry Nelson    60  CRTV
Casino Royale          1967 David Niven    130  CR
Never Say Never Again  1983 Sean Connery   137  NSNA

5  The actors who have played James Bond
A few talented men have gotten to portray James Bond. We start with the EON
five, and then the others as well. Note that Roger Moore is older than Sean

  A  Sean Connery, born August 25, 1930. Played Bond from 1962-1967, 1971,

A Scot with minimal credits to his name in 1962, he was handpicked by
Broccoli and Saltzman to star in the first Bond motion picture. There is
less dialogue for Connery than in future turns, and his name was not
marketed particularly heavily in the release of either of the first two
films. But Connery proved to be the perfect person to assimilate Fleming's
cold warrior on screen. He was tough yet suave, strong yet smooth, and able
to appeal to both ticket buying genders.

By the time of his fifth outing, "You Only Live Twice", the marketing
machine said he "IS James Bond". While true in the public's mind, Connery
tired of the constant pressure of the role and the potential to suffocate
any other projects he wanted to be involved in. He left after 1967 and
declined to appear in the sixth release. After a lackluster box office
performance, EON prodded and finally got their star back for the seventh
outing, "Diamonds Are Forever". Then Connery left once more, stating he
would "never again" portray the superspy that he had made a phenomenon. But
he did come back for a reprise, in 1983's "Never Say Never Again". For the
story on that film, see Brief #1, Section #10, E "Thunderball / Never Say
Never Again".

Connery has said in interviews that he is proudest of "From Russia With
Love". However, he made a severe and nasty break from the Broccoli clan and
any thought of him returning to the EON series in any capacity is a pipe
dream. Connery won an Academy Award for his supporting role in 1987's "The
Untouchables". He is still an A-list box office draw to date and is also
staunch in his support of his native Scotland. While he did not look like
Ian Fleming's written character on the surface, he was impressive enough to
earn the ultimate praise. Fleming himself had his character assume some of
Connery's roots in "You Only Live Twice".  He told in 2002 that
there is no chance of him returning to EON's series, particularly not as a
villain. "Absolutely no way - I could never be an enemy of James Bond."

  B  George Lazenby, born September 5, 1939. Played Bond in 1969.

The only Bond star to make a solitary film appearance, George Lazenby won
the role after a worldwide search. He was actually an Australian wrestler,
car salesman and model who excelled in physical presence and impressed the
producers. But he was not prepared for the glimmer of fame and fortune that
came with the part.

He was cast in "On Her Majesty's Secret Service", one of Fleming's most
detailed and harrowing novels. It required more characterization than the
typical Bond fare and Lazenby faced an uphill battle to achieve it. Director
Peter Hunt ignored him at one point, though it was an unwitting mistake.
During filming of some emotional scenes, Hunt wanted his star to relate to
the isolation Bond would be feeling so he left him alone. Lazenby did not
take this as direction or method of acting, but rather a lack of respect by
the director. He complained publicly and friction grew between the men,
which was duly noted by the press.

He also had trouble with female lead Diana Rigg. The most famous example of
tension between them, however, is actually a myth. Before a kissing scene,
Rigg was heard telling Lazenby at lunch that she was having "garlic with
[her] pate." She meant it to be humorous but it was easily taken
out-of-context given Lazenby's tenuous relationship with Hunt and EON. While
in later years he did complain about Rigg's ego, the Bond actor never
validated this story.

What did him in, in the end, was as much box-office failure as his own
immaturity. The fans were being exposed to a new leading actor who had
burned bridges with Broccoli and Saltzman before the film was in release. It
would have been a hard sell following Connery in the best of circumstances.
With EON trying its best to hide his face in the nominal promotion they did
for the film, not to mention the script's deviation from the usual Bond
formula, Lazenby was ill fated. Critics and fans at the time were quick to
place the blame squarely on the actor and EON was quick to publicly agree
with that assessment. They seemed to disregard the film for years afterward.

His own career was spotty at best after his big break. Lazenby appeared in
"The Kentucky Fried Movie" and spoofed the Bond image in, among other
things, the TV movie "Return of the Man from U.N.C.L.E. " and the CD-ROM
game, "Spy Hunt". In time, many Bond fans would come to regard "On Her
Majesty's Secret Service" as a high point in the series.

  C  Roger Moore, born October 14, 1927. Played Bond from 1973-1985.

Already an established personality via television's "The Saint" and "The
Persuaders", Roger Moore stepped into the role at a time when the series was
facing a crisis. Connery had left for a second time, after a successful
commercial entry. EON knew that they had to avoid the difficult sequence of
events when Lazenby was hired. So for the first time they did not look at
unknown actors and hired Moore, who had been approached for the role earlier
in his career. Evidence suggests that he was an initial consideration for
the first Bond film. It is endlessly speculative to suggest what would have
happened had he landed the role.

Be that as it may, he instead saw Sean Connery become a household figure and
wanted no part of replacing him in 1969. But after 1971 he was willing to
give it a go.

It is odd that so many things in his debut, 1973's "Live And Let Die", stood
in stark contrast to the previous entries in the series. It featured a new
composer for the first time in ten years and the first rock 'n' roll theme
song. Combined with focusing on Moore as an attractive leading man, EON
seemed to market Bond as a youthful icon. While kids from ten years before
had loved Connery, it cannot be said that the films were aimed at that
teenaged audience. Yet it was clear that demographic was of utmost
importance by the 1970's.

Moore came into his own with his third entry, "The Spy Who Loved Me". He
would start squawking about retirement as early as 1979. He meant it firmly
in 1983 but still cam back for a final swan song in 1985. By then no one
could hide from three obvious conclusions. First, that Moore had aged so
much as to be unbelievable in the role. Two, that his lighthearted approach
had made Bond accessible to a large audience but had made him closer to a
comic book hero than a serious role. And three, that despite both of the
previous points, Moore cast a large shadow that EON would have a tough time
trying to fill.

  D  Timothy Dalton, born March 21, 1946. Played Bond on screen in
1987-1989, and stayed with the role publicly until 1994.

Timothy Dalton earned the role of Bond only after Pierce Brosnan was
prevented from taking the reins from Moore due to a contract conflict with
the NBC television show "Remington Steele". It was Dalton's second time
approaching the role. He wanted no part of it in 1971, saying in a 1987
interview on "Good Morning America" (and elsewhere) that he turned it down
because he was "too young" for it and because of the imposing legacy of

His first outing was "The Living Daylights". The script, originally written
with Moore's character in mind and tweaked slightly for what would have been
Brosnan's approach, was adjusted noticeably for Dalton. The film was a bit
more serious in tone and viewers could not help but compare Dalton's
physicality and attempt to restructure the character in comparison to Moore,
19 years his senior. The next film, "Licence To Kill", was written for
Dalton's strengths as an actor.

He had indeed read the Fleming novels, and wanted to use them as a backdrop
for his interpretation of Bond. The film enjoyed huge popularity across the
world - except in the USA. The MGM/UA advertising campaign, easily the
weakest for a Bond film, was a result of the studio wrestling with huge
legal and financial troubles and helped doom the film in the midst of a very
competitive box office season.

Nonetheless, plans proceeded for Bond 17 with Timothy Dalton still signed on
for that film and at least one more. But a series of events cropped up that
estranged EON from its studio, the most notable being the selling of
television rights of the EON series.

When at last these issues were resolved and work resumed on Bond 17
(eventually known as "GoldenEye"), Dalton surprised many by announcing he
would NOT return as Bond. The public, he said, had associated him with the
role for eight years, and that was long enough for him. He was eager to move
on to new challenges. He left the 007 family in the spring of 1994.

Cubby Broccoli and his daughter Barbara stated many times that they were
disappointed to lose Dalton. The official account endorsed by Dalton, EON,
and MGM/UA, is that Dalton left the series of his own accord. Dalton remains
a friend of the Broccoli family and spoke kindly of Cubby when he died.
There is credible evidence to suggest that by 1994 the powers that be inside
MGM/UA made it clear that they would not support a new Bond film starring
Dalton but as of yet the smoking gun has yet to uncovered for ballistic

  E  Pierce Brosnan, born May 16, 1953. Began in 1995, and is the current
star of the franchise.

In the end, it was a great thing that Pierce Brosnan had to wait to secure
the role of the world's most famous secret agent. By the time he was
introduced, Brosnan looked the part and was truly hungry to succeed. By
replacing Dalton instead of Moore, he was able to avoid either following
Moore's lighthearted lead or be compared in reaction to it.

Dalton pleased hardcore Fleming fans with his darker, more realistic
portrayal of Bond. But the fans of Moore's approach were never as smitten
with him. Brosnan has proven to surprise both camps. He has played Bond
straight but with verve. And Brosnan has that X factor. He has embodied the
same charisma that Connery had once brought into the role. He has made Bond
"cool" to the masses once again. He has been able to handle the publicity
and the expectations with panache. Best of all, he has won over the majority
of critics and fans alike.

Brosnan has indicated he is interested in doing a fifth, and final, turn as
James Bond, following the 2002 release of "Die Another Day".  As of now, EON
is NOT SEEKING A NEW BOND. Any speculation at this time is not only
premature, but also wholly false.

  F  Barry Nelson, born April 16, 1920. Played Bond in 1954.

American born Nelson was the first actor to portray James Bond. In was not,
however, a theatrical release. Instead in was on episodic television.  See
Brief #2, Section #10, A "Casino Royale  the television episode"

  G  David Niven, born March 1, 1910. Played Bond in 1967.

A film star from features like "The Guns Of Navarone", "Bonjour Tristesse"
and "The Pink Panther", David Niven was cast in the Bond spoof "Casino
Royale". For details about it, go to Brief #2, Section #10, B "Casino
Royale  the movie".  The Scot actor, who usually answered to English when
abroad, died in 1983 of ALS (Lou Gherig's Disease).

6  The actors who could have played James Bond
Besides the men listed above many others have tried out for the role of 007.
Here are some of the notable ones.

  A  John Gavin  The American Gavin actually signed a contract with EON to
be the new James Bond in 1970, after the George Lazenby implosion. However
it was no secret that EON coveted Sean Connery. When they lured him back
with a promise to produce and star in two films and a hefty one million-plus
salary that was mostly used to co-find the Scottish Education Trust, Gavin
politely stepped aside. The actor, who can be seen in "Psycho" and
"Spartacus", went on to be a U.S. Ambassador to Mexico during the Reagan

  B  James Brolin  It is well documented that Brolin, best known now as
Barbra Streisand's other half, screen tested opposite Maud Adams before
Moore agreed to return to "Octopussy".

What is lesser know is Brolin's claim that he was actually, like Gavin,
signed to a contract. He told Bond enthusiast Richard Ashton in 1998 that he
was hired by Cubby Broccoli and had searched from a home in London at the
time. He also commented about his American accent by suggesting that
Broccoli did not intend to hide it and hoped audiences would see Brolin's
physical presence and ignore the issue. Eventually Moore returned and Brolin
was left aside. (Submitted by Richard Ashton <>)

  C  Julian Glover  Glover auditioned for the role after the franchise
needed a replacement for Connery, according to a Starlog Magazine interview
in 1981. But he was not surprised when Roger Moore snagged the lead in "Live
And Let Die" because "we all knew Roger would get it. " Glover did make a
mark with the series, playing villain Ari Kristatos in "For Your Eyes Only".

  D  Sam Neill  Screen tested in 1986 after negotiations collapsed with
Pierce Brosnan, Neill was a strong contender, even getting a public mention
of contention by "The Living Daylights" casting director. The role would end
up going to Timothy Dalton. Neill is now best identified for his star turn
in "Jurassic Park".

  E  Lewis Collins  Having screen tested in the early eighties, Collins
was a favorite of the British press. He starred in the television series,
"The Professionals".

  F  David Warbeck - According to interviews the late actor gave for "David
Warbeck: The Man and His Movies", he was under contract to EON throughout
the late seventies and early eighties, prepared to assume the role of 007
should Roger Moore have packed his bags.

  G  Michael Billington  Billington screen tested for the starring role in
"Live And Let Die". While he was passed over then he did portray Sergei
Barsov, the Russian agent and lover of "Triple X", Major Anya Amasova, who
was killed by Bond's ski pole before 007 made his parachute leap in the
teaser of "The Spy Who Loved Me". He is best known for his role on the cult
favorite TV show "UFO".

  H  Patrick McGoohan  McGoohan's credits include two television spies 
"The Prisoner" and "Danger Man" (a.k.a. "Secret Agent Man"). He could have
made a mark in the genre earlier but he did not want the lead role in "Dr.
No" due to "moral reasons." Whether or not he would have actually been given
the role if desired is in question.

He was actually offered the role at least twice, according to some sources,
including interviews with the actor himself.  One reason given was his
choice of not appearing in a work he would not let his daughters watch.
(Submitted by Malus <>)

  I  Stewart Granger  Never a real shot with EON, it is noted here because
Granger was one of a few preferences by Ian Fleming himself. Granger's real
name was James Stewart, not to be confused with the American actor famous
for "It's A Wonderful Life" and "The Philadelphia Story". When Fleming
listed "James Stewart" on his list, he meant Granger, who starred in "King
Solomon's Mines" and director Terence Young's "Woman Hater".

7  The actors who have played Felix Leiter
Many of the films have featured CIA Agent Felix Leiter, Bond's American
counterpart. While the character remained the same the role was always being
recast. It was not supposed to be that way.

  A  Jack Lord in "Dr. No"  The handsome actor, later to star in "Hawaii
Five-O", created the role of Leiter in the first Bond movie. He was supposed
to return in "Goldfinger". But Lord did not want a similar deal. He asked
for a huge salary in line with Connery's and a percentage of the profits.
EON turned down his counteroffer.

  B  Cec Linder in "Goldfinger"  The aged actor was supposed to play Mr.
Simmons, the bamboozled car player. But EON asked actor Austin Willis and
Linder to switch roles. Linder got more screen time but was as far from both
Lord's portrayal and Fleming's vision as possible. This ensured that whoever
played Leiter would never again try to make demands for salary and rights.

  C  Rik Van Nutter in "Thunderball"  By now, EON played "spot-the-Felix"
with fans. Van Nutter looked liked Fleming's description even if the
screenplay did not do his character justice.

According to the "Thunderball" laserdisc commentary, Rik Van Nutter agreed
to a contract for the recurring role of Leiter, and even moved to London
after "Thunderball" was completed. Alas, there was no part for him in "You
Only Live Twice", or "On Her Majesty's Secret Service".  By the time Connery
returned in 1971, Van Nutter had moved on. (Submitted by Tom Zielinski

  D  Norman Burton in "Diamonds Are Forever" - Burton played Leiter as a
curmudgeon, making the agent seem less than excited to work with his old
friend once more.

  E  David Hedison in "Live And Let Die" and "Licence To Kill"  The only
actor to play Felix twice, though not consecutively, Hedison went sixteen
years between his appearances. While his Leiter and Bond are contemporaries
in his first shot, Hedison is given much more screen time in "Licence To
Kill" as an older man than Bond, given Hedison's age difference with Dalton.

While it is only supposition that it was intentional, note which films
Hedison appeared in.  In the book "Live And Let Die" Leiter was fed to a
shark at the hands of a villain, but this did not happen on screen.  When
EON decided to film this as the basis of the plot of "Licence To Kill" it
was Hedison who got to do the scene passed over originally.

  F  John Terry in "The Living Daylights"  After Hedison's role in 1973,
Leiter went dormant in EON films until 1986, when Terry showed up. He did
not have a large role, but longtime fans felt comfort in once again hearing
from Bond's opposite number.

  G  Bernie Casey in "Never Say Never Again"  At least this time it was
truly hard for viewers to "spot-the-Felix" with Casey cast as Leiter.  The
black actor and former pro football player portrayed the CIA man as a friend
of Bond's and Casey and Connery expressed it well.

8  Repeat offenders
Too extensive to list every example here, is it easy to spot actors playing
different roles in different films. Maud Adams is the most notable
("Octopussy" and "The Man With The Golden Gun"), alongside Charles Gray
("You Only Live Twice" and "Diamonds Are Forever") and Joe Don Baker ("The
Living Daylights", "GoldenEye" and "Tomorrow Never Dies"). Take a look at
Matthew Newton's James Bond Actors page from the Bond Film Informant at
< > for a complete rundown.

9  Over dubbing
Also prevalent in Bond films if you watch carefully is the number of actors
whose voices were dubbed by someone else, particularly in the early ones.
This is not a complete list below, just a note about some notables. It is
singularly odd that one of the most famous Bond movie lines of them all,
Goldfinger's retort to wanting Bond to talk by muttering, "No, Mr. Bond, I
expect you to die! " was not the actor's own voice.

Actor             Role             Film                  Looped by
-----             ----             ----                  ---------
Ursula Andress    Honey Rider      Dr. No                Monica vander Syl
Daniela Bianchi   Tatiana Romanova From Russia With Love Barbara Jeffoed
Gert Frobe        Goldfinger       Goldfinger            Michael Collins
Claudine Auger    Domino Derval    Thunderball           Monica vander Syl
Adolpho Celi      Emilio Largo     Thunderball           Robert Rietti
Tetsuro Tamba     Tiger Tanaka     You Only Live Twice   Robert Rietti
Gabriele Ferzetti Marc-Ange Draco  OHMSS                 David deKeyser
John Hollis       Blofeld          For Your Eyes Only    Robert Rietti

(The Auger and Ferzetti looped listings submitted by John Doherty

Eric Pohlman looped Ernst Stavro Blofeld's voice in "From Russia With Love"
though the cat petting hands belonged to Anthony Dawson. While one source
claims that Pohlman's widow confirmed he was also Blofeld's voice in
"Thunderball", the film's director, Terence Young, (from "Bondage") said it
was Joseph Wiseman providing the voice. (Submitted by David A. McIntee
<>) Wiseman played "Dr. No" and that
version of Blofeld sounds nearly like him. Yet the source supporting Pohlman
provides that his name is on the call sheets and that having him travel from
nearby London was easier than Wiseman being flown in from the States.  He
also disputes Young as a reliable source.  (Submitted by Mac) Perhaps the
person who is wrong will suffer the same fate as No. 12, Pierre Borraud.

John Hollis was the wheelchair bound Blofeld in "For Your Eyes Only".
Hollis played Lobot, aide to Lando Calrissian, in "The Empire Strikes Back".

And lastly, George Baker, the actor playing the real Sir Hilary Bray in "On
Her Majesty's Secret Service", is dubbed whenever Bond imitates him. This
example is quite disconcerting and unnecessary and detracts from the viewing

10  Specific films FAQ
Certain questions seem to crop up often regarding things in specific films.
This section is a "FAQ in the FAQ" for these oft-repeated queries. PLEASE
read them carefully  you will see them appear in the newsgroup and will be
able to direct the poster to the FAQ or provide the answer.

   A  Casino Royale  the television episode
This was the first time Bond appeared in the visual media. Not a feature
film, this adaptation was a television production, an hour-long episode of
the CBS "Climax! Mystery Theatre" anthology series. It aired live on October
21, 1954, the television rights selling for $1,000. Barry Nelson played Bond
as an American agent, nicknamed "Card Sense Jimmy Bond". Peter Lorre plays
the villain Le Chiffre and was inadvertently seen walking across the stage
after his character is killed. The joys of live TV.

   B  Casino Royale  the movie
Fleming's first novel, "Casino Royale" was offered for film rights for $6000
and sold in 1956 to Gregory Ratoff. Later the rights were sold to producer
Charles K. Feldman for $75,000. In 1964, seeing the amazing success of EON,
Feldman approached Cubby Broccoli and Sean Connery about making "Casino
Royale" jointly. However, Connery asked for a cool million-dollar salary and
there was a dispute over production credits. No agreement came to pass.

So Feldman, armed with the legal right to the actual James Bond character
and situations of "Casino Royale", made a spoof of the Bond genre. The 1967
film is a disaster, despite the combined talents of David Niven, Peter
Sellers, Woody Allen, Ursula Andress, Orson Welles, Deborah Kerr, William
Holden and John Huston.

MGM obtained the rights to "Casino Royale" at the turn of the century.

   C  Dr. No / Live And Let Die
Both of these films get fans asking, "Where's Q? " Q is in "Dr. No". Desmond
Llewelyn just does not play him. Actor Peter Burton played Major Boothroyd,
head of Q Branch. Llewelyn took over the role in 1963's "From Russia With
Love", his character's actual name mentioned in "The Spy Who Loved Me".  He
would act in every Bond film through 1999's "The World Is Not Enough" except
for "Live And Let Die". No one from Q Branch appears in that film. For more
on Q go to Brief #4, Section #2.

   D  From Russia With Love
There are two questions regarding this film. The first is about the
introduction of Blofeld's cat. Never used in the books, the cat took
attention as a focal point to the unseen Blofeld. But the CAT'S NAME IS
NEVER MENTIONED AT ANY POINT. Not even a hint of it. Which is good, as any
name would be a distraction. Mike Meyers' spoof character Austin Powers
proved this point by having the villain, Dr. Evil, name his cat "Mr.

The other question is if Ian Fleming actually has a cameo appearance in the
movie. Bryan Krofchok submitted the following for issue #3c of the Ian
Fleming Foundation's "Shaken, Not Stirred" newsletter in March 1995
(reprinted by permission of the author):

"The curious notion of Fleming's cameo is mentioned in Roger Ryan and Martin
Sterling's book of Bond trivia, 'Keeping The British End Up', under the
heading 'Brief Encounter'. The scene in question pops up when the Orient
Express must stop for a truck that has stalled across the tracks
(originally, part of Grant's escape route). Watch for an oddly placed
gentleman wearing a white top and dark pants, who seems to be holding some
sort of walking stick. "

"His mode of dress is suspiciously identical to that of Ian Fleming's in the
well known photos of his visit to the set of the film during shooting of the
Orient Express. I say that the man is oddly placed, because he seems to have
no part in the plot, and cannot simply be brushed off as someone merely out
for a casual stroll due to the apparent desolation of the surrounding area.
I also find it quite odd that although the train is passing fairly close to
him, the man has his back to it and is looking the other way. "

   E  Goldfinger
When the bomb is ticking away and Bond is feverously trying to disarm it we
are privy to the seconds left. When the bomb is finally defused we see "007"
seconds left on it. However, Bond says that "Three more ticks and Mr.
Goldfinger would've hit the jackpot. " The reason for this inconsistency is
that the clock is supposed to end on "003" but in editing some unknown
person thought showing "007" would be a neat idea. Connery was unavailable
to loop his line and it stayed that way.

   F  Thunderball / Never Say Never Again
This is the most rancorous debate of anything regarding James Bond. The
questions are aplenty here. Why is "Never Say Never Again" a retelling of
"Thunderball", and why did a different production team make it? Why do fans
often snub it as an "unofficial" film? Who is Kevin McClory and what role
did he play in shaping James Bond? And why are there so many continuity
errors in "Thunderball"? Let's begin with Kevin McClory.

Kevin McClory was a film producer who first made plans with Ian Fleming to
produce the first ever Bond feature film back in 1958. He wrote a script
with Fleming and screenwriter Jack Whittingham originally called "Longitude
78 West" in 1959. When the project fell through Fleming used the story as
the basis for his 1961 Bond novel "Thunderball", without crediting either
McClory or Whittingham.

McClory unsuccessfully attempted then to block Jonathan Cape's publication
of "Thunderball". He brought suit against Fleming in 1963 and the outcome
was that all future publications of the novel would state that "it is based
on a screen treatment by Kevin McClory, Jack Whittingham, and Ian Fleming."
Furthermore McClory acquired all movie rights to the story and its various
treatments, referred to as "the film scripts".

His 1965 collaboration with EON, co-producing "Thunderball", was an
appeasement of sorts to prevent a competitor of EON facing off against them
during the apex of Bondmania worldwide. In exchange McClory abandoned all
claims for another 10 years after the initial release of the film. When in
January 1976 the rights reverted back to him he wrote an original script
along with Len Deighton and Sean Connery himself, called "Warhead 8". When
legal battle was started again by EON he was finally forced to produce only
a direct remake of "Thunderball". The result was 1983's "Never Say Never
Again". The film was not EON's, and could not use the trademark gun-barrel
opening or theme music, not even the name "Q" who was never in the novel or
the original film scripts, making many fans consider it "unofficial".

McClory seemed to be the owner of SPECTRE and Blofeld, introduced in
"Thunderball", and EON has never used them by name since 1971's "Diamonds
Are Forever". The villain in "The Spy Who Loved Me" was originally SPECTRE,
changed when it appeared legal trouble might have ensued. The character in
the opening credits of "For Your Eyes Only" is Blofeld unnamed. Stay in this
Section and go to I "For Your Eyes Only".

McClory attempted to make his own Bond output for years after that. In late
1997 he aligned with Sony to attempt to produce an original film series
featuring James Bond. MGM responded with legal action to prevent this. In
March 1999, the Sony/McClory camp was soundly thumped in court and Sony gave
up any claim to owning James Bond. McClory, publicly claiming "abandonment",
began peddling the rights he had, real or imagined, to any interested party.

In the end MGM proved to hold a surprising edge, namely due to an oversight
on McClory's behalf. The copyright to "Thunderball" was claimed by MGM when
McClory had not renewed it properly and in effect they retain at least the
legal position to withstand any charge he may bring.

"Thunderball" features more visible continuity errors than usual. From the
ever-changing color scuba masks in the end battle to Leiter changing from
shorts to pants during a helicopter ride, the editing seems sloppy. The
problems stemmed from a meltdown in postproduction. Terence Young had
directed the first two films, and then sat out the third before returning to
direct "Thunderball". The rigorous schedule took its toll, as well as
artistic differences with EON. Young walked out during editing leaving
editor Peter Hunt having to make the most of what was already shot without
the possibility of reshooting.

   G  On Her Majesty's Secret Service
Two prevalent questions arise often. The first is explaining why Blofeld
does not recognize Bond when they meet at Piz Gloria. The previous film,
"You Only Live Twice", had the two antagonists come face-to-face for the
first time. This flew in the face of the Fleming novels where the Piz Gloria
meeting was the first meeting. EON both scrapped the entire novel and
storyline of "You Only Live Twice" and filmed it out of sequence.

Director Peter Hunt and writer Richard Maibaum had to deal with this issue.
They decided to stay true to Fleming and film the Piz Gloria scene as it had
been, simply ignoring the gaffe. In truth they need not have done so, since
Bond did not glean anything with Blofeld/de Bleuchamp at that time and could
have merely held off their face-to-face meeting until later with a bit of
tweaking. But they did not go this route.

The other question regards Bond's marriage. He marries Tracy di Vicenzo in
the movie. It is the only time he ever married on screen. There is a wedding
scene in "You Only Live Twice", but it is explained in the film that the
ceremony was a hoax.

   H  Diamonds Are Forever
Two of the three common questions regarding this film arise from editing,
one from questionable writing.

First, when Blofeld calls for Burt Saxby we see Bond mimicking his voice to
fool Blofeld. However, after Bond shows up, so does Saxby. How did the real
Saxby know where and when to show up? Perhaps someone can find out that
answer, as the FAQ has not located a credible one.

Another frequent inquiry is how Plenty O'Toole ended up at Tiffany Case's
California home. After being thrown in the Tropicana hotel pool in Las
Vegas, Plenty sneaks back into the room and goes through Tiffany's purse,
finding her address, as Bond and she keep occupied. This scene was edited
out of the movie before it was released making it confusing. This does not
explain WHY Plenty would want to get that far involved.

Lastly, when Bond's car goes in the alley on the right set of wheels it
comes out on the left set. This is a flat out mistake. The filmmakers
attempted to correct this error by interspersing a close-up of Bond and
Tiffany as the car tilts from one side to the other. However, this should
still be impossible considering the width of the alley.

   I  For Your Eyes Only
More frequent questions arise from this film than any other. Here are the

First, fans clamor to know if that was actually Blofeld in the opening
sequence of "For Your Eyes Only". Yes it is. The character is never
mentioned by name since in 1981 EON was legally barred from using Blofeld.
See this Section's E "Thunderball"/"Never Say Never Again" for details. But
on the Special Edition DVD of the film, both producer Michael G. Wilson and
director John Glen mention that it is Blofeld in a direct reference to "On
Her Majesty's Secret Service".

Another question involves the Blofeld plea promising Bond a "delicatessen in
stainless steel" in exchange for his life. It seems Cubby Broccoli is
responsible for the line being used in the film. Both Michael G. Wilson and
John Glen confirm this. It seems completely out of character and not
terribly clever.

Also recurrent is asking if the "Bond girl" was once a man. The answer is
NO! One of the bikini-clad women hanging out at Gonzales' pool is a
British actress named Tula, a.k.a. Caroline Cossey, who later grabbed
headlines by revealing she had started life as a man. Although the world
press played up the Bond angle ("Even 007 can't tell the difference! "),
Tula's role in the film was nearly non-existent. But the actual "Bond girl"
of the film is Carole Bouquet.

   J  Octopussy
An interesting question concerns Robert Brown appearing as "M" in the film.
The original "M" was Bernard Lee, who died after appearing in 1979's
"Moonraker". EON did not use "M" in "For Your Eyes Only" out of respect for
Lee, but then they knew they needed the character to return.

What sets fans' minds off is that Brown had already made an appearance in
"The Spy Who Loved Me" as Admiral Hargreaves. It is never stated whether
Brown is playing Lee's character, Sir Miles Messervy, or is playing
Hargreaves as a new "M". But the clear inference is that he played Messervy.
EON had recast actors in different roles very early on and when Dame Judi
Dench took over the role, Bond mentions her "predecessor" in a singular
fashion. In "The World Is Not Enough" there is a picture of her predecessor,
which is a portrait of Lee. It is visible for a split moment after the
holographic image of Renard is turned off.  The novelization of "Licence To
Kill", six years later with Brown still in the role, features Sir Miles.

The other common question pertains to the Faberge eggs. Namely which one was
destroyed on camera. It was the real one. 009 is found with the fake. Bond
then switches it at the auction and keeps the real one. Later he shows off
the real one during the backgammon game. We also see Q put the transmitter
in the real egg. The real egg is then stolen by Magda and given back to
Kamal Khan. When Orlov arrives he claims that the "fake" has caused enough
trouble and smashes the egg. But it is the real one that is smashed, as the
Q Branch transmitter is in it.

   K  Licence To Kill
This is not easy for everyone to discover but it is true that bullets are
used as music in the movie. During the tanker chase in the film's climax,
listen closely for a machine gun fired at Bond. The ricocheting bullets do
indeed play out the introductory notes of the "James Bond Theme" before the
soundtrack kicks in.

   L  Tomorrow Never Dies
There is a large misconception regarding Bond's failure to read the Chinese
keyboard when intending to send a message. The movie "You Only Live Twice"
had claimed (departing entirely from Fleming's character) that Bond had
taken a first in Oriental languages at Cambridge. However, that does not
mean he is fluent in written Chinese. It is never specified whether it was
Chinese in the first place, and whether it was merely the spoken dialect he
had mastered as opposed to the written language.

  M  Die Another Day
Madonna, in addition to performing the theme song, has a cameo as Verity,
the fencing instructor, joining Sheena Easton ("For Your Eyes Only") as the
only theme performer to appear in the same film.  John Cleese was called Q
following Desmond Llewelyn's death, though his real name remains unknown.
Many references from previous films, particularly in the Q scene, are shown.
The book that Miranda is "attached to" at the end is "Art of War" by Sun
Tzu, referenced earlier in the film.

The most common query is why Bond did not realize Miranda Frost had emptied
his gun, since the weight change would be noticeable and it does appear that
Bond briefly inspects it on screen.  As the novelization from Raymond Benson
explains, Miranda did NOT empty the gun.  She instead bent the firing pin,
meaning the quick inspection Bond gave it would not detect it.  When trying
to fire it later Bond hears the click of the pin and realizes what happened.
It is not mentioned in the dialogue and confused many fans.

11  List of theme songs & artists
Here is a list of the films' theme songs, as well as vocal recordings used
within the film or end credits or appearing on the soundtrack albums.

TITLE                           PERFORMER             FILM(if different)
-----                           ---------             ------------------
James Bond Theme                John Barry Orchestra* Dr. No
Underneath The Mango Tree       Diana Coupland        Dr. No
Jump Up                         Byron Lee/Dragonaires Dr. No
From Russia With Love (instru)  John Barry
From Russia With Love (vocal)   Matt Monro
Goldfinger                      Shirley Bassey
Thunderball                     Tom Jones
You Only Live Twice             Nancy Sinatra
On Her Majesty's Secret Service John Barry
All The Time In The World       Louis Armstrong       OHMSS
Do You Know How Christmas Trees Nina                  OHMSS
                     Are Grown?
Diamonds Are Forever            Shirley Bassey
Live And Let Die                Paul McCartney/Wings
Fillet Of Soul/Live And Let Die BJ Arnau              Live And Let Die
The Man With The Golden Gun     Lulu
Nobody Does It Better           Carly Simon           The Spy Who Loved Me
Moonraker                       Shirley Bassey
For Your Eyes Only              Sheena Easton
Make It Last All Night          Rage                  For Your Eyes Only
All Time High                   Rita Coolidge         Octopussy
A View To A Kill                Duran Duran
The Living Daylights            a-ha
Where Has Everybody Gone?       Pretenders            The Living Daylights
If There Was A Man              Pretenders            The Living Daylights
Licence To Kill                 Gladys Knight
If You Asked Me To              Patti Labelle         Licence To Kill
Dirty Love                      Tim Feehan            Licence To Kill
Wedding Party                   Ivory                 Licence To Kill
GoldenEye                       Tina Turner
The Experience Of Love          Eric Serra            GoldenEye
Tomorrow Never Dies             Sheryl Crow
Surrender                       k.d. lang             Tomorrow Never Dies
The World Is Not Enough         Garbage
Only Myself To Blame            Scott Walker          The World Is Not
Die Another Day                 Madonna
London Calling                  Clash                 Die Another Day
Casino Royale                   Herb Alpert
The Look Of Love                Dusty Springfield     Casino Royale
Never Say Never Again           Lani Hall
Chanson D'Amour                 Sophie Della          Never Say Never
* If you have read that Monty Norman performed it, for further explanation,
look just below to Brief 2 Section 11A.

Also of note is the song "Mr. Kiss Kiss Bang Bang", which was recorded by
both Dionne Warwick and Shirley Bassey. It was to be the title song of EON's
fourth release until the title was changed back to "Thunderball".  Neither
vocal version appears in the film but the instrumental does.

Only once has a Bond theme hit #1 on the American Billboard Music Hot 100
chart.  It was Duran Duran's "A View To A Kill".

   A - The James Bond Theme debate
Every Bond film credits Monty Norman as the composer for the "James Bond
Theme".  But most people feel John Barry actually wrote it. What is the
truth? This one was still raging some thirty-nine years after the questions

Monty Norman originally wrote a theme. However the producers were
dissatisfied with the piece and John Barry was hired to "arrange" it. The
resulting work bore little resemblance to the Norman's. This reworked theme
was featured in "Dr. No" and has appeared in every official Bond film since.
Due to contractual obligations, Monty Norman always receives credit whenever
the song is used in a Bond film.

Norman's original theme can be heard on the "Dr. No" soundtrack, but it is
not track number 17, titled "The James Bond Theme" on the label. Norman
himself said that the actual recording intended as the theme is "Dr. No's
Fantasy", Track 11. John Barry based some inspiration for what became known
as the Bond theme off the plucked guitar sound from one of his own
compositions, "Bees Knees". (Submitted by Geoff Leonard)

In March 2001, Norman won a libel suit against London's Sunday Times. They
claimed Barry had penned the theme alone and also made comments about
Norman's talent. Due in part to Barry stating he based the guitar riff
partly on a Norman composition called "Bad Sign, Good Sign", they sided with
Norman. Note that the court did not state that Norman wrote the theme
solely, as he maintains, just that he contributed to it.

12  Soundtracks & scores
Ten men have scored a James Bond film. Here are the credits for each. Note
the only composers with multiple credits are John Barry and David Arnold.

---------------  ----
Monty Norman     Dr. No
John Barry       From Russia With Love
John Barry       Goldfinger
John Barry       Thunderball
John Barry       You Only Live Twice
John Barry       On Her Majesty's Secret Service
John Barry       Diamonds Are Forever
John Barry       The Man With The Golden Gun
John Barry       Moonraker
John Barry       Octopussy
John Barry       A View To A Kill
John Barry       The Living Daylights
George Martin    Live And Let Die
Marvin Hamlisch  The Spy Who Loved Me
Bill Conti       For Your Eyes Only
Michael Kamen    Licence To Kill
Eric Serra       GoldenEye
David Arnold     Tomorrow Never Dies
David Arnold     The World Is Not Enough
David Arnold     Die Another Day
Burt Bacharach   Casino Royale
Michel Legrand   Never Say Never Again

13  Bond meets an Oscar
While the films have been wildly successful with audiences the world over,
critics have always been hesitant to warm up to them. Consequently, the Bond
films tend to get passed over in favor of more "critically acceptable"
selections. All told, Bond films have been nominated ten times in the
American Academy Awards, five times in technical categories and five times
in musical categories. Only two nominations came up winners:

Film        Year Category
----        ---- --------
Goldfinger  1964 Best Sound Effects  Norman Wanstall
Thunderball 1965 Best Visual Effects  John Stears

However, both wins were somewhat tainted by the fact that there was only one
other nominee. The other eight nominations were:

Film                 Year Category            Lost to
-----                ---- --------            -------
Casino Royale        1967 Best Original Song  Talk To The Animals
Diamonds Are Forever 1971 Best Sound          Fiddler on the Roof
Live and Let Die     1973 Best Original Song  The Way We Were
The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 Best Art Direction  Star Wars
The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 Best Original Score Star Wars
The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 Best Original Song  You Light Up My Life
Moonraker            1979 Best Visual Effects Alien
For Your Eyes Only   1981 Best Original Song  Arthur's Theme (The Best
                                              That You Can Do)

In an ironic twist, the "Casino Royale" song nominated, "The Look Of Love",
lost to "Talk To The Animals" from "Doctor Dolittle", a Leslie Bricusse
composition. Bricusse co-wrote another movie theme that year, "You Only Live
Twice" with John Barry.

However, leave it to the Brits to come through.  The British Academy gave
the award for Best Color Cinematography to "From Russia With Love".  They
also nominated Ken Adam four times for Art Direction for his work in
"Goldfinger", "Thunderball", "You Only Live Twice" and "The Spy Who Loved

In 1982, Cubby Broccoli was awarded the coveted Irving G. Thalberg Memorial
Award for his filmmaking career. Homage was paid to both the Bond films and
to the many successful films that Broccoli made prior to "Dr. No". The
reigning Bond at the time, Roger Moore, presented the award. Likewise, in
1989 Timothy Dalton presented Broccoli with a lifetime achievement award
from the British Academy of Film and Theatre Arts.

Alien & British corrections submitted by Allen Dace

14  What's in a name?
The Bond films almost always work the film's title into the script somehow.

"Dr. No" is the villain's name.
Bond writes "From Russia With Love" on Tatiana's picture and hears it on the
radio while he and Sylvia are bunting.
"Goldfinger" is the villain's name.
M calls the mission "Operation 'Thunderball'"
Bond mentions he's on his second life. Blofeld says, "You Only Live Twice".
The "On" in OHMSS is never used though the rest appears a few times.
"Diamonds Are Forever" is surprisingly absent in the script, though the
phrase "diamonds are for everyone" was cheekily added to "Die Another Day".
The singer in the Fillet of Soul sings the words "Live And Let Die" in front
of Bond.
"The Man With The Golden Gun" is used by and about Scaramanga.
While Stromberg mentions the word "love", "The Spy Who Loved Me" is unused.
"Moonraker" is the name of the Space Shuttles built by Drax.
Melina purrs, "'For Your Eyes Only', darling", to Bond.
"Octopussy" is the name of the female smuggler.
Zorin and May Day combine to say, "What 'A View To A Kill.' "
Bond remarks, "Whoever she was it must have scared 'The Living Daylights'
out of her."
M says, "Effective immediately, your 'Licence To Kill' is revoked."
"GoldenEye" is the name of the space-based weapons system.
"Tomorrow Never Dies" is not spoken in the film.
When told he could have had the world Bond replies, "The World Is Not
Enough. "
"So you lived to 'Die Another Day', Colonel?"
"Casino Royale" is the casino.
Though Bond says, "Never again," and Domino replies, "Never?" the title
"Never Say Never Again" is not specifically used.

Brief #3  THE BOOKS

1  The latest James Bond novel
Author Raymond Benson penned the novelization to "Die Another Day", released
concurrent with the film in late 2002.  As of March 2003, Glidrose has
ceased releasing new novels and began reissuing Fleming's novels. There is
no word on whether new Bond books will arise.

2  Ian Fleming
Ian Lancaster Fleming created James Bond. He was born May 28, 1908, (a date
he gave to Ernst Stavro Blofeld as well) in London. Quitting his schooling
at the prestigious Eaton, he held a job as a reporter with Reuters. Fleming
eventually joined the R.N.V.R. and later worked in Naval Intelligence field,
earning the rank of Commander.

On his two month sabbatical from a newspaper job in January 1952 Fleming was
feeling pressure due to his impending marriage. To relieve some stress he
began writing a short novel. Fleming held a meticulous schedule and spent
two periods a day writing. Before leaving in March he had completed what
would be the first Bond book, "Casino Royale". It opened Fleming's eyes to a
muse inside him.

While not the rogue secret agent, Fleming did have a hand in helping the
Ultra Network score a coup over Germany in World War II by decoding the
Enigma, a machine similar to the fictitious Spektor decoder Fleming used as
a plot piece in "From Russia With Love". Fleming often dropped names of his
friends and acquaintances into characters in his book. (There was a Jamaican
boater named Red Grant, a friend named John Fox-Strangways, etc.)

It should be noted that as a reporter Fleming wrote on a multitude of
subjects. He is also the author of the children's work "Chitty Chitty Bang

Ian Fleming wrote fourteen complete books about Bond, and only stopped when
he died on August 12, 1964. He left behind wife, Anne, and son Caspar, who
tragically committed suicide in 1975. Anne died in 1981.

  A  List of Ian Fleming novels
This is a complete list of Ian Fleming's Bond novels.

Title                           fn. Year
-----                           --- ----
Casino Royale                       1953
Live And Let Die                    1954
Moonraker                           1955
Diamonds Are Forever                1956
From Russia, With Love              1957
Doctor No                           1958
Goldfinger                          1959
For Your Eyes Only                  1960
Thunderball                     (A) 1961
The Spy Who Loved Me                1962
On Her Majesty's Secret Service     1963
You Only Live Twice                 1964
007 In New York (short story)   (B) 1964
The Man With The Golden Gun         1965
Octopussy                           1966

(A) Based on a treatment by Kevin McClory, Jack Whittingham & Ian Fleming
(See Brief #2, Section #10, F "Thunderball"/"Never Say Never Again")
(B) This story appears in American Editions of Fleming's book "Thrilling

  B  Stories to read in order
The books follow a chronological sequence, and later books occasionally
refer to other earlier books, but you can read most of them in any order you
like. However, it is highly recommended that you at least read "From Russia,
With Love" before "Doctor No" and please be aware that "Thunderball", "On
Her Majesty's Secret Service", "You Only Live Twice", and "The Man with The
Golden Gun" form a 'quadrilogy' that should be read in order.

It is worth mentioning that Fleming last worked on "The Man With The Golden
Gun". "Octopussy" was released posthumously as well, but "Gun", which picks
up directly from "You Only Live Twice", is the true swan song of Fleming's

  C  Who wrote The Spy Who Loved Me?
Ian Fleming did. The story is the most left-field Bond adventure, with the
first two-thirds about the tough life of Vivienne Michel and Bond not
appearing until the final chapters. Fleming wrote in the foreword that he
had "found the manuscript" sitting on his desk at the Goldeneye retreat he
owned in Jamaica. It was only a joke. The novel was the worst received of
Fleming's canon and he was so disenchanted with it that he only allowed the
title rights sold, specifically preventing the storyline to be used.

  D  The Kennedy myth
One of the things that helped Fleming's books get noticed in the United
States was a plug by President John F. Kennedy. But the episode may not be
factual.  Leading longtime Bond memorabilia collector and fan Alan
Stephenson (<>) disputes this claim with the
following revelation:

"This is one of those bits of urban legend. While Kennedy is known to have
read Fleming, this whole business of him admiring Bond and relishing 'From
Russia With Love' may owe more to his image-makers than JFK himself."

"Kennedy's press secretary, Pierre Salinger, was asked for a list of the
President's preferred reading. That list was essentially a work of fiction
itself: The secretary invented the whole thing, selecting titles that would
make Kennedy appear well rounded yet in-touch with the popular culture. If
JFK had generated the list himself, it's unknown if 'From Russia With Love'
would have ultimately appeared."

SMERSH is a conjunction of two Russian words: "Smiert Spionam" ("Death to
Spies"). They were the Soviet Secret Service's murder organization that Bond
faces in most of the early novels. SMERSH was a real organization for a time
but they had been swept into the KGB by the time Fleming featured them in
"From Russia, With Love". While no Bond film featured them as a main villain
(the "Russia" movie used SPECTRE instead) "The Living Daylights" used the
idea of a reformed SMERSH as a red herring proliferated by Georgi Koskov.

Fleming had a real affection for this word. He created a Spectreville in
"Diamonds Are Forever", made the decoding machine in "From Russia, With
Love" a Spektor, and finally, beginning with "Thunderball", created the
SPecial Executive for Counterintelligence, Terrorism, Revenge, and
Extortion, SPECTRE. The leader of SPECTRE was Ernst Stavro Blofeld,
Fleming's most famous villainous creation.

SPECTRE is normally spelled as one word. The original British Cape edition
of Fleming's "Thunderball" made it S.P.E.C.T.R.E. (though the dots were
dropped in Fleming's later books), and that spelling continues to crop up in
various books about the Bond series. The spelling S.P.E.C.T.R.E. also
appeared in the trailer for the film "From Russia With Love". It seems odd
since the "P" does not stand for a word.

  G  Does Bond die in From Russia With Love?
No, but readers were meant to think so upon its initial release. At the end
of the book, Bond falls to the ground having been stabbed with Rosa Klebb's
shoe knife. It was often reported that Fleming intended to kill off James
Bond, and his contemporary, author Raymond Chandler, talked him out of it.
While the book had an intentional cliffhanger, the idea it was the end of
Bond is an oft-reported myth.

Some sources suggest Fleming never gave a moment's thought to ending the
series, and other merely that he was bored and left his options open. As far
as the Chandler story, the truth was that Chandler was asked to review the
previous book, "Diamonds Are Forever", and suggested that Fleming could, and
should, do better.  Fleming was inspired by the criticism and completed
"Russia".  He originally had Bond and Tatiana end up together but near the
end of completing it he changed the final scene to the published version.

But that seems to be more to stimulate interest than to kill James Bond.
That May, according to Andrew Lycett's thorough biography, Fleming received
a letter from Geoffrey Boothroyd (see Brief 4 Section 2 for details) and by
August Fleming had promised to include Boothroyd's ideas in the "next"
adventure he would write, which became "Doctor No". At the time he was
completing the final cover design for the unreleased "Russia", among other
projects. While he was concerned personal matters would interfere with his
writing schedule the following year, Fleming knew he would be writing a new
Bond novel to continue his series.

3  Post-Fleming periods
  A  Kingsley Amis' novel
Well-known British author Kingsley Amis, was offered a chance to continue
the series after Fleming's death. He was originally credited under the
pseudonym Robert Markham, as part of a plan to have multiple authors use
that alias over time, but the immediate response was lackluster and he
produced only one book.

It has been opined that he 'completed' "The Man With The Golden Gun"
following Fleming's death by some sources. Others claim Glidrose had it
finished and merely had him critique it. Hopefully the truth can be

Title       fn. Year
-----       --- ----
Colonel Sun (A) 1968

(A) Original printings listed the pseudonym Robert Markham

  B  List of the John Gardner novels
It was not until 1981 that the Bond series was revived once again. Anne
Fleming, following Amis' novel, had wanted the books to cease. Upon her
death the publishing company, Glidrose, hired British author John Gardner
who published a new novel almost every year until the spring of 1996. He
retired after equaling Fleming's total of fourteen original novels, Gardner
feeling the novelizations of the movies did not count. Gardner was already
an established writer, best known for the series of "Boysie Oakes" novels,
such as "The Liquidator".

When assuming the mantle, Gardner's only direction was that he was not to
make any mention of the offspring of Bond alluded to in "You Only Live
Twice" and that Bond would be set in present time.

Title                   fn. Year
-----                   --- ----
Licence Renewed             1981
For Special Services        1982
Icebreaker                  1983
Role Of Honour              1984
Nobody Lives Forever        1986
No Deals, Mr. Bond          1987
Scorpius                    1988
Win, Lose Or Die            1989
Brokenclaw                  1990
Licence To Kill         (A) 1990
The Man From Barbarossa     1991
Death Is Forever            1992
Never Send Flowers          1993
SeaFire                     1994
GoldenEye               (A) 1995
Cold                    (B) 1996

(A) A novelization of the film
(B) U.S.A. copies titled "Cold Fall"

    1  Stories to read in order
To fully appreciate Gardner's works, read his last three original books
in order, "Never Send Flowers", "Seafire" and "Cold", as a story arc links
them. He also had his own SPECTRE trilogy with "For Special Services", "Role
Of Honour" and "Nobody Lives Forever", with a separate story separating them
a la "The Spy Who Loved Me" for Fleming.

Gardner had to write the "GoldenEye" novelization prior to writing Sir Miles
out of the M position, shown in "Cold", so reading them in reverse order of
release is actually preferable.

  C  List of the Raymond Benson novels
American Raymond Benson assumed the mantle of Ian Fleming with his first
James Bond book in 1997 and released a new novel annually, as well as short
stories and novelizations of the Bond films released during his run.  He
borrowed Fleming's tradition of using names of friends and acquaintances
into his novels. Some of those names are frequent posters to the newsgroup.
Benson authored the fantastic "James Bond Bedside Companion" reference book
before being given the helm of Bond author. He is a Texan who resides near
Chicago. He stopped writing the novels annually in 2003.

Glidrose told Benson that he could pick and choose what came before him in
Gardner's works in forming continuity. He also agreed upon taking the job to
keep Bond in the present day and use the new M, Barbara Mawdsley, as the
films were using at the time.

Title                                fn. Year
-----                                --- ----
Blast From The Past (short story)    (A) 1997
Zero Minus Ten                           1997
Tomorrow Never Dies                  (B) 1997
The Facts Of Death                       1998
Midsummer Night's Doom (short story) (C) 1999
High Time To Kill                        1999
The World Is Not Enough              (B) 1999
Live At Five (short story)           (D) 1999
Doubleshot                               2000
Never Dream Of Dying                     2001
The Man With The Red Tattoo              2002
Die Another Day                      (B) 2002

(A) Published in the January 1997 issue of "Playboy" magazine
(B) A novelization of the film
(C) Published in the January 1999 issue of "Playboy" magazine
(D) Published in a November 1999 issue of "TV Guide" magazine

    1  Stories to read in order
Benson used a criminal organization called the Union that spread through
three of his novels. You should read "High Time To Kill", "Doubleshot" and
"Never Dream Of Dying" in order.

  D  Other Glidrose novels featuring Bond
Glidrose, the publishing company with rights to James Bond material, have
allowed a few books that were not strictly a part of the "James Bond novels"
canon proper to be issued.

Title                                       Author           fn. Year
-----                                       ------           --- ----
The Adventures of James Bond Junior-003 1/2 R.D. Mascott     (A) 1967
James Bond-The Authorized Biography of 007  John Pearson         1973
James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me            Christopher Wood (B) 1977
James Bond And Moonraker                    Christopher Wood (B) 1979

(A) Released under the pseudonym R.D. Mascott
(B) A novelization of the film

"The Adventures of James Bond Junior-003 1/2" is a children's book featuring
a title character who is the son of Bond's brother David, (not a creation of
Fleming) who intercedes against a heist of gold bullion. Glidrose licensed
it. The author's true identity was kept secret for 34 years, but was
confirmed by his executors to be British literary author Arthur
Calder-Marshall (1908-1992).

Pearson's book is a work of fiction portraying the life of a "real" James
Bond in correlation to Fleming's adventures.

Wood co-wrote the screenplay for "The Spy Who Loved Me" with Richard Maibaum
and got full credit for "Moonraker", and then novelized those scripts.

  E  Reference books
There are also many reference books about James Bond on screen and in print.
While many are good, I recommend two in particular. Steven Jay Rubin's "The
Complete James Bond Movie Encyclopedia", updated in 1995, provides a wealth
of information of the celluloid Bond up to "GoldenEye". The current Bond
novel author, Raymond Benson, wrote the splendid "The James Bond Bedside
Companion" in 1983 (revised in 1987) that gives a wonderful overview of
Fleming's canon, as well as everything else Bond to date. It has just been
returned to print. Go to for details.

4  Fan fiction
Bond is a copyrighted product and Glidrose, the company who owns Bond's
literary rights, does look out to protect their product. Using Bond in a
published story (and using the internet as a forum IS publishing it) breaks
the copyright law unless Glidrose grants the right to do so. Perhaps no
action would be taken, but it could be. And Glidrose is rightly concerned
that if a fan would use their property with the capability to produce a
professional looking presentation, the line would blur. Others may see the
fan fiction, and because of it be less inclined to view their legitimate

There is merit to the idea that fans do the series no harm in showing their
enjoyment of the character and that it should not be misconstrued for the
real product. But the fact is it can be. If you feel creative create your
own original character.  You will garner legitimate praise and possible
notice not to be had with being an imitator.


1  Films and books  links or broken links?
The newsgroup often notes that Sean Connery's films did not, for the most
part, stray far from Fleming's novels in term of storyline. While continuity
was altered and some stories forgone the general consensus is that until
Moore took over the film series was a successful adaptation of Ian Fleming's

His titles lasted a bit longer. Every film from "Dr. No" through "The Living
Daylights" was a Fleming title. (EON shortened "'From' A View To A Kill".)
By then they had run out of usable ones. But some of the screenplays,
notably "You Only Live Twice", "Moonraker" and "A View To A Kill", bore
little resemblance to the original Fleming story.

EON has never used a Bond novel written by anyone other that Fleming, either
by title or plot. There is no reason in their viewpoint to do so. They would
have to pay for use of the material and title, and choose instead to hire
script makers to create original stories. This is why no Gardner or Benson
novel has been made into film, and why they doubtfully ever will be.

2  Explain the names "M" & "Q"
When Mansfield Cumming was head of the real SIS he would sign documents he
finished reading with a single letter "C". His replacement continued using
"C" as a *title* though it had no bearing on his name. Fleming could have,
one easily surmises, borrowed this fact for his creation. Fleming did name
the character Admiral Sir Miles Messervy (though the name did not appear
until "Golden Gun") but in keeping with the real C, it holds that any
replacement would continue using M. It cannot be conclusively stated that
Fleming didn't just borrow the title from the way he actually addressed his
mother or that it is a coincidence that the female M is named Barbara

Q Branch is the Quartermaster Branch, the supplier of weapons and protective
devices for the Double-O section. The head of the Branch, from the novel
"Doctor No", is Major Boothroyd, dubbed the "Armourer". (A real man,
Geoffrey Boothroyd, was a weapons expert who convinced Fleming that Bond
should use a Walther instead of a Beretta, but the fictional character is
never called "Geoffrey".) The first EON Bond film of the same name also uses
the Major's real surname. Peter Burton played him, succeeded afterward by
Desmond Llewelyn, who was also called Boothroyd in "The Spy Who Loved Me".
Nicknamed the "Armourer" at first, the James Bond of the movies began using
the Branch's first letter as a shorter moniker for Boothroyd. That is Q.
Llewelyn died tragically in December 1999.  John Cleese, hired before his
death as an eventual replacement, was called both "Quartermaster" and "Q" in
"Die Another Day".  His character's real name is unknown.

3  What other "00" agents are mentioned?
In the James Bond films, a number of 00 agents have been depicted over the

002 - Bill Fairbanks, assassinated in Beirut by Francisco Scaramanga in 1969
("The Man With The Golden Gun"); replaced by another agent who is quickly
captured during a training mission at Gibraltar ("The Living Daylights")

003 - Found dead in the Siberian ice ("A View To A Kill")

004 - Assassinated during a training mission at Gibraltar ("The Living

006 - Alec Trevelyan, listed dead by MI6 at the hands of Soviet Colonel
Ourumov during a mission with 007 to blow-up a Soviet nerve gas
least for a while ("GoldenEye")

008 - Bond's replacement, should he be unable to complete his mission
("Goldfinger" and "The Living Daylights")

009 - Assassinated in West Berlin by a circus knife-thrower after stealing a
Faberge egg ("Octopussy"); a new 009 was named as the man who put the bullet
in Renard's head ("The World Is Not Enough")

0012 - Technically unnamed in the film, the novelization of "The World Is
Not Enough" has Bond avenging his death in the opening scene. On screen he
is simply referred to as an MI6 agent

In addition, the movie "Thunderball" has Moneypenny state the "every
Double-O man in Europe" is in the conference room, and Bond arrives as the
ninth agent to be briefed. Whether this means that the agents are 001
through 009 or not is never stated, as it COULD be 002 through 0010, for
instance. And perhaps we should consider that some Double-0's were not in
Europe and missed the meeting. Sharp eyes also could not miss the moment in
"The World Is Not Enough" when Moneypenny distributes assignment folders to
other agents, one of which is a woman.

While Miranda Frost in "Die Another Day" is an MI6 agent, it is never stated
she is a "Double-O", and we only learn that her experience was three years
in cryptography before the Graves' assignment.

For the novels according to Ian Fleming, James Bond was originally the
senior member of only three agents in the Section. At the time of the
"Moonraker" mission, 008 (known only as 'Bill') had just escaped from East
Berlin, while 0011 had vanished in Singapore just two months before.
Although 008 surfaced again in "Goldfinger" (listed as Bond's replacement,
should he have failed), 0011 was never heard from again. 009 was briefly
mentioned in "Thunderball". In "On Her Majesty's Secret Service", Bond was
even odds to "get" Mary Goodnight first with an ex-Royal Marine Commando who
was 006, making Fleming's total of 00 agents -- including 007 -- five.

Kingsley Amis' "Colonel Sun" noted that the head of station G in Athens had
served as "005" before "an eye defect had begun to impair his ability with
firearms." (Submitted by Donal Rogers <>)

In "Zero Minus Ten" Raymond Benson includes a scene with the "Single-O's"
who are working toward a "00" classification.

4  The Walther and other machinations
In the Fleming novels, Bond started out with a .25 Beretta. In "Doctor No"
he was ordered to begin carrying a Walther PPK 7.65mm as his standard issue
firearm, though he used other guns here and there during the series. Gardner
introduced Bond to a variety of weapons, including a Browning 9mm, the Ruger
Super Blackhawk .44 Magnum (which Bond carried in violation of regulations),
and the ASP 9mm. Raymond Benson's tenure saw Bond reclaim the PPK, and also
begin using the Walther P99, concurrent with the films Benson novelized.

Also of note, Bond mentions in the novel "Doctor No" that he has used larger
weapons, like the .45 Colt with a long barrel, when needed, but for
concealment he preferred the Beretta. Though he would keep the PPK the
remainder of the series, at the time he was ordered to use it he made his
preference for the Beretta known. (Submitted by James Tox

As the first Bond film was "Dr. No", we see Bond ordered to give up the
Beretta for the PPK without ever seeing the former in action. Bond did
handle other equipment from time to time but the PPK has been the film's
mainstay, though "Tomorrow Never Dies" and "The World Is Not Enough"
featured the P99 in their ad campaigns and in the films as well, and it is
now seemingly Bond's standard issue.

Bond has gone through a few cars as well. The novels initially had him using
a Bentley and in "Goldfinger" Q Branch issued him a souped-up work vehicle,
the Aston Martin DB3. (Submitted by Barry King <>) The
films recreated this scene, with the since-released DB5. Since then Bond has
used other Aston Martin's, Lotus' and BMW's.

5  Bright Leiter
The novels and the films never had the chance to follow a continuous
pattern. Bond meets Leiter for the first time in the initial showing of
each, but in different stories. In the novels, Leiter's second appearance,
in "Live And Let Die", has him brutally maimed by a shark. He returns on
occasion after that. The films used him often, but did not feature the shark
attack until "Licence To Kill", some sixteen films into the series. When the
movie came out, Bond author John Gardner decided to try to fit the scene
into Fleming's continuity when writing the novelization, and explained that
Felix was fed to a shark again. Perhaps the two mediums should remain split.


1  The websites
There are many interesting, exciting and grand websites dedicated to James
Bond. Here are some of them that the FAQ feels merit special attention. - Mr. Kiss Kiss Bang Bang! The Web Magazine of
                            The Ian Fleming Foundation
Since 1996 "Mr. Kiss Kiss Bang Bang!" has been the premiere on-line
resource for James Bond information. With its combination of timely news
reports, in-depth articles and cutting-edge design, MKKBB has earned a daily
readership in the thousands, a host of awards and positive press coverage in
media outlets across the world. It is the website that keeps this FAQ
online. - The Official James Bond Website
Look here for some on-the-scene reporting of the new film as it is in
production. - Her Majesty's Secret Servant
A webzine run by alt-fan-james-bond's most illustrious contributors. The FAQ
maintainer writes for HMSS. - Bondian . Com
The definitive work on the printed Bond. - Raymond Benson . com
The official website of Bond author Raymond Benson. - James Bond Agent 007, OHMSS
Kimberly Last's acclaimed site that serves as the largest search engine
of James Bond material. - The Bond Film Informant
Matt Newton's site includes the "James Bond Secret Service FAQ" at and is a fine effort. - Art of James Bond
Red Grant's beautiful tribute to the classic look of Bond. - Commanders Club
A unique site dedicated to the Bond lifestyle. -
The official website by EON Productions. Nice but very demanding on plug-ins
and Internet connection speed. - Nuv's OO7 Shrine
Download megabytes of trailers, rare videos and sound clips. Professionally
designed.  Featuring Raymond Benson's "The James Bond
Bedside Companion" as a print-on-demand" book and his non-Bond serial novel,
"Evil Hours".

2  The fan clubs
There are several fan clubs devoted to Bond. Before joining any of them,
however, you might want to ask around the newsgroup for opinions, since some
clubs have better reputations than others. Below are some of biggest fan
clubs and organizations.

The Ian Fleming Foundation (<>)
PO Box 6897
Santa Barbara, CA 93160

Club James Bond 007 (<>)
42 rue Rouelle
75015 Paris
ICQ : 25374205
PHONE (GMT+1H) : 00 33 6 12 60 51 88
FAX  (GMT+1H)   : 00 33 1 45 75 64 75
E-mail -

The James Bond 007 Fan Club (<>)
PO Box 007
Addlestone Weybridge Surrey
E-mail -
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Hopefully this FAQ has answered your general questions about James Bond. If
not please send an E-mail to Michael Reed at . Any errors or
corrections should be sent there as well, and please include the specific
Brief and Section. Please remember, a FAQ covers FREQUENTLY asked questions
and is not meant to show off arcane or trivial knowledge, however original
it may be. Keep this is mind if you have a submission request.

Remember, welcomes you to join in the thrill of James
Bond. This is your FAQ and you are entitled to voice your opinion about it.
Thank you.

 - Michael Reed

                  M R . K I S S K I S S B A N G B A N G !
                       The premier James Bond website

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