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HOLOCAUST FAQ: Willis Carto & The Institute for Historical Review (1/2)

( Part1 - Part2 )
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Archive-name: holocaust/ihr/part01
Last-modified: 1999/11/03

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This FAQ may be cited as:

 McVay, Kenneth N. (1996) "HOLOCAUST FAQ: Willis Carto & The Institute 
 for Historical Review" Usenet news.answers. Available via anonymous ftp 
 from ftp://ftp.nizkor.org/pub/orgs/american/ihr/, (part 1) and
 ftp://ftp.nizkor.org/pub/orgs/american/ihr/, (part02). ~25 pages.

 The most current version of this FAQ is posted every 45 days in the
 Usenet newsgroups alt.conspiracy, alt.revisionism, soc.history,
 soc.answers, alt.answers and news.answers, and archived as
 pub/orgs/american/ihr/ihr.faq1 (~.faq2) in the anonymous ftp archive 
 on ftp.nizkor.org.

              IHR: A Layman's Guide to Willis Carto 
          & The Institute for Historical Review (Part 01)

  1.0 Introduction & Editorial Notes............................. 1
  1.1   Copyright Notice......................................... 1
  2.0 Background Information..................................... 1
  2.1   Willis Carto............................................. 2
  2.2   Liberty and Property..................................... 5
  3.0 IHR Publications........................................... 5
  3.1   Noontide Press........................................... 6
  3.3   The Journal of Historical Review......................... 7
  3.4   The Spotlight............................................ 7
  3.5   Advisory and Editorial Personalities & Authors........... 8
  3.51    Andrew Arnold.......................................... 8
  3.52    Dr. Robert Faurisson................................... 8
  3.53    Dietlieb Felderer...................................... 9
  3.54    William Lindsay........................................ 9
  3.55    Theodore O'Keefe....................................... 9
  3.56    Greg Raven.............................................10
  3.57    Henri Roques...........................................10
  3.60    Udo Walendy............................................10
  3.65    Mark Weber.............................................10

  [Part 02]

  4.0 Political Organization.....................................16
  4.1 National Youth Alliance....................................16
  4.2 Populist Action Committee..................................16
  5.0 IHR Investigates Conference Attendees......................22
  6.0 Epilog.....................................................22
  7.0 Reference Section..........................................24
  7.1   Suggested Reading........................................25
  7.2   Glossary.................................................25
  7.3   Works Cited..............................................25


[IHR]                                                        [Page  1]

 1.0 Introduction & Editorial Notes 

   "If antisemitism has a core, factual meaning, it was demonstrated
   here." Thus did Judge Bork, in 1984, dismiss the suit brought by
   Willis Carto's Liberty Lobby against 'The Wall Street Journal' for
   having called it "anti-Semitic."

   The Coalition for Human Dignity describes the Institute for
   Historical Review as "... a pseudo-academic think tank dedicated to
   disproving that the Holocaust happened. Founded by the dean of
   American anti-Semites Willis Carto, IHR functions as a clearinghouse
   for Holocaust denial and a meeting ground for anti-Semitic scholars
   in the United States." (CHD, "Denial") 

   This document is presented as part of a continuing effort to provide
   those confronting the IHR's propaganda machine with a research tool
   to help them understand the nature of the organization, its
   associations and some of the principal players. It was compiled and
   edited with the help of lots of concerned folks on the network; without
   their assistance it probably could not have been produced. (Several
   sections within this document are incomplete, and have been marked
   [Work in progress] - with luck, those sections will have been completed
   within the next month or so.) In particular, I would like to acknowledge
   Richard Hatch's PAC contribution, which was invaluable.

   The documents cited in this work which are available from our ftp
   server are often noted in the form (get archive filename).  The
   path is provided to the file via ftp.nizkor.org.

 1.1 Copyright Notice

   This post, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1993-1996 by Ken
   McVay, as a work of literature. Distribution by any electronic means
   is granted with the understanding that the article not be altered
   in any way. Permission to distribute in printed form must be obtained
   in writing.  The removal of this copyright notice is forbidden.
 
 2.0 Background Information

   The Institute for Historical Review was founded in 1979 by Lewis
   Brandon, who also served as the first director.  (Lewis Brandon is an
   alias for William David McCalden, a British neo-fascist who in 1975
   had founded Britain's National Party, a break-away from the notorious
   neo-Nazi National Front.)  

   The IHR operates under the umbrella of the Legion for Survival of 
   Freedom, a registered non-profit corporation in the State of Texas.

   The Institute for Historical Review is the moving force in the
   movement to deny the Holocaust.  Its initial meeting was opened by
   Willis Carto, who also funds the organization, and whom some
   (including Dennis King, author of the 1989 work "Lyndon LaRouche and
   the New American Fascism") credit with starting it.  No matter - with
   McCalden out of the way (he left the IHR, and has since died), the
   IHR was Carto's mouthpiece, until his forced ouster in late
   1994.


[IHR]                                                        [Page  2]

   Among the speakers at the 1980 convention were the Swede Felderer,
   convicted and institutionalised in his country, and the Frenchman,
   Robert Faurisson, convicted in his country of libel and promoting racism 
   and expelled from his University (though he still misrepresents himself
   as member of its faculty).

 2.1 Willis Carto           

   Carto, born in 1926 in Indiana, had helped edit "Right" (a
   mid-fifties San Francisco newsletter for an information clearinghouse for
   antisemitic activities), was, inter alia, director of the far right
   Congress of Freedom and, briefly, organiser for the John Birch
   Society, from which he was later expelled.  

   In 1989, Dennis King provided this picture of Carto's ideological
   background during his discussion of the connection between Lyndon
   LaRouche, the NCLC (see Glossary, below), and Carto's Liberty Lobby 
   (get pub/orgs/american/ihr/larouche.ihr):

      Carto, founder of the Liberty Lobby, was by far the most
      successful and influential American anti-Semite of the 1970s.  He
      was an intellectual disciple of the late Francis Parker Yockey,
      who roamed Europe and North America in the 1950s futilely
      attempting to build an underground movement.  Carto met Yockey
      only once - in San Francisco in 1960, when Yockey was in jail
      awaiting trial for possession of false passports.  Several days
      after their meeting, Yockey committed suicide in his cell by
      taking cyanide.  Carto, already an ultrarightist, dedicated
      himself to carrying out Yockey's mission to save Western
      civilization.

      This mission was set forth in Yockey's 'Imperium,' a 600-page
      synthesis of Nazi racialism and Oswald Spengler's philosophy of
      history.  The book was dedicated to the 'Hero of the Second World
      War' (Hitler).  But Carto, although devoted to Yockey's ideas, had
      no illusions about Yockey's tactics.  Instead of engaging in inept
      conspiracies, he concentrated on building a political movement and
      developed a populist cover ideology.  Although he discreetly sold
      'Mein Kampf' and 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' by mail, he
      publicly denied being either a Nazi or an anti-Semite - he was
      merely 'anti-Zionist.'

      Carto defended Hitler's heritage, not by saying the Holocaust had
      been a good thing, but by denying that it ever took place.  He
      founded the Institute for Historical Review to prove that the
      alleged murder of six million Jews was a hoax invented by Zionists
      to make people feel sorry for them.  Carto went so far as to
      publish a theory that the gas ovens at Auschwitz were really just
      an industrial facility for converting coal into oil, operated by
      happy well-fed Jewish prisoners.


[IHR]                                                        [Page  3]

      Carto's Liberty Lobby, based in Washington, D.C., and nominally
      headed by Colonel Curtis B. Dall (a former son-in-law of
      President Franklin D. Roosevelt), enjoyed friendly ties with
      conservative congressmen. It published a weekly tabloid, 'The
      Spotlight,' which by 1979 enjoyed a paid circulation of almost
      200,000*. Its articles championed income-tax rebels, protested the
      plight of family farmers, and promoted quack cancer cures such as
      laetrile. Its favorite political targets included the
      Rockefellers, the Rothschilds, Henry Kissenger, the Council on
      Foreign Relations, and the 'Zionist entity' in Palestine." (King,
      39-40)

   *According to George and Wilcox, circulation peaked at 315,000 in 1981 
   and had fallen to about 90,000 by 1992. (George & Wilcox, 260)   

   What kind of a man is Carto?  The answer to that question is suggested
   by his writing:

      There are 600 million Chinese and about 200 million Russians.  All
      united in a determination to destroy the West.  And we have been
      so misled that we live in a dream world - far away from reality.
      Hitler's defeat was the defeat of Europe.  And America.  How could
      we have been so blind?  The blame, it seems, must be laid at the
      door of the international Jews.  It was their propaganda, lies and
      demands which blinded the West as to what Germany was doing.  ---
      from a letter to Norris Holt

      Who is using who?  Who is calling the shots?  History supplies the
      answer to this.  History tells us plainly who our Enemy is.  Our
      Enemy today is the same Enemy of 50 years ago and before - and
      that was before Communism.  The Communists are "using" the Jews we
      are told ...  who was "using" the Jews fifty years ago - one
      hundred or one thousand years ago.  History supplies the answer.
      The Jews came first and remain Public Enemy No.  1.  --- a memo to
      himself

      In fact, no objective Scholar can deny today that the world would
      be a far better place to live if Germany had won - even if it had
      meant the defeat of American arms!

      Let us first understand who won and who lost the last war.  The
      victors were Soviet Russia, international Communism, Red China,
      Israel, international Zionism, the international money
      manipulators (Wall Street-CFR crowd) and rising colored
      nationalisms the world over.


[IHR]                                                        [Page  4]

      Let us now name the losers: All of the European nations, most
      certainly including Britain and her now non-existent Empire, the
      United States, White world-hegemony and the idea of the
      war-preventing, world-saving philosophy of nationalism and
      non-interference in the affairs of others.  ..........  

      (Hitler and Chamberlain, incidentally, and contrary to the massive
      lies told about "Munich," worked out a sensible and workable
      agreement at Munich to save Europe from a war.  In return for a
      free hand in the east, Hitler guaranteed Chamberlain that Germany
      would not contest Britain's dominance on the seas, or covet any of
      her colonies.  The deal was broken by the war-madness stirred up
      by the British press in obedience to the financial power after
      Hitler marched on Poland - and also by pressure from Roosevelt.)
      ..........  

      Israel and Zionism would be unknown - still a crazy
      dream in the minds of a few fanatics - and the secret
      international power of the Zionist conspiracy would not be in
      existence nor the manifold culture distortions which flow from
      this disease source into all of the western nations.  ..........

      Juvenile delinquency would be uncommon because the youth of
      America would be filled with patriotism, the natural aftermath of
      defeat in war, and there would be something to aspire to.
      Desegregation and the cultural negrification of America would be
      unknown.  ..........  

      What would have been the effect of a German
      victory inside Germany?  It is important to remember that Hitler's
      ambition stopped in Europe - he would have gone no further.  He
      would have stopped if for no other reason that he yearned to build
      Germany into an architectural paradise.  The result of German
      victory would have brought a true internationalism of Europe!  The
      United Europe only dreamed of today would have been a certain
      result of the war.  ..........  

      The important thing to note is
      that a German victory would have assured that the life-span of
      the White world would have been extended for many centuries more
      than now seems likely; indeed, for the "thousand years" promised
      by Hitler.  --- from American Mercury, Summer 1973

   By the way, the author of this last article is "E.  L.  Anderson,
   Ph.D.", which is an alias for Carto.  
  
   What kind of a man is Willis Carto? You tell me...

   In 1955 Carto founded Liberty Lobby as a right-wing political
   pressure group in Washington D.C., and has been running it ever since.


[IHR]                                                        [Page  5]

   The Simon Wiesenthal Center's recent infiltration report has this to
   say about Carto: 

      Willis Carto is the most influential professional antisemite in
      the United States.  He is the founder of Liberty Lobby, the
      Institute for Historical Review, the Noontide Press (which
      distributes a wide range of racist and antisemitic titles), and
      the Populist Party, whose 1988 Presidential candidate was David
      Duke.  Carto's name came up in nearly every conversation held
      between Ron Furey, S.W.C.  researcher, Richard Eaton, and the
      neo-Nazis.  Literature produced by the Carto organization is
      widely read by German's radical right.  In addition, several of
      those interviewed know Mr.  Carto personally. (Get 
      pub/orgs/american/wiesenthal.centre/swc.oprep) for the full 
      Wiesenthal report on the penetration of Germany's extreme right.)

 2.2 Liberty and Property

   Diamond tells us that "...Carto had also run an outfit called Liberty
   and Property, and published a monthly newsletter called 'Right', from
   1955 to 1960.  Through 'Right' Carto attempted to link the
   segregationist Citizen's Councils with the grassroots anti-communist
   groups of the McCarthy era, and with some of the unsuccessful racist
   splinter parties of the time.  As it grew, the Liberty Lobby would
   later downplay its Klan and neo-Nazi movement connections.  But the
   pages of 'Right' are a goldmine of evidence on the Lobby's racist
   origins and agenda.  Carto recommended that his readers join up with
   George Lincoln Rockwell's American Nazi Party, whose leader J.  B.
   Stoner was convicted for the 1958 Klan bombing of the Bethel Baptist
   Church in Alabama."

 3.0 IHR Publications

   The IHR publishes an unreviewed "journal," "The Journal of Historical
   Review," as well as "The IHR Newsletter," and an "IHR Update."

   Dan Gannon, the owner-operator of the Portland, Oregon, bulletin
   board system known as "banished.uucp," published articles from
   Carto's organization on a regular basis, presumably as a public
   service to those wishing to obtain a more accurate understanding of
   the true nature of Carto and his associates.  Many of these documents
   are archived by ftp.nizkor.org, and thus available for anonymous
   retrieval. (Mr. Gannon's computer system offers its users a steady 
   diet of anti-Semitic and racist material; Gannon is an eager 
   campaigner for Mr. Carto's anti-Semitic agenda.)

   Why did Gannon do it, when he knew from past experience, both on
   UseNet and GEnie, that he would be laughed at and hated for doing so?
   Martinez provided the answer during a discussion of free speech
   issues in general, and the Alan Berg show in particular:


[IHR]                                                        [Page  6]

      Alan Berg gave huge amounts of air time to racists so that he
   could satisfy his ego by responding to them and ridiculing them.  The
   racists know they will be ridiculed when they go on such programs,
   and assume they will be despised by more than 99 percent of the
   people who hear them spout their venom.  But none of that is of any
   matter to them.  The fraction of 1 percent is.  There they will find
   the malcontents, the embittered, the bigots, and the sincerely
   concerned but ignorant people like I was.  The numbers are in their
   favor, and they know it.  Snyder's program [Tom Snyder interviewed
   David Duke on television, and seeing that show led Martinez into the
   supremacist camp.  knm] may have reached 2 million listeners; if only
   one-tenth of 1 percent of them respond favorably, they have recruited
   2,000 people, no doubt swelling the ranks of their group ten- or
   twentyfold.  One hundredth of 1 percent would make them happy.
   (Martinez, 242) 

   A parting comment or two regarding Mr. Gannon, from those he most
   admires:

   Prince Otto von Bismark, a member of the great chancellor's family,
   charaterized Ribbentrop as 'such an imbecile he is a freak of
   nature.' The French ambassador remarked: 'I could not talk to
   Ribbentrop; he listened only to himself.' Goering referred to him
   as 'Germany's number-one parrot,' because of his endless repetition
   of meaningless claptrap." (Conot, Robert E.  Justice at Nuremberg.
   New York: Harper & Row, 1983, 52-53)

   One can only wonder how these folks would have viewed Mr. Gannon...

   IHR publications posted to UseNet newsgroups are archived on
   ftp.nizkor.org, and are available to the public via anonymous
   ftp. In general, the filename reflects the source of the article:

   IHR newsletters are prefaced with IHR, while JHR files are prefaced
   with JHR.  The file extensions reflect either the month and year of
   publication, plus the volume number (if provided) i.e.  IHR.0492n86
   contains material from the April, 1993, newsletter, number 86, while
   JHR.v12n4 contains material from the Journal of Historical Review,
   volume 12, number 4.  Spotlight articles use the form
   "spotlight.mmyy," i.e. "spotlight.0193" contains material from the
   January, 1993 editions.

 3.1 Noontide Press

   The publishing arm of the IHR and other related organisations, 
   Noontide Press, which can boast of such titles as "The Protocols of 
   the Learned Elders of Zion," "The six millions reconsidered" and 
   "Antizion," The treasurer of its holding company is Carto's wife 
   and until 1981 its firm office manager was one Lewis Brandon. 

   Noontide Press is owned by the Legion for Survival of Freedom, 
   which is the umbrella corporation under which the IHR itself operates. 

   Additional titles offered by Noontide press include these gems:

   "Amendment to the Constitution" (Pace) - a proposal to restrict U.S.
   citizenship to white people.

   "Our Nordic Race" (Hoskins) - an "outline (of) present threats to
   Nordic survival", complete with proposed measures to "protect and
   preserve the Nordic race."

   "The Testing of Negro Intelligence" (Osborne & McGurk) - the authors'
   findings "give little comfort to egalitarians." Those findings are
   based, of course, on "performance on intelligence tests from 1966-
   1980." 


[IHR]                                                        [Page  7]

    "For Those Who Cannot Speak" (McLaughlin) - you may have guessed
   that he's not talking about Holocaust victims.  This book is a
   "vigorous 'case for the defense' for National Socialist Germany." 

    "Hitler : the Unknown Artist" (Price) - "What a magnificent
   production!", gushes the blurb.  "The first comprehensive...  catalog
   of Hitler's paintings, drawings, sketches, doodles and daydreams."
   Yes, folks, his daydreams.

   And don't forget perennial favorites "Hitler at My Side" and "IQ and
   Racial Differences".  
  
   Martinez mentions one more book published by Noontide Press, 'The Road
   Back,' and notes that it has been used as a textbook for seminars
   at the Aryan Nations. "It includes an illustrated chapter on methods
   for mining roads and blowing up bridges."(Martinez, 241)

   Mark Weber, writing in the East Bay Express (Get
   pub/orgs/american/ihr/express.011792 for the complete Weber letter, 
   transcribed with permission for release on UseNet), claimed that 
   Noontide Press and the Institute for Historical Review were "entirely 
   independent" of the Liberty Lobby. This flew in the face of reality, 
   however, since the business license for both was filed by Carto's wife 
   Elisabeth, and Carto was listed on the letterhead of the IHR as 
   "founder." Carto's weekly, 'The Spotlight,' regularly promoted 
   Noontide Press as an integral part of the Liberty Lobby's 
   "Liberty Library." [Note: Following the ouster of Willis Carto
   from the IHR in 1994, reportedly at gunpoint, Weber's assertion is
   finally correct. knm]

   Carto has apparently lost control of his Noontide Press
   publishing arm, according to The Dignity Report, a publication of
   the (Portland, Oregon) Coalition for Human Dignity's Research
   Department. (Get pub/people/c/carto.willis/carto.005 for full details.)
   This during the same period when Carto was successfully removed
   from his controlling position at the Institute for Historical
   Review. Legal maneuvers, however, continue - in October of
   1995, Willis Carto filed a document with the Office of the
   Secretary of State, Corporate Section, which outlined changes
   to the Legion's charter, and signed the document as the
   President of the Corporation. (URL ftp://ftp.nizkor.org/pub/
   orgs/american/legion-for-survival-of-freedom/legal contains
   legal filings of interest with regard to the legal battle
   between Willis Carto and Greg Raven.)

 3.3 The Journal of Historical Review

   In a mid-1995 fund-raising letter from the IHR, the authors 
   suggested that publication of the Journal might be discontinued,
   due to serious financial problems. How much of this is rhetoric,
   aimed at picking the pockets of supporters, and how much reflects
   the loss of the Edison millions through the forced ouster of
   Willis Carto is unknown.

   In the meantime, Carto's _Spotlight_ announced (August, 1994)
   the publication of "The Barnes Review," Carto's new Holocaust
   denial publication, which will compete with the JHR for readers
   and, of course, money. According to the ADL (ADL Special Report,
   "Embattled Bigots: A Split in the Ranks of the Holocaust Denial
   Movement", p. 5), the _Spotlight_ staff will assist in the
   prouduction of the _Barnes_Review_.

 3.4 The Spotlight

   The Spotlight evolved from the Liberty Lobby's newsletter, "Liberty
   Letter," which echoed Willis Carto's earlier anti-Semitic assaults
   during the period when he controlled "American Mercury." According to
   Deborah Lipstadt, 

      "In 1975 the lobby's _Liberty Letter_, whose circulation was more
      than one-hundred thousand, was subsumed by the _Spotlight_, a
      tabloid newspaper that regularly featured articles on Bible
      analysis and the putative efforts of the Council on Foreign
      Relations and the Trilateral Commission to dominate the nation. It
      offered its readers tips on avoiding taxes and fighting the IRS.
      The paper attacked Martin Luther King, Jr., as a Communist and
      praised members of the Ku Klux Klan. It has memorialized Gordon
      Kahl, the leader of the right-wing-extremist group Posse
      Comitatus, who killed three [US] federal marshals and wounded a
      number of others before he was killed in 1983 in a shoot-out with
      federal agents." (Lipstadt, 150)

   Lipstadt offers information which suggests that _Spotlight_'s
   standards for journalistic integrity leave something to be desired:

      "...In 1979 _Spotlight_'s lead article described how a global
      elite planned to topple world governments. The paper claimed that
      its reporter had attended an international conference in Austria
      at which such plans were discussed. In truth, no one from the
      _Spotlight_ attended this legitimate conference, and the reporter
      who wrote the story admitted to falsifying it." (Lipstdt, 150)
   
   Lipstadt goes on to explain that the primary focus of _Spotlight_'s
   attention lies in exposing what it calls the "Jew-Zionist"
   international bankers' conspiracy, aimed at Americans, and the
   "Holocaust Hoax," which it maintains is an integral part of this vast
   conspiracy. Holocaust denial "has also become a regular staple."
   (Ibid., 150) 

      "The nature of _Spotlight_'s readership can be gauged to some
      degree by the contents of its classified advertising section.
      There are ads for poetry, laetrile prescriptions, dating services
      for patriotic Christians, and devices for dramatically increasing
      a car's gasoline mileage (these devices have supposedly been kept
      off the market in a conspiracy against the American consumer). In
      addition, its classified section regularly offers Nazi
      paraphernalia, gun silencer parts, bullet-proof vests, clandestine
      mail drops, and instructions for manufacturing false
      identification." (Lipstadt, 151)

   The masthead of the May 3, 1993 edition of The Spotlight lists Robert
   Weems with the Southern Bureau.  Weems is a former KKK leader and
   founding chairman of the PAC (see Section 4.2).

   The Canadian representation on the international bureau is Ron
   Gostick. Gostick controls the "Freedom Council of Canada," along
   with Patrick Walsh, both of whom are described as officers of the
   anti-Semitic (and non-governmental) "Canadian Intelligence Service."
   Walsh is said to be the "Canadian correspondent of the Liberty
   Lobby," although I am uncertain as to what this refers to. (Anderson, 154)


[IHR]                                                        [Page  8]

 3.5 IHR/JHR Editorial Advisory Staff & Writers

 3.51 Andrew Arnold

   No information available as of this date. "Andrew Arnold" was the
   author of a recent (April 1993) Spotlight article attacking the Museum
   of the Holocaust, in Washington, D.C. No biographical information was
   provided with the article. (get pub/orgs/american/ihr/spotlight.0493 
   to see the entire article, as posted to UseNet by Dan Gannon.)

 3.52 Dr. Robert Faurisson

   Faurisson, a former French academic, contends that the Holocaust was
   a hoax which benefits Israel in the form of reparation payments,  
   (Barrett, 162) a view commonly aired by those espousing Holocaust
   denial. Seidel provides excellent background material:  

      In November 1978 Robert Faurisson wrote a letter on the
      'problem' of the gas chambers.  Its timing was important.  Its
      publication in Le Monde followed close on the heels of a
      scandalous interview with Darquier de Pellepoix in the weekly
      magazine, L'Express.  Darquier was the Vichy Commissioner
      General for Jewish Affairs. Darquier has been described as
      the 'French Eichmann'--though even Eichmann, the architect of
      the 'Final Solution', did not seek to deny its reality. ...

      The Holocaust denial in France has become synonymous with the
      Faurisson affair.  What is more, it has become embroiled with
      Noam Chomsky, the distinguished American linguist and staunch
      opponent of the Vietnam war.  (get pub/orgs/american/ihr/seidel.001 
      for Seidel's discussion of Chomsky's role - it is beyond the scope
      of this FAQ.  knm)

      Faurisson's book is entitled Memoire en Defense--contre ceux qui
      m'accusent de falsifier l'histoire.  La question des chambres a
      gaz (Testimony in Defence: Against those who Accuse me of
      Falsifying History.  The Question of the Gas Chambers).  It is
      Faurisson's answer to the accusation of falsifying history.
      Testimony in Defence was published in Paris by Pierre Guillaume
      for the left anarchist publishing house, La Vieille Taupe (The
      Old Mole), in 1980.  ...

      Faurisson's denial of the Holocaust first appeared in the
      satirical Canard Enchaine ["Le Canard Enchaine".knm] on 17 July
      1974.  It subsequently gained public attention in December 1978
      when the influential Paris daily, Le Monde, published a letter from
      Faurisson headed 'The problem of the "gas chambers" or "The rumour
      of Auschwitz"'.  He wrote with calculated cynicism: 'The
      non-existence of the "gas chambers" is good news for poor humanity.
      Good news like this should not be suppressed any longer.'


[IHR]                                                        [Page  9]

      Robert Faurisson is not a historian.  He belongs to a long line
      of antisemitic academics and literary critics.  Until recently,
      he was a lecturer in twentieth-century French literature at the
      University of Lyons II.  He specialises in revealing 'the real
      meaning' of texts.  In Faurisson's view, texts have one
      particular meaning, or none at all, an approach to stylistics he
      calls 'the Ajax method'--because 'it scours as it cleans as it
      shines'. (Seidel, 98-111. Seidel provides extensive information
      regarding Faurisson's background, writing, and trial. Get
      pub/orgs/american/ihr/seidel.001 to review his material.) 

   Faurisson has also pronounced the Diary of Anne Frank and the
   Gerstein Report to be "fabrications and falsifications," and asserts
   that the Holocaust "lie" is essentially "Zionist" in origin, and that
   it has led to a "huge financial swindle of which the state of Israel
   is the principal beneficiary." It was the widespread publication of
   this sort of material that led the Dean of Lyons University to
   suspend Faurisson's lectures. 
   
   Faurisson was one of the four members of the IHR advisory board who
   testified at the trial of Ernst Zundel in Canada.

 3.53 Ditlieb Felderer

   Felderer, testifying at the trial of Ernst Zundel (Canada), explained
   his conviction on a charge of "threatening or expressing contempt for
   a group" for publishing a "Jewish Information" tract entitled "Please
   accept this hair of gas victim," which he described as satire, by
   stating that he was being "persecuted by Zionists." (Bilodeau)

   According to the Toronto Star, "Felderer called his native Sweden a
   'totalitarian state' and compared his trial to a 'Soviet show trial,'
   and "...said Nazi concentration camps were more humane than modern
   prisons." (Bilodeau)

 3.54 William Lindsay

   Lindsay was one of the four members of the IHR advisory board who
   testified at the trial of Ernst Zundel in Canada. (Barrett, 162) Any
   additional documented information which we can utilize to augment
   this section will be appreciated.

 3.55 Theodore O'Keefe

   In an article published to coincide with the official opening of the
   Washington, D.C.  Holocaust Museum, one editor is briefly
   described as follows:

      "Theodore J. O'Keefe is an editor with the Institute for
      Historical Review.  Educated at Harvard University, he has studied
      history and literature on three continents, and has published
      numerous articles on historical and political subjects."


[IHR]                                                        [Page 10]

   According to the 1990 Harvard Alumni Directory, Mr.  O'Keefe failed
   to graduate, so the reader will have to make his own decision about
   whether or not he obtained his education there. Additional material would
   be appreciated.

   The above "bio" of Mr. O'Keefe would seem to be simply one
   more example of how the IHR can be relied upon to mislead its
   readers. (We have written to the IHR [April, 1993] and asked for more 
   informative information regarding Mr. O'Keefe's educational background 
   and areas of expertise, but no additional information has been provided.)

   As of mid-1995, Mr. O'Keefe may have left the IHR.

 3.56 Greg Raven

   Mr. Raven, now the President and CEO of the Legion for the
   Survival of Freedom, and therefor the IHR itself, offers insight into 
   his personal political beliefs in this message which he posted during 
   a GEnie debate into Holocaust denial:

      -------------------------------------------------------------
      Category 15,  Topic 4
      Message 33        Fri Mar 13, 1992
      G.RAVEN                      at 03:02 EST

      My only concern is in going after the facts.  As such, I am
      not interested in defending Adolf Hitler to my dying
      breath.  I will say, however, that he was a great man ...
      certainly greater than Churchill and FDR put together, and
      possibly the greatest leader of our century, if not longer.
      This is not to say that he was perfect, but he about the
      best thing that could have happened to Germany.
      -------------------------------------------------------------

   (Other examples of Mr. Raven's historical beliefs may be found
   within the IHR archives here - his writing may be found in the
   directory pub/people/r/raven.greg at ftp.nizkor.org.)

 3.57 Henri Roques

   Roques...wrote a thesis titled 'Confessions of Kurt Gerstein: A
   Comparative Study of Different Versions - A Critique.'..[he] claims
   in his thesis to have 'scientifically' disproved that the gas
   chambers at Auschwitz were used for mass murder. After submitting his
   'revisionist' thesis to the University of Paris, where it was
   rejected, he received his doctorate with distinction from the faculty
   of letters of the University of Nantes.

   A government investigation into the granting of his degree revealed a
   number of irregularities:

      First, Roques transferred from the University of Paris
      to Nantes...three months after the deadline for
      student enrollment had passed and without
      authorization from the University rector. Second, he
      did not have the necessary qualifications or title for
      presenting a thesis in literature or history. Third,
      the mandatory oral examination did not take place.
      Fourth, he wrote the thesis in two months rather than
      the two years required minimum registration period.
      Finally, the signature of one of the examiners said to
      have been present at the presentation of the thesis
      was forged.

   In 1986, the French Minister of Higher Education... invalidated
   Roque's thesis citing the above irregularities....

   ...

   Since 1986, Roques has established close ties to the IHR. He was a
   guest speaker at their Eighth Annual Conference in 1987, and joined
   their Editorial Advisory Committee in 1990. IHR now offers Roque's
   discredited thesis for sale on its mail-order booklists." (Caplan,
   43-44)
   

[IHR]                                                        [Page 11]

 3.60 Udo Walendy

   Udo Walendy was described in the Simon Wiesenthal Center infiltration
   report as follows:

      Udo Walendy is a notorious Holocaust denier who, for years,
      has served on the advisory board of the Journal of Historical
      Review, the official publication of the Institute for Historical
      Review of Costa Mesa, California. (see entries for Mark Weber and
      Willis Carto)  ...Walendy expressed interest in ... offering his
      assistance in the creation of a Nazi center in Germany.  

 3.65 Mark Weber

   In response to my query, the IHR provided the following background
   information concerning Mr. Weber:

      Mark Weber was born in October 1951 in Portland, Oregon, where he was
      also raised. He graduated from Jesuit High School there in 1969.

      He studied at the University of Illinois (Chicago), the University of
      Munich (Germany), and Portland State University, from where he
      received a Batchelor's degree in history (with high honors).  He then
      did graduate work in history at Indiana University (Bloomington),
      where he served as a history instructor and received a Master of Arts
      degree in European history in 1977.

      He has travelled widely in Europe and northwestern Africa. He lived
      and worked for two and a half years in Germany (Bonn and Munich), and
      for a time in Ghana (West Africa), where he taught English, history
      and geography at an all-Black secondary school.

      During the five years he lived in Washington, D.C. (1978-1983) he
      carried out extensive research on the Holocaust issue at the National
      Archives and the Library of Congress. Weber is the author of numerous
      articles, reviews and essays dealing with the Holocaust story, and
      his writings on other historical, political and social issues have
      appeared in a variety of periodicals.

      In March 1988 Weber testified for five days in Toronto District Court
      as a recognized expert witness on the "Final Solution" and the
      Holocaust issue.

      He moved to Southern California at the beginning of 1991 to work for
      the Institute for Historical Review. He is now editor of the 'Journal
      of Historical Review,' published six times years <sic> by the IHR.


[IHR]                                                        [Page 12]

   Mark Weber serves as Carto's pipeline to the German paleo-nazis, as was
   conclusively demonstrated by the Simon Wiesenthal Center's recent
   penetration of the German right. Here's what the infiltration report has
   to say about Mr. Weber's Nazi connections:

      Mark Weber works for the Institute for Historical Review (Costa
      Mesa, California), one of several antisemitic organizations
      founded by Willis A.  Carto.  The I.H.R.  devotes most of its time
      to spreading the bizarre notion that the Holocaust is wildly
      exaggerated and that the gas chambers of Hitler's death camps are
      a myth.  In 1978, Weber was identified as the news editor of the
      National Vanguard, the publication of William Pierce's neo-Nazi
      group, the National Alliance.

      Weber's name came up in several conversations with German
      neo-Nazis, including Wolfgang Kempkens and Roy Godenau.  As part
      of Ron Furey's cover, a "cold" phone line at the Simon Wiesenthal
      Center was attached to an answering machine informing the caller
      that he/she had reached The Right Way.  That phone number was
      known only to the Center's senior research staff, Ron Furey, and
      the neo-Nazis to whom it was given.

      At 2:55pm on Friday, February 12, 1993, a man identifying himself
      as Mark Weber called the number, requested a copy of The Right
      Way, and left his P.O.B.  address for mailing.  The Center's
      graphics department sent him a colorful subscription application
      for the non-existent periodical, instead.  This was apparently
      enough to satisfy Mr. Weber's curiosity because he soon acceded
      to Ron's request for a meeting.

      That meeting took place on February 27, 1993 at the Cafe
      Westminster in Westminster, California.  It was filmed by a CBS
      camera crew stationed in a van outside.  Mr. Furey spoke to Mark
      Weber at length about the "state of the movement" in Germany.  To
      help establish his credibility, he showed Weber several photos
      picturing him and several German neo-Nazis together.  Weber
      correctly identified them all.

      Weber soon felt comfortable enough to discuss the miserliness of
      his current employer and to ask about the possibility of finding
      work with The Right Way.  He was also recommended by Reinhard
      Kopps (see entry) to Richard Eaton for a separate project.
   
   Kineahora@cup.portal.com (Chana Braun) provided us with an
   interesting glance into Mark Weber's intregity when she wrote
   <59136@cup.portal.com> that "...I have excellent evidence that Mark Weber
   colors the truth (to put it mildly) in regards to debates," and then
   went on to detail a series of exchanges between a Holocaust denier
   and others on another computer network.


[IHR]                                                        [Page 13]

   Her article outlined the exchange dealing with Mark Weber's being
   invited to join in the debate, and Mr.  Weber's demand that she
   (Chana Braun) not "bring in any outside help" in her debate with him.
   (Mr. Weber, quite clearly, was not the least bit interested in an
   open and comprehensive debate on a public computer network.)
   (get pub/people/w/weber.mark/webers.feet for the full text of Chana's 
   article.)

      As Chana explains: 

      There was absolutely no response to that reply
      and nothing more was heard concerning the possibility of an open
      discussion on that network until the February 1992 issue of the
      IHR Newsletter.  Here, then is the way that it was reported (and
      keep in mind that Mark Weber is the editor of the Newsletter).

      "In the January Newsletter I told about an IHR activist who had
      received a challenge to publicly debate the Holocaust on [the
      network] open forum bulletin board computer service - the largest
      interactive computer network.  

      ...After we promptly offered Mark Weber to represent that
      Revisionist [sic] side, XXX suddenly flip-flopped.  Deciding that
      she is not a 'scholar' after all, but merely an 'amateur,' she
      complained that it would be 'unfair' for her to have to face a
      professional historian." 

      ----------- 

      The plot in this story thickens.  The one opposing the Holocaust
      Deniers on that network wrote a letter to the editor of the
      Newsletter (i.e.  Mark Weber).  Since the IHR is such a staunch
      champion of Freedom of Speech, it seems strange that 3 months
      later, that letter has still not received a reply much less been
      printed in the IHR Newsletter.  


[IHR]                                                        [Page 14]

      Here, then, is the letter that the IHR Newsletter refuses to 
      print or even acknowledge: 

                                                     February 27, 1992

      Mark Weber, Editor 
      IHR Newsletter 
      Institute of Historical Review
      1822 1/2 Newport Blvd.  
      Suite 191 
      Costa Mesa, CA 92627 

      Dear Mr.Weber: 

      I read with interest the article in your IHR Newsletter #85
      February 1992 concerning [the network] and me.  This is truly a
      work of revisionism (e.g.  distorting the facts to fit into your
      personal view of the world) and, since those connected with the
      IHR claim that they are eager to be taken seriously, it is
      surprising that I was not contacted for comment before you went
      to press.  

      Let's get the facts straight.  Your "IHR activist" was posting
      messages denying the Holocaust.  I responded.  He claimed that
      no one was willing to debate the Holocaust.  This, of course, is
      absurd.  I told him that he could name his sources and begin.
      He posted a message about The Leuchter Report.  I rebutted his
      erroneous statements.  (By the way, I don't believe he has read
      the report.  You might want to check on that before you
      encourage his "activism" too much.) He then suddenly claimed on
      the public board that he didn't have time to debate and he was
      trying to get someone online from the IHR.  I responded by
      telling him that everyone was welcome.  That is when he
      contacted you and you agreed to come online.

      What your "IHR activist" presented to me were a set of
      ridiculous conditions.  They included that the debate take place
      only between you and me and that it be advertized on [the
      network].  I was told to contact the "Arts Club Leader" to urge
      her to agree.  First, [the Arts Club Leader] doesn't have the
      authority to grant such requests.  Even if she did, as I told
      your "activist," there are no precedents to such a closed debate
      on Prodigy and that involving the Arts Club Leader might even be
      counter-productive.  My reasoning was this: "In fact, involving
      the Arts Club leader might be counter-productive in that it
      calls attention to this single debate and, if it ever begins,
      our messages might undergo closer scrutiny by the censors.  I
      don't think either of us wants that." In fact, since you are
      such a champion for "open debate," I was very surprised that you
      wished for this one to be closed to others.  

[IHR]                                                        [Page 15]

      One of the amusing requirements for your participation in the
      debate was an agreement by me that I would have no outside help
      (whatever that means).  This amusement I expressed to your
      "activist" in the following quote: "I am an amateur (i.e.  I
      don't get paid by anyone to research the Holocaust, I am not
      employed by anyone or any organization that has an interest in
      the Holocaust and/or Holocaust Denial, etc.).  You have
      presented yourself in the same manner.  Mr.  Weber, I think you
      would agree, is a professional.  There is no prohibition against
      him joining the discussion but I do think it odd that you ask
      that I not ask for any outside help when you are bringing in a
      professional." 

      If you notice, I claim amateur status because I don't get paid -
      not because I am not a "scholar" or because it would be "unfair"
      for me to have to debate a professional.  Yet, you are
      apparently so frightened of debating in a situation where you
      cannot control all the factors that I heard nothing else from
      you or your "activist." Please notice, I did not say I wouldn't
      agree to your terms regarding outside help.  I only said that I
      found it "odd" that a professional would insist on such a term
      before debating an amateur.  

      However, the greatest part of your article had to be the
      sub-headline of "Another Anti-Revisionist Gets Cold Feet." I
      assure you, Mr.  Weber, that my feet are toasty warm.  In fact,
      I closed my message to your "activist" with the following: "I
      guess the main question is: Do you and Mr.  Weber desire to have
      an open discussion or not?  If so, post a message (either on
      your own or one on behalf of Mr.  Weber).  That is the manner in
      which all other discussions are initiated on [the network] and I
      don't see any need to make an exception for this one." 

      I am still waiting for an answer to that question.  What
      temperature are your feet, Mr.  Weber?  

                                                        Sincerely, 
                                                        <signature>


   Mr. Weber, to our knowledge, has still not either printed the above
   letter in the "open" IHR Newsletter or responded privately to Ms.
   Braun. Given that more than a year has passed, it would seem that Mr.
   Weber's feet are rather chilly indeed.

   In an article published in the Express, a San Francisco Bay Area
   weekly newspaper, Paul Rauber included the following comments about
   Mark Weber:

[IHR]                                                        [Page 16]

      The question [of whether the IHR denies the Holocaust] appears to
      turn on IHR's Humpty-Dumpty word game with the word Holocaust.
      According to Mark Weber, associate editor of the IHR's _Journal of
      Historical Review_, "If by the `Holocaust' you mean the political
      persecution of Jews, some scattered killings, if you mean a cruel
      thing that happened, no one denies that.  But if one says that the
      `Holocaust' means the systematic extermination of six to eight
      millions Jews in concentration camps, that's what we think there's
      not evidence for." That is, IHR doesn't deny that the Holocaust
      happened; they just deny that the word "Holocaust" means what
      people customarily use it for.  (Rauber, 'Sticks') 

      Weber's claim for the "independence" of the IHR is marked by the
      same disingenuousness that characterizes that institutes
      scholarship.  In 1980 the business license for "The Noontide
      Press/Institute for Historical Review" was filed by Elisabeth
      Carto, wife of Liberty Lobby founder and treasurer Willis Carto.
      Carto himself is listed on IHR's letterhead as "founder." IHR's
      activities are regularly promoted in the Spotlight, as are the
      racist and anti-Semitic books by Noontide Press, which are
      advertised as part of the Lobby's "Liberty Library." (Rauber,
      'Response') 

      According to the July, 1995, "IHR Update," Mr. Weber is now
      the IHR Director. He is also listed in a July 1995 legal
      document as the Secretary of the Legion for the Survival of
      Freedom.

[Continued in Part 02]


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