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rec.heraldry FAQ


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Archive-name: heraldry/faq
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2000/01/25
URL: http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/heraldry.faq

The rec.heraldry Frequently Asked Questions File
================================================


Although rec.heraldry isn't a very high-volume newsgroup, there are several
questions often asked by those new to heraldry. This is an attempt to
collect them, and their answers, in one posting which can be distributed
regularly.

You'll soon find that there's lots of nonsense written about heraldry.
Always remember that the origins of heraldry are lost in antiquity, that
many writers on heraldry have simply copied each other's mistakes, and
that there is much disagreement among heralds. Remember, too, that a
"rule" which applies in one place at one time may not travel well to
another time or place.

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This FAQ file was initially written by Gordon Findlay (gordon@chmeds.ac.nz).
It is now maintained by François Velde (http://www.heraldica.org/contact.html)
and posted monthly.

A weekly posting called the rec.heraldry MFAQ answers the question: "My name
is Smith, what are my arms?"  It can be found at 
http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/mfaq

 
Table of Contents
=================
 
   1: What is rec.heraldry?
   2: What other newsgroups and mailing lists are there?
   3: How can I find my coat of arms or my family's coat of arms?
   4: What about those outfits in the malls that'll sell me my arms?
   5: What is the difference between a coat of arms and a crest?
   6: How do you blazon a coat of arms?
   7: What's the SCA? How does it relate to rec.heraldry?
   8: What do arms mean?
   9: How inviolable is the rule of tincture?
  10: Is the Court of Chivalry dead?
  11: What heraldic software is available?
  12: How do I unzip Blazons?
  13: Is there a computerised Ordinary available to download?
  14: Where can I find heraldic clip-art on the net?
  15: What are some books I can turn to to learn more?
  16: What tartan should I wear, and other tartan stuff.
  17: Addresses of national heraldic and genealogical associations.
  18: Distribution
 
1: What is rec.heraldry?
========================
 
The rec.heraldry newsgroup exists for the discussion of coats of arms, 
the work and history of heralds, and related topics such as flags, 
seals, ceremony and precedence.
 
 
2: What other newsgroups and mailing lists are there?
=====================================================
 
For genealogical matters, see the newsgroups soc.genealogy.* and 
alt.genealogy. For matters royal and aristocratic, there is alt.talk.royalty
 
For the SCA (see question 7) there are rec.org.sca and alt.heraldry.sca 
(although the latter group is badly propagated). There is also the 
mailing list SCAHRLDS@listserv.aol.com@listserv.aol.com.
More generally, the SCA's Web site is at http://www.sca.org.
 
There is a mailing list devoted to flags; this description was provided 
by its first maintainer:
 
  "The scope of the FLAGS mailing list is to create a worldwide, real-time
   updated database about all kinds of flags: (inter)national, (un)official,
   ethnical, political, religious, movements' flags; to discuss symbols
   and colours used on flags, in order to find common or unique
   meanings of them; and to gather informations about flags' history."
   If you want to subscribe, send a message to <flags-subscribe@yahoogroups.com>

The Flags of the World Web site is at <http://www.fotw.ca/flags/>
 
François Velde maintains a Web page at
   http://www.heraldica.org/
which contains articles on a number of interesting heraldic topics.

There are World Wide Web pages at 
     http://www2.ncsu.edu/eos/users/s/sfcallic/SCA/Heraldy.html
     http://www.tiac.net/staff/zach/east.html
     http://www2.ecst.csuchio.edu:80/~rodmur/sca/
which are fairly SCA oriented, but check them out; there is a lot of
real-world heraldry information as well. 

Another SCA resource is the Academy of Saint Gabriel, which provides 
consultation to Society members on choosing names and armory for Society 
use:
     http://www.s-gabriel.org/

The British Heraldic Archive WWW pages are at
   http://www.kwtelecom.com/heraldry/index.html
and contains information about the Heraldry Society, indices to "The Coat of 
Arms" and articles of interest.


3: How can I find my coat of arms or my family's coat of arms?
==============================================================
 
This is a difficult question to answer; it requires a great deal of
research and skill. 

In most countries in the world, you can bear any arms you want. This is the
way in which arms were originally adopted, before codification and
regulation by European heralds and rulers. 

However, many people consider it wrong to adopt someone else's arms. In some
countries, notably Scotland, this is not only dishonourable but illegal. 

In particular, there are no laws regulating the use of _non-governmental_
arms in the US.  The American government neither grants nor recognizes
armory.  You can adopt any arms you choose and use them however you want
(unless you infringe on someone's trademark, which is an entirely different
subject that has been beaten to death on this newsgroup so please don't ask
about it); but you have no particular right to those arms or any other. 

If you are descended from someone who was granted arms by some heraldic
authority then you may have some claim to those arms within the
jurisdiction of that authority. The chances are very good that you do not
have any claim on any actual arms. Most people in the world do not. 
Exactly what conditions you have to meet to establish such a claim vary
considerably from one country to another. At the very least, you will have
to prove that a recognized holder of the arms is your ancestor.  In some
countries, you would have to prove that you are the legal heir of that
person.  Getting an official recognition of your claim is likely to be
expensive and time-consuming; in England, for example, it costs thousands
of pounds. 

         *** Your last name has nothing to do with the matter. *** 

Arms are not associated with surnames, but with individuals and, in some
countries, with families. The important thing is who your ancestors are,
not what surname you happen to bear.  The fact that your name happens to be
"Smith", for example, gives you no claim whatsoever on any of the thousands
of arms borne throughout history by various people named "Smith." 

Unfortunately, there are lots of unscrupulous businessmen worldwide who are
happy to promulgate false information about the subject of armory.  They will
happily take your money to tell you "Your Family Arms", which they supply
simply by finding an armigerous family that happens to share your surname. 
We suggest that you avoid these companies; if you want anything more than a
decorative wall-hanging, they are a waste of your money.  And if you will
be happy with any pretty picture to hang on your wall, you can save
yourself the trouble of dealing with these companies, and simply choose
arms that you like. 

See also the MFAQ at: http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/mfaq
 
4: What about those outfits in the malls that'll sell me my arms?
=================================================================
 
See question 3.
 
"Unless you pay them thousands of dollars, the companies [in the malls, 
and in advertisements in many publications] won't do that research; 
they'll just look in their books under your surname, and tell you what's 
there.
 
All that will tell you is that there is (or once was) a person sharing 
Byour surname who bore arms. Suppose your name were "Jones"; it wouldn't 
be very significant to learn that there was once an English armiger 
named "Jones".
 
           - Josh Mittleman (mittle@panix.com)
 

5: What is the difference between a coat of arms and a crest?
=============================================================
 
Many people mistakenly call a shield bearing arms a crest, for example 
in the phrase "my family's crest", which usually refers to the shield 
itself, or perhaps a badge.
 
A full English coat of arms (an "achievement") consists of:
 
 - a shield (with arms painted on it, obviously);
 - above the shield, a helm or helmet;
 - hanging from the helm, the mantling, which represents a piece of 
   cloth used for protection from the sun. The mantling is frequently 
   arranged in decorative swirls around the shield, suggesting a tattered    
   cloth hacked about in fighting;
 - a torse, or wreath, being twists of cloth wound around the helmet;
 - the crest, sitting on the torse.
 
There may also be, if the bearer is entitled to them:
 
 - a supporter on each side of the shield (in some cases there may be 
   only one supporter);
 - a compartment for the supporters to stand on;
 - one or more collars of orders of knighthood surrounding the shield, 
   or symbols of office (eg batons) behind it.
 
Not all the elements have to be present; the essential part is the 
shield. There may also be other bits and pieces, such as mottos, badges 
or war cries.
 
Achievements in other countries frequently differ: for example the torse is
not very common on the continent, and coronets are commonly found in French 
heraldry.
 
Any book should have illustrations of many different achievements, with 
different selections of these elements.
 
 
6: How do you blazon a coat of arms?
====================================
 
Coats of arms are described in a technical language, devised over the 
centuries by heralds, with the aim of describing even the most complex 
coats concisely and unambiguously.
 
This language cannot be summarised usefully in the space of a FAQ. The 
books in the bibliography cover this in detail: those by Moncreiffe, 
Franklyn, Boutell (Brooke-Little) and Friar are particularly useful in 
my opinion.
 
 
7: What's the SCA? How does it relate to rec.heraldry?
======================================================
 
The SCA (Society for Creative Anachronism) is an international  
living-history society which researches and recreates many elements of 
medieval life, from battles to feasts. It has an active group of 
heralds, kings-of-arms and so on, who exercise considerable influence 
over the heraldry used in the SCA's activities.
 
There are other such groups, but the SCA is by far the largest.
 
Many SCA heralds participate in rec.heraldry, but please keep 
SCA-specific discussion in more appropriate fora (see question 2).
 
 
8: What do arms mean?
=====================
 
Without knowing the circumstances of the original grant, it is difficult 
to say whether a coat means anything at all, except that someone 
(grantee or herald) liked the design.
 
Some arms ("canting" arms) contain a charge whose name is related to the 
surname of the bearer (e.g. de Trumpington: Azure, crusily, two trumpets 
pileways Or). This can be taken to the extent of becoming a rebus 
puzzle -- the Borough of Congleton bears Sable, on water in base 
barry-wavy azure and argent, on a tun between two conger eels argent, a 
lion statant-guardant Or, which decodes to Conger-Leo-Tun.
 
In the Middle Ages, bestiaries, popular tales and folklore contributed 
greatly to the association of specific animals with specific characteristics 
or virtues, some of which persist to this day (owls are wise, elephants
have memory, etc).  It is quite possible, for any given coat, that the
original bearer chose an animal with such associations in mind. 
 
Often a coat will contain charges alluding to the original grantee's  
career or interests; for example medieval merchants and guildsmen often 
included the tools of their trade. These may become less appropriate as 
the coat is passed down through the generations, or their significance 
is forgotten. Quite elaborate schemes can be developed: a former
Governor General of New Zealand has a coat based on the theme "a cat 
among the pigeons", which is apparently how she sees her career.
 
Some charges were taken from the arms of a bearer's feudal lord or
protector as a mark of loyalty. For example, the Maltese cross in the 
arms of several towns in Switzerland is a reference to the Knights of 
Malta, who were once sovereign in that area.  The frequency with which 
the bar, a type of fish, appears in coats of arms of the former duchy 
of Bar in Eastern France can only be explained in this way.  Also, imperial 
eagles which appear in many Italian coats were originally meant as a sign 
of allegiance to the Imperial party in the conflicts which tore medieval Italy.
 
 
9: How inviolable is the rule of tincture?
==========================================
 
The "colours" used on shields are strictly called tinctures; there is a  
limited range which varies somewhat from place to place and time to 
time. These tinctures are divided into two groups: gold and silver, 
which are called the metals, and all the others, which are called the 
colours.
 
In Woodward's words, it is a "primary heraldic canon" that colour is 
not placed on colour, nor metal on metal. This rule was used to ensure 
that coats of arms could be easily recognised at a distance or in the 
heat of battle. 
 
It is commonly said that the arms of Jerusalem (Argent, a cross potent  
between four crosses Or) are the only counterexample. However, Woodward 
quotes several examples from continental heraldry in which the "rule" is 
broken: e.g. Grasse (Azure, ten stars Gules, 1, 2, 3 and 4) and Doro 
(Argent, a lion Or). Augmentations of honour sometimes breach the rule 
as well, and a chief of colour is often, especially in continental 
heraldry, placed on top of a simpler coat, giving an appearance of 
colour on colour.
 
What _is_ certain is that colour on colour or metal on metal is 
exceedingly uncommon or non-existent in English, French and Scottish 
heraldry, and that the Kings of Arms in Scotland and England would not 
grant such an arrangement today.
 
In other countries the rule is less rigidly followed, and in some, such 
as Hungary, colour on colour is very common. Most of the books in 
English reflect English or Scottish heraldic practice and ignore the 
heraldry of other nations.
 
 
10: Is the Court of Chivalry dead?
==================================
 
The Court of Chivalry is a leading contender for "flame-bait of the year"
award in rec.heraldry.

In mediaeval times heraldry was strictly regulated, and in England there 
was a Court of Chivalry to deal with heraldic jurisdiction. This court 
had a chequered history, going into abeyance more than once.
 
This English Court of Chivalry most recently sat in 1954, after a long 
period of disuse. During that judgement (a case of assumption of 
another's arms) it was declared that the Court should sit only in very 
exceptional circumstances. There have been changes in the English legal 
system since 1954 which would make it difficult for the Court to sit 
again without legislation. Notwithstanding this, the current (1994) 
Somerset Herald and Norroy and Ulster King of Arms have both stated 
their opinion that the Court could still sit.
 
The situation is quite different in Scotland: Lyon Court functions as it 
always has.
 
 
11: What heraldic software is available?
========================================

There are two Windows95 shareware progams, different in spite of similar names: 
(1) Blazon and Blazon95, written by Peter Barrett for educational purposes, are
available at <http://petebarrett.members.beeb.net/blazon.htm>.
(2) Blazons! written by Bob Billard, is available at <http://www.blazons.com/>.

For Macintosh,Steven Solomon has written a program called Heraldry Primer. 
It is shareware, and version 1.1 is available at 
<http://members.aol.com/grammarman/grammarstuff/aboutheraldry.html>.

12: How do I unzip Blazons?
===========================
 
This comes up very, very frequently.  There are lots of ways of doing this,
but this one at least works.  I'll use drive C:, substitute the letter of
your hard drive if necessary.
 
Step by step then: 
 
 - obtain the file BLAZONS.ZIP. If you FTP it yourself, remember to use
   binary mode .
 - move BLAZONS.ZIP into the ROOT directory of drive C:
 - obtain a copy of PKUNZIP.EXE, if you don't already have one. Put it
   in any directory on your path. Most people have a UTILS or UTILITY 
   directory.
 - type PKUNZIP -D BLAZONS (Enter)  The -D is critical: it forces pkunzip
   to create the correct directories.
 
 If all goes well, you will have a directory called BLAZONS, and in it several 
files, and a subdirectory called PICTS. You can now delete BLAZONS.ZIP, or
at least move it someplace more appropriate than the root directory.
 
Run the program from the BLAZONS directory. There is a documentation file
BLAZONS.DOC in that directory as well.
 
If the unzip operation fails check that:
 
  - you have a recent version of pkunzip.  Version 2.04g certainly works, so 
   should any later versions. Earlier versions MIGHT work.
  - you did ftp BLAXONS.ZIP in binary mode.
  - you remembered the -D switch.
 
 
13: Is there a computerised Ordinary available to download?
===========================================================
 
(An Ordinary is a reference book which lists shields of arms by the 
charges they contain, which obviously helps identify an unknown shield.)
 
The SCA has one, but it covers only SCA heraldry. It is available by ftp 
from:
 
   vela.acs.oakland.edu (141.210.10.2), /pub/heralds/armorials
   nimbus.gp.cs.cmu.edu (128.2.218.62), /usr/kvs/pub
 
Other SCA armorials can be searched from the Web pages mentioned in question
2.

 
14: Where can I find heraldic clip-art on the net?
==================================================
 
It is said that CorelDraw versions 4 through 7 has some heraldic clip-art.  
Also, there are some links to clip-art at 
<http://digiserve.com/heraldry/clipart.htm>.
 
15: What are some books I can turn to to learn more?
====================================================
 
The following are a few of the many books on heraldry and the work of 
heralds. The list is specifically aimed at the beginner, but includes 
the most often quoted references (Papworth, Woodward, Fairbairn).
 
See also the annotated bibliography at <http://www.heraldica.org/biblio/>.

Heraldry books can be hard to track down. One very good source is:
  
   Heraldry Today, Parliament Piece, Ramsbury, Wiltshire SN8 2QH, ENGLAND.
 
Get to know your local second-hand book dealer too!
 
Bedingfeld, H. and Gwynn-Jones, P.  _Heraldry_. London, Magna Books, 1993.
 
Boutell, C. (Revised J.P. Brooke-Little) _Boutell's Heraldry_. London, 
1863 (latest edition 1983).
 
Brooke-Little, J.P. _An Heraldic Alphabet_. London, 1973 (revised 
edition 1985).
 
Burke, Sir Bernard. _The General Armory of England, Ireland, Scotland 
and Wales_. Heraldry Today, first printed 1842; final edition 1884; 
reprinted 1984.
 
Dennys, R. _The Heraldic Imagination_. London, 1975.
 
Dennys, R. _Heraldry and the Heralds_. London, 1982.
 
Elvin, C.N. _A Dictionary of Heraldry_. Heraldry Today, 1889; reprinted 
1977.
 
Evans, I.O. _The Observer's Book of Flags_. Fredrick Warne and Co., 
London, 1975.
 
Fairbairn, J. _Fairbairn's Book of Crests of the Families of Britain and 
Ireland_. 1905, reprinted 1983.
 
Fox-Davis, A.C. (revised and annotated J.P. Brooke-Little). _A Complete
Guide to Heraldry_. London, 1909; revised edition 1985.
 
Franklyn, J. _Shield and Crest_. MacGibbon and Kee, London, 1960; 
revised edition 1967.
 
Friar, S. (ed) _A New Dictionary of Heraldry_. Alphabooks, London, 1987.
 
Friar, S. and Ferguson, J. _Basic Heraldry_. Herbert Press, London, 1993.
 
MacKinnon, C. _The Observer's Book of Heraldry_. Fredrick Warne and Co, 
London.
 
Moncreiffe, Sir Iain, and Pottinger, D. _Simple Heraldry_. London, 1953.
 
Neubecker, O. _Heraldry: Symbols, Sources and Meaning_. London, 1976.
 
Papworth, J. _Ordinary of British Armorials: An Alphabetical Dictionary 
of Coats of Arms Belonging to Families in Great Britain & Ireland_. 
Heraldry Today, Bath 1884, reprinted 1977.
 
Scott-Giles, C.W. _The Romance of Heraldry_. London, revised edition 1967.
 
von Volborth, C.A. _Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles_. Poole, 1981.
 
von Volborth, C.A. (ed. D.H.B. Chesshyre) _Heraldry of the World_. 
London, 1973.
 
Wagner, Sir Anthony. _Heraldry in England_. London, 1946.
 
Woodcock, T. and Robinson, J.M. _The Oxford Guide to Heraldry_. OUP, 
Oxford, 1988.
 
    [An excellent general introduction, with much material not 
    found in the other introductions listed here, but much more 
    reliable on English heraldry than any other countries]
 
Woodward, J. and Burnett, G.A. _Treatise on Heraldry, British and 
Foreign_. 1891, reprinted 1969, with new introduction by L.G. Pine, 
Charles E Tuttle Co., Rutland, Vermont.
 
A very large and scholarly bibliography of heraldic references was 
compiled by David Sanders (ae766@yfn.ysu.edu). It covers the entire 
world,  and several centuries. It is available for anonymous FTP
in ZIP format from ftp.heraldica.org as /pub/heraldry/faqs/sanders.zip
(alternate URL <http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/sanders.zip>).
 
 
16: Which tartan should I wear, and other tartan stuff.
======================================================
 
This subject frequently rears its head in rec.heraldry; it is however well
off charter!
 
More appropriate newsgroups are soc.culture.scottish, soc.culture.celtic, 
and alt.scottish.clans (which is badly propagated).
 
Just remember that there is even more nonsense talked about tartan than is
talked about heraldry. 
 
 
17: Addresses of national heraldic and genealogical associations.
=================================================================
 
The following are addresses of heraldic associations and authorities.
 
Only national associations are listed; there are numerous local and 
regional societies in many countries and the national societies should be 
able to put you in touch with them.

Some of these are undoubtedly out of date.  PLease forward any corrections
to the FAQ-keeper.
 
Australia (current as of 1/2006):
 
   Heraldry Australia Inc.
   C/- Stephen M Szabo
   Hon. Secretary
   PO Box 107
   Lawson  NSW  2783
   Australia
   heraldry_aust@optusnet.com.au
   http://members.optusnet.com.au/~gold_gryph/heraldry/index.htm

 
   The Armorial & Heraldry Society of Australasia Inc.
   PO Box 352
   World Trade Centre
   Melbourne, VIC 3005

   The Honourable Company of Armigers Inc. (Australian Chapter)
   The Chancellor
   PO Box 11
   Armadale, Vic
   Australia 3143
   home page http://expage.com/page/armigers

   South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society Inc.
   GPO Box 592
   Adelaide, SA 5001
   Australia
   home page http://saghs.mtx.net/

   Heraldry & Genealogical Society of  Canberra
   GPO Box 585, Canberra, ACT 2601
   Australia
   home page http://www.hagsoc.org.au/

Austria:
 
   Heraldisch-Genealogische Gesellschaft "Adler"
   Universitätsstraße 6, Flat 9b, A-1096 Vienna
   email: society.adler.vienna@chello.at 
   (they give advice on genealogical and heraldic research)
 
Belgium:
 
   Association Royale Office Généalogique et Héraldique de Belgique
       Avenue Charles Thielemans, 93
       B -1150 Bruxelles
       Tél. et Fax: 02 / 772.50.27
       http://www.oghb.org/home.htm 

   Vlaamse Vereniging voor Familiekunde
       The VVF has a "Heraldic College" that registers arms:
       http://users.skynet.be/sky60754/familiekunde/vvf/vvfheraldcollege.htm
 
Canada:

  Canadian Heraldic Authority
  Rideau Hall
  1 Sussex Drive
  Ottawa, ON
  K1A 0A1
  http://www.gg.ca/heraldry/index_e.asp

  Royaly Heraldry Society of Canada
  P.O. Box 8128
  Terminal T
  Ottawa, ON
  K1G 3H9
  Canada
  http://www.heraldry.ca
 
Denmark:

   (local branch of Societas Heraldica Scandinavica)
   Heraldisk Selskab, Koebenhavn
   c/o Steen Zangenberg, Vasevej 10B, DK 2840 Holte, Danmark
   http://www.heraldik.org/hsdk.html

   Nordisk Flaggselskap [society] & Nordisk Flaggskrift [journal]
   c/o Lisbeth Stilling (secretary)
   Stilling Flag
   Sorgenfrivej 14
   DK Lyngby
   Denmark
   Web site: http://w1.150.telia.com/~u15003985/nordflagg/
   E-mail: Stilling@danbbs.dk
 
England and Wales:
 
   The College of Arms,
   Queen Victoria Street, London, EC4V 4BT.
          Web site:  http://www.college-of-arms.gov.uk/

   The Heraldry Society,
   PO Box 32, Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 3FD
      Web site:  www.kwtelecom.com/heraldry/hersoc

 
   Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies,
   Northgate, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1BA.
	Web site: http://www.ihgs.ac.uk/
 
Finland:
 
   Suomen Heraldinen Seura / Heraldiska Sällskapet i Finland 
   The Heraldry Society of Finland
   P.O. Box 48
   FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland
 
   Genealogiska Samfundet i Finland
   Elisabetsgatan 16 A
   FIN-00170 Helsingfors, Finland

France:
 
   Fédération Française de Généalogie
   Histoire des Familles, Héraldique, Sigillographie
   3 rue de Turbigo - 75001 Paris
   tel : +(33) 1 40 13 00 88 
   fax : +(33) 1 40 13 00 89
 
   La Société Française D'Héraldique et de Sigillographie,
   60, rue des Francs-Bourgeois, 75003, Paris.
 
   La Société du Grand Armorial de France,
   179, Boulevard Haussman, Paris.

   Conseil Français d'Héraldique 
   http://www.karolus.org/org/assoc/as-fr/as-fr-na/h-cfh.htm
   c/o Dr Jean-Marie THIÉBAUD 
     30, rue de la République 
     B.P. 181 
     25303 PONTARLIER CEDEX 

Germany:
 
   Der Herold,
   Archivstraße 12-14, D-14196, Berlin (Dahlem) 33.
 
   Genealogisch-Heraldische Gesellschaft,
   Postfach 2062, D-37010, Göttingen.
 
   Wappen Herold,
   Deutsche Heraldische Gesellschaft
   Postfach 556, D-7000,
   Stuttgart 1.
 
Hungary: (tentative)
 
   Magyar Heraldikai es Geneologiai Tarsasag
   Elte University of Budapest, Budapest, v. Pesti Barnabas Utca 1.
 
Iceland:
 
   Icelandic Heraldry Society,
   Bolstadarhild 16, Reykjavic.
 
International:
 
   Académie Internationale d'Héraldique,
   4 bis, Bvd de Glatigney, F-78000, Versailles, France.
 
   Confédération Internationale de Généalogie et d'Héraldique,
   24, rue St-Louis-en-l'ile, 75004 Paris, France.
 
   International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Studies,
   Harmignies, Rue Martin Lindehens, 57, B-1150 Bruxelles,
   Belgium.
 
   International Fellowship of Armorists (Heraldry International),
   Werastr. 105, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, West Germany.
 
   International Genealogical Institute,
   Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints,
   50 East Smith Temple St, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
 
Ireland:
 
   The Chief Herald of Ireland's Office,
   2 Kildare St, Dublin.
 
   The Heraldry Scoiety of Ireland,
   Castle Matrix, Rathkeale, Co. Limerick.
 
Italy:
 
   Aradico Collegio,
   16 Via Santa Maria dell'Anima, Roma.
 
   Istituto Italiano di Genealogia ed Araldica,
   Palazzo della Scimma, 18 Via dei Portohesi, Roma.
 
Japan:
 
   The Heraldry Society of Japan,
   3-88-26 Higashi Toyonaka, Toyonaka, Osaka.
 
Luxemburg:
 
   Conseil Héraldique de Luxembourg,
   25 Rue Bertholet.
    
   The Luxembourg Society of Genealogy and Heraldry
   P.O.Box 118
   L-7502 Mersch
   Luxembourg
   Web site: http://www.luxembourg.co.uk/genealog.html
 
Netherlands:
 
   Koninklijk Nederlandsch Genootschap voor Geslacht- en Wapenkunde,
   5 Bleijenburg, Den Haag.
   Web site: http://www.knggw.nl/index.html
 
   Central Bureau voor Genealogie,
   PO Box 11755, 2502 The Hague.
   Web site: http://www.cbg.nl/hoofd.htm
       The Bureau has a registry of Dutch coat of arms
 
New Zealand:
 
   The Heraldry Society of New Zealand,
   60 Sayegh St, St Heliers, Auckland.
 
   The Heraldry Society (New Zealand Branch),
   PO Box 68-051, Newton, Auckland.
   Web site: http://www.geocities.com/heraldry_society/
 
Norway:
 
   Norsk Heraldisk Forening,
   PO Box 958-Oslo Sentrum, N-0104 Oslo 1
 
   Den Norske Våpenring
   c/o Cappelen
   P.O.Box 1633 Vika, N-0119 Oslo
 
   Norsk Slekthistorik Forening,
   P.O.Box 59 Sentrum, N-101 Oslo
 
Poland:
 
   Polskie Towarzystwo Heraldyczne
  (The Polish Heraldic Society)
   Rynek Starego Miasta 29/31
   PL 00-272 Warszawa, POLSKA (=Warsaw, POLAND)
   tel.(48-22) 831 02 61, fax (48-22) 831 36 42
 
   Polen

   Polish Genealogy and Heraldry Society
   Wodna 27, Palac Gorkow
   61-781 Poznan 
   Web site: http://feehs.org/pol/frg-pghs.html

Portugal:
 
  Institutio Portuges de Heraldica
  Convento do Carmo, Largo do carmo, P-1200 Lisboa.

Scandinavia:

   Societas Heraldica Scandinavica
   c/o Steen Clemmensen (secretary)
   Bybækpark 36
   DK 3520 Farum
   Denmark
   Web site: http://www.heraldik.org/
   E-mail: heraldik@heraldik.org
   Webmaster: Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard (e-mail: webmaster@heraldik.org)
 
Scotland:
 
   Lord Lyon King of Arms, and the Court of Lord Lyon,
   H.M. New Register House, Edinburgh EH1 3YT.
 
   The Heraldry Society of Scotland,
   25 Craientinny Cres., Edinburgh EH7 6QA.
   Web site: http://www.heraldry-scotland.co.uk/
 
   The Scottish Genealogy Society
   15 Victoria Terrace
   Edinburgh, EH1 2JL
   Web site: http://www.scotsgenealogy.com/


 
South Africa:
 
   The address of the South African Heraldic authority is:
	
	The State Herald
	Bureau of Heraldry
	Private Bag X236 
	Pretoria
	0001

	Tel : +27-12-323-5300
	Fax : +27-12-323-5287

   The Heraldry Society of Southern Africa,
   PO Box 81011, Parkhurst 2120..

Spain: (as of 1997)

      Exc.mo Sr D. Alfonso de Ceballos-Escalera y Gil, Marques de la Floresta
      Cronista de Armas de Castila y Leon
      Quintana 28
      Madrid 28008
      SPAIN
 
Sweden:

Swedish state herald: 

   Henrik Klackenberg
   Riksarkivet - Heraldiska sektionen
   Box 12 541
   S - 102 29  Stockholm
   http://www.ra.se/-RA/heraldik.htm

There are two heraldry societies, the larger one (300 members)
is the Svenska Heraldiska Föreningen, the smaller one (60 members)
is Heraldiska Samfundet.  

   Svenska Heraldiska Föreningen (Heraldry Society of Sweden)
   Jesper Wasling, Secretary 
   Sämgatan 10
   S - 507 45 Borås
   e-mail: jesper@heraldik.se 
   http://www.heraldik.se 

      Other contacts:
      Henric Åsklund, Chairman 
      Ekoxevägen 9
      S - 247 35 Södra Sandby
      e-mail: henrik@heraldik.se 


   Heraldiska Samfundet
   c/o Per Nordenvall 
   Börjegatan 8 B
   S - 753 13  Uppsala 
   e-mail c/o ERIC BYLANDER: eb@mensa.se 
   http://www.heraldik.se/hs 

   Skandinavisk Vapenrulla (SVR) (Scandinavian Roll of Arms)
   http://www.hem.fyristorg.com/monitorförlaget/svr.html
   c/o Tor Flensmarck 
   Graagården i Vä
   S - 291 65  Kristianstad 
   (Also editor for Vapenbilden, magazine for the Heraldry Society of Sweden)
 
   Svenska Nationalkommitten for Genealogi och Heraldik,
   Bernadottebiblioteket
   Kungliga, Slottet
   S-111 30, Stockholm.
   (This is the address of the royal family's library)
 
   
   Västra Sveriges Heraldiska Sällskap,
   Förtroligheten 4,   S - 412 70  Göteborg.
   or: Tanneskarsgatan 277, S - 421 60  Västra Frölunda.
   (not active at present, I am told)

   Riddarhuset
   Box 2022
   S - 103 11  Stockholm
   http://www.riddarhuset.se
   (The noble house of Sweden, assembly of the nobility)

   Genealogiska Föreningen (Genealogical Society)
   Box 2029, S - 103 11  Stockholm

 
Switzerland:
 
   Heraldische Schweizersche Gesellschaft,
   Luzern, Lutzelmasstraße, 4.
 
United States of America:
 
   New England Historic Genealogical Society,  
   99-101 Newbury Street, Boston, MA 02116.
 
   North American Institute of Heraldic and Flag Studies,
   North Planet Road, Box 88, Boston, MA 02666.
 
   American College of Heraldry,
   1836 Ashley River Road, Suite 396, Charleston, SC 29407-4817
   http://www.americancollegeofheraldry.org/

   American Heraldry Society
   8104 Mansanillo Ct
   Arlington, TX 76002
   http://heraldrysociety.us/
 
   The Augustan Society Inc,
   1510 Cravens Avenue, Torrance, CA 90501.
   Web site: http://www.augustansociety.org/
 
   Genealogical and Heraldic Institute of America,
   111 Colombia Heights, Brooklyn, NY 11201.
 
   National Genealogical Society,
   4527 17th St. North, Arlington, VA 22207-2363.
 
18: Distribution:
================
 
The document is posted to rec.heraldry at the beginning of each month.  
The latest version is available for anonymous ftp at 
ftp://ftp.heraldica.org/pub/heraldry/faqs/heraldry.faq
or
http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/heraldry.faq
 
This document is a compilation of material from many sources and readers of
rec.heraldry.  Please feel free to redistribute it any way you like.

-- 
  François R. Velde
  velde@nospam.org  (replace by "heraldica")
  Heraldica Web Site: http://www.heraldica.org/

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