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Graphics File Formats FAQ (Part 3 of 4): Where to Get File Format Specifications

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Last-modified: 20Jan97

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Graphics File Formats FAQ (Part 3 of 4): Where to Get File Format
Specifications

------------------------------

This FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) list contains information on
graphics file formats, including, raster, vector, metafile, Page
Description Language, 3D object, animation, and multimedia formats.

This FAQ is divided into four parts, each covering a different area of
graphics file format information:

  Graphics File Formats FAQ (Part 1 of 4): General Graphics Format Questions
  Graphics File Formats FAQ (Part 2 of 4): Image Conversion and Display Programs
  Graphics File Formats FAQ (Part 3 of 4): Where to Get File Format Specifications
  Graphics File Formats FAQ (Part 4 of 4): Tips and Tricks of the Trade

Please email contributions, corrections, and suggestions about this FAQ to
jdm@ora.com. Relevant information posted to newsgroups will not
automatically make it into this FAQ.

-- James D. Murray


Subject: 0. Contents of Where to Get File Format Specifications Subjects marked with <NEW> are new to this FAQ. Subjects marked with <UPD> have been updated since the last release of this FAQ. I. General questions about this FAQ 0. Maintainer's Comments 1. What's new in this latest FAQ release? II. Where to Get File Format Specifications 3DMF - QuickDraw 3D Metafile 3DS - Autodesk 3D Studio ABF - Adobe Binary Screen Font ADI - AutoCAD Device-Independent Binary Plotter Format AFM - Adobe Font Metrics File Format AI - Adobe Illustrator File Format ART - Another Ray Tracer Atari ST Graphics File Formats AVS - Application Visualization System AWD - Microsoft Fax At Work Document BDF - Adobe Glyph Bitmap Distribution Format BIN - SGI Powerflip BMP - Windows Bitmap Format BRender BRL-CAD - Ballistic Research Laboratory CAD BUFR - Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological Data BYU - BYU Movie CAD-3D CALS - Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support Raster Format CAM - Casio Camera CCITT - CCITT Group 3 and Group 4 Encoding CDF - Common Data Format CDF - Cyberspace Description Format CDL - CADKey CADL Language CGM - Computer Graphics Metafile CIF CMP - LeadView CMU - Carnegie Mellon University Formats COB - Calgari trueSpace2 File Format CXS Cyberware DEM - Digital Elevation Model DGN - Microstation DKB - DKB-Trace DLG - Digital Line Graph DPX - Digital Moving Picture Exchange DRW - Micrografx Designer/Draw Plus Format DWB - Coryphaeus Software Designers Workbench DWG - Autodesk drawing DXF - Autodesk Drawing eXchange Format EMF - Microsoft Enhanced Metafile ENFF - Extended Neutral File Format EPS - Encapsulated PostScript FACT FBM - Fuzzy Bitmap FFIVW - File Format for the Interchange of Virtual Worlds FITS - Flexable Image Transport System FLASHPIX FLT - MultiGen Flight GDS - McDonnell-Douglas Things GFO - SGI Radiosity GIF - Graphics Interchange Format GKS - Graphics Kernel System GrADS - Metafile GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation GRIB - Gridded Binary HDF - Hierarchical Data Format HDS - Hierarchical Data System HPGL - Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language HPPCL - Hewlett-Packard Printer Control Language HRF - Hitachi Raster Format IFF - Electronic Arts Interchange File Format IGES - Initial Graphics Exchange Specification IM - Performer IMA - Zenographics Mirage Graphics File Format IMJ - Image JPEG INGR - Intergraph Raster File Format IRTP - Graphicon-2000 Interactive Real-Time PHIGS IV - SGI Inventor IV-VRML - Inventor VRML Format JBIG - Joint Bilevel Image Group JCAMP JFIF - JPEG File Interchange Format LSA/LSB - Lightscape Technologies ASCII and Binary LWOB - Lightwave Object Format MedFileS MGF - Materials and Geometry Format MIFF - Magick Image File Format MNG - Multiple Network Graphics MSDL - Manchester Scene Description Language MTL - Wavefront NAPLPS - North American Presentation Layer Protocol Syntax netCDF - Network Common Data Format NFF - Haines Neutral File Format NFF - WorldToolKit Neutral File Format NITF - National Imagery Transmission Format OBJ - Wavefront Object ODIF - Open Document Interchange Format ODL - Object Description Language OFF - Object File Format OpenMath PBM - Portable Bitmap PCX - ZSoft Paint PDF - Portable Document Format PDS - Planetary Data System Format PGM - Portable Greymap PHD - PolyHedra Database PIC - Lotus PIC Graphics Format PIC - Micrografx Draw! Graphics Format PIC - Pegasus Imaging Corporation Format PIC - Video Show Graphics Format PICT - Macintosh Picture PIX - Inset Pix PLY - ZipPack PNG - Portable Network Graphics PPM - Portable Pixmap POL - InnovMetric Software Polygon Models Format POV - Persistence of Vision Raytracing PS - PostScript PSD - Adobe Photoshop PTU - Performer Terrain Utilities QT - QuickTime QTVR - QuickTime VR RAD - Radience RAS - Sun Rasterfile RAW - Photoshop RAW RAY - Rayshade RFT-DCA - Revisable-Form Text Document Content Architecture RIB - Renderman Interface Bytestream RIFF - Microsoft Resource Interchange File Format RIX - ColoRIX Image File RTF - Rich Text Format RWX - MEME Shape File RWX - Criterion RenderWare S1K - S1000 Simnet Format SAF - Standard Archive Format SAIF - Spatial Archive Interchange Format SAT - ACIS Scene Scitex HandShake Formats SCN - SCeNe RTrace SDL - Alias Wavefront Scene Description Language SDML - Spacial Data Modeling Language SDTS - Spatial Data Transfer Standard SFF - Scene File Format SGI - Silicon Graphics Image File Format SHG - Segmented Hyper-Graphic Softimage SPIFF - Still Picture Interchange File Format STL - Stereolithography Interface Format TDDD - Imagine Object File Format TGA - Truevision (Targa) File Format TIFF - Tag Image File Format TRIF - Tiled Raster Interchange Format TTF - TrueType Font Type 42 Font Format URT - Utah Raster Toolkit VCA - Visual Clip Art VICAR - Video Image Communication and Retrieval VIFF - Visualization Image File Format VIT - VITec Scanner Raster Format VPF - Vector Product Format VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language WebOOGL - Web Object Oriented Graphics Library WMF - Windows Meta File WPG - WordPerfect Graphics Metafile X3D - x3d and xdart Formats XBM - X BitMap XOF - RenderMorphics XPM - X PixMap WSQ - Wavelet-packet Scalar Quantization Format XWD - X Window Dump III. Document Sources 0. U.S. Government and Military Standards Sources 1. International Standards Document Sources 2. Commercial Document Sources 3. Other Standards Sources IV. Kudos and Assertions 0. Acknowledgments 1. About The Author 2. Disclaimer 3. Copyright Notice
Subject: I. General questions about this FAQ
Subject: 0. Maintainer's Comments One of the reasons you are looking through this FAQ collection is most likely to locate the specification for one or more graphics file formats. That assumption on my part makes this file one of the most important parts of the Graphics File Formats FAQ collection. I therefore wish to make this section as complete as possible. If you have any suggestions for formats to include then please email me at jdm@ora.com and let me know!
Subject: 1. What's new in this latest FAQ release? o Many URLs updated o Updated MNG and PNG (thanks Tom)
Subject: II. Where to Get File Format Specifications This section contains an alphabetical listing of file formats, the names of the creators/caretakers, and where to obtain the official specifications, and a brief description of each format. If you are searching for detailed information on the internals of a file format, then I suggest you check out the resources listed here, and have a look at the books and journals articles listed in Part 1 of this FAQ. Each format section contains a common header that is a quick reference to the file format. Type: Bitmap, Vector, Metafile, 3D, VRML, general data, PDL, multimedia Extension: File extension(s) or type Version: Latest version number Compression: All supported compression methods Color Depth: Pixel depth and maximum number of colors supported Maintainer: Who created and/or maintains the format Specification: Where to get a copy of the format
Subject: 3DMF - QuickDraw 3D Metafile Type: 3D Extension: 3DMF Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Apple Computer Specification: http://product.info.apple.com/qd3d/3DMFspec.HTML http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/files/3DMF.pdf Apple's 3D Metafile is a format used for the storage and interchange of 3D data.
Subject: 3DS - Autodesk 3D Studio Type: 3D Extension: 3ds Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Autodesk Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_3ds.html http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_3DS_details.html http://homepage.eznet.net/~frac/3dsform.txt 3DS is the native file format of Autodesk's 3D Studio program. 3D Studio is an interactive 3D modeling, rendering and animation package from the makers of AutoCAD. 3DStudio runs under MS-DOS and is used to create three-dimensional, photo-realistic images for a variety of applications. You can find Autodesk's home page and ftp site at: http://www.autodesk.com/ ftp://ftp.autodesk.com/ Other 3D Studio Web pages include: http://homepage.eznet.net/~frac/3ds.html FRiC's 3D Studio Web Page http://www.armory.com/~gandalf/3dsfaq.html 3DS Interactive FAQ http://www.det.mun.ca/staff/gporter/3dsfaq.htm 3D Studio FAQ And other 3D Studio information can be found on the comp.graphics.packages.3dstudio Usenet newsgroup.
Subject: ABF - Adobe Binary Screen Font Type: bitmap font Extension: abf Version: 2.0 Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/5006.ABF_Spec.pdf ABF is Adobe Systems' binary screen font format. ABF is, in fact, the binary version of the Adobe's ASCII-based Glyph Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF). Each ABF file is a sequence of 8-, 16-, or 32-bit words in either big- or little-endian order. Each file stores information for one font. The specification for the ABF format is: Adobe Binary Screen Font Files Specification (Version 2.0), Adobe Developer Support, 31 March 1992, P/N LPS5006. This document available via FTP as a Tech Note in PostScript format, or as hardcopy when obtained directly from Adobe (see the PostScript section for information on how to contact Adobe Systems, Inc.).
Subject: ADI - AutoCAD Device-Independent Binary Plotter Format Type: Vector Extension: adi Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Autodesk Specification: ADI is a plotter file format generated by AutoCAD. They are rendered as monochome bitmaps when viewed on a display. Information on ADI may be found in the AutoCAD Installation and Performance Guide.
Subject: AFM - Adobe Font Metrics File Format Type: font metric Extension: afm Version: 4.0 Compression: None Color Depth: N/A Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/DeveloperSupport/TechNotes/PSfiles/5004.AFM_Spec.ps AFM is Adobe's ASCII-based file format used for storing font metric data as human-readable data. AFM is the standard Adobe font file format. This format is also known as the Adobe Multiple Font Metrics (AMFM) and Adobe Composite Font Metrics (ACFM) file formats. In fact, AFM, AMFM, and ACFM are actually three variations of the same format. AFM files contain base or composite font information. One AFM file is used per master design of a font. AMFM files store control and global font information for a group of AFM files. And ACFM files contain the global metrics of the composite font program. The specification for the AFM format is: Adobe Font Metrics File Format Specification (Version 4.0), Adobe Developer Support, 14 February 1992, P/N LPS5004. This document available via FTP as a Tech Note in PostScript format, or as hardcopy when obtained directly from Adobe (see the PostScript section for information on how to contact Adobe Systems, Inc.).
Subject: AI - Adobe Illustrator File Format Type: Metafile Extension: ai Version: 3.0 Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/5007.AI_Spec_v3.0_Draft.pdf Native file format of Adobe Illustrator. AI is actually a varitaion of the Adobe Encapsulated PostScirpt (EPS) format.
Subject: ART - Another Ray Tracer Type: 3D Extension: art Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Tom Wilson &lttwilson@sunny5.dab.ge.com&gt Specification: Native file format of the RAT (Another Ray Tracer) ray tracing package included with the VORT ray tracing package.
Subject: Atari ST Graphics File Formats Type: Bitmap and animation Extension: .ANI, .ANM, .CE?, .FLM, .NEO, .PAC, .PC?, .PI?, .RGB, .SEQ, .TNY, .TN?, .UC? Version: Variuos Compression: None, RLE Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: The primary graphics file format of the Atari ST system is the Electronic Arts Interchange File Format (IFF). However, a collection of poorly documented image file formats native to the Atari ST computer do exist as well. These formats are used primarily for storing still-images, animations, and screen dumps. The Computer Eyes Raw Data Format (.CE1, .CE2), Imagic File/Picture Format (.IC1, .IC2, .IC3), NEOchrome Format (.NEO), RGB Intermediate Format (.RGB), STAD Format (.PAC), Tiny Format (.TNY, .TN1, .TN2, .TN3) are bitmap file formats. The Animatic File Format (.ANM), Cyber Paint Sequence Format (.SEQ), DEGAS Format (.PI1, PI2, .PI3, .PC1, .PC2, .PC3), and NEOchrome Animation Format (.ANI) are animation file formats. There seems to be no official documentation for most of these formats. The document, "Atari ST Picture Formats", by David M. Baggett <dmb@ai.mit.edu> does seem to be the definitive reference. You can find it at: ftp://atari.archive.umich.edu/.../picfmts.doc You may also find information on Atari ST formats on the comp.sys.atari.st Usenet newsgroup, and on the following Web sites: Dan's Atari ST Web Pages http://newton.ex.ac.uk/general/ug/jones/ Atari ST FAQ http://www.smartpages.com/faqs/csas-faq/top.html
Subject: AVS - Application Visualization System Type: 3D Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: AVS is a package that allows non-programmers to build visualization applications for scientific and engineering problem solving. Have a look at the Introduction to AVS page at http://www.bion.kth.se/~pgr/AVS/howToStart.html The AVS home page and FTP site may be found at: http://iac.ncsc.org/ ftp://avs.ncsc.org/
Subject: AWD - Microsoft Fax At Work Document Type: Bitmap Extension: AWD Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: AWD is an OLE compound object file that stores bilevel facsimile data. The compression algorithm used by AWD is not published, but it is based on CCITT Group 4. The format of OLE compound object files also seems not to be published, but there much OLE information available: http://www.microsoft.com/oledev/oleocx/ole11.htm OLE Control and Control Container Guidelines, Version 1.1
Subject: BDF - Adobe Glyph Bitmap Distribution Format Type: Bitmap font Extension: bdf Version: 2.2 Compression: None Color Depth: 1-bit Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/DeveloperSupport/TechNotes/PSfiles/5005.BDF_Spec.ps BDF is an ASCII-based file format used to store Adobe screen fonts as human-readable data. The BDF sister format, ABF, stores the same font data using a binary format. This format was previously known as the Character Bitmap Distribution Format, but was renamed to the Glyph Bitmap Distribution Format to bring the format's name into agreement with current industry terminology. The specification for the BDF format is: Glyph Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF) Specification (Version 2.2), Adobe Developer Support, 22 March 1993, P/N LPS5005. This document available via FTP as a Tech Note in PostScript format, or as hardcopy when obtained directly from Adobe (see the PostScript section for information on how to contact Adobe Systems, Inc.).
Subject: BIN - SGI Powerflip Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: BMP - Windows Bitmap Format Type: Bitmap Extension: BMP Version: Compression: RLE Color Depth: 1- to 24-bit Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: BMP is the native bitmap file format of the Microsoft Windows environment. It efficiently stores mapped or unmapped RGB graphics data with pixels 1-, 4-, 8-, or 24-bits in size. Data may be stored raw or compressed using a 4-bit or 8-bit RLE data compression algorithm. BMP is an excellent choice for a simple bitmap format which supports a wide range of RGB image data. There is not single document that is the official &quotBMP Format Specification&quot. Instead, BMP information is spread over several programming references. You can search the Microsoft Developers Network CD-ROMs and the Microsoft Knowledge Base (available at ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/ and http://www.microsoft.com/), but your best source of BMP information lies outside of Microsoft and within the following references: Inside Windows File Formats, Tom Swan, Sams Publishing 1993. ISBN 0-672-30338-8 $24.95 softcover, 337 pages and 1 disk (3.5 in.). Order: Sams Publishing, 2201 West 103rd Street, Indianapolis, IN 46290 Luse, Marv. "The BMP File Format," Dr. Dobb's Journal, #219 September 1994 (Vol 9, Issue 10), pp. 18-22. The BMP File Format: Part I, Dr. Dobb's Journal, David Charlap, #228 March 1995 (Vol. 20, Issue 3). The BMP File Format: Part II, Dr. Dobb's Journal, David Charlap, #229 April 1995 (Vol. 20, Issue 4). The code for the above issues are available at: ftp://ftp.mv.com/pub/ddj/1994/1994.09/ ftp://ftp.mv.com/pub/ddj/1995/1995.03/ Also have a look at: http://www.r2m.com/windev/ Internet Resources for Windows Developers And look in the OS/2 Developer Connection SDK for OS/2 BMP information.
Subject: BRender Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: BRL-CAD - Ballistic Research Laboratory CAD Type: Bitmap, 3D, and general data Extension: .pix, .bw Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: The BRL-CAD Package is a powerful Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) based solid modeling system. BRL-CAD consists of over 100 different programs, including an interactive geometry editor, a ray tracing library, two ray-tracing based lighting models, a generic framebuffer library, a network-distributed image-processing and signal-processing capability, and a large collection of related tools and utilities. Release 4.0 is the latest version of software which has been undergoing continuous development since 1979. The BRL-CAD documentation is distributed in five volumes: Volue I The BRL-CAD Philosophy Volue II The BRL-CAD User's Manual Volue III The BRL-CAD Applications Manual Volue IV The MGED User's Manual Volue V The BRL-CAD Analyst's Manual To obtain a copy of this documentation, contact: BRL-CAD Distribution Attn: SCLBR-LV-V Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 Email: keith@brl.mil For general information about BRL-CAD, contact: BRL-CAD Architect Attn: Mike Muuss U.S. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5068 Email: mike@brl.mil Additional BRL-CAD information may be found at: BRL-CAD Home Page http://web.arl.mil/software/brlcad/index.html BRL-CAD Technical Reports http://web.arl.mil/reports/
Subject: BUFR - Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological Data Type: General data Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: World Meteorological Organization Specification: BUFR is a data format used to store quantiative meteorological data. BUFR is described in the documents: Guide to the WMO Code Form FM 94-IX EXT. BUFR, W. Thorpe, Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, Monterey, California. Standard Formats for Weather Data Exchange Among Automated Weather Information Systems, Document Number FCM-S2-1990. Documents and information on BUFR are available from: U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Attn: Ms. Lena Loman Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) 6010 Executive Blvd, Suite 900 Rockville, MD 20852 Voice: 301.443.8704 U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Attn: Dr. John D. Stackpole Chief, Production Management Branch, Automation Division National Meteorological Center WINMC42, Room 307, WWB 5200 Auth Road Camp Springs, MD 20746 Voice: 301.763.8115 Fax: 301.763.8381 Email: jstack@sun1.wwb.noaa.gov BUFR, the WMO standard for point data http://dao.gsfc.nasa.gov/data_stuff/formatPages/BUFR.html
Subject: BYU - BYU Movie Type: 3D Extension: byu Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.cica.indiana.edu/graphics/object_specs/BYU.format.txt
Subject: CAD-3D Type: 3D Extension: 3d, 3d2, 3d4 Version: 2.0 Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_3d2.html http://www.cica.indiana.edu/graphics/object_specs/3D2.format.txt CAD-3D 2.0 stores 3D objects using the 3D, 3D2, or 3D4 file formats. Each format can store up to 40 objects and contains all information about the objects, including the lighting and color palette. CAD-3D files are similar to the older file format, but they no longer require the Motorola Fast Floating Point library (LIBF) for the storage of vertex coordinates. Thia new version stores each coordinate in a two-byte word instead of a four-byte floating-point value, saving a considerable amount of storage, and making the file more easily usable by programs written with different floating-point formats. For more information on CAD-3D, contact Antic Software: Antic Software Product Development Department 544 Second Street San Franscico, CA 94107 Voice: +1 415.957.0886
Subject: CALS - Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support Raster Format Type: Bitmap Extension: .cal Version: Compression: CCITT Group 4 (MMR) Color Depth: 1-bit Maintainer: CALS Management Support Office (DCLSO) Specification: CALS files are used for document imaging and therefore only store black-and-white, 1-bit image data. CALS Type I files only store a single image per file and the data is always compressed using the CCITT Group 4 encoding algorithm. CALS Type II files may stored multiple images per file, the image data may be tiled, and tiles stored as raw data or as data compressed using CCITT Group 4 encoding. The CALS raster file format is defined primarily in the following military standards documents: MIL-STD-1840A, Automated Interchange of Technical Information MIL-R-28002A, Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format The CALS raster file format is supported through the CALS office of the United States Department of Defense: CALS Management Support Office (DCLSO) Office of the Assistant Director for Telecommunications andInformation Systems Headquarters Defense Logistics Agency Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 USA The CALS Home Page http://www.acq.osd.mil/cals/
Subject: CAM - Casio Camera Type: Bitmap Extension: .cam Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Casio Specification: Not available CAM is the native bitmap format of the Casio QV series digital camera software. The CAM format specification is not published, but Photoshop plug-ins and a TWAIN toolkit for CAM are available, as is a developmant kit for Visual Basic and Visial C++ applications. Email Scott Nelson at SNELSON921@aol.com for more information on the toolkits. Visit the Casio home page at http://www.casio.com/ for more information on their QV-10 and QV-30 digital cameras. You can find a description of the CAM file internals at: http://www.st.rim.or.jp/~with/QV10/index_e.html
Subject: CCITT - CCITT Group 3 and Group 4 Encoding Type: Data encoding format Extension: .g3, .g4, .cit Version: Compression: Color Depth: Bilevel Maintainer: http://www.itu.ch/ Specification:
Subject: CDF - Common Data Format Type: General data Extension: CDF Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: CDF is a scientific data management package (known as the "CDF Library") developed by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). CDF allows application programmers to manage and manipulate scalar, vector, and multi-dimensional data arrays. The CDF file format is transparently utilized and made accessible to the through a consistent set of interface routines known as the &quotCDF Interface&quot. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/cdf/cdf_home.html The Common Data Format Home Page http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/about/about_nssdc.html National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) You can download the CDF software distribution from: ftp://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/cdf/dist/cdf25/
Subject: CDF - Cyberspace Description Format Type: VRML Extension: CDF Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Carl Tollander <carlt@autodesk.com> Specification: http://vrml.wired.com/proposals/cdf/cdf.html CDF is an ASCII-based format used for describing cyberspace decks and virtual worlds. This format provides a standard framework that is used to store, retrieve, modify, and exchange descriptions of cyberspace objects; including object initialization, state, and scheduling, and cyberspase simulation. CDF is based on the CDF format described in Autodesk's Cyberspace Development Kit. Autodesk's CDF is a closed format used to support a proprietary deveoper's tool, while the proposed CDF format is an open format intended to be accepted as an industry standard.
Subject: CDL - CADKey CADL Language Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Cadkey Inc. Specification: Contact Cadkey at: Cadkey Inc. 4 Griffin Road Windsor, CT 06095-1511 USA Voice: 203.298.8888 Voice: 800.394.2231 Fax: 203.298.6590 Email: info@cadkey.com WWW: http://www.cadkey.com/
Subject: CGM - Computer Graphics Metafile Type: Metafile Extension: CGM Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: ANSI, ISO, IEC, DOD, NIST Specification: The current version of the CGM ANSI/ISO standard (commonly called CGM:1992) is: Information Processing Systems--Computer Graphics Metafile for the Storage and Transfer of Picture Description Information, ANSI/ISO 8632-1992. This standard superseded the early CGM:1986 (ANSI X3.122-1986) ANSI standard. The CGM standard is contained in four ISO standards documents: ISO/IEC 8632-1:1992 Part 1: Functional Specification ISO/IEC 8632-3:1992 Part 2: Character Encoding ISO/IEC 8632-3:1992 Part 3: Binary Encoding ISO/IEC 8632-4:1992 Part 4: Clear Text Encoding These documents may be obtained from the following organizations: International Standards Organization (ISO) 1 rue de Varembe Case Postal 56 CH-1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Voice: +41 22 749 01 11 Fax: +41 22 733 34 30 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Sales Department 11 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036 Voice: 212.642.4900 Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Sales Group 178 Rexdale Blvd. Rexdale, Ontario, M9W 1R3 Voice: 416.747.444 And here are a few CGM Web pages: MIL-STD-2301, CGM Implementation Standard for the NIST Format Standard http://www.tasc.com/nitfs/NITFS_docs.html CGM Home Page at NIST http://speckle.ncsl.nist.gov/~lsr/cgm.htm Overview of CGM Standards http://speckle.ncsl.nist.gov/~lst/cgm_std.htm The Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) http://www.agocg.ac.uk:8080/agocg/CGM.html A freely available C library for creating CGM files is available at: http://speckle.ncsl.nist.gov/~lorax/cgm/cd.html
Subject: CIF
Subject: CMP - LeadView Type: Bitmap Extension: CMP Version: Compression: LEAD CMP compression (proprietary) Color Depth: Maintainer: LEAD Technologies Specification: Not available LEAD Technologies Technical Support Department Voice: 704.372.9681 Fax: 704.332.5868 BBS: 704.334.9045 Email: support@leadtools.com WWW: http://www.leadtools.com/
Subject: CMU - Carnegie Mellon University Formats Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: COB - Calgari trueSpace2 File Format Type: 3D Extension: COB, SCN Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/files/calgari.pdf
Subject: CXS
Subject: Cyberware Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Cyberware Specification: Contact Cyberware at: Cyberware Inc. 2110 Del Monte Avenue Montery, CA 93940 USA Voice: 408.657.1450 Fax: 408.657.1494 Email: sales@cyberware.com WWW: http://www.cyberware.com/
Subject: DEM - Digital Elevation Model Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Specification: The format of DEM map files is described in the publication: Data Users Guide 5 - Digital Elevation Models and is available for $1.00 US from: Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) U. S. Geological Survey 507 National Center Reston, VA 22092 USA Voice: 1.800.USA.MAPS Voice: 703.860.645 The Andrew Consortium http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/atk-ftp/web/andrew-home.html http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/glis/hyper/guide/1_dgr_dem
Subject: DGN - Microstation Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: DKB - DKB-Trace Type: 3D Extension: dkb Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: DLG - Digital Line Graph Type: Vector Extension: dlg Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Specification: DLG is used by USGS to store geographical data. Documentation on this format is available at: ftp://spectrum.xerox.com/depts/markc/demtools/demwork/dlg/doc/>. The format of DLG graph files is described in the publications: Data Users Guide 1 - Digital Line Graphs from 1:24,000-Scale Maps Data Users Guide 2 - Digital Line Graphs from 1:100,000-Scale Maps Data Users Guide 3 - Digital Line Graphs from 1:2,000,000-Scale Maps and each is available for $2.00 US from: Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) U. S. Geological Survey 507 National Center Reston, VA 22092 USA Voice: 1.800.USA.MAPS Voice: 703.860.645
Subject: DPX - Digital Moving Picture Exchange Type: Bitmap Extension: dpx, cin Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: SMPTE <http://www.smpte.org/> Specification: DPX is the SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) standard file format for Digital Moving Picture Exchange. DPX is, in fact, the Kodak Cineon raster file format with just a few slight modifications to the file's header. The DPX specification is referred to as the ANSI/SMPTE 268M-1994 Standard (dated: 18 February 1994) and is available directly from SMPTE: The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 595 W. Hartsdale Avenue White Plains, NY 10607 USA Voice: 914.761.1100 Fax: 914.761.3115 Web: http://www.smpte.org/ You can find a complete listng of all SMPTE standards at http://www.smpte.org/stds/stscope.html
Subject: DRW - Micrografx Designer/Draw Plus Format Type: Vector Extension: DRW Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Micrografx Specification:
Subject: DWB - Coryphaeus Software Designers Workbench Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Contact Coryphaeus at: Coryphaeus 985 University Avenue Suite 31 Los Gatos, CA 95030 USA Voice: 408.395.4537 Fax: 408.395.6351 Email: sales@coryphaeus.com WWW: http://www.coryphaeus.com/
Subject: DWG - Autodesk drawing Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Autodesk Specification: http://www.kovac.com/software/index.html
Subject: DXF - Autodesk Drawing eXchange Format Type: Vector and 3D Extension: DXF Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Autodesk Specification: The AutoCAD DXF (Drawing eXchange Format) and AutoCAD DXB (Drawing eXhange Binary) formats are the native vector file formats of Autodesk's AutoCAD CAD application. DXF is probably one of the most widely supported vector formats in the world today. DXF is rich in features, including: support for 3D objects, curves, text, associative dimensioning, and is an easy format to parse. The DXB format is a binary representation of a DXF file and they are usually smaller and faster to load than the equivalent DXF file. The latest "official" DXF revision is Release 12. However, there is an even newer version of DXF containing several changes and additions to the format. Apparently the specification of the latest version of the DXF format is not yet (if it will ever be) freely available. Users are required to pay $4000US for a license to AutoCAD in to obtain the specs for this newest release of DXF file format. The official specification for DXF R12 may be found in the AutoCAD Manual Release 12: AutoCAD Customization Manual, Release 12, Autodesk Inc., 1992, pp. 241-81. The specification for DXF R12 has also been released in electonic form and is available in several of the Internet file format archives, such as: ftp://avalon.vislab.navy.mil/pub/format_specs/ http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_dxf12.html The spec for the most current version, DXF R13, is available at: ftp://ftp.synapse.net/private/c/cadsyst/misc/ And an excerpt of the DXF R10 specification may be found at: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_dxf10.html Many books detail the DXF format, including: The AutoCAD Database Book, F.H. Jones and L. Martin, Ventana Press, ISBN 0-940087-04-9. Order: 919.490.0062 voice. AutoCAD, The Complete Reference, 2nd Ed., Johnson, N., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1991. Additonal information may be obtained directly from Autodesk: Autodesk Inc. Autodesk Developer Marketing 2320 Marinship Way Sausalito, CA 94965 Voice: 415.491.8719 FTP: ftp://ftp.autodesk.com/ WWW: http://www.autodesk.com/
Subject: EMF - Microsoft Enhanced Metafile Type: Metafile Extension: EMF Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: The next generation Windows Metafile. EMF files are not supported by the 16-bit Windows and OLE environments. http://www.microsoft.com/Softlib/MSLFILES/ENMETA.EXE This archive contains sample Windows code to manipulate EMF files. Two sample EMF files are included. http://www.microsoft.com/developr/MSDN/OctCD/EMFDCO.ZIP This archive contains the Windows source code for the EMF decoding utility. http://www.microsoft.com/developr/MSDN/OctCD/ENHMET.ZIP This archive contains the ENHMETA.HLP help file that describes the EMF file format. Also have a look at: http://www.microsoft.com/kb/developr/win32dk/q145999.htm Q145999 "SAMPLE: How to Create & Play Enhanced Metafiles in Win32" http://www.gentech.com/emf/win95emf.html Enhanced Metafile Test Suite http://www.r2m.com/windev/ Internet Resources for Windows Developers
Subject: ENFF - Extended Neutral File Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: EPS - Encapsulated PostScript Type: Metafile Extension: EPS Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/5002.EPSF_Spec_v2.0.pdf The PostScript Language Software Development Kit is available from the creator of PostScript, Adobe Systems: Adobe Systems Inc. Attn: Adobe Systems Developer Support 1585 Charleston Road P.O. Box 7900 Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 Voice: 415.961.7900 Voice: 800.344.8335 Fax: 415.961.3769
Subject: FACT Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: FBM - Fuzzy Bitmap Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: FBM is the native file format of the Fuzzy pixmap image manipulation and conversion toolkit written by Michael L. Mauldin at Carnegie Mellon University. Code to manipulate FBM (and many other) file formats is found in the FBM distrbution: ftp://nl.cs.cmu.edu/usr/mlm/ftp/
Subject: FFIVW - File Format for the Interchange of Virtual Worlds Type: VRML Extension: ffivw Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Bernie Roehl <broehl@waterloo.ca> Kerry Bonin <74367.1630@compuserve.com> Specification: http://vrml.wired.com/proposals/ffivw.html FFIVM is an ASCII-based, object-oriented format used to describe virtual objects and worlds. This format is not intended to be a native file format of any hardware or software platform, but instead to be used as an interchange medium used for converting one VRML format to another.
Subject: FITS - Flexable Image Transport System Type: General data format Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: FITS is a standard data interchange and archival format used by astronomy software. The FITS data format specification is part of the NOST Standard and Uer's Guide, available from: ftp://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/fits/ Other FITS resources include: FITS Support Office Home Page http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/astro/fits/fits_home.html Displaying FITS Images http://astrosun.tn.cornell.edu/FITS.html http://fits.cv.nrao.edu/ ftp://fits.cv.nrao.edu/fits> FITS discussions also occur on the sci.data.formats and sci.astro.fits Usenet newsgroups. Questions about FITS may also be directed to fits@nssdca.gsfc.nasa.gov.
Subject: FLASHPIX Type: Bitmap Extension: Version: Compression: JPEG Color Depth: Maintainer: Kodak http://www.kodak.com/ Specification: FLASHPIX is Kodak's latest "will do everything you will ever need" graphical file format. It is based on the Microsoft OLE Structured Storage format that all of Microsoft's newer data files use. The file format will be officially released by Kodak in late September 1996 in cooperation with Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, and Live Picture. You can get a marketing-oriented whitepaper that contains a very simple techinical overview of the FLASHPIX format at: http://www.kodak.com/aboutKodak/cmo/drg/productsTechnologies/niftyTech.shtml A two-page write up of FLASHPIX also appears in Photo Electronic Imaging Magazine (Vol. 29, No. 7, 1996, pp. 18,22).
Subject: FLT - MultiGen Flight Type: Extension: flt Version: 14.2.4 Rev A Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/files/opnflt.pdf
Subject: GDS - McDonnell-Douglas Things Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: GFO - SGI Radiosity Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: GIF - Graphics Interchange Format Type: Bitmap Extension: GIF Version: 87a, 89a Compression: LZW Color Depth: 8-bit Maintainer: Compuserve Specification: ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu:/misc/file.formats/graphics.formats/ ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu:/misc/file.formats/graphics.formats/ GIF is a data stream-oriented file format used to define the transmission protocol of LZW-encoded bitmap data. GIF images may be up to eight bits (256 colors) in depth and are always compressed. Despite the fact that GIF supports only 8-bits worth of colors, and the multimedia extensions introduced in the 89a release have not been widely utilized, GIF still remains a popular choice for storing lower resolution image data. The GIF89a specification is available via many BBSs and on-line information services. You may also obtain the specification directly from CompuServe: CompuServe Incorporated Attn: Graphics Technology Department 5000 Arlington Center Boulevard Columbus, OH 43220 Voice: 614.457.8600, 800.848.8199 FTP: ftp://ftp.compuserve.com/ WWW: http://www.compuserve.com/ Note: Any software created or modified after 01 January 1995 that supports the capability of reading and/or writing GIF files must obtain a patent license agreement from Unisys Corporation. See Part I of the FAQ for more details on the Unisys GIF-LZW license agreements. Here are a few links specializing in GIF89a animations: http://www.fastlane.net/~samiel/anim.shtml GIF Animation Secrets http://member.aol.com/royalef/gifanim.htm Royal Frazier's GIF Animation on the WWW http://www.peritas.com/~abw/multigif.html MultiGIF GIF89a Animation Utility http://www.iis.ee.ethz.ch/~kiwi/GIFMerge/ GIFMerge Utility
Subject: GKS - Graphics Kernel System Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: GKS is a standard specifying the input and output primitives for displaying 2D and 3D graphical data. Although GKS has no native file format, the CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) format is often closely associated with its use. The following ISO documents describe the GKS standard: ISO 7942 Functional Specification ISO 8651-1 Fortran Binding ISO 8651-2 Pascal Binding ISO 8651-3 Ada Binding ISO 8651-4 ISO 8805 GKS-3D ISO 8806 GKS-3D Bindings These documents are available from ISO, ANSI, and CSA (see the CGM section for the addresses of these organizations).
Subject: GrADS - GrADS Metafile Type: Metafile Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://grads.iges.org/grads/ Grid Analysis and Display System ftp://sprite.llnl.gov/pub/fiorino/grads/doc/grads.www/ GrADS Documentation
Subject: GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Paul Mace Software Home Page http://www.pmace.com/pms.htm
Subject: GRIB - Gridded Binary Type: General data format Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Specification: GRIB is the standard format for the storage and interchange of meteorological data. Several "flavors" of GRIB exist, prompting the original format to be called WMO GRIB. The format specification and software may be found at: ftp://ncardata.ucar.edu/libraries/grib/ ftp://nic.fb4.noaa.gov/pub/nws/nmc/docs/gribguide/ The specification for the ECMWF GRIB format is at: ftp://ncardata.ucar.edu/datasets/ds111.2/format ftp://ncardata.ucar.edu/datasets/ds111.2/software UW-NMS Home Page http://java.meteor.wisc.edu/
Subject: HDF - Hierarchical Data Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/files/ncsa_hdf.pdf HDF is an object-oriented interchange file format used to transport image data from one machin architecture or operating system to another with no conversion problems or loss of data. Both 8- and 24-bit raster images are supported, color palettes, and data compression (RLE, Incomp, and JPEG). The latest version of HDF is 3.3 and comes with a complete library of functions for manipulating HDF files, includeding the netCDF library by Unidata. Information on HDF is available from The HDF Information Server maintained by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications: http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu:8001/ The HDF FAQ is located at: http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu:8001/HDF-FAQ.html Other HDF-related Web sites include: Heirarchial Data Format (HDF) http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/HDF/HDFIntro.html The HDU 3.3 User's Guide in both PostScript and MIF format: ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/HDF/Documentation/HDF3.3/Users_Guide/ Source code for HDF may be FTPed from: ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/HDF And HDF-related discussions may also be found on the Usenet newsgroup sci.data.formats and in the FAQ for that newsgroup.
Subject: HDS - Hierarchical Data System Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: HPGL - Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (HP-GL/2)
Subject: HPPCL - Hewlett-Packard Printer Control Language Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: PCL is capable of rendering both raster and vector graphics. The official specification and toolkit for PCL is contained in the following Hewlett-Packard manuals: PCL 5 Printer Language Technical Reference Manual PCL 5 Developer's Guide, 3rd Edition, Part No. 5002-1847 The technical reference manual contains a complete description of PCL 5. The developer's guide contains many software examples illustracting how to design PCL-compatable software. These maunals may be obtained directly from Hewlett-Packard
Subject: HRF - Hitachi Raster Format Type: Bitmap Extension: HRF Version: Compression: Color Depth: 1-bit Maintainer: Hitachi Corporation Specification: Chris Till (Voice: 303.449.3200, Fax: 303.449.1996) HRF is typcailly used to store scanner output data. The HRF specification is not available unless a non-disclosure agreement is signed with Hitachi.
Subject: IFF - Electronic Arts Interchange File Format Type: Bitmap, audio, multimedia Extension: IFF, LBM, and many more Version: Compression: Uncompressed, PackBits Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Electronic Arts Home Page http://www.ea.com/
Subject: IGES - Initial Graphics Exchange Specification Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: IGES is a set of protocols for the transfer and display of graphical information on remote devices via a telephone or computer communications network. IGES does not define any new graphical file formats, but instead uses existing formats (such as CGM) to encapsulate graphical data. IGES is associated with the NCGA (National Computer Graphics Association) and is part of the U.S. Product Data Association (USPRO) and the IGES/PDES Organization (IGO). The NCGA administers the National IGES User Group (NIUG), which provides access to information on IGES. To obtain the IGES specification, you must be a member of both NIUG and a Regional Interest Group (RIG). The IGES specification is available through the NCGA for $100US. For more information about the NIUG, RIGs, and IGES, contact: National Computer Graphics Association 2722 Merrilee Drive Suite 3200 Fairfax, VA 22031 USA Voice: 703.698.9600 IGES - Reference Documents http://elib.cme.nist.gov/nipde/stds/wh-iges.html
Subject: IM - Performer Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: IMA - Zenographics Mirage Graphics File Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Zenographics Specification: IMA is the native file format of the Zenographics Mirage program. The older version of this format was used by Mirage v5.12 and eariler. Mirage 5.20 introduced the newer version of IMA.
Subject: IMJ - Image JPEG Type: Bitmap Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: IMJ was created by Pegasus Image Corporation as a variation of the JFIF file format. IMJ is essentially a JFIF file with a Microsoft Windows BMP header and enhanced palette optimization. The IMJ format is used in several screensaver applications, and by orgainizations such as Delrina and the National Center for Missing Children. See the section describing the PIC - Pegasus Imaging Corporation Format for more information.
Subject: INGR - Intergraph Raster File Format Type: Bitmap Extension: Many (not standardized) Version: 3 Compression: RLE, CCITT Group 4, JPEG, quad tree, Uncompressed Color Depth: Maintainer: Intergraph Corporation <http://www.intergraph.com/> Specification: ftp://ftp.intergraph.com/pub/bbs/scan/note/ Intergraph publishes the INGR format specification in the following document: "Intergraph Raster File Format Reference Guide", Intergraph Corporation, DRA220700, March 1994, Version 3.2.0, 84 pages. You may order this specifiction from: Scanning Systems Division Intergraph Corporation Huntsville, AL 35894-0001 USA Voice: 205-730-5441, 800-345-4856 Fax: 205-730-9441 BBS: 205-730-8786 Email: info@intergraph.com WWW: http://www.intergraph.com/ FTP: ftp://ftp.intergraph.com/ It is also available in PostScript format on Intergraph's FTP site. Sampleimages are availble at: ftp://ftp.intergraph.com/pub/bbs/scan/note/
Subject: IRTP - Graphicon-2000 Interactive Real-Time PHIGS Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: IV - SGI Inventor Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: IV-VRML - Inventor VRML Format Type: VRML Extension: iv Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Silicon Graphics Specification: http://www.sgi.com/tech/Inventor/VRML/VRMLDesign.html
Subject: JBIG - Joint Bilevel Image Group Type: Compression Method Extension: Not specified by specification Version: Compression: JBIG Color Depth: 1-bit (see text) Maintainer: ISO, IEC and ITU Specification: JBIG is a lossless method for compressing black and white (1-bit) raster image data. Its primary benefit is as a method for transmitting bi-level image data across a communications channel. JBIG's progressive encoding scheme allows lower resolution version of the image to be sent first, followed by higher resolution images which build on the previously transmitted data (e.g. 75, 150, 300, 450, and 600 DPI). This capability makes JBIG ideal for replacing less-efficient document imaging transmissions methods, such as CCITT Group 3 & 4, but thus far JBIG has not been marketed in such a way as to make this possible. There is no official JBIG file format. You just dump a JBIG data stream into a disk for tape file, give it the extension JBG or JBIG, and you have a JBIG file. JBIG is jointly sponsored by the ITU (CCITT) and ISO/IEC JTCI/SC29 committees. The JBIG standard may be found in the following documents: Information technology -- Coded representation of picture and audio information -- Progressive bi-level image compression, ISO/IEC 11544:1993 ITU/CCITT Recommendation T.82
Subject: JCAMP
Subject: JFIF - JPEG File Interchange Format Type: Bitmap Extension: JPG Version: 1.02 Compression: JPEG Color Depth: 24-bits Maintainer: C-Cube Specification: See below JFIF is a data stream-oriented file format used to define the transmission of JPEG-encoded bitmap data. The specification for JFIF may be obtained directly from C-Cube Microsystems: C-Cube Microsystems Attn: Scott Sinclair Corporate Communications 1778 McCarthy Blvd. Milpitas, CA 95035 Voice: 408.944.6300 Fax: 408.944.6314 The Independent JPEG Group archive on ftp.uu.net also contains an on-line copy of the JFIF specification and additional JPEG information as: ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/jfif.ps.gz ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/jpeg.documents.gz If you need code to read/write JFIF files and/or a JPEG data stream, then please use the IJG's JPEG library, available at: ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/ Any other questions you have about JPEG will be answered by Tom Lane's JPEG FAQ, which may be found at: comp.graphics.misc http://www.smartpages.com/faqs/jpeg-faq/top.html ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/
Subject: LSA/LSB - Lightscape Technologies ASCII and Binary Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: LWOB - Lightwave Object Format Type: 3D Extension: IFF Version: 2.0 Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.pb.net/usrwww/w_limg/LWOB.HTM http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_lightwave.html LightWave is part of a suite of application that is bundled with the Amiga Video Toster system. LightWave 3D objects are stored as IFF files with a FORM type of LWOB. Other chunks stored in a FORM LWOB file are PNTS, SRFS, SURF, CRVS, and POLS chunk. Also have a look at the LightWave newsgroup: comp.graphics.apps.lightwave
Subject: MedFileS
Subject: MGF - Materials and Geometry Format Type: 3D Extension: mgf Version: 1.1 Compression: None Color Depth: full spectral colors (i.e., infinite) Maintainer: Greg Ward <GJWard@lbl.gov> Specification: http://radsite.lbl.gov/mgf/HOME.html MGF is an ASCII-based 3D rendering format designed to model surface geometry and materials for the purpose of visible-light simulation and rendering. The overall objective of this format is to provide a very simple yet fairly complete modeling language that does not place unreasonable demands on the applications programmer or the object library creator. The materials are physically-based and rely on standard and well-accepted definitions of color, reflectance and transmittance for good accuracy and reproducibility. The geometry is based on boundary representation using simple geometric primitives such as polygons, spheres and cones. The file format itself is terse but human-readable ASCII text. Translators are available from 3D Studio and Radiance rendering formats, and to Inventor, VRML and Radiance. An ANSI-C standard parser is freely distributed, along with many models and examples at the official web site. The format specification is available bundled with an MGF file reader and is distributed in the file mgflib0.7.tar.Z on the following sites: http://radsite.lbl.gov/mgf/HOME.html ftp://hobbes.lbl.gov/www/ The MGF software is currently in its second official release (version 1.1). Questions about MGF should be directed to: Greg Ward Voice: 510.486.4757 Fax: 510.486.4757 Email: GJWard@lbl.gov
Subject: MIFF - Magick Image File Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: MIFF is a bitmap format native to the ImageMagick toolkit which runs under the X Window System. ImageMagick is capable of displaying and converting a variety of still and animated graphics file formats. The specification for MIFF is available in the ImageMagick distribution available from: ftp://ftp.wizards.dupont.com/pub/ImageMagick/ For more information about ImageMagick and MIFF, contact: duPont de Nemour & Company Attn: John Cristy Central Research and Development Experimental Station P.O. Box 80328 Room 162-A Wilmington, DE 19880-0328 Voice: 302.695.1159 Email: cristy@dupont.com
Subject: MNG - Multiple Network Graphics Type: Bitmap, animation Extension: MNG Version: Compression: GZIP + optional filtering, delta images Color Depth: 1 to 48 bits Maintainer: MNG discussion list, mpng-list@dworkin.wustl.edu Specification: ftp://swrinde.nde.swri.edu/pub/mng/documents/ MNG (pronounced "ming") is a proposed multiple-image extension of the PNG (Portable Network Graphics) format. To join the discussion list working on this format, send the message body "help" to mpng-list-request@dworkin.wustl.edu.
Subject: MSDL - Manchester Scene Description Language Type: 3D Extension: msdl Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://hobbes.lbl.gov/www/mgf/HOME.html
Subject: MTL - Wavefront Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: NAPLPS - North American Presentation Layer Protocol Syntax Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: NAPLPS is a protocol for transferring ASCII-based graphical information to remote terminals via a communications channel (telephone systems, computer networks, and so forth). It is specifically designed to provide usable information transfer rates, even at data rates as low as 2400bps. NAPLPS is used by many Videotext services, Prodigy, the commercial on-line information service, and in standalone information kiosk systems. Although there is no NAPLPS file format, NAPLPS data streams are often saved as files, and the files are then referred to as using the "NAPLPS file format". The NAPLPS specification is a standards documents available through ANSI, ISO, or CSA. (See the CGM section for the addresses of these organizations). The CSA document (T500-1983) also contains a supplement (1-1991) which is not included in the ANSI version of this standard. Further information may be found in the February, March, April, and May 1983 issues of Byte Magazine. These articles explain much of the NAPLPS coding system and discuss the potential for NAPLPS. Michael Dillon has authored a paper on NAPLPS and started a NAPLPS section on SIMTEL20, which may be access via the mirror site: ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/simtel/msdos/ Michael Dillon may be contacted at: CompuServe: 71532,137 Internet: mpdillon@halcyon.halcyon.com BBS: 604.546.2705 The BBS also contains NAPLPS Shareware and art.
Subject: netCDF - Network Common Data Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netcdf/ netCDF Home Page http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netcdf/utilities.html Software for Manipulating or Displaying NetCDF Data ftp://ftp.unidata.ucar.edu/pub/netcdf/ netCDF Software Distribution
Subject: NFF - Haines Neutral File Format Type: Extension: NFF Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Eric Haines &lterich@eye.com&gt Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_nff.html NFF is a minimal scene description language used to test rendering algorithms and efficiency schemes. It supports basic geometry of objects, surface characteristics, placement of lights, color of objects, and the viewing angle of the human eye. NFF is ASCII-based and is used with the Standard Procedural Database (SPD) software package used for creating databases for testing rendering schemes. The specification for NFF is available on numerous FTP sites which archive file format documents, such as: ftp://zamenhof.cs.rice.edu/pub/ and is available along with the SPD test programs, which produce NFF objects: ftp://ftp.princeton.edu/pub/Graphics/ You may also contact the author of NFF: Eric Haines 3D/Eye Inc. 1050 Craft Road Ithica, NY 14850 Email: erich@eye.com
Subject: NFF - WorldToolKit Neutral File Format Type: 3D Extension: nff bff Version: 2.1 Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Sense8 Incorporated Specification: ftp://avalon.vislab.navy.mil/pub/ http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_nffwtk.html The WorldToolKit Neutral File Format is a creation of Sense8 for their WorldToolKit software product. WorldToolKit is a C language library providing the functionality needed to do virtual reality, including file parsing, sensor drivers, object management, behavior, and rendering. Sense8's NFF format was loosely adapted from the Videoscape (.geo) format, with the addition of 12-bit color, per-polygon texture application, and portals. It was later extended to support vertex normals, 24-bit color, and vertex uv coordinates. The current version of NFF is 2.1. Sense8 also supports a binary format of NFF called BFF (.bff file extension) The BFF format layout and order is identical to the ASCII version, with the exception that only 24-bit, and not 12-bit, colors are not supported. The WorldToolKit Neutral File Format was created and is maintained by: Sense8 100 Shoreline Hwy. Ste. 282 Mill Valley, CA 94941 Voice: 415.331.6318 Fax: 415.331.9148 Email: info@sense8.com WWW: http://www.sense8.com/ Questions about Sense8's NFF format should be directed to: Ben Discoe <ben@sense8.com>
Subject: NITF - National Imagery Transmission Format Type: Page Layout Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Defense Information Systems Agency Specification: The National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (Version 2.0) is documented as a collection of military standards documents. The actual file format is documented in the following standard: MIL-STD-2500, National Imagery Transmission Format (Version 2.0) for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 18 June 1993 The remaining standards are as follows: MIL-HDBK-1300, National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS), 18 June 1993 MIL-STD-3201, Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) Implementation Standard for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 18 June 1993 MIL-STD-188-196, Bi-Level Image Compression for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 18 June 1993 MIL-STD-188-197 Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ARIDPCM) Compression Algorithm for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 18 June 1993 MIL-STD-188-198A, Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) Image Compression for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 15 December 1993 MIL-STD-188-199, Vector Quantization Decompression for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 27 June 1994 MIL-STD-245-44500, Tactical Communications Protocol 2 (TACO2) for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 18 June 1993 JIEO Circular 9008, National Imagery Transmission Format Standards (NITFS) Certification Test & Evaluation Program Plan, 30 June 1993 The NITFS standards may be obtained via FTP from the ITSI (Information Technology Standards Integrated) BBS at: ftp://jcdbs.2000.disa.mil/pub/library ITSI BSS may also be reached by modem at 703.834.6501 (14.4kbps, N-8-1). To receive hardcopies any or all of these documents, send a request via mail, fax, or email to: DISA/JIEO/CFS/TBCE c/o Logicaon Fay Mignone 1831 Wiehle Avenue Reston, VA 22090 USA Fax: 703.318.1098 Attn: Fay Mignone Email: mignone@cdbs.itsi.disa.mil or: Defense Information Systems Agency Center for Standards Carol Ciepiela Attn: TBCE, Rm 3304 10701 Parkridge Blvd Reston, VA 22091 USA Voice: 703.487.3536 Email: edi@itsi.disa.mil Questions may be directed to: NITFS Certification Test Facility Voice: 602.538.5458 x5494 And NITF Web pagea include: http://www.tasc.com/NITFS/ NITFS Home Page http://www.itsi.disa.mil/ismc/ntb/ntb.html The NITFS Technical Board http://topaz.sensor.com/work/fmt/nitf/
Subject: OBJ - Wavefront Object Type: Extension: obj Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/files/off.pdf
Subject: ODIF - Open Document Interchange Format Type: Binary Extension: .odf Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Open Document Architecture Consortium (ODAC) Specification: http://www.itu.ch/itudoc/itu-t/rec/t.html The Open Document Interchange Format (ODIF) is the data stream interchange format associated with the Open Document Architecture (ODA). ODA is an object-oriented document architecture for the description of both the logical layot stuctures of a docuemnt. ODA also supports the transfer of documents in processable form. The ODA and ODIF standard is described in ITU docuemnts T.411 through T.421. More information on ODIF files and ODA is available from: ODAC Avenue Marcel Thiry 204 1200 Brussels Belgium Voice: +32 2 774 9623 Fax: +32 2 774 9690 WWW: http://titan.orem.novell.com/
Subject: ODL - Object Description Language
Subject: OFF - Object File Format Type: 3D Extension: off Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: OFF was developed in 1986 at Digital Equipment Corporation's Workstation Systems Engineering for the interchange and archiving of 3D objects. OFF is an ASCII-based format and is independent of languages, devices, and operating systems. The specification for OFF is: Rost, Randi, OFF--A 3D Object File Format, November 6, 1986 (updated October 12, 1989). The OFF archive is available at: ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/ This archive contains the format specification, tools, and objects. It is not currently supported and is copyrighted.
Subject: OpenMath
Subject: PBM - Portable Bitmap Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: The Portable greymap file format is part of the Extended Portable Bitmap Utilities (PBMPLUS). PBM is used as an intermediate format for storing monochrome bitmap information generated by the PBMPLUS toolkit. PBM files may be either binary or ASCII and store data one-bit-per-pixel in size. Information and source code for PBM can be found in the distribution for PBMPLUS located at: ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/graphics/graphics/packages/pbmplus/ The specification for the PBM format can also be found in the manual page for pbm(5) on many Unix systems.
Subject: PCX - ZSoft Paint Type: Raster Extension: PCX, PCC Version: Compression: RLE Color Depth: 1 to 24 bits Maintainer: Specification: PCX is one of the oldest bitmapped formats popularized by MS-DOS paint programs that first appeared in the early 1980's. PCX files may store mapped and unmapped image data from 1- to 24-bits in pixel depth, always contain RLE-compressed image data, and are recognized by almost all still-image graphics programs ever written. But because of the kludged evolution of the PCX format (caused partly by the efforts of Zsoft to continue to support the ever-changing world of graphics display adapters) it is generally advised that the MS Windows BMP format be used in place of PCX whenever possible. Once upon a time ZSoft was bought by Wordstar, who was then bought by SoftKey. It is not currently known if anyone distributes the original, poorly written, specification for PCX. No matter, as most book on graphics file format completely describe the PCX format.
Subject: PDF - Portable Document Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: PDF files are viewable using Adobe's Acrobat Reader 2.0 program. PDF was created and is maintained by Adobe Systems Incorporated: Adobe Systems Incorporated 1585 Charleston Road P.O. Box 7900 Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 Voice: 415.961.4400 Voice: 415.961.4111 (Developer Support) Fax: 415.961.3769 Sample PDF images files may be found at: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/Acrobat/PDFsamples/ The Adobe Acrobat Software Developer's Kits for Unix, Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, and MS-DOS may be found at: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/Acrobat/SDK/ You can download a PDF plug-in for your Web browser from: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/Acrobat/ Additional PDF information may also be gathered from Adobe's home Web page: http://www.adobe.com/
Subject: PDS - Planetary Data System Format Type: General data format Extension: PDS Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: NASA Specification: PDS was created by the Planetary Branch of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to store solar, lunar, and planetary data collected both on Earth and by spacecraft. And as with most U.S. Government documents, the specification is quite large and spread over several documents: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Standard for the Preparation and Interchange of Data Sets, JPL Document D-4683, NASA, Pasadena, CA, 1988. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Data Preparation Workbook, JPL Document D-7669, NASA, Pasadena, CA, 1990. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Planetary Data System Standards Reference, JPL Document D-4683, NASA, Pasadena, CA, 1990. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Specification for the Object Description Language, NASA, Pasadena, CA, 1990. These documents are available from: NASA Planetary Branch Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mail Stop 525-3610 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109 Voice: 818.354.7587 Email: PDS_Operator@jplpds.jpl.nasa.gov The PDS Standards Reference Document may also be found at: http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/stdref/stdref.htm
Subject: PGM - Portable Greymap Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: The Portable greymap file format is part of the Extended Portable Bitmap Utilities (PBMPLUS). PGM is used as an intermediate format for storing greyscale bitmap information generated by the PBMPLUS toolkit. PGM files may be either binary or ASCII and store pixel values up to 8 bits in size. Information and source code for PGM can be found in the distribution for PBMPLUS (see the section on the PBM format for information on PBMPLUS). The specification for the PGM format can also be found in the manual page for pgm(5) on many Unix systems.
Subject: PHD - PolyHedra Database Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: PIC - Lotus PIC Graphics Format Type: Vector Extension: PIC Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: PIC - Micrografx Draw! Graphics Format Type: Vector Extension: PIC Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Micrografx Specification:
Subject: PIC - Pegasus Imaging Corporation Format Type: Extension: PIC Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Pegasus Image Corporation 4350 W. Cypress Street, Suite 908 Tampa, FL 33607 Voice: 813.875.7575 Fax: 813.875.7705 BBS: 813.874.5515 Name: guest guest, Password: demo CIS: GO PEGASUS
Subject: PIC - Video Show Graphics Format Type: PIC Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: General Parametrics Corporation Specification: Native file format used by the General Parametrics Corporation Video Show Film Recorder.
Subject: PICT - Macintosh Picture Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Apple Computer Specification: The book Inside Macintosh, Volume 5, contains a description of PICT. The Macintosh Technical note #27 also describes PICT. The book Inside Machintosh: Quicktime, describes PICT-JPEG. You can obtain the Inside Macintosh books in electronic form from: http://dev.info.apple.com/insidemac.html ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple.Support.Area/Developer_Services/Technical_Documentation/Inside_Macintosh ftp://ftp.info.euro.apple.com/Apple.Support.Area/Developer_Services/Technical_Documentation/
Subject: PIX - Inset Pix Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Quarterdeck Home Page http://www.insetusa.com/
Subject: PLY - ZipPack Type: 3D Extension: ply Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Silicon Graphics Specification: PLY is a polygon mesh format used by the Silicon Graphics ZipPack program. ZipPack includes the program ply which reads and writes the PLY file format. The ZipPack distribution is available at: ftp://graphics.stanford.edu/pub/zippack The ZipPack distribution is also available from the ZipPack Web page: http://www-graphics.stanford.edu/software/zippack
Subject: PNG - Portable Network Graphics Type: Raster Extension: PNG Version: Compression: RLE Color Depth: 1 to 48 bits Maintainer: Tom Boutell Specification: http://www.boutell.com/boutell/png/ PNG (pronounced "ping"), Portable Network Graphics, is a new bitmap format whose creation was spurred by the unfortunate legal situation surrounding the GIF format. The PNG specification explains its basic rationale thus: The PNG format provides a portable, legally unencumbered, well-compressed, well-specified standard for lossless bitmapped image files. Although the initial motivation for developing PNG was to replace GIF, the design provides some useful new features not available in GIF, with minimal cost to developers. The PNG specification is now frozen, and has been approved as a W3C Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium. It has also been approved as an informational RFC, but (as of Jan 1997) has not yet been formally issued by IETF. Questions about PNG may be asked on the comp.graphics.misc newsgroup, or via email at: png-info@uunet.uu.net Several PNG-related mailing lists are available: png-list@dworkin.wustl.edu General PNG discussion png-announce@dworkin.wustl.edu Announcements related to PNG (low volume) png-implement@dworkin.wustl.edu Discussion of PNG implementations To find out more about the mailing list server, send mail to png-list-request@dworkin.wustl.edu with the word "help" (and nothing else) in the message body. The official PNG FTP archive is: ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/png/ which is currently mirrored at ftp://swrinde.nde.swri.edu/pub/png/ The archives include the specification text in several formats (the spec is also available from W3C at the URL cited above), a reference implementation in portable C (still in development, as of 1996), and sets of test images. Note that in the case of any discrepancy between the specification and the reference implementation, the specification is to be considered correct and the code in error. The PNG group has a home page with pointers to many other PNG resources at: http://www.wco.com/~png/ PNG's very first journal article has appeared: PNG: The Portable Network Graphic Format, Dr. Dobb's Journal, Lee Daniel Crocker, #232 July 1995 (Vol 20, Issue 7), pp. 36-44. The code for the above issues are available at: ftp://ftp.mv.com/pub/ddj/1995/1995.07/ptot.zip And another article: Portable Network Graphics, Web Techniques, Paul Atzberger and Andrew Zolli, Vol 1. Issue 9, December 1996, pp. 65-70. See also MNG (Multiple Network Graphics)
Subject: PPM - Portable Pixmap Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: The Portable pixmap file format is part of the Extended Portable Bitmap Utilities (PBMPLUS). PPM is used as an intermediate format for storing color bitmap information generated by the PBMPLUS toolkit. PPM files may be either binary or ASCII and store pixel values up to 24 bits in size. Information and source code for PPM can be found in the distribution for PBMPLUS (see the section on the PBM format for information on PBMPLUS). The specification for the PPM format can also be found in the manual page for ppm(5) on many Unix systems.
Subject: POL - InnovMetric Software Polygon Models Format Type: 3D Extension: pol Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/files/pol.pdf POL is the native 3D file format for software products created by InnovMetric Software. The POL format was created to fill the need of storing data representing multi-contour, simple, planular, polygons using a binary file format. InnovMetric Software is developing a complete line of software products for building 3-D polygonal models using a 3-D imaging system. Two of these software tools are targeted at real-time 3-D graphics applications. IMCompress and IMFilter are two complementary tools for optimally reducing the number of polygons in a 3-D model. IMCompress uses a surface-based algorithm to downsize highly redundant models such as Digital Terrain Models and polygonal models generated by a CAD or a 3-D imaging system. IMFilter uses a volume-based algorithm to create ultra-compact models (20 to 500 triangles) for level of details management in applications requiring real-time 3-D graphics. The POL file format specification is primarily distributed as Appendix B of the IMCompress User's Guide published by InnovMetric Software. The specification is also available in PostScript format as the file pol.ps in a few of the graphics file format specification archived listed in part 1 of this FAQ. POL was created and is maintained by: InnovMetric Software Inc. 2065 Charest ouest, Suite 218 Sainte-Foy, Quebec Canada, G1N 2G1 Questions about POL may be directed to: Marc Soucy <msoucy@imetric.qc.ca>
Subject: POV - Persistence of Vision Raytracing Type: 3D scene description language Extension: pov Version: 2.2 Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: POV-Ray Team Specification: ftp://ftp.povray.org/pub/povray/Official/docs/ The POV-Ray format is used to store a scene description language used by the POV-Ray ray tracing software package. POV-Ray files are always ASCII to allow easy transportation between different file systems. The specification for the POV file format and scene description language is found in the file povray.doc in the POV-Ray distribution. You may obtain this file (and the entire POV-Ray package) from the official POV-Ray FTP archive and Web sites: ftp://ftp.povray.org/pub/povray/Official/docs/ http://www.povray.org/pub/povray/Official/docs/povdoc-2_2.zip or from these official mirror sites: ftp://alfred.ccs.carleton.ca/ ftp://uniwa.uwa.edu.au/ Questions about POV-Ray may also be direct to: Chris Young POV-Team Coordinator 76702.1655@compuserve.com or to the comp.graphics.rendering.raytracing newsgroup on Usenet. The following is an excellent book on ray tracing using the POV-Ray tracing software package for the PC: Ray Tracing Creations: Generate 3D Photo-Realistic Images on the PC, Drew Wells and Chris Young, Waite Group Press 1993. It is also worth noting that not only is POV-Ray an excellent ray tracing package, but its source and binaries are availble for most systems and widely distributed free of cost.
Subject: PS - PostScript Type: Page Description Language Extension: PS Version: Compression: None, LZW Color Depth: Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: PostScript was created and is maintained by Adobe Systems Incorporated: Adobe Systems Incorporated 1585 Charleston Road P.O. Box 7900 Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 Voice: 415.961.4400 Voice: 415.961.4111 (Developer Support) Fax: 415.961.3769 BBS: 206.623.6984 (14.4-N-8-1) FTP: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/ WWW: http://www.adobe.com/ The primary source of PostScript formation may be found in the Adobe PostScript Langauge books: Red Book: Postscript Language Reference Manual, 2nd ed. Adobe Systems Inc., Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-18127-4, $26.95US softcover Blue Book: Postscript Language Tutorial and Cookbook, Adobe Systems Inc., Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-10179-3, $16.95US softcover Green Book: PostScript Language Program Design, Adobe Systems Inc., Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-14396-8, $22.95US softcover Black Book: Adobe Type 1 Font Format Specification, Adobe Systems Inc., Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-57044-0, $14.95US softcover Purple Book: Programming the Display PostScript System with NeXTstep, Adobe Systems Inc., Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-58135-3, $26.95US softcover You may order these books directly from Adobe Systems in Mountain View, California, by calling 1.800.83.FONTS (U.S. and Canada only) or 415.961.4400 (ask for "Inside Sales"). Or from Hayden Publishing at 1.800.428.5331. Additional information on PostScript may be found on Adobe's FTP server and Web site: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/DeveloperSupport/Technotes/ http://www.adobe.com/ The Usenet newsgroup comp.lang.postscript covers issues relating to the Adobe PostScript language. The PostScript FAQ is available at: http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/postscript-faq/top.html The Usenet newsgroup comp.fonts also covers issues relating to fonts. The comp.fonts FAQ is available at: http://jasper.ora.com/comp.fonts/FAQ/ The Usenet newsgroup comp.sources.postscript contains source code of PostScript programs. Other newsgroups that may be of interest are: comp.periphs.printers, comp.laser-printers, comp.text.pdf, comp.text.desktop, and comp.publish.prepress. The Encapsulated PostScript specification (v2.0) may be found at: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/5002.EPSF_Spec_v2.0.pdf
Subject: PSD - Adobe Photoshop Type: Bitmap Extension: PSD Version: 3.0 Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: PSD is the native bitmap file format of the Adobe Photoshop graphical editing application. PSD files have the extension .PSD under MS Windows and the file type code 8PBS on the Macintosh. Other file formats associated with Photoshop include: Arbitrary Map (.AMP), Brushed (.ABR), Color Table (.ACT), Colors (.ACO), Command Buttens (.ACM), Curves (.ACV), Duotone Options (.ADO), Halftone Screens (.AHS), Hue/Saturation (.HSS), Ink Colors Setup (.API), Custom Kerenel (.ACF), Levels (.ALV), Monitor Setup (.AMS), Replace Color/Color Range (.AXT), Scratch Area (.ASR), Selective Color (.ASV), Separation Setup (.ASP), Separation Tables (.AST), and Transfer Function (.ATF). The format specification for PSD 2.5 and other file formats associated with Adobe Photoshop may be found in the document PSAPIDOC.* (distributed in the Microsoft Write, Macintosh MacWrite, and Adobe Acrobat format) under the heading "Document File Formats". These documents are part of the Photoshop Plug-In Software Developers Kit, available via FTP and from the Adobe Developers Association's home page: http://www.adobe.com/Support/ADA.html ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/Applications/Photoshop/*/Plug-In-SDK/ This SDK is also available directly from Adobe (see the PostScript section for information on how to contact Adobe Systems, Inc.). The specification for the Adobe Photoshop Raw File Format may be found at: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/custsupport/SOLUTIONS/25c6.htm
Subject: PTU - Performer Terrain Utilities Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: QT - QuickTime Type: Multimedia Extension: QT Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Apple Computer Specification: You can obtain the Inside Macintosh books in electronic form from: http://dev.info.apple.com/insidemac.html The complete QuickTime section from Inside Macintosh in PDF formats is available at: http://dev.info.apple.com/Developer_Services/Technical_Documentation/Inside_Macintosh/QuickTime/CompleteBookPkg/
Subject: QTVR - QuickTime VR Type: Scene Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Object Movie http://dev.info.apple.com/Technotes/tn1036.html Panorama Movie http://dev.info.apple.com/Technotes/tn1035.html You can find the QuickTime VR FAQ at http://dev.info.apple.com/techqa/qtvr/qtvr.html Contact Apple Developer Support at DEVSUPPORT@applelink.apple.com. To join the QuickTime Developer mailing list, send an email to listproc@abs.apple.com with the body "subscribe quicktime-dev yourfirstname yourlastname".
Subject: RAD - Radience Type: 3D Extension: Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Greg Ward <gjward@lbl.gov> Specification: RAD is the native file format for the public domain Unix Radiance radiosity renderer. An MS-DOS version is available as part of the ADELINE 1.0 package. The RAD specification and Radience package are available at: http://radsite.lbl.gov/radience/HOME.html For information on ADELINE, check out: http://radsite.lbl.gov/adeline/HOME.html
Subject: RAS - Sun Rasterfile Type: Bitmap Extension: ras Version: Compression: None, RLE Color Depth: Maintainer: Sun Microsystems Specification: Sun rasterfile is the native bitmap format of Sun Microsystem Unix systems. The rasterfile format has become more wide-spread with the growing popularity of the SunOS operating system and Sun SPARCStation family of Unix workststaions. Sun rasterfiles store images up to 32 bits in pixel depth and support a basic for of run-length data compression. The primary source of information for Sun Rasterfiles is the SunOS include file /usr/include/rasterfile.h and the rasterfile online manual page: Sun Microsystems, rasterfile (5), Sun OS 4.0 Programmer's Manual, 1990. The following jounal article is devoted to the Sun rasterfile: McGee, Format for Byte-Encoded Rasterfiles, Sun-Spots Digest, Volume 6, Issue 84. And several books on graphics file formats also feature the rasterfile format.
Subject: RAY - Rayshade Type: 3D Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: Rayshade is a ray-tracing application for the Unix environment. The Rayshade format is the native scene description language used by Rayshade. And like most 3D scene-rendering formats it is ASCII-based and supports most features commonly found in these formats. The specification is available in the Rayshade distribution on many BBSs and FTP archive sites. The official Rayshade FTP site is: ftp://princeton.edu/pub/Graphics/ And the format is detailed in the document: Rayshade 4.0 Quick Reference The author may be contacted at: Princeton University Attn: Craig Kolb Department of Computer Science 35 Olden Street Princeton, NJ 08544 Email: cek@princeton.edu
Subject: RFT-DCA - Revisable-Form Text Document Content Architecture Type: Word processing Extension: RFT Version: Many Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: IBM Corporation Specification: RFT was developed by IBM for transfering documents between IBM and non-IBM word processing systems. It is most commonly assocated with the DisplayWrite word processor on the IBM 360, 370, and AS/400 systems. Information on RFT-DCA may be found in the following IBM document: Document Content Architecture: Revisable-Form-Text Reference, Document SC23-0758-1, Second Edition, August 1986 RFT is often confused with the Microsoft RTF (Rich Text Format), which also enables the portability of word processing documents between dis-similar systems.
Subject: RAW - Photoshop RAW Type: Bitmap Extension: RAW Version: Compression: None Color Depth: 24-bit Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: http://www.adobe.com/ A Photoshop Raw file is a Photoshop PSD file without a header. The header information must be entered when the file is imported into Photoshop. The raw format is used import and export bitmap data using a very simple, uncompressed binary format.
Subject: RIB - Renderman Interface Bytestream Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: The RenderMAN file format specification may be found in the following document available from Pixar: The RenderMAN Interface, Version 3.1, September 1989. San Rafael, CA. Pixar 1001 West Cutting Blvd. Richmond, California 9484 USA Voice: 415.236.4000 Also of interest is the following publication: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer's Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics, Steve Upstill, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, ISBN 0-201-50868-0, $26.95
Subject: RIFF - Microsoft Resource Interchange File Format Type: Multimedia Extension: AVI, BND, WAV Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: Microsoft Corporation Attn: Multimedia System Group Product Marketing One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 Voice: 206.882.8080 BBS: 206.637.9009 Information on RIFF may be found in the following documents: Microsoft Windows Multimedia Programmer's Guide, Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft Press, Redmond, WA. Microsoft Windows Multimedia Programmer's Reference, Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft Press, Redmond, WA. The specification is also available in the Microsoft Multimedia Development Kit (MDK), the Microsoft Video for Windows Development Kit (VFWDK), and the Microsoft Developers Network CDs. ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/drg/Multimedia/Jumpstart/VfW11e/DK/VFWDK/ Video for Windows Development Kit, v1.1e Also have a look at: http://www.r2m.com/windev/ Internet Resources for Windows Developers
Subject: RIX - ColoRIX Image File Type: Bitmap Extension: RIX Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: ColorRIX is the native bitmap format of the ColorRIX VGA Paint application for MS-DOS. The ColorRIX format is documented in the ColorRIX VGA Paint manual distributed with the ColorRIX program. The last known address of RIX Softworks was: RIX SoftWorks Inc. Attn: Richard Brownback or Paul Harker 18023 Sky Park Circle, Suite J Irvine, CA 92714 Voice: 714.476.8266 Voice: 714.476.8486 ColorRIX is also bundled with several different VGA cards and the specification may also be found on numerous FTP archive sites.
Subject: RTF - Rich Text Format Type: Word processing Extension: RTF Version: 1.4 Compression: None Color Depth: 24-bits Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: Upon the official Microsoft blurbs I cannot improve: "The Rich Text Format (RTF) standard is a method of encoding formatted text and graphics for easy transfer between MS-DOS, Windows, Windows 95, OS/2, and Apple Macintosh applications." "The RTF standard provides a format for text and graphics interchange that can be used with different output devices, operating environments, and operating systems. RTF uses the ANSI, PC-8, Macintosh, or IBM PC character set to control the representation and formatting of a document, both on the screen and in print. With the RTF standard, you can transfer documents created under different operating systems and with different software." "Version 1.4 of the RTF Specification contains all RTF controls introduced by Microsoft applications through the release of Word 7.0." A self-extracting archive containing the RTF 1.4 specification and a sample RTF reader may be FTPed from Microsoft: Or downloaded from Microsoft's BBS at: +1.206.936.6735 RTF is often confused with the IBM Revisable-Form Text Document Content Architecture (RFT), which also enables the portability of word processing documents between dis-similar systems. ------------------------------ Subject: RWX - MEME Shape File Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: RWX - Criterion RenderWare Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: S1K - S1000 Simnet Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: SAF - Standard Archive Format Type: General Extension: SAF Version: Compression: None, GZIP Color Depth: Maintainer: Advanced Missle Signature Center (AMSC) Specification:
Subject: SAIF - Spatial Archive Interchange Format Type: General data format Extension: Version: 3.2 Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/~srmb/saif32/toc.html SAIF (pronounced "safe") is a standard format for the storage and interchange of geographical data. The SAIF format specification is available at: ftp://s2k-ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/pub/sequoia/schema/STANDARDS/SAIF ftp://moon.cecer.army.mil/ogis/related/ And visit the SAIF home page at: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/~srmb/saif.html For more information contact: SAIF Info Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks Fourth Floor, 1802 Douglas Street Victoria, BA CANADA V8T 4K6 Voice: 604.387.1353 Fax: 604.356.7831 WWW: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/srmb/saif.htm The following company provides software tools for using SAIF: Safe Software Voice: 604.241.4424 Voice: 604.583.2016 Email: infosafe@safe.com WWW: http://www.wimsey.com/~infosafe/saif/saifHome.html
Subject: SAT - ACIS Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: Scene Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: Scitex HandShake Formats Type: Bitmap Extension: CT, LW, BM, PG, and TX Version: April 1988 Compression: None and RLE Color Depth: 1-bit to 128-bit Maintainer: Scitex Corporation <http://www.scitex.com> Specification: Howard White <whiteh@s9gate.sta.scitex.com> The most well-known of the HandShake formats is Scitex CT (continuous tone). This format may store from 1 to 16 8-bit color separations (color planes). Typical CT files store four separation of CMYB image data. Adobe Photoshop is an application that is commonly used to create Scitex CT image files. The other HandShake formats include LW (linework, 16 color separations, 255 color maximum), BM (bitmap, 1-bit RLE image data), PG (page layout), and TX (textual typesetter data). Of these formats, PG and BM have not been fully implemented by Scitex and may not be in general use elsewhere. The Scitex HandShake data formats and data exchage protocols are described in the following document: HandShake Foreign File Transfer Protocol, Scitex Corporation, Ltd., Revision A: April 1988, Document No. 788-37898A, Catalog No. 399Z37898
Subject: SCN - SCeNe RTrace Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: SDL - Alias Wavefront Scene Description Language Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: comp.graphics.apps.alias
Subject: SDML - Spacial Data Modeling Language Type: VRML Extension: sdml Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Silicon Graphics Specification: http://www.clr.toronto.edu:1080/CLRMOSAIC/SDML.html SDML is a spatial description language used for storing CAD and GIS data, such as found in Landscape Planning, Design, and Architectural databases. SDML currently exists in two versions: the old SDML format and the new (Version 1.0) format. The old format is derived from the ASCII-based format used in the Silicon Graphics CLRview and PolyTRIM software environments. The new format, released in 05Feb95, is a more detailed, capable, and size-optimized revision of the old SDML and supports all the features of the Silicon Graphics CLRMosaic software. Additional information on CLRMosaic can be found at: http://www.clr.toronto.edu:1080/CLRMOSAIC/help-about.html Questions about SDML should be directed to: Rodney Hoinkes, Head of Design Applications Centre for Landscape Research University of Toronto 230 College St. Toronto, ON, M5S 1A1 Voice: 416.978.3551 Fax: 416.971.2094 Email: rodney@clr.toronto.edu WWW: http://www.clr.toronto.edu/PEOPLE/RODNEY/rodney.html
Subject: SDTS - Spatial Data Transfer Standard Type: General data format Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: SDTS is a standard (FIPS 173) format used for the storage and interchange of gelogical data. SDTS documentation and files are available from: ftp://sdts.er.usgs.gov/pub/sdts/www/html/sdts.html SDTS questions may be directed to sdts@usgs.gov.
Subject: SFF - Scene File Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: SGI - Silicon Graphics Image File Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: SGI is the native file format of the limage image library found on Silicon Graphics workstations. The limage library provides a set of functions used to read and write SGI images. The SGI file format is a creation of Paul Haeberli (paul@sgi.com) at Silicon Graphics Computer Systems. The SGI format specification may be found at: ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/SGIIMAGESPEC The SGI format is also known as the RGB file format. On SGI workstations you can get info on RGB and the limage library by using the following command: % man 4 rgb
Subject: SHG - Segmented Hyper-Graphic Type: Bitmap Extension: SHG Version: Compression: None, RLE Color Depth: Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/drg/Multimedia/SHED.ZIP SHG is a file format used by Microsoft in the WinHelp on-line help facility found in Windows 3.1. This format is used to save a Microsoft Bitmap (BMP) or Windows Metafile (WMF) graphic and store the coordinates of specific areas of the bitmap known as "hotspots". When the bitmap is displayed and the user selects a hotspot, WinHelp jumps to another part of the help documentation via a hyper-text link macro stored in the SHG file. Another file format used with SHG files is the Multiple-Resolution Bitmap (MRB) format. MRB files contain one or more SHG images, each rendered at a different resolution. Several SHG files are typically created using the SHED.EXE utility and then fed into the MRB compiler to create a single MRB file. When WinHelp reads the MRB file it chooses which bitmap most closely matches the resolution of the display. SHG is currently officially undocumented by Microsoft, but a rather questionable specification may be found at: ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/drg/Multimedia/SHED.ZIP Information on SHG and MRB may be found in the following journal article: .mrb and .shg File Formats, Windows/DOS Developer's Journal, Pete Davis, February 1994 (Vol 5, No 4), pp. 37-46. Questions about these formats may also be directed to Section 16 (WinHelp/Tools) of forum WINSDK on CompuServe.
Subject: Softimage Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://vizlab.beckman.uiuc.edu/softimage/ SOFTIMAGE Users Home Page http://www.softimage.com/ SOFTIMAGE Official Home Page http://softimage.co.uk/ comp.graphics.apps.softimage
Subject: SPIFF - Still Picture Interchange File Format Type: Bitmap Extension: JPG, SPF Version: Compression: None, JPEG, JBIG, Modified Huffman, MR, MMR Color Depth: Maintainer: ITU and ISO Specification: http://www.itu.doc/ The "official" JPEG file format. Part 3 of the JPEG standard now includes a fully defined file format to storing JPEG data. When the JPEG format was standardized, disagreements among ISO committees prevented a standard JPEG file format from being created. The defacto format that appeared was JFIF from C-cube Microsystems. The JFIF format, although now quite wide-spread, is very limited in capability as file formats go. SPIFF is intended to replace the JFIF file format, adding features (more colorspaces, a recognized way of including text blocks, and so forth), and provding a backwards-compatability allowing SPIFF files to be read my most JPEG/JFIF decoders. JFIF, however, has a five-year head start on SPIFF, so the likelyhood of it being completely replaced anytime soon is not good. SPIFF's very first journal article has appeared: SPIFF: Still Picture Interchange File Format, Dr. Dobb's Journal, James D. Murray, #249 July 1996 (Vol 21, Issue 7), pp. 34-41.
Subject: STL - Stereolithography Interface Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: STL files are the native file format of the SLA CAD software created by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA, USA. STL files may be ASCII or binary in form, although binary is far more common due to the very large resulting size of the CAD data when saved to the ASCII format.
Subject: TDDD - Imagine Object File Format Type: 3D Extension: IFF Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_imagine1.html TDDD (3D Data Description) is used by Impulse's Imagine 3.0 for 3D rendering data. TDDD files contain 3D object definitions and can be extended to describe different types of object information. TDDD data is stored as FORM TDDD chunks using the Amiga and Electrnic Arts Interchange File Format (IFF). Imagine 3.0 also supports a Texture File Format stored as a FORM TFORM chunk in an IFF file. The spec for this format may be found at: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/h_imagine2.html
Subject: TGA - Truevision (Targa) File Format Type: Bitmap Extension: TGA Version: Compression: None, RLE Color Depth: 1- to 32-bits (8, 16, 24, and 32 typical) Maintainer: Truevision Inc. Specification: The TGA format is one of the most widely used bitmap file formats for storage of 24- and 32-bit truecolor images. TGA supports colomaps, alpha channel, gamma value, postage stamp image, textual information, and developer-definable data. Copies of the TGA specification, including a sample code disk, may be obtained from Truevision: Truevision Incorporated 7340 Shadeland Station Indianapolis, IN 46256-39925 Voice: 317.841.0332 Fax: 317.576.7700 BBS: 317.577.8783 FTP: ftp://ftp.truevision.com/ WWW: http://www.truevision.com/
Subject: TIFF - Tag Image File Format Type: Bitmap Extension: tif, TIFF Version: 6.0 Compression: Uncompressed, PackBits RLE, LZW, JPEG, CCITT Group 3 & 4 Color Depth: 24-bits Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: ftp://sgi.com/graphics/tiff/TIFF6.ps.Z The TIFF format was formerly owned and maintained by the Aldus Developer's Association. Aldus has since merged with Adobe Systems and now the Adobe Developers Association (ADA) maintains the TIFF file format. You may obtain a copy of the TIFF 6.0 specification in PDF format at: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/TIFF6.pdf Or from the following FTP site: ftp://sgi.com/graphics/tiff/TIFF6.ps.Z ftp://ftp.adobe.com//pub/adobe/DeveloperSupport/TechNotes/PDFfiles/ Or in hardcopy from +1.800.831.6395 for a cost of $25US. A detailed text on TIFF enhancements for Adobe Pagemaker 6.0 is at: http://www.adobe.com/supportservice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/TIFFPM6.pdf You can find the specs for TIFF 4.0 and 5.0 at: ftp://ftp.std.com/obi/Standards/Graphics/Formats/tiff.doc.4.0.Z ftp://ftp.std.com/obi/Standards/Graphics/Formats/tiff.doc.5.0.Z General TIFF questions may be asked of the Adobe Developer Support group at devsup-person@adobe.com. You may also contact the ADA directly at: Adobe Developer Association 1585 Charleston Road P.O. Box 7900 Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 USA Voice: 415-961-4111 FAX: 415-967.9231 BBS: 206-623-6984 FTP: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/ WWW: http://www.adobe.com/Support/ADA.html And be sure to visit Niles Ritter's The Unofficial TIFF Home Page at: http://www-mipl.jpl.nasa.gov/~ndr/tiff/ Information on the tag extensions of TIFF 6.0 files for storing geographical bitmap information (GeoTIFF) may be found at: http://www-mipl.jpl.nasa.gov/~ndr/cartlab/geotiff/geotiff.html ftp://mtritter.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/geotiff/ And the GeoTIFF FAQ may be found at: http://www.mmh.fi/maa/kepa/pos/geotiff/ Note: Any software created or modified after 01 January 1995 that supports the capability of reading and/or writing bitmapped data stored in a TIFF file and compressed using the LZW algorithm must obtain a patent license agreement from Unisys Corporation. See Part I of the FAQ for more details on the Unisys GIF-LZW and TIFF-LZW license agreements.
Subject: TRIF - Tiled Raster Interchange Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: TRIF was developed by the Tiling Task Group at the National Institute for the interchange of tiled raster data. TRIF is very similar to the CALS Type II raster format and shares many of the same standards documents. The keeper of TRIF seems to be: Frankie E. Spielman National Institute of Standards and Technology Voice: 301.975.3257 Military standards for TRIF include: Standards for the Interchange of Large Format Tiled Raster Documents, NISTIR 88-4017 (December 1988). Section 4, "A Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Large Format Tiled Raster Documents", contains the application profile definition of a TRIF coded document. Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format, MIL-R-28002A Automated Interchange of Technical Information, MIL-STD-1840A (22 December 1987). Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format - Part 1: Introduction and General Principles, ISO 8613/1. Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format - Part 2: Document Structures, ISO 8613/2. Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format - Part 4: Document Profile, ISO 8613/4. Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format - Part 7: Raster Graphics Content Architectures - Tiled Raster Graphics Addendum, Addendum to ISO 8613/7. Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), ISO 8824. Specification of Basic Encoding Rules for Abstract Notation One (ASN.1), ISO 8825.
Subject: TTF - TrueType Font Type: Font Extension: TTF Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Apple Computer Specification: The TrueType font file format was created by Apple Computer and is used on the Macintosh and Microsoft Windows 3 operating environments. TTF files may be sent to a PostScript interpreter by first converting them to Adobe Type 42 font files. The TrueType font file specification is: The TrueType Font Format Specification 1.0, Apple Programmers and Developers Association (APDA), P/N M0825LL/A. This document is available in Windows 3.1 help format and Word for Windows 2.0 format via anonymous FTP from: ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/drg/TrueType-Info Information, programs, and code for working with TrueType files may also be found in this directory. The OpenType font format (TrueType Open v.2.0) is an extension of the TrueType font format, allowing support for PostScript font data. OpenType was developed jointly by Microsoft and Adobe. Other documents of interest are: Compact Font Format Specification, Version 1.0. Adobe Systems TrueType 1.0 Font Files, Technical Specification. Microsoft Corp. And you can find the Microsoft Typography group at: Microsoft Typography Web Site Microsoft Typography group ttwsite@microsoft.com
Subject: Type 42 Font Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Adobe Systems Specification: Type 42 is a PostScript font format used to download TrueType fonts to PostScript interpreters which contain a TrueType rasterizer. A TrueType font is first converted to a Type 42 format font and then read by a PostScript interpreter. Type 42 yields better result than if a TrueType font is converted to the Adobe Type 1 or Type 3 font formats. The specification for the Type 42 font format is: The Type 42 Font Format Specification, Adobe Developer Support, 1 March 1993, P/N LPS5012. This document available via FTP as a Tech Note in PostScript format, or as hardcopy when obtained directly from Adobe (see the PostScript section for information on how to contact Adobe Systems, Inc.). Additional information on Type 1 fonts may be found in: Adobe Type 1 Font Format. Addison Wesley, 1991; ISBN 0-201-57044-0. Technical Note #5015: The Type 1 Font Format Supplement. Technical Note #5087: Multiple Master Font Programs for the Macintosh. Technical Note #5088: Font Naming Issues.
Subject: URT - Utah Raster Toolkit Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: URT is the native raster file format of the Utah Raster Toolkit. This toolkit, which first appeared in 1983, is a rich source of bitmap manipulation tools and source code. The toolkit is copyrighted, but distributable on a GNU-like license. The specification for the URT file format is found in the following document of the Utah Raster Toolkit: Design of the Utah RLE Format, Thomas, Spencer W., University of Utah, Department of Computer Science. The Utah Raster Toolkit distribution (urt-3.0.tar.Z) may be obtained via FTP from the following sites: ftp://cs.uath.edu ftp://weedeater.math.yale.edu ftp://freebie.engin.umich.edu Questions about URT may be directed to: toolkit-request@cs.utah.edu urt-request@caen.engin.umich.edu
Subject: VCA - Visual Clip Art Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Superscape &lthttp://www.superscape.com&gt Specification:
Subject: VICAR - Video Image Communication and Retrieval Type: General data format Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: NASA Specification: http://www-mipl.jpl.nasa.gov/vic_file_fmt.html The VICAR and VICAR2 formats are used to store planetary image data gathered from Earth and by spacecraft, and are similar in design and use to the FITS and PDS formats. VICAR is actually a collection of image processing programs used to analyze image data stored using the VICAR data format. Information on VICAR may be obtained directly from JPL: NASA Attn: Bob Deen Image Processing Laboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory 4800 Oak Grove Drive MS 168-414 Pasadena, CA 91109 Email: Bob.Deen@jpl.nasa.gov Descriptions of the VICAR format may be found at: ftp://lager.geo.brown.edu/pub/doc/ http://www-mipl.jpl.nasa.gov/vic_file_fmt.html
Subject: VIFF - Visualization Image File Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: VIFF is the native bitmap graphics file format of the Khoros System environment implemented using the X Window System. The VIFF format specification, including other documents related to the VIFF format, may be found in the Khoros distribution. Chapter 1 of Volume II, Programmer's Manual, the files in the directory src/file_formats, and the viff.h file are the most helpful. The following FTP sites archive the Khoros distribution: ftp://ftp.eece.unm.edu/pub/khoros ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/window-sys/khoros The Khoros Consortium may be contacted at: Khoral Research Inc. 6001 Indian School Road NE Suite 200 Albuquerque, NM 87110 Voice: 505.837.6500 Fax: 505.881.3842 Email: khoros-request@chama.eece.unm.edu Email: khorus@chama.eece.unm.edu (User's Group) Newsgroup: comp.soft-sys.khoros
Subject: VIT - VITec Scanner Raster Format Type: Raster Extension: .vit Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: VITec Specification: I have been unable to locate VITec to obtain a .vit file format spec. If anyone knows their address then please email it to me. If you have any VITec files that you need converting, the Image Alchemy file conversion Web page will do it for you. You can find the page at: http://www.handemadesw.com/hsi/web_alchemy.html
Subject: VPF - Vector Product Format Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: VPF is a standard format, structure, and organization for large geographic databases that are based on a georelational data model. VPF is primarily used for organizing and encapsulating such digital geographic databases for transmission. More information on VPF may be found in the newsgroup and FAQ of comp.infosystems.gis. The specification for VPF may be found in the following military standard document: MIL-STD-600006, Vector Product Format, 13 April 1992 This MIL-STD may be obtained from: Naval Publications & Forms Center Code 3051 5801 Tabot Ave. Philadelphia, PA 19120 USA
Subject: VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language Type: VRML Extension: vrml Version: 1.0c Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.eit.com/vrml/vrmlspec.html http://vrml.wired/com/proposals/labspec.html VRML is a proposed design based on the Silicon Graphics Open Inventor ASCII file format. Originally called the Inventor VRML, this format has evolved into what is now the VRML format. VRML is also called a "Markup Language" for reasons that it is used in a fashion similar to HTML (HyperText Markup Language), but for rendering 3D graphics rather than text. VRML, however, is in no way derived from HTML. The current VRML specification may be obtained from: http://www.eit.com/vrml/vrmlspec.html Other sources of VRML specs include: http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/vrml1.0/vrml10-3.html http://www.mediatel.lu/mmedia/render/vrml1.0c/vrml10c.html Questions about VRML may be directed to: Mark Pesce, Enterprise Integration Technology, Inc. <mpesce@netcom.com> Anthony Parsi, Labyrinth Group <dagobert@netcom.com> Gavin Bell, Silicon Graphics, Inc. <gavin@sgi.com> The original Inventor-VRML specification may be obtained from: http://www.sgi.com/Technology/Inventor/VRML/VRMLDesign.html The Labyrinth VRML specification may be obtained from: http://vrml.wired.com/proposals.labspec.html VRML Research and Sample images: http://www.sdsc.edu/vrml http://www.sgi.com/FreeStuff/Cool-Scene.vrml
Subject: WebOOGL - Web Object Oriented Graphics Library Type: VRML Extension: oogl Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: http://www.geom.umn.edu/docs/weboogl/weboogl.html WebOOGL is a OOGL-based format used for describing 3D graphics on the World Wide Web. This format supports the embedding of URL links within 3D objects and allows multiple WebOOGL objects found at different locations on the Web to be combined into a single scene. Additional information om the use of OOGL as a VRML may be obtained from: http://vrml.wired.com/proposals/oogl.html
Subject: WMF - Microsoft Windows Metafile Type: Metafile Extension: WMF Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Maintainer: Microsoft Corporation Specification: WMF is the native vector file format for the Microsoft Windows operating environment. WMF files are actually a collection of GDI (Graphics Device Interface) function calls also native to the Windows environment. When a WMF file is "played back" (typically using the Windows PlayMetaFile() function) the graphics is rendered. WMF files are device-independant and have no limit to their size. Most books on Microsoft Windows programming contain sections on the internals of WMF files. The closest thing Microsoft has for a specification for the WMF format is in Volume 4 of the Microsoft Windows Software Development Kit Programmer's Reference. Chapter 3 details the internals of the Metafile Format. The Microsoft Knowledge Base (available at ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/kb/ and on the Microsoft Developer Network CD) also contains the complete specification of WMF. I also highly recommend the book: Inside Windows File Formats, Tom Swan, Sams Publishing 1993. ISBN 0-672-30338-8 $24.95 softcover, 337 pages. The placeable metafile format was created by Aldus Corp. to allow the positioning of a Windows metafile on a printed page. These metafiles have a 22-byte header then must be stripped before they can be used by the Windows API. Have a look at the following Microsoft Knowledge Base article: http://www.microsoft.com/Softlib/MSLFILES/METAFILE.EXE This archive contains the METAFILE.HLP help file that describes the WMF file format. http://www.microsoft.com/Softlib/MSLFILES/PLAYMETA.EXE This archive contains sample Windows code to manipulate WMF files. http://www.microsoft.com/developr/MSDN/OctCD/METAFI.ZIP This archive contains the METAFI.HLP help file that describes the WMF file format. Also have a look at: http://www.r2m.com/windev/ Internet Resources for Windows Developers
Subject: WPG - WordPerfect Graphics Metafile Type: Metafile Extension: wpg Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: WPG is the native graphics file format of the WordPerfect Corporation line of software products. For this reason it is common to find WPG files in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh, and Unix environments. WPG files may store bitmapped or vector graphics data, or Encapsulated PostScript data as well. Bitmapped data may be up to 24-bits deep and selectable from a palette of 256 colors. The WPG specification is published in the WordPerfect Corporation Developer's Toolkit for PC Products. This toolkit is available directly from WordPerfect Information Services: WordPerfect Information Services Voice: 801.225.5000 Technical questions regarding WPG may be directed to: WordPerfect Manufacturer/Developer Relations Department Voice: 801.228.7700 Fax: 801.228.7777 CompuServe: 72567,3612 And if all else fails: WordPerfect Corporation 1555 North Technology Way Orem, UT 84057 Voice: 800.526.4477 Fax: 801.222.5077 BBS: 801.225.4414
Subject: X3D - x3d and xdart Formats Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification:
Subject: XBM - X BitMap Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: XBM is a native file format of The X Window System and is used for storing cursor and icon bitmaps that are used in the X GUI. XBM files are quite different in that they are actually C language source files that are created to be read by a C compiler rather than a graphical display program. XBM data is typically found in headers (.h files) and are a series of static unsigned char arrays containing the monochrome pixel data. There is one array per image stored in the header. XBM was created by the X Consortium as part of the X Window System. Refer to the /bitmaps directory of the X Window distribution for examples of XBM files. The central FTP distribution site for X version 11 is: ftp://ftp.x.org Reference works describing XBM include: Xlib-C language X Interface, Gettys, James, and Robert W. Scheiffler, Consortium Standard, X Version 11, Release 5, First Revision, August 1991. Xlib Programming Manual, Nye, Adrian, third edition, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. Sebastopol, CA, 1992.
Subject: XOF - RenderMorphics Type: 3D Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: RenderMorphics created the 3D renderer Reality Lab. RenderMorphics was aquired by Microsoft in February 1995. RealityLab is now a core component of Windows95.
Subject: XPM - X PixMap Type: Extension: Version: Compression: Color Depth: Maintainer: Specification: XPM is a defacto standard for storing monochome, gray-scale, and color pixmap data to disk under the X Window system. XPM files, like XBM files, are C source code files, with each pixmap being defined as a static char array. The XPM format was created through the work of the KOALA Project at Groupe Bull Research. Questions about XPM may be directed to: BULL Research c/o INRIA 2004 route des Lucoiles 06565 Valbonne Cedex France Email: lehors@sophia.inria.fr You may subscribe to the XPM mailing list by sending a subscription request to: xpm-talk-request@sophia.inria.fr The XPM library (a collection of utilities that read and write XPM files) version 3.2g (April 1993) may be obtained via FTP from: ftp://avahi.inria.fr/contrib/ ftp://export.lcs.mit.edu And a collection of XPM files (mostly icons) resides at: ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/AIcons
Subject: WSQ - Wavelet-packet Scalar Quantization Format Type: Bitmap Extension: .wsq Version: Compression: Wavelet Color Depth: 1-bit Maintainer: Los Alamos Specification: ftp://ftp.c3.lanl.gov/pub/WSQ/documents/
Subject: XWD - X Window Dump Type: Bitmap Extension: .xwd Version: Compression: None Color Depth: Unlimited Maintainer: X Consortium Specification: ftp://ftp.x.org/ XWD is used to store screen dumps created by the xwd client process in the X Window System. The image of any window or the background may be saved (dumped) to an XWD file. Using the following command: xwd -root > bg.xwd The background is saved to the file bg.xwd. By replacing the "root" flag with the ID of a window, only that window will be saved to the XWD file. XWD was created by the X Consortium as part of the X Window System. Refer to the /usr/include/X11 directory for header files (XWDFile.h) that define the X10 and X11 versions of the XWD format. The central FTP distribution site for X version 11 is: ftp://ftp.x.org
Subject: III. Document Sources
Subject: 0. U.S. Government and Military Standards Sources The following organizations provide U.S. Government and Military documents concerning graphics formats and standards: Department of Defense Joint Interoperability Engineering Organization Center for Standards 10701 Parkridge Boulevard Reston, VA 22091-4398 USA Standardization Documents Ordering Desk 700 Robbins Avenue Building 4D Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094 USA Naval Publications & Forms Center Code 3051 5801 Tabot Ave. Philadelphia, PA 19120 USA Defense Information Systems Agency Center for Standards Attn: TBCE, Rm 3304 10701 Parkridge Blvd Reston, VA 22091 USA Voice: 703.487.3536 Email: edi@itsi.disa.mil Department of Defense Single Stock Point (DODSSP) Special Assistance Desk Open 7:30AM to 4PM EST Mon-Fri Voice: 215.697.2667 Voice: 215.697.2179 Department of Defense Single Stock Point (DODSSP) Subscription Services Desk 700 Robbins Avenue Building 4D Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094 USA Voice: 215.697.2569 Navy Print On Demand System (NPODS) Telespecs automated document ordering system Open 7AM to 10PM EST Mon-Fri Voice: 215.697.1187 thru .1198 CALS Policy Office DASD(S)CALS Pentagon Room 2B322 Washington, DC 20301
Subject: 1. International Standards Document Sources Many graphics file formats and graphical information transfer protocols are ANSI/ISO standards and may be obtained through the following offices: International Standards Organization (ISO) 1 rue de Varembe Case Postal 56 CH-1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Voice: 011 41 22 749 0111 Fax: 011 41 22 733 3430 WWW: http://www.iso.ch/ American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Customer Service 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor New York, NY 10036 USA Voice: 212.642.4900 Fax: 212.398.0023 Fax: 212.302.1286 (sales) Email: jhoward@ansi.org WWW: http://www.ansi.org/ Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Sales Group 178 Rexdale Boulevard Rexdale, Ontario, M9W 1R3 Voice: 416.747.4058 Fax: 416.747.4149 WWW: http://www.csa.ca/ International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Information Services Department Place des Nations CH 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Voice: 011 41 22 730-6666 or 730-5554 Fax: 011 41 22 730-5337 Email: helpdesk@itu.ch X.400: S=helpdesk; A=arcom; P=itu; C=ch WWW: http://www.itu.ch/ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 3 rue de Varembe CH 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Voice: 011 41 22 919 0211 Fax: 011 41 22 919 0301 FTP: ftp://ftp.iec.ch/ WWW: http://www.iec.ch/
Subject: 2. Commercial Document Sources Global Engineering Documents 2805 McGaw Avenue Irvine, CA 92714 USA Voice: 800.854.7179 Voice: 714.261.1455 Fax: 202.331.0960 Global Info Center 18201 McDurmott West Suite B Irvine, CA 92714 USA Voice: 714.474.5070 Fax: 714.474.4066 Document Center 1504 Industry Way, Unit 9 Belmont, CA 94002 USA Voice: 415.591.7600 Fax: 415.591.7617 Phillips Business Information 1201 Seven Locks Road Potomac, MD 20854 USSA Voice: 301.424.3338 Voice: 800.777.5006 Fax: 301.309.3847 Email: clientservices.phi@phillips.com WWW: http://www.phillips.com/
Subject: 3. Other Standards Sources Here's a collection of Web site pointers to many other standards organizations. You can also find more information in the Usenet Standards FAQ posted to the comp.protocols.iso, comp.std.misc, comp.std.internat, comp.answers, and news.answers newgroups. http://www.smartpages.com/faqs/standards-faq/faq.html http://www.ansi.org/resource.html http://www.iso.ch/stbodies.html http://stdbbs.ieee.org/faqs/othstdsorg.html
Subject: IV. Kudos and Assertions
Subject: 0. Acknowledgments The following people have made this FAQ take just a little bit longer to read since the last time you looked at it (blame them and not me): Bjorn P. Brox <brox@corena.no> Mike Beanes <mike@virage.com> John Cristy <cristy@magick.es.dupont.com> Michael Dillon <michael@memra.com> Ben Discoe <ben@sense8.com> James Durham <durhamj@CC.IMS.DISA.MIL> Bruce Garner <garner@tis.llnl.gov> Eric Haines <erich@eye.com> Glenn Herteg <glenn@ia-us.com> Chris Komnick <komnick@group42.com> Tom Lane <tgl@netcom.com> Stanley F. Quayle <quayle@scriptel.com> Glenn Randers-Pehrson <glennrp@arl.mil> Jonathan Shekter <jshekter@interlog.com> Marc Soucy <msoucy@imetric.qc.ca>
Subject: 1. About The Author The author of this FAQ, James D. Murray, lives in the City of Orange, Orange County, California, USA. He is the co-author of the book Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats published by O'Reilly and Associates, makes a living writing books for O'Reilly, writing telecommuncations network management software in C++ and Visual Basic, and may be reached as jdm@ora.com, or via U.S. Snail at: P.O. Box 70, Orange, CA 92666-0070 USA.
Subject: 2. Disclaimer While every effort has been taken to insure the accuracy of the information contained in this FAQ list compilation, the author and contributors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
Subject: 3. Copyright Notice This FAQ is Copyright 1994-96 by James D. Murray. This work may be reproduced, in whole or in part, using any medium, including, but not limited to, electronic transmission, CD-ROM, or published in print, under the condition that this copyright notice remains intact. ------------------------------

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