Posting-frequency: monthly (on or about the 19th)
Last-modified: Jun 25 12:33
Gnus 5.x Frequently Asked Questions
This is the Gnus Frequently Asked Questions list.
Gnus is a Usenet Newsreader and Electronic Mail User Agent implemented
as a part of Emacs. It's been around in some form for over 6 years
now, and has been distributed as a standard part of Emacs for much of
that time. Gnus 5 is the latest (and greatest) incarnation. The
original version was called GNUS, and was written by Masanobu UMEDA.
When autumn crept up in '94, Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen grew bored and
decided to rewrite Gnus.
Its biggest strength is the fact that it is extremely customizable. It
is somewhat intimidating at first glance, but most of the complexity
can be ignored until you're ready to take advantage of it. If you
receive a reasonable volume of e-mail (you're on various mailing
lists), or you would like to read high-volume mailing lists but cannot
keep up with them, then you definitely want to investigate Gnus for
This FAQ is maintained by Justin Sheehy. I would like to thank Steve
Baur and Per Abrahamsen for doing a wonderful job with this FAQ before
If you have a Web browser, the official hypertext version is at:
<URL:http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/> . This version is
much nicer than the unofficial hypertext versions that are archived at
Utrecht, Oxford, Smart Pages, Ohio State, and other FAQ archives. See
the resources question below if you want information on obtaining it
in another format.
The information contained here was compiled with the assistance of the
Gnus development mailing list, and any errors or misprints are my
(Justin Sheehy's) fault, sorry.
What's changed since last time?
1. No changes this month.
This file was last modified on Jun 25, 2001.
Subject: Table Of Contents
+ Q1.1 What is the latest version?
+ Q1.2 Where do I get Gnus?
+ Q1.3 What Emacs versions are required?
+ Q1.6 Unsubscribing from the mailing list
+ Q1.7 How do I run Gnus on both Emacs and XEmacs?
+ Q1.8 What resources are available?
+ Q1.9 Gnus hangs on connecting to NNTP server.
+ Q1.10 Mailcrypt 3.4 doesn't work
+ Q1.11 What other packages can I use with Gnus?
+ Q1.12 How do I make Gnus start faster?
+ Q1.13 I've upgraded to 5.2 and my hooks no longer work
+ Q1.14 How do I specify the NNTP server?
+ Q1.15 What is the difference between persistent and
+ Q1.16 Does Gnus have MIME support?
2. Customizing Gnus
+ Q2.2 How do I quote messages?
+ Q2.4 Any suggestions for all.SCORE?
+ Q2.6 I don't like the default WWW browser
+ Q2.9 Increasing score of favorite authors.
+ Q2.10 Multiple .signatures.
+ Q2.11 Gnus and compression hooks.
+ Q2.12 Using Gnus and other packages.
+ Q2.13 Changing Mail and News directories.
+ Q2.14 Gnus colors have problems with my background color.
+ Q2.15 How do I customize the Sender: line?
+ Q2.16 How do I customize the From: line? (or, how to fix a
+ Q2.17 Gnus says my .signature is too long and it isn't
+ Q2.18 What replaces gnus-author-copy?
+ Q2.19 How do I launch Netscape when clicking on an URL?
+ Q2.20 Could I see someone else's ~/.gnus file?
+ Q2.21 Different headers for mail and news
+ Q2.22 Speeding up base64
+ Q2.23 Not viewing HTML
3. Reading News
+ Q3.1 Kill file to Score file conversion
+ Q3.3 Using an authenticated NNTP server
+ Q3.4 Not reading the first article
+ Q3.5 Why aren't BBDB known posters marked in the summary
+ Q3.6 Cross posted articles aren't marked read.
+ Q3.7 How do I read already read messages?
+ Q3.8 How can nntp be evil?
+ Q3.9 Posting to foreign servers.
+ Q3.10 When I send a post, Gnus just hangs. What's wrong?
4. Reading Mail
+ Q4.1 What does buffer changed on disk mean?
+ Q4.2 How do you make articles un-expirable?
+ Q4.3 How do I delete bogus nnml: groups?
+ Q4.4 What happened to my new mail groups?
+ Q4.5 Not scoring mail groups
+ Q4.6 How to keep groups always visible?
+ Q4.7 Group renumbering
+ Q4.8 Procmail and Gnus
+ Q4.9 Getting new mail, but not new news
+ Q4.10 Why can't I move articles?
+ Q4.11 Using Gnus for mail and never news
+ Q4.12 Compressed mail files
+ Q4.13 Using an IMAP server
+ Q4.14 Using multiple mail sources
+ Q4.15 Qmail delivery
+ Q4.16 How and why would I want to use pop3.el instead of
+ Q4.17 My splitting rules seem to miss a few messages. Why?
+ Q4.18 What is the difference between total-expire and
Subject: Q1.1 What is the latest version of Gnus?
Gnus 5.8 has been released!
As of this posting, the latest Gnus version is 5.8.2. Gnus 5.8 should
still be considered beta at this time, but is in feature-freeze and
bugs are being actively fixed. Download your copy today.
A warning for upgrading users, however: Due to the many changes in 5.8
(especially mail sources and MIME) your dotfiles may not be
forward-compatible. Please read the documentation before you upgrade.
Gnus 5.0.13 is included in the official distribution of Emacs
19.30/19.31 and has a version number of 5.1. Do not attempt to use
this release of Gnus with other Emacsen, as the necessary required
support has been stripped out of it. Gnus 5.2.38 aka Gnus 5.3 is
included in Emacs 19.32 and all later versions of Emacs 19.x. Gnus 5.5
is shipped with Emacs 20.x.
Gnus 5.2.25 is included standard with XEmacs 19.14, Gnus 5.4.37 is
included with XEmacs 19.15p7, Gnus 5.5 is included with XEmacs 20.4,
and Gnus 5.6.45 is packaged alongside XEmacs 21.1.7.
Subject: Q1.2 Where do I get Gnus?
The latest version is available via HTTP at
<URL:http://www.gnus.org/gnus.tar.gz> or anonymous FTP at
Patches are available at <URL:http://www.gnus.org/patches/>.
You can also fetch it from the North American mirrors:
>, or <URL:ftp://aphrodite.nectar.cs.cmu.edu/pub/ding-gnus/>.
The last site should only be used as a last resort.
Or, get it from a mirror in South America:
<URL:ftp://ftp.unicamp.br/pub/news.software/gnus/> or Australia:
Subject: Q1.3 Which version of Emacs do I need?
Gnus 5.8.x requires an emacs version that is greater than or equal to
Emacs 20.x or XEmacs 20.x.
Prior to Gnus 5.2, at least GNU Emacs 19.28, or XEmacs 19.12 was
recommended. GNU Emacs 19.25 has been reported to work under certain
circumstances, but it doesn't officially work on it. 19.27 has also
been reported to work.
Because of Gnus 5.2's use of Common Lisp features present only in
late-model emacsen, it will only work with Emacs 19.30 or later, and
XEmacs 19.13 or later.
Emacs 20.2 has many show-stopping bugs. If you are using Emacs 20.2,
upgrade to 20.3.
Gnus 5.4 requires emacsen at least as recent as Emacs 19.33 or XEmacs
Gnus has been reported to work under VMS, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows
NT 3.51, as well as Unix.
(setq gnus-score-file-suffix "score")
(setq gnus-adaptive-file-suffix "adapt")
in the user's .gnus.
Ed Mccreary <email@example.com> writes:
[For Microsoft Windows NT] Be sure to grab the nttcp.exe file needed
to perform the winsock communication and configure emacs to use it
instead of the default tcp. You will also need to put
(setq tcp-program-name "nttcp")
in your _emacs file.
Jack Vinson <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Actually, any TCP program will work. I have tcp.exe from the people
who are doing win32 ports of Gnu software. I found it at
warned that this is a large (7mb) archive of all sorts of stuff,
including (for some reason) all the e-lisp files you will ever want. I
just downloaded it and extracted the functions I wanted.
Ron Forrester <email@example.com> writes:
With the release of GNU Emacs 19.31, Microsoft Windows '95 & NT users
no longer need nttcp.exe as Emacs now has open-network-stream built
Subject: Q1.6 How do I unsubscribe from the Mailing List?
Send an e-mail message to <URL:mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org> with the
magic word unsubscribe somewhere in it, and you will be removed.
Subject: Q1.7 How do I run Gnus on both Emacs and XEmacs?
You don't. Gnus is distributed with both emacsen, use the version of
Gnus that comes with your emacs.
Subject: Q1.8 What resources are available?
There is the newsgroup Gnu.emacs.gnus. Discussion of Gnus 5.x is now
taking place there. There is also a mailing list, send mail to
email@example.com with the magic word subscribe somewhere in it.
NOTE: the traffic on this list is heavy so you may not want to be on
it (unless you use Gnus as your mailer reader, that is). The mailing
list is mainly for developers and testers.
Jason L Tibbitts III <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Archives of the Ding mailing list are easily accessible by using
gnus-group-make-archive-group, by default bound to G a in the Group
buffer. This presents you with a group containing the 500 most recent
articles from the mailing list. When called with a prefix argument, as
in C-u G a, the entire (rather huge) archive is fetched. The archives
are made available via FTP by Jason Tibbitts (email@example.com); complain
to him about problems with access. The magic of accessing the archives
is provided by Gnus.
This mailing list is mirrored on the World Wide Web at
<URL:http://www.gnus.org/list-archives/ding/>. There's a pretty handy
search tool to help you find what you're looking for.
There is a bidirectional Usenet gateway to the mailing list at:
Gnus has a home World Wide Web page at
There is a Gnus info page at
Gnus has a write up in the comp.windows.x.apps FAQ at:
The Gnus manual is also available on the World Wide Web. To find the
mirror closest to you, go to:
PostScript copies of the Gnus Reference card are available from
<URL:ftp://ftp.cs.ualberta.ca/pub/oolog/gnus/>. They are mirrored at
An online version of the Gnus FAQ is available at
<URL:http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/>. Off-line formats
are also available:
HOWTOs, Tips & Tricks forums, Sample Configurations, Screenshot
Galleries and tons of angry fruitsalad can be found at
<URL:http://my.gnus.org/>. This site is also the home of an excellent
Subject: Q1.9 Gnus hangs on connecting to NNTP server
I am running XEmacs on SunOS and Gnus prints a message about
Connecting to NNTP server and then just hangs.
Ben Wing <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes :
I wonder if you're hitting the infamous libresolv problem. The basic
problem is that under SunOS you can compile either with DNS or NIS
name lookup libraries but not both. Try substituting the IP address
and see if that works; if so, you need to download the sources and
Subject: Q1.10 Mailcrypt 3.4 doesn't work
You are attempting to use the mailcrypt 3.4 distribution with Gnus
5.3. Mailcrypt 3.4 needs some minor patches to work with Gnus 5.,
that are present in the version of mailcrypt distributed with XEmacs
19.14 or later.
Subject: Q1.11 What other packages work with Gnus?
Mailcrypt is an Emacs interface to PGP, written by Patrick LoPresti
<email@example.com> and Jin Choi <firstname.lastname@example.org>. It works, it installs
without hassle, and integrates very easily. Mailcrypt can be obtained
Tools for Mime
Tools for Mime is an Emacs MUA interface to MIME written by MORIOKA
Tomohiko <email@example.com>, and KOBAYASHI Shuhei
Note:Do not use TM with Gnus 5.8.x or later. These versions of Gnus
have native MIME support and should not try to use an external MIME
It can be obtained from
<URL:ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/GNU/elisp/mime/>. It has mirrors at:
To use with Gnus add the line
to your .emacs file before you initialize Gnus.
Alternately, you can use gnus-setup.el to activate tm, bbdb,
supercite, and other packages. See Question #2.12 for details.
If you are using an XEmacs version of 19.15 or newer, you do not need
tm as it is now included standard with XEmacs.
Group Lens is a collaborative filtering system that helps you work
together with other people to find the quality news articles out of
the huge volume of news articles generated every day. It was written
by Brad Miller <firstname.lastname@example.org> as his PhD thesis. It is now
distributed as a standard part of Gnus. A copy for Gnus 5 can be
Insidious Big Brother Database
BBDB is a rolodex-like database program for GNU Emacs created by Jamie
Zawinski <email@example.com> of Netscape fame. Jamie has recently given
his blessing to a new version whose primary maintainer is Ronan Waide
<firstname.lastname@example.org>. This version is the result of the fork that was
maintained by Matt Simmons for some time. The new home of BBDB is
<URL:http://bbdb.sourceforge.net/> and considered official and
Subject: Q1.12 How do I make Gnus start faster?
Make sure you kill your unsubscribed groups. This will make Gnus start
much faster, and keep your .newsrc file sizes down to boot.
Pranav Kumar Tiwari <email@example.com> writes :
I posted the same query recently and I got an answer to it. I am going
to repeat the answer. What you need is a newer version of gnus,
version 5.0.4+. I am using 5.0.12 and it works fine with me with the
(setq gnus-check-new-newsgroups nil
gnus-select-method '(nntp gnus-nntp-server))
Francesco Potort́ <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes :
I would rather write: 'ask-server [for the value of
gnus-check-new-newsgroups] instead of nil. It is more useful to most
people, and does not increase the load time too much.
Subject: Q1.13 I've upgraded to 5.2 (or greater) and my hooks no longer work
Gnus now uses a combined mode for editing mail and news posts called
message-mode. All your hooks must change to reflect this. You can
either use gnus-setup.el provided with Gnus 5.2 (please see Q2.12 for
details), or you can make the changes by hand.
In particular, mail-mode, news-reply-mode, and news-mode have all been
replaced with message-mode.
Subject: Q1.14 How do I specify the NNTP server?
There are a variety of ways, all documented in the Gnus user's manual.
1. (setq gnus-select-method '(nntp "news.somewhere.edu"))
2. (setq gnus-select-method '(nnspool ""))
3. If gnus-select-method is not set, Gnus will take a look at the
NNTPSERVER environment variable. If that variable isn't set, Gnus
will see whether gnus-nntpserver-file (/etc/nntpserver by default)
has any opinions on the matter. If that fails as well, Gnus will
try to use the machine that is running Emacs as an NNTP server.
4. If gnus-nntp-server is set, this variable will override
gnus-select-method. You should therefore set gnus-nntp-server to
nil, which is what it is by default.
5. You can also make Gnus prompt you interactively for the name of an
NNTP server. If you give a non-numerical prefix to gnus (i.e., C-u
M-x gnus), Gnus will let you choose between the servers in the
gnus-secondary-servers list (if any).
Subject: Q1.15 What is the difference between persistent and unexpirable
Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <email@example.com> writes: The terms are not
synonymous, they are orthogonal.
If you tap * on an article, you have made it persistent. Nothing you
ever do, except using the M-* command, will remove it from the cache
where it's stored.
If you mark an article with the E mark, (ie., made it expirable), it
will be deleted by the mail backend when it reaches a certain age. The
persistent copy of the message will not be touched.
The two terms are not related.
Subject: Q1.16 Does Gnus have MIME support?
Gnus 5.8.x has native fully-integrated MIME support.
If you are using an earlier version of Gnus, there are some other
packages that you can use with Gnus. A link to Tools for MIME can be
found in the other packages question.
Note: TM will not work in any version of Gnus that has native MIME
2. Customizing Gnus
Subject: Q2.2 How do I quote messages?
I see lots of messages with quoted material in them. I am wondering
how to have Gnus do it for me.
This is Gnus, so there are a number of ways of doing this. You can use
the built-in commands to do this. There are the ``F'' and ``R'' keys
from the summary buffer which automatically include the article being
responded to. These commands are also selectable as Followup and Yank
and Reply and Yank in the Post menu.
C-c C-y grabs the previous message and prefixes each line with
`message-indentation-spaces' spaces or `message-yank-prefix' if that
is non-nil, unless you have set your own `message-cite-function',
which will be called to do the job.
You might also consider the Supercite package, which allows for pretty
arbitrarily complex quoting styles. Some people love it, some people
If you decide to use Supercite, you need to modify more than just
`mail-citation-hook'. You need something similar to the following:
(autoload 'sc-cite-original "supercite" "Supercite 3.1" t)
(setq message-cite-function 'sc-cite-original)
Subject: Q2.4 Any good suggestions on stuff for an all.SCORE file?
Here is a collection of suggestions from various sources:
From "Dave Disser" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
I like blasting anything without lowercase letters. Weeds out most of
the make $$ fast, as well as the lame titles like "IBM" and "HP-UX"
with no further description.
("^\\(Re: \\)?[^a-z]*$" -200 nil R)))
From "Peter Arius" <email@example.com>
The most vital entries in my (still young) all.SCORE:
("alt.fan.oj-simpson" -1000 nil s))
("\\<\\(make\\|fast\\|big\\)\\s-*\\(money\\|cash\\|bucks?\\)\\>" -1000 nil r)
("$$$$" -1000 nil s)))
From "Per Abrahamsen" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
;; CAPS OF THE WORLD, UNITE
("^..[^a-z]+$" -1 nil R)
;; $$$ Make Money $$$ (Try work)
("$" -1 nil s)
;; I'm important! And I have exclamation marks to prove it!
("!" -1 nil s)))
From "heddy boubaker" <email@example.com>
I would like to contribute with mine.
;; ALL CAPS SUBJECTS
("^\\([Rr][Ee]: +\\)?[^a-z]+$" -1 nil R)
;; $$$ Make Money $$$
("$$" -10 nil s)
;; Empty subjects are worthless!
("^ *\\([(<]none[>)]\\|(no subject\\( given\\)?)\\)? *$" -10 nil r)
;; Sometimes interesting announces occur!
("ANN?OU?NC\\(E\\|ING\\)" +10 nil r)
;; Some people think they're on mailing lists
("\\(un\\)?sub?scribe" -100 nil r)
;; Stop Micro$oft NOW!!
\('?95\\|NT\\|3[.]1\\|32\\)" -1001 nil r)
;; I've nothing to buy
("\\(for\\|4\\)[- ]*sale" -100 nil r)
;; SELF-DISCIPLINED people
("\\[[^a-z0-9 \t\n][^a-z0-9 \t\n]\\]" +100 nil r)
;; To keep track of posters from my site
(".dgac.fr" +1000 nil s))
;; Keep track of answers to my posts
("boubaker" +1000 nil s))
;; Some people have really nothing to say!!
(1 -10 nil <=))
From "Christopher Jones" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
The sample all.SCORE files from Per and boubaker could be augmented
;; No junk mail please!
("please ignore" -500 nil s)
("test" -500 nil e))
From "Brian Edmonds" <email@example.com>
Augment any of the above with a fast method of scoring down
excessively cross posted articles.
;; the more cross posting, the exponentially worse the article
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -1 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -2 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -4 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -8 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -16 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -32 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -64 nil
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -
128 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\
S-+" -256 nil r)
("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\
S-+ \\S-+" -512 nil r))
Or see <URL:http://www.cs.ubc.ca/spider/edmonds/usenet/gnus/SCORE>
which also includes pointers to my SMEGHEADS and BLACKLIST files.
From "Hardrock" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
(Original source unknown, this is used by permission from the Grubor
("Law Doctor" -10000 nil s)
("Manus" -10000 nil s)
("Grubor" -10000 nil s)
("DrG" -10000 nil s))
From "d. hall" <email@example.com>
Here's an example of using the orphan scoring rule to make reading of
large newsgroups more pleasant, in this case comp.lang.c.
Subject: Q2.6 I don't like the default WWW browser
Now when choosing an URL Gnus starts up a W3 buffer, I would like it
to always use Netscape (I don't browse in text-mode ;-).
You should set your browse-url-browser-function:
(setq browse-url-browser-function 'browse-url-netscape)
Subject: Q2.9 How can I make favorite authors be highlighted in the Summary
Per Abrahamsen <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Just increase their score, and they will be highlighted.
You can increase the score of all articles written by Larry Wall in
comp.lang.perl by entering the group, find an article written by Larry
Wall, and type I A (Increase Author) or even better I a s p (Increase
author by substring permanently). You will be prompted with the
content of the From header for the current article, so you can edit
trim string down to just Larry Wall if you want.
Subject: Q2.10 How do I get multiple .signature files?
Kai Grossjohann <Kai.Grossjohann@CS.Uni-Dortmund.DE> writes:
(defun my-signature ()
(cond ((string-match "ding" gnus-newsgroup-name)
"Signature for Ding")
((string-match "^nnml:" gnus-newsgroup-name)
"Signature for mail groups")
(setq message-signature 'my-signature)
You get the idea ...
Jack Vinson <email@example.com> writes:
For multiple signature files, I advise the message-insert-signature
function to set message-signature-file to a random file from my
signature directory: (I have files that look like sig1 sig2 etc in
;; random insertion of .signature file
;; Thanks to Glenn R Coombs: firstname.lastname@example.org
(defvar grc-signature-dir "~/.sig/")
(defvar grc-signature-base "sig")
(defadvice message-insert-signature (before random-mail-sig-ag act comp)
"Change the value of message-signature-file each time
`message-insert-signature' is called."
(let ((files (file-name-all-completions
grc-signature-base (expand-file-name grc-signature-dir))))
(if files (let ((file (nth (random (length files)) files)))
(setq message-signature-file (concat grc-signature-dir file))
Ralph Schleicher <rs@purple.UL.BaWue.DE> writes:
Here's a version which will add a fortune cookie to your .signature.
(setq message-signature 'fortune)
(defvar fortune-program nil
"*Program used to generate epigrams, default \"fortune\".")
(defvar fortune-switches nil
"*List of extra arguments when `fortune-program' is invoked.")
(defun fortune (&optional long-p)
"Generate a random epigram.
An optional prefix argument generates a long epigram.
The epigram is inserted at point if called interactively."
(let ((fortune-buffer (generate-new-buffer " fortune"))
(fortune-string "Have an adequate day."))
(append (list (or fortune-program "fortune") nil t nil)
fortune-switches (list (if long-p "-l" "-s"))))
(skip-chars-backward "\n\t ")
(setq fortune-string (buffer-substring (point-min) (point))))
Bjorn Borud <email@example.com> offers:
("^no\\.test$" . "~/.no.test-signatur")
("^no\\.irc$" . "~/.no.irc-signature")
("^no\\.general" . "~/.no.general-signature")
("^no\\.alt\\.frust" . "~/.no.alt.frustrasjoner-signature")
("^no\\.alt\\." . "~/.no.alt-signature")
("www" . "~/.www-signature")
("^no\\." . "~/.no-signature")
("^alt\\.irc" . "~/.alt.irc-signature")
("^alt\\." . "~/.alt-signature")
("^comp\\." . "~/.comp-signature")))
(setq message-borud-default-signature (expand-file-name "~/.signature"))
(defun message-borud-signature (group)
"Find the signature file that applies to the newsgroup
specified by GROUP. If this file is not found return the
value of message-borud-default-signature"
(let ((tmp message-borud-newsgroup-signature))
(while (and tmp (not (string-match (caar tmp) group)))
(setq tmp (cdr tmp)))
;;; Standard stuff
((sigfile (message-borud-signature gnus-newsgroup-name)))
(if (file-exists-p sigfile)
(insert "\n\n-- \n")
Subject: Q2.11 Gnus and compression hooks
Richard Pieri <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
I just stumbled into a nasty gotcha, a conflict between Gnus (probably
any version) and any on-the-fly file compression hooks. This morning,
the code that pulls the system mailbox into a local Incoming file
created a file called Incominga003.Z. The problem should be apparent:
the .Z extension gets the file flagged as compressed, so the
compression code tries to decompress it; since it is not compressed,
The solution: do not allow periods in the pseudo-random Incoming file
Editor's note: Similar behavior has been observed with jka-compr as
This problem has been fixed in Gnus 5.4.
Subject: Q2.12 Using Gnus and Other Packages
Kevin J Hilman <email@example.com> writes:
How do you hook Supercite into September Gnus? Adding sc-cite-original
to mail-citation-hook works for VM but not Gnus. There must be some
message-mode hook I can add sc-cite-original to, but I cant seem to
figure it out.
Steve Baur <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
You're probably not using gnus-setup.el, but you should. So long as
you have sgnus as a subdirectory of site-lisp in the standard location
all you need to do put in your .emacs is:
(setq gnus-use-september t)
and everything is set up for you.
gnus-setup also handles integration with tm, bbdb, mailcrypt, vm, and
mh-e. Set these variable to choose exactly what you want:
Set this if you want MIME support for Gnus
Set this if you want to use MH-E for mail reading
Set this if you want to use RMAIL for mail reading
Set this if you want to use SENDMAIL for mail reading
Set this if you want to use the VM package for mail reading
Set this if you want to use Supercite
Set this if you want to use Mailcrypt for dealing with PGP
Set this if you want to use the Big Brother DataBase
Set this if you are using the experimental September Gnus
Subject: Q2.13 Changing Mail and News directories
I don't like the default locations for storing Mail and News how do I
The following variables are used at present for News:
Mark Eichin <email@example.com> writes
(setq gnus-startup-file "~/.mit-newsrc")
(setq nnml-directory "~/MITmail/")
(setq nnmail-crash-box "~/.mit-gnus-crash-box")
(concat (file-name-as-directory nnml-directory) "newsgroups"))
but that's only for mail, not news.
An additional note: Be careful if you set variables such as
nnfolder-directory in your ~/.emacs and then change them again at a
later date. Server parameters are stored in your ~/.newsrc.eld and
will need to be changed there as well.
Subject: Q2.14 Gnus colors have problems with my background.
Gnus colors don't look quite right on my background, and it'll take a
bit of fiddling to get it right.
Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
It's quite difficult to come up with a set of colors that work with
the entire range of dark backgrounds. The current defaults seem to
work quite well on very dark backgrounds (and very light backgrounds),
but if you use mid-range background colours, you have to do some
Subject: Q2.15 How do I customize the Sender: line?
Richard Krehbiel <email@example.com> writes:
The original poster wants to correct a broken Sender: line. If the
value that Emacs computes is wrong, (mine is wrong too BTW) then
making a right one is better, no?
Per Abrahamsen <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
No. If you think it serves a useful purpose for the user to change the
value of the Sender field, then you do not understand the purpose of
The Sender field contains the following information: The user has
customized the from address. Here is the original, uncustomized value.
Thus, if you customize the Sender field in any way, it will be wrong.
Addendum by Justin Sheehy:
Per's advice is true for all systems where the (user-login-name) and
(system-name) functions accurately describe your identity and host in
such a manner that they can be combined to form a meaningful address
that could be used to reach you. Regrettably, this is not true in all
Gnus attempts to follow mail and news RFCs by adding a Sender header
when it detects that you are sending a message with a From address
that is different from what it has guessed your local email address to
There are two situations in which this guess will be incorrect.
1. (user-login-name)@(system-name) should be a valid email address
for you, but Gnus is creating an invalid Sender field.
In this case, your system is most likely misconfigured. You should
not change your Gnus configuration. Instead, track down the
configuration problem and fix it.
2. Due to your mail-reading setup, (user-login-name)@(system-name)
does not produce a value that is meaningful in any way. This is
the case for many windows users and users with NAT-based home
networks, for example.
If this is so, then you should override the functions
(user-login-name) and (system-name) in your ~/.emacs file.
However, if you are trying to change your Sender header just so that
you will not have a correct email address anywhere in your headers,
you should think again. There is no good reason to send news or mail
with incorrect and unreachable headers. Among other things, this is a
rude and selfish way to attempt to reduce one's flow of spam. Please,
do not alter your From or Sender headers such that they are not
Take a look at http://www.interhack.net/pubs/munging-harmful/ for just
a couple of the reasons not to munge your address.
Subject: Q2.16 How do I customize the From: line? (or, how to fix a broken
How do I change the From: line? I have set gnus-user-from-line to Gail
Gurman <email@example.com>, but XEmacs Gnus doesn't use it.
Instead it uses Gail Mara Gurman <gailg@deall> and then complains that
it's incorrect. Also, as you perhaps can see, my Message-ID is screwy.
How can I change that?
Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Set user-mail-address to email@example.com or mail-host-address
Andre Deparade <firstname.lastname@example.org> asked:
What can I do, if I get this 'misconfigured_system_so_shoot_me'
Message-ID when I try to post something?
The solution is the same as for the above problem. Set either
user-mail-address or mail-host-address to the correct value.
In Gnus 5.4, the error message was changed to make this fix more
obvious. The Message-ID, instead of saying that your system is
misconfigured, will tell you to set mail-host-address.
Please note that this also works with ISO-Latin 1 characters like:
(setq user-full-name "Finn Håkansson")
Subject: Q2.17 Gnus says my .signature is too long and it isn't
Check for blank lines at the end. Blank lines count as well.
Subject: Q2.18 What replaces gnus-author-copy?
The BCC: or Fcc: field still works:
(setq message-default-headers "Fcc: ~/spool/sent.spool\n")
(setq message-default-mail-headers "Fcc: ~/spool/sent-mail.spool\n")
(setq message-default-news-headers "Fcc: ~/spool/sent-news.spool\n")
Replace Fcc: with Bcc: if you wish.
Another possibility is to use the Gcc: header:
(nnfolder-directory ,(nnheader-concat message-directory "archive"))
,(nnheader-concat message-directory "archive/active"))
'((if (message-news-p) "misc-news" "misc-mail")))
Kai Grossjohann <Kai.Grossjohann@CS.Uni-Dortmund.DE> adds:
I use the following code to automatically add a Gcc header to every
message. I also define a function which can be bound to a key in
message-mode which toggles the Gcc header.
;; select group for Gcc
(defun kai-gnus-outgoing-message-group ()
(cond ((and gnus-newsgroup-name
(string-match "^nnml" gnus-newsgroup-name))
;; automatically add Gcc header
(setq gnus-outgoing-message-group 'kai-gnus-outgoing-message-group)
;; toggle Gcc header (bind this to a key in message-mode)
(defun message-toggle-gcc ()
(let ((pmin (progn (beginning-of-buffer) (point)))
(re-search-forward (concat "^" mail-header-separator
(narrow-to-region pmin pmax)
(if (re-search-forward "^gcc: .*" nil t)
(insert (concat "Gcc: "
Francisco Solsona <email@example.com> adds an alternate method of
toggling the Gcc: as follows:
(defun toggle-gcc-header ()
(when (y-or-n-p "gcc-it?: ")
(setq gnus-outgoing-message-group 'toggle-gcc-header)
Subject: Q2.19 How do I launch Netscape when clicking on an URL?
New versions of Gnus use the browse-url package when you click a URL
button. See the question on changing your default browser to alter its
If you want something a bit faster, get Jamie Zawinsky's
netscape-remote program, found at
<URL:http://home.netscape.com/newsref/std/remote.c>. You then need to
tell browse-url to use this instead of netscape:
(setq browse-url-browser-program "netscape-remote")
For those using NT, Harald Backer <firstname.lastname@example.org>
supplies his setup:
;; No window system at build time, ie. site-start.el, ~/.emacs
;; or ~/.gnus
(if (eq system-type 'windows-nt)
'browse-url-netscape) ; or browse-url-mosaic
(defun shell-execute-url (url &optional new-window)
"Invoke the shell-execute-helper program to call ShellExecute and launch
or re-direct a web browser on the specified url."
(interactive "sURL: ")
(call-process shell-execute-helper nil nil nil url))
Also see <URL:http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/voelker/ntemacs.html>
for shell-execute-helper and other NT related stuff.
Subject: Q2.20 Could I see someone else's ~/.gnus file?
David Lebel had a collection of ~/.gnus files available at
<URL:http://www.lebel.org/gnus/>, but it seems to have been off the
air now for a while. Perhaps it will return soon, or someone else may
step up and fill the void.
Subject: Q2.21 How do I use different headers for mail than for news?
Check out the variables 'message-default-news-headers' and
'message-default-mail-headers'. That is exactly what these variables
Subject: Q2.22 Base64 decoding and encoding appears to be horribly slow in
Pterodactyl Gnus. What can I do about it?
Hrvoje Niksic <email@example.com> answers:
Since the current Emacsen do not support base64 in native "C" code,
Pterodactyl Gnus implements base64 decoding and encoding in Lisp. This
is inherently slow because base64 operations consists of examining
each character in turn, and doing arithmetics on them -- repeated for
thousands of characters. However, Gnus allows you to use an external
base64 decoder, if you have it.
For example, if you have Nathaniel Borenstein's "metamail" package,
here is how to tell Gnus to use its `mimencode' program to decode
(setq base64-decoder-program "mimencode"
(setq base64-encoder-program "mimencode")
Note that, beginning with XEmacs 21.2 and GNU Emacs 20.4, the popular
Emacsen will support base64 natively, which will be faster than even
the external encoders, making above hack obsolete.
Also note that uudecoding, as performed by mm-uu, is also done in Lisp
by default. You can make Gnus use the external Unix decoder like this:
(setq mm-uu-decode-function 'uudecode-decode-region-external)
Subject: Q2.23 I don't want HTML to be automatically expanded in mail or news.
What can I do?
This question is only really relevant to Gnus 5.8.x or greater, as
Gnus did not have native MIME capability before those versions.
The variable mm-discouraged-alternatives may be helpful. If you do the
It will always show the text/plain part of a multipart which has both
a text/plain and a text/html part, for instance. However, if there is
no plaintext part, Gnus will still process the HTML. If you wish to
prevent that, you can do one or the other of the following:
1. Use mm-inline-override-types.
If you set this variable to the same value that
mm-discouraged-alternatives is set to in the above example, the
HTML will initially be buttonized instead of displayed.
2. Use mm-inline-media-tests.
Dale Hagglund <firstname.lastname@example.org>writes:
I added the following to my .gnus file not too long ago.
(cons '("text/html" nil (lambda (h) nil))
[...] text/html parts are not automatically displayed using w3 or
any other browser; they are given buttons, and the html text is
shown inline. if you click the button twice, gnus starts any
text/html viewer specified in you .mailcap file.
3. Reading News
Subject: Q3.1 How do I convert my kill files to score files?
A kill-to-score translator was written by Ethan Bradford
<email@example.com>. It is available from
Subject: Q3.3 How do I use an NNTP server with authentication?
Put the following into your .gnus:
(add-hook 'nntp-server-opened-hook 'nntp-send-authinfo)
Subject: Q3.4 Not reading the first article.
How do I avoid reading the first article when a group is selected?
1. Use RET to select the group instead of SPC.
2. (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil)
3. firstname.lastname@example.org (Luis Fernandes) writes:
This is what I use...customize as necessary...
;;; Don't auto-select first article if reading sources, or archives or
;;; jobs postings, etc. and just display the summary buffer
(cond ((string-match "sources" gnus-newsgroup-name)
(setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
((string-match "jobs" gnus-newsgroup-name)
(setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
((string-match "comp\\.archives" gnus-newsgroup-name)
(setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
((string-match "reviews" gnus-newsgroup-name)
(setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
((string-match "announce" gnus-newsgroup-name)
(setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
((string-match "binaries" gnus-newsgroup-name)
(setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
(setq gnus-auto-select-first t))))))
4. email@example.com (Per Abrahamsen) writes:
Another possibility is to create an `all.binaries.all.SCORE' file
(setq gnus-auto-select-first t)
in your .gnus.
Subject: Q3.5 Why aren't BBDB known posters marked in the summary buffer?
Brian Edmonds <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Due to changes in Gnus 5.0, bbdb-gnus.el no longer marks known posters
in the summary buffer. An updated version, gnus-bbdb.el is available
at the locations listed below. This package also supports autofiling
of incoming mail to folders specified in the BBDB. Extensive
instructions are included as comments in the file.
* send mail to <URL:mailto: email@example.com> with
the following line in the body of the message: get misc
* Or get it from the World Wide Web:
Subject: Q3.6 Cross posted articles aren't marked as read
Ralf Helbing <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Why do cross posted articles appear in every group they were posted to
instead of only the first one? In other words: how can I have them
marked as read in the current group if I read them already in another
Gnus will read news overview files to build its article lists for a
group. An (unfortunately) optional field contains information about
where an article is crossposted to. If this is disabled, then Gnus
will not be able to properly deal with crossposts.
Get your system administrator to enable Xref in the news overview
Failing that, if you add
(setq nntp-nov-is-evil t)
to your .gnus, Gnus will do The Right Thing with respect to cross
posts at the cost of slower group entry and exit.
Subject: Q3.7 How do I read already read messages?
Francesco Potort́ <email@example.com> writes:
Just use C-u SPC or C-u RET for entering the group.
Gnus 5.4 has a more convenient mechanism whereby you can mark
individual groups so that they will always show previously read mail
(display . all)
in the group parameters.
Subject: Q3.8 Evil nntp
Yair Friedman <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Does anyone has experience with setting nntp-nov-is-evil to t? What
exactly will I gain or lose by setting this variable?
Setting this variable only makes sense if netnews is set up on your
system to not provide XREF (cross reference information) in the
overview files Gnus reads to build group summaries.
A quick test to see if you need to use it is this (substitute your
nntp server, and use the last number returned on the 211 line as the
parameter to XOVER):
(Example courtesy of Christopher Davis <email@example.com>).
$ telnet news.somewhere.com nntp
You should see something like the following (on INN systems anyway):
215 Order of fields in overview database.
If the Xref:full is missing, ask your news administrator to add it in.
Assuming you have a broken newsfeed, you gain by setting
nntp-nov-is-evil the ability for Gnus to mark all crossposted articles
as read the first time you see them. Otherwise, every crossposted
article is spam, and you see it over and over again if you also read
the other groups it is crossposted to.
You lose the ability to have Gnus fill in old headers to flesh
partially read threads with old articles. This may not matter a whole
lot if expiration times are short. Building group summaries is also
somewhat slower, though if your network connection to the news server
is decent this isn't a huge loss.
Subject: Q3.9 Posting to foreign servers.
Reading news off of multiple news servers is great, but posting to
foreign servers fails. What do I do?
Give a prefix to the posting command. That is, type C-u C-c C-c
instead of C-c C-c.
This will be changed in the near future so that postings will go to
the server that the group is being read from when no prefix is given.
Steinar Bang <firstname.lastname@example.org> suggests a workaround until then:
Put the following in ~/.emacs or ~/.gnus:
;; Hack for posting on foreign servers
(local-set-key "\C-c\C-c" 'message-send-and-exit-with-prefix)))
(defun message-send-and-exit-with-prefix ()
"Call the message-send-and-exit function with a positive number argument
to make it post the message on the foreign NNTP server of a group, instead
of the default NNTP server"
Subject: Q3.10 Gnus hangs when I try to send a post to my news server. What is
wrong and what can I do to fix it?
Due to a bug in early versions of Gnus, it was sometimes unable to
post consistently to certain servers, notably Typhoon. Sometimes it
would fail on the first attempt but succeed if one tried to post the
same article again.
If you experience this problem, you should upgrade to a version of
Gnus with a version number of 5.6 or greater. The most recent non-beta
release is recommended.
4. Reading Mail
Subject: Q4.1 What does the message Buffer has changed on disk mean in a mail
Your filter program should not deliver mail directly to your folders,
instead it should put the mail into spool files. Gnus will then move
the mail safely from the spool files into the folders. This will
eliminate the problem. Look it up in the manual, in the section
entitled "Mail & Procmail".
Subject: Q4.2 How do you make articles un-expirable?
I am using nnml to read news and have used
gnus-auto-expirable-newsgroups to automagically expire articles in
some groups (Gnus being one of them). Sometimes there are interesting
articles in these groups that I want to keep. Is there any way of
explicitly marking an article as un-expirable - that is mark it as
read but not expirable?
Use ``u'', ``!'', `d' or `M-u' in the summary buffer. You just remove
the `E' mark by setting some other mark. It's not necessary to tick
Subject: Q4.3 How do I delete bogus nnml: groups?
In reasonably new Gnusae (5.4.x and later) deleting groups is
extremely easy. Just press
to remove the mail group.
In very old versions of Gnus, it was rather tricky. If you are stuck
with such a Gnus and want to remove mail groups, you basically have to
kill the groups in Gnus, shut down Gnus, edit the active file to
exclude these groups, and probably remove the nnml directories that
contained these groups as well. Then start Gnus back up again.
I recommend simply upgrading your Gnus.
Subject: Q4.4 What happened to my new mail groups?
I got new mail, but I have never seen the groups they should have been
They are probably there, but as zombies. Press `A z' to list zombie
groups, and then subscribe to the groups you want with `u'. This is
all documented quite nicely in the user's manual.
Subject: Q4.5 Not scoring mail groups
How do you totally turn off scoring in mail groups?
Use an nnbabyl:all.SCORE (or nnmh, or nnml, or whatever) file
(local (gnus-use-scoring nil))
John S Cooper <John.Cooper@digitivity.com> mentioned that
NT seems to prohibit creation of files containing `:' (presumably as
it's the drive letter separator).
Toby Speight <Toby.Speight@digitivity.com> writes:
Under NT, you have to use "_" (underscore) instead of ":".
Works for me (with nnml_all.SCORE).
Subject: Q4.6 How to keep groups always visible
How do you keep groups always visible in the Group buffer, whether or
not they have any new articles in them?
Either write a regexp matching the desired groups and place it in
gnus-permanently-visible-groups, or set the visible group parameter.
Subject: Q4.7 Group renumbering
Thomas Larsen <email@example.com> writes:
I'm usinge the nnml backend to read my mail. To get rid of read mail,
I either expire the article or use B DEL. When I have received more
than 200 articles in a nnml group, I get prompted for how many
articles to show when entering it. The problem is that there are only
about 20 articles present in the group and it's quite annoying to get
prompted for this every time. Is there a way to fix this without
setting gnus-large-group to something very high? Can you somehow
renumber the articles in a group? I'm using Gnus 5.2.1.
Colin Rafferty <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
Enter the group, mark all articles, and then move them all to the
current group. If they were spread out between 1 and 200, they will
now all be numbered consecutively starting at 201.
In response to the further question: Can this be done without breaking
the xref info?
Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <email@example.com> writes:
Well -- if these are Xreffed from a different group, this'll break the
Xref info in the other groups. That is, if you (after renumbering the
articles) read the articles in a different group, they won't be marked
as read in the renumbered group.
Subject: Q4.8 Procmail and Gnus
For Gnusae with versions less than or equal to 5.7.x, Randal's advice
is very useful:
Randal Schwartz <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:
With procmail, you cannot write directly into the nnml directories.
You must create spool files that will be merged into the nnml
directories at times of Gnus' choosing. Asynch delivery just isn't in
I just posted my setup a week ago. Here it is one more time:
gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnml ""))
nnmail-spool-file 'procmail ; same as nnmail-use-procmail :-)
And then I have procmail deliver to ~/.incoming/inbox.spool and
~/.incoming/list.traffic.spool and so on. The name before .spool
becomes the nnml: folder in which the stuff will end up.
If your Gnus has a version of 5.8 or later, you can use the following
code instead of Randal's for a similar effect. See the manual section
on "Mail Sources" for more information.
gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnml ""))
mail-sources '((directory :path "~/.incoming/" :suffix ".spool"))
Subject: Q4.9 Getting new mail, but not new news
The standard technique is to place all your mail groups at levels 1 or
level 2. Then you can do a 2 g, or 1 g which will then only fetch new
mail and not bother with new news.
Subject: Q4.10 Why can't I move articles?
Steinar Bang <email@example.com> writes:
Occasionally I get the message "Can't move article!", when I attempt
to move an article from one nnml group to another, using
in the summary buffer. Other articles can be moved without problem (on
a set of process marked articles, some are moved, others are left
Yair Friedman <yfriedma@JohnBryce.Co.Il> suggests:
What is the value of nnmail-keep-last-article? If it is t and the
article is last in the group, you can't move it.
To this, Steinar Bang <firstname.lastname@example.org> adds:
You should add that nnmail-keep-last-article can be set specifically
for single groups, in the Group Parameters of that group. (ie. if the
global setting is t, you can set it to nil for one particular group,
in group parameters
in the *Group* buffer. (It may work the other way around as well, but
I haven't actually _verified_ that setting it to t in Group
Parameters, will make it leave the last article, when expiring))
Subject: Q4.11 Using Gnus for mail and never news
Sam Falkner <email@example.com> writes:
I'd like to use gnus to do my email at work, without doing usenet news
Rich Pieri <firstname.lastname@example.org> responds:
Change your primary select method to your mail backend:
(setq gnus-select-method '(nnml ""))
(setq gnus-secondary-select-methods nil)
Has been working fine for me since, oh, half way through the (ding)
Subject: Q4.12 Compressed mail files
Piotr Pogorzelski <email@example.com> writes:
Is it possible to have nnml files compressed on disk and decompress
them on-the-fly for reading ?
Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <firstname.lastname@example.org> replies:
Yes. Just gzip the files. You'll need to say `(require 'jka-compr)' in
your .emacs, though.
Note: this only works in Red Gnus (Gnus 5.4) and later.
Subject: Q4.13 Using an IMAP server
Gnus 5.8.x has the nnimap backend, which can be used to read mail on
an IMAP server.
Earlier versions of Gnus are unable to use IMAP.
Subject: Q4.14 How do I get mail from multiple sources?
I want to get mail from both my local spool directory and from a POP
server. What do I do?
Under Gnus 5.8.x, see the manual section Select Methods->Getting
For older Gnusae, just set nnmail-spool-file to a list of your mail
sources. For example,
(setq nnmail-spool-file '("/var/spool/mail/dworkin" "po:dworkin"))
note: The POP part of this example will work with the external
movemail program, but not with Gnus' built-in pop3 library.
Subject: Q4.15 Can I read mail that was delivered by qmail?
Gnus 5.8.2 is capable of reading mail from maildirs, and even has a
manual section describing the necessary settings.
Earlier versions of Gnus have no built-in functionality for this, and
there are a few different known workarounds, none of them ideal.
If you really need maildir support, you should consider upgrading to
Subject: Q4.16 How and why would I use pop3.el instead of movemail?
Why would you want to use pop3.el instead of an external movemail?
Richard Pieri <email@example.com> says:
It does not require an external program, which is important on certain
versions of Emacs running on certain operating systems that cannot
properly handle inferior processes. It has a running count, x of y, of
messages downloaded; feedback on a process is always a good thing. It
does not convert your incoming mailbox to Babyl format. It does not
pass password information to an external process insecurely.
Why would you not want to use pop3.el instead of an external movemail?
It does not handle multiple maildrops, so if you get your mail from
multiple POP servers, or from a POP server and a local spool, it may
not work right. A fix is on the to-do list.
If you use an "expensive" authentication scheme such as KPOP
(Kerberized POP). KPOP is not going to happen until such time as
Kerberos is incorporated directly into Emacs.
Configure Gnus to use the external movemail program per documentation,
then add the following line to your ~/.gnus:
(setq nnmail-movemail-program 'nnmail-pop3-movemail)
The following variables may need to be set manually if they are not
inherited from your environment (or are simply incorrect or
Your POP3 login name. Inherited from user-login-name, $LOGNAME, $USER;
otherwise nil. Change this if your POP login is different from your
Server from which you get your mail. Inherited from $MAILHOST;
Port your POP3 server is on. Defaults to 110.
't' if you need to supply a password. Defaults to nil. You will
probably need to make this 't'.
authentication scheme, either 'pass or 'apop.
pop3.el/nnmail-pop3-movemail currently does not support multiple
Subject: Q4.17 My splitting rules seem to miss a few messages. Why?
If Gnus tried to match some of the regexps used in splitting against
extremely long header lines, the match attempt would take far too long
to be tolerable.
To deal with this, Gnus excludes long header lines from the function
that does the splitting. If a mail message has, for example, a To:
header longer than 1024 characters, that line will not be considered
for splitting purposes.
Very recent versions of Gnus (pgnus, thus all official versions >=
5.8) deal with this a bit better. In those versions, the long lines
are truncated instead of excluded, and there is a variable,
nnmail-split-header-length-limit, to control the threshold for
Subject: Q4.18 What is the difference between total-expire and auto-expire?
When an article is read (the word `read' here being a verb, not a noun
referring to the mark), Gnus also marks it as expirable (`E'). When
the expiry process occurs, it explicitly uses the articles marked with
`E' as the set of articles eligible for expiration.
No `E' marks are used or relevant at all. When the expiry process
occurs, articles marked as read are eligible for expiration. Note that
this means articles that are not unmarked and are not marked with
either `!' or `?' as both of those marks are just special ways of
The real difference:
The benefit of auto-expire is that in really huge groups (several
thousand messages) or groups with really old ticked of dormant
messages, the expiry process will be much faster. This is due to the
fact that Gnus has an explicit list of eligible articles, instead of
having to rebuild such a list each time expiry is invoked.
The benefit of total-expire is that it is simpler. There is no such
thing as a special mark for expirable messages. All articles that are
read and not marked otherwise will be expired once they are old
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