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general pinball Frequently Asked Questions -- The rec.games.pinball DynaFAQ v5.0


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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Archive-name: games/pinball/general
Last-modified: 1997/9/4
Version: 5.0
Frequency: monthly


                       The rec.games.pinball Dyna-FAQ
                       ==============================

            Originated by Keith Johnson <keefer@access.digex.net>
                      and Kevin Martin <sigma@mcs.com>

           Maintained by:  Keith Johnson <keefer@access.digex.net>

                           Version 5.0 - 04-Sep-97

[ObLegalStuff]
This guide is Copyright (c) 1995-1997 by Keith P. Johnson.  Permission is
granted to freely distribute this guide in any manner.  You may also make any
changes you wish, provided credit to those whose names appear in the DFAQ
"Hallowed List of Contributors" as well as this notice are included in the
new distribution and the new distribution remains FREE OF CHARGE.  Use of
this guide in any other manner without my permission is strictly prohibited.

What does this mean for you, the consumer?  Well, it basically means that you
can't go off and write a book and include this DFAQ in it without asking me
first.  Not that you'd do that anyway...  :)

Any changes, suggestions, flames, or comments are welcomed.  Mail them to the
address given above for the maintainer.  Any information that is sent to me
by email or by posting on rgp or elsewhere becomes my property and fair game
for inclusion in the DynaFAQ unless you explicitly state otherwise at the
time the information is released.  All contributions are of course noted at
appropiate places and at the end of the document.


                              Finding the DFAQ
                              ----------------

If for some reason you possess a copy of the DFAQ that is more than one month
old, you may get the latest version from a variety of sources.  You should
try (in this order):

1.  Posted in rec.games.pinball, rec.answers, or news.answers (posting date
    is the 15th of the month, usually).
2.  Via FTP from the Pinball Archive (see question 1.1).
3.  Via WWW from the Pinball Archive (HTML version) or the Pinball Pasture
    (see question 1.9).
4.  Via FTP from the news.answers archive at rtfm.mit.edu.  (This would
    probably be located at
    /pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/games/pinball/general.)

And, as a final, FINAL resort:

5.  Email me (nicely).


                  General Guidelines for rec.games.pinball
                  ----------------------------------------

rgp is meant for, well, pinball, so discussion of video games is highly
discouraged!  However, comparisons of pinball to video games are inevitable,
and do come up fairly often.  This is generally accepted.  Every post to rgp
should have *something* to do with pinball, though, be it real pinball,
pinball vs. video games, or video pinball "simulations".  (See question 1.7
for ObPinballs.)

I think you'll find that in general rgp is one of the friendliest groups on
Usenet.  Flame wars rarely break out, and when they do, it's generally
because one person was either flame baiting, obviously wrong, or generally
making a spectacle of him/herself.  Therefore, before you reach out and flame
someone, sit back, think about it a little bit, and question whether the
original post really deserves a response or whether you really need to flame
the person to get your point across.

"Netiquette" is very important, no matter how stupid the name sounds.  If you
are new to Usenet in general, then you should check out groups such as
news.announce.newusers which often get helpful hints and guides and FAQs for
posting to newsgroups and treating others on Usenet posted to it.  Most of
this stuff is common sense and courtesy, so if you can exercise that, you'll
be in good shape.  Among the finer points:

A) Treat the people in the newsgroup as if you were talking to them in front
   of their face.  The computer screen provides a nice shield from reality,
   but tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of other people are reading your
   words.  You are essentially standing up in a crowded auditorium and giving
   a speech to them.

B) If you are disagreeing with someone, try to keep it civil.  (Refer to
   point A.)  It is very frowned upon to pick on someone's spelling or
   grammer because generally people are moving along pretty quickly and not
   picking up every little thing that might be wrong.  If people spent 30
   minutes carefully thinking about every post they wrote, nothing would ever
   get done.  :)  Also, there are a lot of people around that didn't take
   English as a first language.

C) Don't ask a question that's covered in this DFAQ.  If you have a question
   about the answer or the info in the DFAQ, then you can ask about it.

D) Make sure your post is somewhat worthwhile.  Posting messages where all
   you say is "me too" makes you look really bad, and gains nothing for
   anyone.  The same goes for quoting entire articles then adding like 1 line
   to it.

E) This is kind of a personal peeve, but others may feel the same way:  If
   you include a line in your post that says something like "Please email as
   I don't get to read this group often," then I don't have the time to
   respond to your question.

F) NEVER post private email that someone has mailed you.  Aside from being
   incredibly bad manners, thanks to Lawyermania it could potentially get you
   in trouble.  It's OK if you get permission first, but otherwise, don't do
   it.


                                Introduction
                                ------------

The purpose of this DFAQ is to provide an up-to-date list of questions and
their answers for the rec.games.pinball newsgroup.  The current official FAQ
for the newsgroup deals primarily with maintaining and finding/buying your
own pinball machines.  The FAQ is a valuable guide for this kind of
information, and if that is the kind of information you really need, read
that.  Its maintainer is Andy Oakland <sao@athena.mit.edu>.  This DFAQ tries
to reflect the current goings-on and trends of the newsgroup and pinball in
general, as well as the interesting past.  Finally, and perhaps most
important, we hope to provide some factual and interesting reading for anyone
who enjoys pinball or wants to learn more about it.

This DFAQ is set up so that if you want the answer to a specific question in
the Index of Questions, you can use your favorite editor or pager to locate
the question quickly by searching for:

>>(section #).(question #)

So if you want the answer to question 4 in section 0, you'd search for:

>>0.4

You can also just search for >> to find the next question in line.  If you
want to go to a specific section, just search for >># (where # is the section
you want) and you'll go to the first question in that section.  Neat, huh? :)

When referring to files in the pinball archive, just the directory from the
base pinball directory and the filename are used.  For example, if you FTP to
the pinball.cc.cmu.edu archive, all references to files will assume you are
already in the directory /pinball.


                          Abbreviations and Glossary
                          --------------------------

This is a list of abbreviations commonly used in this DFAQ (as well as the
newsgroup in general).  "Learn it, know it, live it."  :)

rgp - rec.games.pinball
FAQ - Frequently Asked Question(s)
DFAQ - the Dyna-FAQ (this guide!)
BTW - by the way
K - thousand (usually points)
M - million
B - billion
SDTM - straight down the middle
STDM - I don't know, but it sure shows up in rgp a lot :)
IMHO - In My Humble Opinion
PAPA - Professional and Amateur Pinball Association
IFPA - International Flipper Pinball Association
AMOA - Amusement & Music Operators Association
TZ - Twilight Zone
TAF - The Addams Family
IJ - Indiana Jones
JD - Judge Dredd
JP - Jurassic Park
LAH - Last Action Hero
SF2 - Street Fighter II
SMB - Super Mario Bros.
ST:TNG - Star Trek:  The Next Generation
CFTBL - Creature From the Black Lagoon
BK - Black Knight
BK2K - Black Knight 2000
LW3 - Lethal Weapon 3
HS2 - High Speed II:  The Getaway
VUK - Vertical Up-Kicker
EM - Electro-Mechanical
SS - Solid State
AFAIK - As Far As I Know
FWIW - For What It's Worth
AKA - also known as
TOM - Theatre of Magic

[If you feel I've left some important terms out, please let me know.]

pinball(1) - a small ball, usually steel (see question 2.13)
pinball(2) - a game in which you use skill and luck to bat a pinball around
   a playfield with flippers to score points
flipper - the things you bat the pinball around with by pushing the buttons
   on the side of the cabinet
plunger - a stick on the front of the cabinet that you pull back to launch
   the ball into play
autoplunger - instead of a plunger, there is a solenoid that kicks the ball
   into play for you; it is activated by some kind of button or something on
   the front of the cabinet (usually) where the plunger would've been
combo plunger - a normal plunger that has a kicker around the plunger rod
   that can also autoplunge balls into play
trough - where balls are usually stored in the front of the machine when they
   are not being played
drain(1) - the act of losing the ball in play
drain(2) - the bottom middle of the playfield where balls go out of play and
   into the trough
inlane - a lane near the bottom of the playfield that returns the ball to a
   flipper.
outlane - a lane near the bottom of the playfield that leads to the drain
slingshot - the triangular things above the flippers which project the ball
   back up the playfield
bumper - the (usually) circular devices that shoot the ball away from
   themselves (often arranged in triangular positions); also called pop
   bumpers, thumper bumpers, jet bumpers, jets, etc.
kickback - a device usually located at the corner of an outlane that, when
   activated, shoots the ball back up the outlane and back into play
tilt - happens when you nudge or move the game too much; often games today
   will give one or more "warnings" before you lose the ball in play
slam tilt - (see question 3.3)
ramp - an incline off of the playfield that lifts the ball up to another
   section or transfers it to another place on the playfield via a path above
   the playfield
habitrail - those wire paths on some games that move the ball from one place
   to another, usually connected by/to ramps; also called wireforms
orbit - a path on the playfield that forms a half-circle loop; usually the
   entrances are on the extreme left and right sides of the playfield and go
   along the very back of the machine; also called loops (esp. if it's an
   inner shot, e.g. from a side flipper)
sinkhole - a hole in the playfield that either is shootable and/or kicks
   balls out
saucer - a small recess in the playfield where a ball can go into and rest
   temporarily and then be kicked back out in a certain direction
spinner - a device triggered by the ball hitting it and causing it to start
   revolving; the faster or harder the spinner is hit, the more it spins
special - (see question 2.3)
skill shot - usually available at the very start of a ball, you have one
   chance or a brief period of time to make a certain shot after you launch
   it
vari-target - a thin rod with a target on the front of hit that registers how
   hard you hit it
death save - (see question 3.4)
bang back - (see question 3.5)
dead catch - stopping the motion of a ball by dropping the flipper just as
   the ball reaches it; of course, the ball is now on a lowered flipper and
   thus must be shot pretty much right away (aka drop catch)
live catch - stopping the motion of a ball by flipping such that the flipper
   reaches its highest point just as the ball is also reaching that point; if
   done correctly, the ball neatly rolls down the flipper to a caught
   position
bounce pass - letting a ball hit the flipper and bounce over to the other one
   (don't flip the flipper the ball is bouncing off of)

There is an entire file in the archive dedicated to abbreviations used in
rgp.  I am about to update it and post it.  A pointer to it will appear if
and when the archive reappears.  :)


                             Index of Questions
                             ------------------

           * = change in answer to question       + = new question

PREAMBLE
  .  ObLegalStuff
  .  Finding the DFAQ
  .  General Guidelines for rec.games.pinball
  .  Introduction
  .  Abbreviations and Glossary

SECTION 1.............................................................On-Line
 1*  Did someone say "pinball archive?"
 2.  I don't have FTP access.  Can I get stuff by e-mail?
 3*  Can I read rgp by mail?
 4*  Can I post to rgp by mail?
 5*  Where are the archive mirrors?
 6.  What are brag posts?
 7.  What's an ObPinball?
 8*  Do the manufacturers read rgp?
 9*  Is there any pinball stuff on the World Wide Web?
10.  Wouldn't it be a great idea to keep binaries of pinball games?
11*  How about getting together on IRC?
12.  Why do people put asterisks in game names?
13+  Can I read and post to rgp on the web?

SECTION 2.............................................................General
 1*  Who are the manufacturers?
 2.  What is that loud cracking noise?
 3.  What is a special?
 4.  What is a match?
 5*  Do pinball machines have magnets in them?
 6.  Then what causes weird ball movement?
 7.  So the electro-magnetic field...
 8.  What is a beta machine?
 9.  Did I just see a cow in that game?
10.  Are there cows in _____?
11.  How much does a machine weigh?
12.  How much does a machine cost?
13.  What is the size of a pinball?
14.  What is the Powerball?
15.  What is the Power?
16.  Are there any pinball-related or pinball-specific publications?
17.  What is the Broadway Arcade?
18*  What games are current and coming?

SECTION 3.....................................................Playing Pinball
 1.  Is there a good source of information for improving my play?
 2.  How does tilt work, anyway?
 3.  What is a slam tilt?
 4.  What is a death save?
 5.  What is a bang back?
 6.  What are combos?
 7.  What are "Wizard Awards?"
 8.  Is _____ a good score on _____?
 9.  What is "rolling a game over?"
10.  Why is the replay different from the other day?
11.  How does the game know when a ball is stuck?
12.  What does "Press start to adjust replay" mean?

SECTION 4.....................................................Tournament Play
 1.  What are the major leagues?
 2.  What are the major tournaments?
 3.  What are common settings for tournament play?
 4.  What is a "tournament mode?"
 5.  How do tournaments work?
 6.  How can I find out about tournaments?
 7.  Can I start my own league?
 8.  Who are the past tournament winners?
 9*  What is this Rating System posted to rgp?

SECTION 5.............................................................History
 1.  What was the first pinball game?
 2.  OK, then, what was the first game with FLIPPERS in it?
 3.  What are Electro-Mechanical games?
 4.  What are Solid State games?
 5.  What was the first Data East game?
 6.  What was the first Alvin G. & Co. game?
 7.  Aren't Tri-Ball and M-Ball really stupid names for Multiball?
 8.  So why do Gottlieb and Alvin G. machines say Multiball?
 9.  Is there a list of all the pinball games that have been made?
10*  What manufacturers have died off over the years?
11.  Do manufacturers from other countries exist?
12.  Was pinball really banned in New York City?
13.  Are replays still illegal in New York City?
14.  What are the most popular games ever?

SECTION 6................................................Technically Speaking
 1.  Can the rules change on the same game?
 2.  So how do I see what ROMs are on my machine?
 3.  What kind of sensors are used in games?
 4.  What happens when the switches break?
 5.  What are those wiry paths called?
 6.  How can the game get harder physically?
 7.  How can the game get harder otherwise?
 8.  How do flippers work?
 9.  Can I tell if anything is wrong with the game BEFORE I play it?

SECTION 7..................................................Specific Game FAQs
 1.  What is the 4-way combo in TAF?
 2.  Why is/isn't there a rubber band in my TZ?
 3.  What are the songs used in CFTBL?
 4.  What is the Vacation Jackpot in Whitewater?
 5.  I just got the flipper bonus in TZ.  How did I do it?
 6.  What is the proper way to go in STTNG's Shuttle Simulation?
 7.  What is the Secret Mission in STTNG?
 8.  Why in God's name are there 3 High Score tables in STTNG?
 9.  Are there really secret flipper combinations in games?

SECTION 8.......................................................Video Pinball
 1.  Video pinball???
 2.  How accepted is video pinball?
 3*  So what's available?
 4.  Why shouldn't I buy stuff from Amtex?

SECTION 9.............................................Pinball and Your Health
 1.  Can I really get injured just by playing pinball?
 2.  How can I avoid pinball-related injuries?
 3.  So how do I know if I'm getting CTS?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                         ** Section 1 - On-Line **
                         -------------------------

>>1.1 - Did someone say "pinball archive?"

Sure enough.  We have our own dedicated rgp pinball archive, maintained by
Kevin Martin.  It can be reached on the WWW at:

        URL:         http://www.pinball.org/

It can also be reached via FTP at:

        Host:        ftp.pinball.org
        Directory:   /pinball

However, due to many reasons, pinball.org has been non-existent for quite
awhile.  If you stop by, you'll see a message promising it's coming soon,
really.  Keep the faith, it should be there soon.  HOWEVER, most of the
paths given in this document are still valid.  So, for example, in question
3.4 it gives the file /Binaries/Images/ds_bb.gif.  You can convert that to
http://www.pinball.org/Binaries/Images/ds_bb.gif and retrieve the image.  So
disregard the rest of this question for now, it should be useful again pretty
soon...

It would be nice for everyone if you would check here first to see if what
you need is here before posting "Does anyone have rules for _____" messages
to the Net.  If what you want isn't here, then make a request and more than
likely someone will be able to provide you with something.  And in the
process, it makes the archive even bigger, which makes Kevin happy for a
couple of days.  :)

In general, the WWW interface is much better, especially for beginners.

For FTP access, simply FTP to this site, login as anonymous and send your
e-mail address as your password, same as any other anon-FTP site.

If you're unfamiliar with FTP, basically what you would type is this:

% ftp ftp.pinball.org
username:  anonymous
password:  (type your email address)
[some welcome messages appear here]
ftp>cd /pinball

When here, you should grab the README file which describes the archive and
its mirrors and provides some helpful information for getting files from the
archive.  Also, the Listing file provides a description of every single file
currently in the archive.  Also, you can get the Latest file if you've been
here before to get the list of recent changes/additions to the archive.  Both
of these are in the pinball archive root directory.  From there, there are a
lot of other directories such as Rules (which contains all the rules sheets
written so far).  Visit it, it's worth it!

-- Thanks to Dave Stewart <dstewart@eng.umd.edu> for suggestions.

>>1.2 - I don't have FTP access.  Can I get stuff by e-mail?

Yes, you can.  You can use the FTPmail server provided by DEC.  It is not the
place of the DFAQ to explain how to do it, but I will explain how to get help
from them.  Mail the following message:

      To:  ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com
      Subject:  help
	
	  reply keefer@access.digex.net [of course, you'd put YOUR address here]
      help
      quit

That's it!  You should get a response within a couple minutes.  When you
get around to requesting stuff by ftpmail, though, it'll take considerably
longer (at least overnight).  Maybe someone will get around to writing a
guide on getting stuff from the pinball archive via ftpmail.  <hint, hint>

>>1.3 - Can I read rgp by mail?

A kind soul (Bill Ung, see address below) has offered to mail off the day's
articles to anyone who wants them.  Basically what you'll get is a
compressed, uuencoded file of every article posted that day.  You can then
save the mail message, uudecode it, decompress it, then do with it whatever
you want.  Keep in mind, though, that the number of messages per day probably
averages around 20-30, and during peak periods has hit 60-70 per day.  That's
a lot of disk space!

-- Thanks to Bill Ung <ung@filenet.com>!
** See also question 1.13.

>>1.4 - Can I post to rgp by mail?

Currently, one mail-to-news gateway known to exist is news.demon.co.uk.
So, to post to rgp, you would send your message to:

rec.games.pinball@news.demon.co.uk

There are probably others around.  There may even be some kind of FAQ for
them in news.answers.

-- Thanks to Bill Ung <ung@filenet.com> for information.
** See also question 1.13.

>>1.5 - Where are the archive mirrors?

ftp.nl.net <193.78.240.1>:  /pub/games/pinball
ftp.funet.fi <128.214.6.100>:  /pub/doc/games/pinball

Generally speaking, the mirrors will not lag behind the original archive by
more than a day.  If you have net access from Europe (or Asia, I guess :) ),
then more than likely the European mirrors will be a lot faster for you.

Unfortunately, I'm entirely unsure as to the accuracy of this information
right now...

>>1.6 - What are brag posts?

Just someone telling how well they've done on a game or something they've
accomplished.  Depending on who you ask, they're generally not discouraged.
They are never flamed, though.  Often interesting reading.

>>1.7 - What's an ObPinball?

An ObPinball (or ObPinRef or anything similar) stands for Obligatory Pinball.
Every post made to rgp should have *something* to do with pinball or close to
it.  When something has strayed way off subject, someone will generally
include some kind of ObPinball.  Otherwise we start getting a lot of "What
does THIS have to do with pinball??" posts...

>>1.8 - Do the manufacturers read rgp?

You bet they do!  Some people who work for them even post on occasion.  Most
of them that do post will do so from chinet.chinet.com or mcs.com.  There are
a few other places, too, but those are the main ones.  Don't let this deter
you from posting a truly objective, honest opinion, though!  Both us and them
will benefit more if people can constructively criticize a game and they can
get the problems fixed in future games.  Don't expect to hear from them
publically too often, though.  And almost never about a current game or
upcoming ones.

If you do recognize one, try to act nicely towards them...  We don't want to
scare them off.  :)  Ed Boon (who as you may or may not know is the main
programmer of Mortal Kombat and the voice of Rudy the dummy in FunHouse)
posted to rec.games.video.arcade Spring 1993 and was accused of everything
from being a phony to being a jerk for not giving out secrets about the game,
etc. etc.  Little did they know...  Anyway, Ed does not post to rgva anymore
(can you blame him??).  I'd say they lost out on a potentially very valuable
source of information.  We just don't want to see the same thing happen to
rgp, that's all.

Sometimes you'll see posts from "Uncle Willy."  This is the effort of several
Williams/Bally employees to answer some interesting questions people post to
them.  There is an archive of Uncle Willy posts on the Williams web site at
<http://www.wms.com/williams/willyworld.html>.

>>1.9 - Is there any pinball stuff on the World Wide Web?

The 2 main places for pinball on the Web are the Pinball Archive (see
question 1.1) and the Pinball Pasture.  The Pasture is run by David Byers
<byers@lysator.liu.se> and is located at:

        http://www.lysator.liu.se/pinball/

To access these, you'll need a WWW client.  The main ones are Netscape and
Mosaic (for Windows, Mac, and X) and Lynx (for regular terminals).  Of
course, it's much cooler with Mosaic or Netscape (esp. Netscape), because
with Lynx you can't see the pictures or animations (yes, there are
animations there too...).

Other Web sites:

        http://www.wms.com/

A new site (as of March, 1996) run by Williams itself.

In the absence of the Pinball Archive, a couple of rulesheet archives have
popped up recently:

        http://pilot.msu.edu/~mccannr1/
		http://www.mindspring.com/~rosco29/pinball.htm

>>1.10 - Wouldn't it be a great idea to keep binaries of pinball games?

Yep.  Unfortunately, we can't.  The reason is, quite simply, our old friend
the Copyright.  The manufacturers' lawyers won't allow any storage for public
access of anything having to do with their games.  This includes scans of
playfields and the promotional flyers they give out to advertise their games!
So why is this the case?  Basically, we have too many lawyers in the USA.

Seriously, the reason that has been regurgitated by the manufacturers is that
they don't want any distribution of their copyrighted material that isn't
under their control.  So why don't they start something that IS under their
control?  Good question.

This has been brought up a number of times, so you really shouldn't consider
bringing it up again.  We are serious.  Do *NOT* ever post binaries to rgp.
It's a bad, *bad*, BAD, *BAD* idea.  The main reason is because it is not a
binaries group and many people who get their newsfeeds via modems, UUCP, and
all that other good stuff rely on this fact so that they don't get bogged
down with a sudden 750K of stuff on a group that rarely gets over 40K a day.
If you really *must* post something because not even I will keep it for
public FTP for awhile, post it to alt.binaries.misc or something like that
and post a pointer of it in rgp.

With the Archive's move to CMU, Kevin has added a binaries subdirectory, but
it mostly contains demos of computer pins and images.

>>1.11 - How about getting together on IRC?

IRC is almost always active.  The "scheduled" time is Sunday nights at 9
Eastern Time.  This translates into 2AM for England, 3AM for Sweden, and 4AM
in Finland.  You can of course use a table and find out what this is for your
local time.  The channel, of course, is #pinball.  However, we have our own
server, irc.citenet.net.  If you connect to #pinball on "regular" IRC (i.e.
EFNET or one of the others), it is likely not many people will be on there if
any.  Having our own server keeps the conversation much more reliable since
we don't really have to worry about netsplits and the like.

If you don't know what IRC is, or don't know how to access it, then check out
the alt.irc FAQ.  If you don't get alt.irc, then hopefully they also have
gotten it on rtfm.mit.edu by now (the news.answers holding-place).  Also, if
that fails, try alt.answers and news.answers.

The preferred IRC access program that most of us use (for Win16 and Win32) is
mIRC.  Check <http://www.mirc.co.uk/>.

>>1.12 - Why do people put asterisks in game names?

This process (which has become coined as "disemvowelment" or a couple other
catchy phrases) is used for a game that someone thinks is just plain
amazingly bad.  Any vowel in the game's name is taken out and replaced with a
"*".  It was started with Dr*c*l* and has become a regular part of rgp ever
since.

The rationale behind the system is this:  When people want to swear but don't
want to be harsh or offend people, they generally write those words with a
"*" in the word (e.g. sh*t).  This procedure was adopted because the game is
so bad, it is sometimes considered an offense to acknowledge its existence or
to say it out loud, hence the "*"s in the name.  :)  OK, it's not really
offensive, but you get the idea.

>>1.13 - Can I read and post to rgp on the web?

Yup.  In case you didn't know, there's this nifty site at
<http://www.dejanews.com> which has posts from the last couple years.  It
archives posts automatically, but they do honor a "X-No-Archive: Yes" header
if you put it in your posts.  You'll have to check with your news posting
software about setting that if you wish.

The Pinball Archive used to also have rgp reading and searching facilities.
We'll see if this makes a return or not.


                         ** Section 2 - General **
                         -------------------------

>>2.1 - Who are the pinball manufacturers?

Currently, there are Williams (who owns Bally/Midway and also uses this name
to manufacture pins, effectively giving the same company 2 pins on the
assembly line at once) and Sega (who bought Data East).  If for some reason
you'd like to contact one of these companies, their addresses are given in
the FAQ.

>>2.2 - What is that loud cracking noise?

That is the sound of a solenoid banging the side of the pinball cabinet.
Well, not always the side of the cabinet, but usually.  Some newer Williams/
Bally games have the thwacker (technical term) in the backbox.  Weird.  In
most cases, it signals the award of a free game, a chance to play the machine
again at no cost!  Along with being a real-life physical entity that you can
manipulate, free games are what sets pinball machines apart from video games.

There *is* the occasional video game that gives free games (like Mr. Do), but
they are few and far between.  A more recent example is Cruisin' USA (for
getting first place), but I don't consider that to be the same thing because
you are still continuing where you left off.

>>2.3 - What is a special?

Usually a special is a free game.  However, the reason that it's called a
special is because it doesn't HAVE to be a free game.  It could also be an
extra ball or some number of points.  (The latter is most often the case in
tournaments.)  The precursor to the Special was an award called "WOW".

>>2.4 - What is a match?

At the end of your game (unless your operator has disabled it), you will be
given a chance to randomly win a free game.  If the selected digits match the
last 2 digits of your score, you get it.  Note, though, that on modern games,
you do not have a 1:10 chance of getting a game.  The percentage of matches
awarded is operator settable, and often defaults to 7%.  Supposedly Gottlieb
machines default to a paltry 1%!  And Data East uses a newbie-catcher trick:
When the game matches, it plays some sounds, some animations, and gives you
the credit after about 3-5 seconds.  If you hit start before then (because
you still have credits left), you won't get your match credit!

Back when scores didn't have dummy 0's (or 2 or 3 or 6...  :) ), matches were
only on the last digit of your score...

On No Fear, Williams has introduced an entirely new matching mechanism.  They
may or may not keep using something similar.  (It has each player roll a
simulated pair of dice, and then the game rolls a pair and matches are based
on that.)

>>2.5 - Do pinball machines have magnets in them?

NO!  Well, usually not.  Some games have visible, purposeful magnets in them,
but they are usually pointed out to you somehow.  Some examples are the
spiral magnets in TZ, the power in TAF (LAH also uses the same technique as
TAF), and the "Don't shoot!" ball-trapping magnet in Rollergames.  In TZ,
there is also the Magna-Flip in the Powerfield, where you activate the
magnets in an attempt to sling the ball up to the top.  And, in some games of
the past (most notably BK and BK2K), there was Magna-Save.  Hit the button,
and your ball would be caught from the outlane, and generally fall back into
the inlane (assuming you were fast enough, of course...).

A rather non-exhaustive list of games with purposeful magnets:

Lost World, Tales of the Arabian Nights, No Fear, High Speed 2, Theatre of
Magic, World Cup Soccer, Twilight Zone, Dr*c*l*, Last Action Hero,
The Addams Family, Dr. Dude, Rollergames, Black Knight 2000, Black Knight,
Centaur, Zodiac (Planets)...

Feel free to mail me stuff I've forgotten.

>>2.6 - Then what causes weird ball movement?

Strange things happen because the ball will develop spin.  When the ball
bounces off of something, several things can happen.  If the ball hits metal,
it'll have a tendency to have its velocity absorbed for the most part and the
spin will carry it in a new direction.  This is most often observed with
metal outlane posts.  If the ball hits rubber, then it'll generally bounce
off it, but not at the angle you might expect.

Another cause of weird movement is when the playfield covering (mylar, or the
new Williams Diamond-Plate (tm)) starts to bubble up from underneath.  This
can rise high enough to cause a miniture hill of sorts for the ball to roll
over.  Not only that, but under-playfield gizmos that have something on top
of them to protect them from the regular playfield (like that hologram in
CFTBL) sometimes sink down a little bit further than the playfield level, and
balls can get caught on the lip or have their velocity otherwise altered.

-- Thanks to Dave Stewart <dstewart@eng.umd.edu> for suggestions.

>>2.7 - So the electro-magnetic field from underneath the playfield that is
        generated by the lights and all the wiring doesn't affect the
        movement of the ball in any way?

No.

>>2.8 - What is a beta machine?

Beta machines are pins that show up a while before their production run.
Most often, they appear in areas around Chicago (since that's where all the
manufacturers are located) so that people can try them out and give their
initial impressions and feelings about the game.  Betas generally are quite a
bit different from their later production counterparts in the way the rules
are set up.  However, the artwork and playfield layout almost never changes,
though other things like rubber posts may be added and/or removed.

There are also even earlier prototype machines that may wind up being
radically different from the later betas and production machines.

The term "Beta" was coined by rgp (probably due to the nature of its
inhabitants) and is not necessarily used by other people, like the
manufacturers.

** See also question 6.2 for information on prototype ROMs.
** See also question 2.18 for machines currently being produced.

>>2.9 - Did I just see a cow in that game?

Yep.  Lots of recent Bally/Williams games have cows in them.  The reason is
unbeknownst to the pinball public, though.  Data East caught on to this, and
a cow is featured in one of their games (LW3).  It pops up during video mode
and is considered an enemy.  :)  Shoot it, quick!

>>2.10 - Are there cows in _____?

If you really want to know, there is a guide to cows in pinball machines in
the archive.  It is called Misc/cows.

>>2.11 - How much does a machine weigh?

Around 250-350 pounds, depending on the number of toys in it, whether it's a
widebody or not, etc.

>>2.12 - How much does a machine cost?

New machines fresh from the factory retail for $3000-$3500.  Sega, Gottlieb,
and Capcom machines tend to be on the less expensive end of the scale;
Williams/Bally tend to be more expensive.

Capcom has recently started producing much lower-costing games starting with
Breakshot.

>>2.13 - What is the size of a pinball?

1 1/16" diameter, weight 80 grams for a regular steel ball.
1 1/16" diameter, weight 65 grams for the Powerball.

A "normal" pure ceramic Powerball would only weigh 40 grams.  However, there
are apparently several different types of ceramic, and the Powerball is one
of these.

By comparison, if the Powerball was phenolic (the stuff used to make pool
balls), it would weigh 13.6 grams (or maybe 17.7 with a steel middle).

-- Thanks to Brent Earl <earl@rtsg.mot.com> for the answer to this question.
-- Thanks to Chris Hehman <hehman@vnet.net> for information.

>>2.14 - What is the Powerball?

The Powerball is found in TZ.  It is ceramic, and thus immune to the magnets.
It is also lighter and moves much faster around the playfield.  It seems to
be just slightly larger than a normal pinball, supposedly verified by a
caliper by someone.  (Anyone know who or for sure?)  It's awfully close to
1 1/16", though.

>>2.15 - What is the Power?

The Power is a somewhat recurring theme found in Williams' games.  It has
been featured as early as Big Guns, with "Feel the power" written on the
promo flyer.  Pat Lawlor's games have used it the most, as a rule.  First, in
Whirlwind, where you "Feel the power of the wind."  Then it shows up in TAF
(a trio of cycling magnets that can throw the ball off into weird places).
Finally, TZ features the mini-playfield to defeat the power.  It doesn't seem
to have any kind of deep inner-meaning significance..

>>2.16 - Are there any pinball-related or pinball-specific publications?

Yes.  There is a list of books and magazines (some dedicated to pinball,
others to the entertainment industry in general) in the FAQ, along with
addresses to contact the publishers.

>>2.17 - What is the Broadway Arcade?

Quite possibly one of the finest arcades in the US for playing pinball.  It
is located at 52nd & Broadway in New York City.  Its owner is Steve Epstein,
who has been an incredible force in advancing the world of pinball. He is the
founder of PAPA and is responsible for numerous tournaments held nowadays.
Truly a great man dedicated to a great cause!  :)

After January 1, 1997, the Broadway Arcade was closed for business, due to a
non-renewal of its lease.  This was a tremendous loss for New York City and
pinball in general.  Presumably Steve will be restarting somewhere else in
due time.

-- Thanks to Steve Baumgarten <sbb@panix.com> for corrections.

>>2.18 - What games are current and coming?

Williams/Bally:  Producing:  Medieval Madness
                 Next up:    Cirqus Voltaire

Sega:            Producing:  Lost World
                 Next up:    X-Files


                      ** Section 3 - Playing Pinball **
                      ---------------------------------

>>3.1 - Is there a good source of information for improving my play?

In the archive, there is a file called Info/playingtips.  It is maintained by
Dave Hollinsworth <hlsw_ltd@uhura.cc.rochester.edu>.  It is an invaluable
guide to getting better and explaining techniques.  If you are at all serious
about improving your skill, you should not be without this guide.  There is a
LOT of information in it, but some questions are asked so often, I felt they
also deserved a spot in the DFAQ...

Also check the Pinball Pasture (Playing.html appended to URL in question 1.9)
which contains that file (with cross-references) and other articles that
appeared on rgp.

>>3.2 - How does tilt work, anyway?

The main tilt sensor that you are probably familiar with (the one that gives
you warnings and ends your ball if you move the game too much to the side or
back and forth) is a ring on the side of the cabinet.  In the middle of the
ring is a rod that hangs above.  Attached to the bottom of the rod is a
weight (which can be adjusted in height).  The end result is a pendulum that
swings about as the machine gets moved.  When the bob (or the rod if the bob
is missing for some reason) touches the ring, you set off the tilt sensor for
a warning or a tilt.  Most games give you 2 warnings before actually tilting
(which basically means you lose your ball - the flippers go dead, nothing
else registers a hit, and you lose any bonus you had).  Data East games only
default to 1 warning at the moment.  There are other tilt switches, too.  One
is a ball on a shallow rail to detect if the game is being picked up at the
front end or not.  This may or may not immediately tilt your ball, or worse
slam tilt your game.

*** ROUGH ASCII DRAWING ALERT! ***

            |
            |
            |
            |
            | <-------- metal rod
            |
            |
            |
            -
           / \
          |   |
          /   \
      ---+-----+---  <- ring
         /     \
        |       | <---- pendulum bob
        /       \
        ---------
            |
            |

      "Side view of a tilt mechanism"

The lower the bob is on the rod, the less sensitive the game is.  The higher
up, the more sensitive, since the edge of the bob will getting closer and
closer to the ring (due to the slope of the bob).

>>3.3 - What is a slam tilt?

A slam tilt is used to discourage heavy abuse of a game.  If a machine slam
tilts for whatever reason, your game (and any other players' games) is OVER.
Bam.  No questions asked.  The two most typical places for a slam tilt switch
are on the coin door and on the bottom of the machine.  There's one on the
coin door to prevent "slamming" credits on the machine.  The one on the
bottom is to try and detect a drop.  And some machines (though recent ones
don't seem to have these) have a sensor just under the lockdown bar to detect
slamming the top of the glass near the front of the machine.  These are
simply leaf switches that signal a slam to the game when they come into
contact (though older Gottliebs had slam switches that were normally CLOSED -
this must have been weird).

Sometimes your coin door may be a bit loose for some reason.  When this is
true, it will make the game a lot easier to slam tilt because of the extra
pressure provided by your fist moving forward and the door moving then
stopping and having no where else to go.  A great way of reducing accidental
slams (I've brought my knee up into a loose coin door just by using body-
english before and the game slammed, even though I just grazed it) is to take
a penny (or other coin or semi-thick metal object) and wedge it into the gap
between the coin door and the frame outside it.  This will effectively keep
the coin door from moving at all because of the pressure the penny provides
against it.

-- Thanks to Mark Phaedrus <phaedrus@halcyon.com> for information.

>>3.4 - What is a death save?

A death save is a way to get the ball back into play after it has gone down
an outlane.  For it to work, you need to have a machine that is not very
sensitive tilt-wise.  These are easiest on any Data East machine, followed
closely by Williams/Bally and Alvin G. machines.  They are very hard to do on
Gottlieb machines.

You can do a death save if the ball has gone down the right outlane (or down
the left on a Gottlieb, since they have that rubber pin there to bounce the
ball off of).  When it has gone down the outlane, hold up the LEFT flipper.
Then, as soon as the ball hits the metal plate on the left side, give the
machine a sharp quick shove to the right (and perhaps back a little bit).
For a Gottlieb machine, you should reverse the process, since you'll be
trying to save a left drain off the post.  Right outlane saves are very hard.
When you try these, please make sure there's enough room for the machine to
move around, or else you'll wind up damaging the machine, machines around it,
walls, etc.  The operator will be less than pleased at you if any of this
should happen.  However, if you do it right, the ball should now be just
above the right flipper.  Lower the left and flip away!  Warning:  Be sure
you have your weight sufficiently behind you when you try this!  Otherwise,
you could wind up hurting your elbow or arm.

In the archive, you should check out the /Binaries/Images/ds_bb.gif picture
(or its PostScript counterpart, /Binaries/Images/ds_bb.ps).  It gives you the
general idea of how a death save is supposed to work.  These files include
bang back diagrams as well.  Also see the file referenced in the next
question.

>>3.5 - What is a bang back?

Bang backs are extremely useful for getting the ball back from EITHER outlane
when you have a very sensitive machine.  They work best on all but the most
recent Williams/Bally games (like IJ and JD).  They work on Data East
machines as well, but they're somewhat harder to do.  I've never gotten a
bang back on a Gottlieb machine for some reason.  Basically, hold up the
flipper on the side that the ball is draining.  Then, when the ball is under
the "swiveling part" of the flipper, hit the front of the machine at the
lockdown bar or a little below HARD and in the direction you want the ball to
go (i.e. up-left).  The ball should pop right off the drain plate and back
onto the playfield.

These 2 terms (bang backs and death saves) get mixed up all the time for some
reason.  A good way to remember is that bang backs involve BANGing the
machine.

In the archive, Dave Stewart <dstewart@eng.umd.edu> has written an entire
guide to saving outlane drains.  It provides an excellent description of how
to do a bang back.  Not only that, but death saves are described in there
too.  What more could you ask for?  The file is Tips/bangbacks.  It is the
main reason why I'm not describing how to do them in extreme detail in the
DFAQ.

>>3.6 - What are combos?

Combos are usually defined as a sequence of shots made in rapid succession
without missing.  More often than not, they involve use of a different
flipper for each shot.  The first game to my knowledge that had a "hidden
combo award" in it was Whirlwind.  It also had the coolest sound effect for
getting it.  Since then, many games have had combo awards in them, and some
have even made the combo an integral part of the game (e.g. Dr. Who's W-H-O
shots and Dr. Dude's Reflex 1-2-3 shots).  A couple of the most recent even
have the combos laid out for you (Bally's Black Rose and Gottlieb's
Stargate).  Combos play a major part in Williams' Demolition Man.

>>3.7 - What are "Wizard Awards?"

This is the general term given to an objective in a game that is pretty
difficult to reach and can be worth a lot of points once you finally get it.
In mode-based games, the Wizard Award tends to be something that happens once
you have completed all of the modes.  In other non-mode-intensive games (like
Whitewater) the Wizard Award is completing several objectives, each of which
can be a difficult task.  Some games may have a couple of Wizard Awards.  JP,
for example, has the complete-all-modes System Failure as well as the
multiball super jackpots.  Another recent example is the Lost In the Zone
mode in TZ.

>>3.8 - Is _____ a good score on _____?

This is, in general, a pretty difficult question to answer.  Games vary
widely in terms of setup (both physically and in the software settings - more
on this in the Technical Section), how much tilt they have, the condition
they're in (e.g. clean and fast or dirty and slow).  A fairly crude
estimation of a good game is whether or not you got a replay.  Usually, a
replay means you've had one of the best 10% games recently.  Now, maybe
everyone else who plays there is a terrible player, but like I said, it's
crude.  If you get a high score, then you've done extremely well.  Of course,
you could always post and ask, and someone will probably tell you they've
gotten 5x your score at one point.  :)

>>3.9 - What is "rolling a game over?"

Quite simply, this is what happens when your score becomes more digits than
the machine can handle.  On today's machines, this commonly happens at 10B
points.  However, ST:TNG and all machines after it (from Williams/Bally)
handle 10B+ scores, so rolling over the game will become quite a bit more
difficult.  The upper limit is currently not known, though, since 100B scores
have been reported.

Sega games simply stop scoring at 9,999,999,990.  Starting with Corvette,
Williams/Bally games (at least in single-player mode, don't know about
others) will actually display 10B+ scores during the game.

>>3.10 - Why is the replay score different from the other day?

All modern games use reflexing to adjust the replay value of a game every so
often to a desired target percentage of replays.  Generally, this is set to
about 10%.  This means that the game looks at the last x number of games
played, determines the percentage of those games that replays were awarded,
then makes the new replay value higher or lower depending on what the actual
percentage of games won is compared to the desired percentage.

Williams/Bally and Gottlieb games reset their replay scores every 50 or so
games.  Data East games ask you to hit start after power-cycling the machine
in order to adjust the replay (or they do it right away if you are using the
menus).  Lots of recent Gottlieb games have a bug in them that sets the
replay well out of reach for pretty much anyone.  No one knows why for sure,
but there are quite a few machines (SF2s and SMBs, especially) that have
replays in the 9 BILLIONS!  Ouch.

Different from the base replay score is the replay boost:  Most games will
start raising the current replay score until you run out of credits (so that
it isn't easy to constantly keep getting replays at a set score).  Williams
games nowadays typically raise the replay by 50% of the BASE replay score (so
if a replay was 1.2B, the boost would be 600M every time) until you run out
of credits or someone else puts more money into the game (although Johnny
Mnemonic will not allow a replay of more than 10B points).  Either of those
actions will put the replay score back to its base (usually).  Sega games
boost their replays after a replay *OR* a match!  Running out of credits or
putting more money in should reset the replay back to normal here, too.  For
older Gottlieb games, you can get a few replays in a row at the base score,
but after that, the score starts to skyrocket.  And the boost gets higher
and higher after each game played until there are no credits left.  Newer
Gottliebs (starting with Stargte) seem to have adopted the normal replay
boosting system.

Also note that the replay score isn't the only thing that can reflex on a
game.  Number of ramp shots needed to light extra ball is a good example of
other reflexing features.  Beware of Data East "reflexing," though!  Their
games have a tendency to reflex either on or off, not just harder or easier!
(This is a Bad Thing, of course.)

-- Thanks to Dave Stewart <dstewart@eng.umd.edu> for suggestions.

>>3.11 - How does the game know when a ball is stuck?

Well, the true answer is that it doesn't know, really...  at least not at
first.  When the game has been idle for a little while during play (no
sensors have been tripped, and you're not holding a flipper up), it goes into
"ball search mode."  This basically involves kicking every solenoid in the
game in an effort to lodge the ball free from wherever it might be.  Usually
this is sufficient because a ball will be resting against a fairly
unsensitive jet bumper or perhaps accidently trapped by a diverter (seems to
happen in IJ a lot, at least to me, on the right ramp during or just after
multiball).  However, sometimes airballs (or "glassies") will cause the ball
to land in a place that it shouldn't have been able to get to.  :)  In a lot
of these cases, no amount of solenoid kicking is likely to get the ball free.
Now, at this point you have a few options:  Try to shake the ball lose,
risking a tilt; wait for a few ball searches, and the machine will either
kick out any locked balls (if there are any) or (very rarely) give you a new
ball at the plunger; turn the machine off or slam tilt it to make the machine
give up on the ball for good.  Option 1 will at least let you continue your
game if you get the ball unstuck.  Option 2 will let you continue your game,
but often relocking a ball that got kicked out from a lock will just make the
game sit there again until it kicks the locked ball out again.  Draining the
newly given ball will usually mean you have to resort to 1 or 3.  Option 3
should be a last resort, obviously.  When the machine comes back on, hitting
start will give you a "pinball missing" message for 30-60 seconds, then let
you start a game with the ball missing.  This means that multiballs will have
1 less ball if applicable.  If there are 3 balls installed, and there's a 2
ball multiball, you'll still get 2 balls.  But with 3 installed and a 3 ball
multiball, then you'll only have 2 and it'll end when 1 of them drains.  If
there are 6 balls, then 3 ball multiballs will work OK, but obviously only 5
will be available during the 6 ball round.

The (rather alarming) trend in games these days is that if a ball should
somehow get unstuck during a game after the machine has flagged it as
missing, draining one of the (now two) balls will usually end your ball no
matter how many targets you hit after it starts counting your bonus.
Hopefully, the other ball will drain while your bonus is counting and the
game will realize that it now has all the balls again.  If it doesn't,
though, and the ball winds up in the drain while the other one is at the
plunger, you may wind up with 2 balls in the plunger lane!  This is bad,
because the game will still end your ball after one of them drains.  The
trick here is to just get one into play.  This is impossible, though, if the
game has an autoplunger.  You're in real trouble if this is the case...


                      ** Section 4 - Tournament Play **
                      ---------------------------------

>>4.1 - What are the major pinball leagues?

Currently, there is 1 national pinball league - PAPA (Professional and
Amateur Pinball Association).

In July, 1994, the IFPA (International Flipper Pinball Association) ceased
operation.  IFPA used to be supported by the manufacturers themselves (at a
supposed US$20,000/year/manufacturer), but they pulled out, effectively
killing the IFPA.  This has not been much of a surprise, really.  More than
likely, the reason is the manufacturers just didn't see any results in the
popularity of pinball as a result of the operations of the IFPA...

Note:  The IFPA was sponsored by the AMOA, which still sponsors some pinball
tournaments from time to time, though this may not last.

Recently, lots of other local leagues have popped up and are becoming quite
popular:

FSPA (Free State Pinball Association) - MD/DC/VA area
BAPA (Bay Area Pinball Association) - Bay Area, in CA
SCPA (Steel City Pinball Assoctiation) - Pittsburgh, PA
TPL (Triangle Pinball League) - Raleigh, NC

(Feel free to mail me to mention your league here.)

>>4.2 - What are the major tournaments?

There are 2 very major tournaments during the course of the year.  The first
one is the PAPA tournament, held in New York City early to mid February
(there hasn't been one in 1996, due in part to the slimy company Amtex -- see
question 8.4).  The next one is the Wild West Pinball Fest, held in Arizona
around late May.  Another annual tournament is at Pinball Expo (held in
Chicago in early September).  The PAPA tournament usually has 6 divisions:
Open A, B, & C, doubles, womens, and juniors (under 16).  They pay out the
top 9 in each division (whoever made the semis).  The WWPF has a couple of
divisions and lots of other different events, such as head-to-head play on
Joust machines.  Many people have regarded this tournament to be the most
"fun", and PAPA as the most "serious".

>>4.3 - What are common settings for tournament play?

This depends on the tournament.  All of them will set the tournament mode
option on (if the game has one).  Since the tournament only lasts for a
weekend and there are a LOT of matches that have to be played, games are
usually set so that the average game time is pretty low.  Extra balls are
off, specials score points, and there are no replays or other credits.
Typically, they are also set for hard rules and *very* hard outlanes.

>>4.4 - What is a "tournament mode?"

The purpose of tournament modes is to take the "randomness" of a game as much
as possible.  What this mainly means is that any random awards given out by a
game will be made non-random.  Examples:  The Fish Finder on Fish Tales and
the Burn Rubber award on HS2 give out the same awards in the same order each
time.

Along these same lines, games that physically lock balls (FunHouse is a good
example) often attempt to not give one person an advantage by "stealing"
other locked balls.  In FunHouse, when someone has multiball lit, at the
start of each ball the clock resets to 11:30 no matter what to keep it 100%
consistent.  Some machines (Gottlieb's Wipeout is one) actually release all
locked balls.

Starting with Baywatch, Sega has included an option for letting the player(s)
decide whether they want to play tournament settings or not.  There is a
special tournament play button that basically puts the game into Tournament
Mode without having to have access to set that in the machine's menus.

-- Thanks to Mark Phaedrus <phaedrus@halcyon.com> for suggestions.

>>4.5 - How do the tournaments work?

Well, this depends on the tournament, too.  Here is a brief overview of the
major tournaments:

IFPA (at least, how it used to work)
----

The IFPA tournament features the game currently on the production line or
very close to it for each manufacturer that is a member of the IFPA (this is
all 3 (4 if you separate Williams/Bally, which are really the same) of the
major manufacturers at the moment).  The tournament is a double-elimination
tournament, each match being the best 2 out of 3 games, each one played on a
different machine.  If you get to next day's competition, you start all over
again (i.e. you have to lose twice again to be eliminated).  All the machines
(typically, 100 of them - 25 of each) are always available for play, but for
a price.  You also have to pay for each game that you play for actual
competition.

In its effort to pay out to as many people as possible, the IFPA has
succeeded in making its prize money pretty much a joke.  The winner of the
highest division this year made slightly over $800.  Yay.  Generally
speaking, though, most people aren't in it for the money (probably, quite
frankly, because it just isn't there - you can't make a living playing
pinball).

The IFPA has come under question after each of the last 2 tournaments they've
put on.  It seems that the prize money given out doesn't seem to quite equate
to the amount gained for entry fees and coin drops (since you always have to
pay to play).  This amount has generally been fairly substantial.  For IFPA
3, the total purse advertised was $20,000, when the actual payouts were
closer to $10,000.  For IFPA 4, the advertised amount was $25,000, with the
payouts being closer to $15,000...

PAPA
----

This is by far the premiere tournament for pinball players.  It is generally
held in New York City (at least, the first 4 were).  The PAPA tournament
features the qualifying round and the finals round.  To qualify, you need to
have one of the 20 or so top scores in the division.  Your total is the sum
of all scores on (usually) 8 machines.  These tend to be the 2 machines in
production from each manufacturer right before the current machine (which is
used for finals/doubles), though it also has a great deal to do with the
availability of certain games.

In the quarters, there are about 5 4-player games played.  Each person scores
points on each game based on where he/she finished (10 for 1st, then 5, 1,
0).  There are a certain number of people that move on to the next round
based on the number of "PAPA Points" they have.  In the case of a tie, total
score is used to break it.  Then around 12 people move to the semis, then 4
to the finals using the same format.

Prize money is very good here, but then they only pay out the first 4 places
in each division.  The divisions are:  A, B, C, Women's, Doubles, and
Juniors.

Other
-----

At the Arizona show, there is a qualifying round, then the top scorers
compete on one machine (a surprise until finals, could be *anything*,
including old EMs!), top score wins.  What do they win, you ask?  A new
pinball machine (current).

At Expo, there is a qualifying round, then later rounds on different machines
for each round.  The qualifying machine tends to be the latest machine from
the manufacturer giving the factory tour that year.  Winner here also gets a
new machine.

>>4.6 - How can I find out about tournaments?

Obviously, the best way is to read rgp!  :)  Other than that, most of them do
some advertising in the trade magazines and pinball magazines that are listed
in the regular FAQ.  After these two choices, though, you're on your own!
Perhaps your local friendly operator would let you skim through their
magazine to check (any half-decent operator will subscribe to something like
Replay, even a lot of the ones that AREN'T half-decent :) ).

>>4.7 - Can I start my own league?

Sure, why not?  If you want it to be sanctioned by PAPA, then you'll need to
contact Steve Epstein.  If you just want to start small, and perhaps become
sanctioned later, then you can run it pretty much any way you want.  A good
source of information is the Pin-Wizard Archive (see question 1.9) provided
by Dave Stewart <dstewart@eng.umd.edu>.  It's a really good idea to have the
help and approval of a local operator when trying to start one up, if not
essential.

>>4.8 - Who are the past tournament winners?

As of February, 1995...

1991 - PAPA 1 - Joey Cartegena        IFPA 1 - Rick Stetta
1992 - PAPA 2 - Rick Stetta           IFPA 2 - Dave Hegge
1993 - PAPA 3 - Lyman Sheats, Jr.     IFPA 3 - Rick Stetta
1994 - PAPA 4 - Bowen Kerins          IFPA 4 - Dan Wilson
1995 - PAPA 5 - Paul Madison

>>4.9 - What is this Rating System posted to rgp?

An effort to rate players worldwide.  It is kind of difficult, as there are
not that many major tournaments at the moment to provide cross-pollenation of
the main leagues around the world.  Not much work has been done on this
recently, but I plan to start very seriously pretty soon.  You can mail me
<keefer@access.digex.net> with questions.  It was originated by Bowen Kerins.


                          ** Section 5 - History **
                          -------------------------

>>5.1 - What was the first pinball game?

This depends on what exactly you're asking.  Before pinball as we know it
today, there were machines that just had pins in them and balls would fall
down from the top (like a Pachinko machine, except they weren't upright).
This is probably why it was called pin-ball.  This coin operated pinball
industry as we know it today came into being around 1931.  The term "pinball"
wasn't coined until 1936.

-- Thanks to Terry Cumming <terry.cumming@canrem.com> for information.

>>5.2 - OK, then, what was the first game with FLIPPERS in it?

That would be Humpty Dumpty by Gottlieb.  The flippers still weren't as we
know it today, though.  They were really small mini-flippers, and there were
six of them.  Not only that, they were in the middle at different levels and
faced like this:  \   /.  However, the pivot point was on the *bottom* of the
flipper, so you worked your way up.  It wasn't until much later that the
flippers migrated down to where they are now.  The first game to feature
flippers at the bottom of the layout was Triple Action (Genco, January 1948,
which was designed by Williams' Steve Kordek).  However, the flippers were
facing outward here.  The first game with "normal" flippers was probably Spot
Bowler (Gottlieb, 1950).  The really small flippers used on these games
(about the size of the "Thing" flipper on TAF) were used almost exclusively
on games until around 1970.

Here's a brief timeline of other events:

1929 - John J. Sloan, an American advertising representative, starts mass-
       producing bagatelle (an early 19th century game) tables

1931 - Raymond T. Maloney builds Ballyhoo, with sales of 50,000 at $16 each,
       marking the beginning of the pinball era (Maloney goes on to found the
       Bally Manufacturing Company)

1934 - Tilt device introduced (dag-nabbed contraption! ;) )

1946 - Harry Williams founds Williams Manufacturing with his first machine,
       Suspense

1950 - Rotating dials are used to show scores, as opposed to lights for
       numbers in the various places; some previous machines did use rotating
       dials, but showed the entire score on one piece, not individual wheels
       for each digit

1954 - Gottlieb produces the first 4-person table, Super Jumbo

1960 - Gottlieb's Flipper introduces the idea of an extra ball (this was done
       as an alternative to replays to conform to laws of certain areas, thus
       their concentration is higher in some places)

1962 - Williams' Vagabond introduces drop targets

1968 - First game with 3-inch flippers produced (Williams' Hayburners II)

1970 - Big Flipper produced (by Chicago Coin) which had the largest flippers
       to date (at 5 inches!)

1975 - Micro produces first non-relay based game, Spirit of 76 (and
       supposedly, only 100 were produced due to an unattractive playfield -
       it resembled Gottlieb's Flying Carpet (1972) and had very few layers
       of silk-screening)

1979 - Williams produces first talking game, Gorgar

-- Thanks to Terry Cumming <terry.cumming@canrem.com> for information.
-- Thanks to Paul Fernquist <pfern@technix.technix.mn.org> for information.
-- Thanks to Jarod Nash <j.nash@ukc.ac.uk> for information.
-- Thanks to Harry Cline <clinehe@cig.mot.com> for information.
-- Thanks to David Marston <marston@coos.dartmouth.edu> for information.

>>5.3 - What are Electro-Mechanical games?

EMs, as they are affectionately called, are basically games that have lots of
wires, bells, whistles, and (perhaps their most distinctive feature) scoring
reels.  I would say the name refers to their basic nature of electricity
signalling certain relays and solenoids to move and change your score or ring
bells.

-- Thanks to David Marston <marston@coos.dartmouth.edu> for suggestions.

>>5.4 - What are Solid State games?

Basically, anything that came out after EMs died out.  The first solid state
game came out around 1976.  The most obvious changes in these new machines
were the use of 7-segment displays for score, and more electronical-sounding
noises (computer-generated beeps and boops).

The first SS game available for general operator purchase was Freedom (Bally,
1976).  Several games from the 1976-1979 period were made in both SS and EM
versions.

-- Thanks to David Marston <marston@coos.dartmouth.edu> for information.

>>5.5 - What was the first Data East game?

Data East Pinball released their first pin in 1987, called Laser War.  They
have since become a fairly major force in the industry.  They have also since
been bought by Sega.

>>5.6 - What was the first Alvin G. & Co. game?

I believe their first machine was A. G. Soccer-Ball, which was released in
1991.  This was basically a regular-sized pinball machine with flipper
buttons on both ends and a playfield that was crowned in the middle towards
either end.  If you don't play against a friend, then the game will itself
provide somewhat of an opponent using its patented Switch Flippers.
Basically, each flipper has a switch on it that detects when the ball hits
it, then it flips.  It has been seen doing slap saves!

Their first conventional pin was World Tour, released in late 1992.  (Its
full name is "Al's Garage Band Goes On a World Tour" I think.)  The big
"feature" of this game was a spinning disk as a ramp.  Not a very big deal,
really.  Another "feature" of the game was the fact that every time the ball
hit a jet bumper, you'd feel it in the flipper buttons!  This was a pretty
strange sensation, to say the least.

** See also question 5.10 about their fold.

>>5.7 - Aren't Tri-Ball and M-Ball really stupid names for Multiball?

Multiball is a registered trademark (R) of Williams.  As such, they are the
ones with the rights to use it and can forbid other people to use it.  They
actually sued Data East for using it (because they were starting to provide
some decent competition, and wanted to thwart them in any way they could),
and so Data East started using the infamous Tri-Ball in the middle of the
production run for LW3.  That's why some LW3s say Multiball and some say
Tri-Ball.  Everything since has been Tri-Ball or something other than
Multiball.

Late breaking news:  Starting with Tales From the Crypt, Data East can now
use Multiball to their heart's content.

>>5.8 - So why do Gottlieb and Alvin G. machines say Multiball?

Because Williams has chosen "selective enforcement" for Multiball.  Since
these two companies aren't perceived as much of a threat, Williams hasn't
bothered with them.

>>5.9 - Is there a list of all the pinball games that have been made?

Well, most of the solid state games that have been produced are in a list in
the archive.  It is called /Info/pinball.  It is maintained by Rob Rosenhouse
<rob_rosenhouse@hq-bbs.wisdom.bubble.org>.

There is also a more comprehensive list covering games in a bit more detail
from 1947 on up.  You can get information on the guide itself or order it
from:  Daina Pettit, 4805 Marabow Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84117.  Phone
number is (801)277-6296.  Email:  daina@xmission.com.  Web page:
"http://www.xmission.com/~daina".  Contains nearly all you'd want to know
about 1,600 games.  I haven't seen it myself, this is what Daina has told me.

>>5.10 - What manufacturers have died off over the years?

There was Chicago Coin (which later became Stern) which put out a good number
of pins, Game Plan, Exhibit, Genco, Keeny, United (apparently later acquired
by Williams), Zaccaria (an Italian manufacturer), Atari (who also put out the
biggest pin, called Hercules, with the pinball being roughly the size of a
cue ball!), and supposedly even Sega had a brief pinball stint (this was
before they bought DE Pinball in late 1994).

On March 5, 1994, Alvin G. and Co., which had been in business for probably a
little less than 2 or 3 years, closed its doors as well.

On July 9, 1996, Gottlieb/Premier closed its doors.  Their assets were
acquired by a parent company, Mondial.  Their name will likely be on machines
again some time in the future.

On December 9, 1996, Capcom closed its pinball division.  Talks with Sega to
acquire them didn't quite pan out.  They had been operating since
approximately March 15, 1994 (ribbon-cutting ceremony).
 
A few companies also produced 1 or 2 games that I haven't bothered to list
here.  If you really want to know, check out the list mentioned in 5.9.

-- Thanks to Lyman Sheats, Jr. <lyman@chinet.com> for information.
-- Thanks to David Marston <marston@coos.dartmouth.edu> for information.

>>5.11 - Do manufacturers from other countries exist?

Well, after Zaccaria from Italy died out, no.  At least, not that I'm aware
of.

>>5.12 - Was pinball really banned in New York City?

Yes, for quite a long time:  January 21st, 1942 up until 1976.  The mayor at
the time (Fiorello Henry LaGuardia, as in LaGuardia airport) made a big
spectacle by smashing up a large number of pinball machines in front of a
fairly supportive crowd!  Anyway, the ban was put into place because the
machines were seen more as a game of luck than of skill.  (And games of luck
== gambling, apparently!) However, in 1976, one Mr. Roger Sharpe went up to
the NYC City Council when they were having hearings on the ban.  He said
something to the effect of: "I can pull back this plunger and make the ball
go into the lane I want at the top of the machine."  He proceeded to plunge,
make the lane, and right away they voted to end the ban.  Neat story, huh?
If you didn't know, Roger Sharpe is the Major Marketing Dude at Williams now.

-- Thanks to Scott Piehler <rosco29@mindspring.com> for information.

>>5.13 - Are replays still illegal in New York City?

Well, replays were a major reason why pinball was banned in the first place,
as far as I know.  They are still illegal in NYC, apparently.  However, it
turns out most places blissfully ignore this law and let their games give out
replays anyway.

-- Thanks to Steve Baumgarten <sbb@panix.com> for information.

>>5.14 - What are the most popular games ever?

Here is what has been pieced together from various sources:

    Units   Year  Manu.  Game

 1.  22,000  1991  Bally  The Addams Family
 2.  20,230  1977  Bally  Eight Ball
 3.  19,000  1978  Wms.   Flash
 4.  18,250  1978  Bally  Playboy
 5.  17,000  1991  Wms.   Terminator 2
 5.  17,000  1976  Bally  Kiss
 7.  16,850  1978  Bally  Star Trek
 8.  16,260  1976  Bally  Mata Hari
 9.  16,000  1976  Wms.   Space Mission
10.  16,155  1976  Bally  Captain Fantastic
11.  14,550  1978  Bally  Harlem Globetrotters
12.  14,000  1993  Bally  Twilight Zone
12.  14,000  1976  Bally  Evel Knievel
14.  13,750  1977  Bally  Power Play
15.  12,820  1977  Bally  Strikes and Spares
16.  12,000  1985  Wms.   High Speed
17.  11,400  1979  Bally  Space Invaders
18.  11,000  1979  Bally  Xenon

-- Thanks to Ted Piknis <bure@wam.umd.edu> for contributions.
-- Thanks to Matt Walsh <mtmr@walsh.dme.battelle.org> for contributions.
-- Thanks to Federico Croci <wiz@pinball.nervous.com> for contributions.


                   ** Section 6 - Technically Speaking **
                   --------------------------------------

>>6.1 - Can the rules change on the same game?

Yep, and they usually do quite a few times.  One reason is because most of
the rules and timers can be adjusted with the operator menus.  (See the later
questions on how games get easier or harder.)  The other major reason is
because the rules in general go through several revisions.  In order to do
this, though, they have to make new ROMs for the game.

Generally speaking, the later the ROMs the better, because that means they
have the rules refined a bit more and the bugs worked out for the most part.
However, as games get more and more complex, the likeliness of bugs showing
up gets higher and higher.  IJ and JP are 2 good examples of games that still
have a large number of bugs in them despite having gone through a large
number of ROM changes.

>>6.2 - So how do I see what the ROMs are on my machine?

Usually the only way is to power-cycle the machine.  On Williams/Bally games,
the ROMs are labeled like this:  P-?? means prototype (pre-production run)
ROMs, where the ?? is a number of some sort.  The higher the number, the
later the ROMs.  L-?? means production ROMs (again the higher the number the
later they are), and H-?? is used for custom ROMs.  You have to have some
pretty good connections to get these kind.  :)

For a while, Williams/Bally games used PA/LA and PX/LX.  These signify
American ROMs and export ROMs (the A and the X that is).  The difference is
that it is impossible without extra hardware for an American ROM game to be
set to $.25/game.  Boo.

Sega games use actual ?.??-type numbers for their ROMs, as well as the date
of release.

Williams/Bally, starting with Theatre of Magic, have gone to a ?.??-type
numbering system like Sega's now.

Gottlieb games don't give any indication of ROMs whatsoever.  It just tells
you how many balls should be in the game and the ROM checksum.  Not very
helpful, really.

Alvin G. games display something like "AG10/R3".  The best guess is that the
first number is the game number and the second number is the revision level.

-- Thanks to John Gantert <gantertj@vitro.com> for information.

>>6.3 - What kind of sensors are used in games?

Microswitched switches
----------------------

Rollover - Ball rolls over wire sticking up through slot in playfield.
Rollunder - Ball rolls under (or next to) a switch mounted on a ramp.
VUK - Weight of ball on VUK cup depresses a switch lever.
Star Rollover - Weight of ball rolling across button depresses switch lever.
Saucer - Ball in saucer depresses switch lever.
Spinner - Spinning target repeatedly trips switch lever.

Optos (optical sensors)
-----------------------

Standard opto - Emitter/detector.  Ball crosses and breaks a beam of light.
Micro opto - 1-piece emitter/detector.  Use on "gizmos" for positioning.
             Also used for multi-bank drop targets to detect dropped targets.
Long Range opto - Same as a standard opto, except that the emitter/detector
                  use *modulated* light.  This helps the detector detect the
                  light source as it gets quite dim with great distances.

Williams uses infrafred LED emitters, Sega uses visible red-light emitters.

Proximity sensors (detect a ball from under the playfield)
----------------------------------------------------------

TZ Style - These are fixed sensitivity.
New Style (STTNG and newer) - These have a little potentiometer on a control
                              PCB to adjust sensitivity.

All Proximity sensors work via Hall effect sensors.  When a metal ball passes
by the loop sensor, its ferric content induces electric current in the sensor
loop.  This is why it's similar to induction loops used to detect cars at
traffic lights.  The Powerball, of course, doesn't affect the things at all!
This is how TZ differentiates between ball-types (if the proximity sensor is
NOT tripped before the Slot Machine switch, then it must be the powerball).

-- Thanks to Bill Ung <ung@filenet.com> for suggestions.
-- Thanks to Jonathan Deitch <musjndx@gsusgi2.gsu.edu> for a rewrite.

>>6.4 - What happens when the switches break?

Well, unless it is a Williams/Bally game, probably nothing.  Gottlieb games
can do some compensation (SF2, for example, will give you credit for hitting
a ramp if you shoot the shot underneath the ramp because the game thinks that
the ramp is stuck up; also, vice versa), but supposedly the general concept
of compensating for bad switches is patented by Williams.  That is why when
your Control Room or Power Shed break on JP, nothing happens, and the game
becomes utterly useless.

>>6.5 - What are those wiry paths called?

Well, we in rgp have taken to calling them "habitrails."  I've heard them
called different things as well, like "wireforms" (in an interview with Mark
Ritchie in the Flipside).

>>6.6 - How can the game get harder physically?

On most games, things like rubber posts near the outlanes can be set in one
of several different postitions.  Obviously, the further apart the posts are
in the outlane, the harder it'll be to save a ball.  Also, there may not be
any rubber on the outlanes at all, which can be downright rude.  (See
question 2.6.)  Also, unethical things such as increasing the playfield angle
can be done.  And, of course, making the tilt more sensitive.  Nice, clean,
recently waxed playfields will tend to be really fast, adding another element
of challenge altogether (called, "getting control of the 150 MPH ball").

>>6.7 - How can the game get harder otherwise?

Most games nowadays allow you to adjust almost everything about the game you
could possibly think of.  For example:  extra ball % (target value for number
of games with an extra ball in it), replay % (discussed in question 3.10),
number of tilt warnings given before the game actually tilts, number of extra
balls you can get per game or per ball, number of extra balls in reserve at
once, and practically every single timer or difficulty of each individual
award possible in the game.

There are also usually 5 settings that each game will come with to make it
easier for the operator to select the general difficulty he wants for the
game:  extra-easy, easy, medium, hard, and extra-hard.  With Data East games,
sometimes changing the overall difficulty level will change things that you
couldn't normally change from menus.  Why?  I don't know.  Also, there is an
"install 5 ball rules" option that will set the game to 5 balls per play and
install harder rules, usually hard or extra-hard.  This is to make up for the
extra 2 balls you will get during the game.

>>6.8 - How do flippers work?

The flipper mechanisms differ from company to company - that's one of the
reasons why games from different manufacturers tend to have different "feels"
to them, and probably the biggest one.

Williams/Bally - On an older machine (pre-Addams Family), when you press the
flipper button, the current flows through only a portion of the flipper coil,
generating a high magnetic field that forces the flipper up with a lot of
power.  When the flipper is all the way up, the end of stroke switch (EOSS)
opens, and the current now much flow through the entire coil.  This creates a
lower magnetic field, which holds the flipper up without burning out the coil
(the high current would do this very quickly).  A newer Williams/Bally
machine uses two coils, one for high power and the other for low power, and
uses the EOSS to switch off the high-power coil.  If the EOSS breaks, the
flipper will operate on a timing setup similar to the Data East one (see
below).  Williams calls this setup "FlipTronic II".

Data East - On a pre-Jurassic Park DE, there are two current inputs, one at
50 volts DC and the other at 8VDC, and no EOSS.  When you press the flipper
button, the higher current activates to fire the flipper, and then a timer
will switch to the lower current to hold the flipper up.  This setup is
called a "Solid State Flipper."  A newer DE appears to use a setup similar to
the "old" Willaims/Bally flippers (any new info appreciated!).

Gottlieb - Gottliebs' use a single coil with an EOSS.  There are three inputs
to the coil, with a diode across the outside two.  The diode is there to help
the magnetic field that the coil produces collapse more quickly when the coil
is de-energized, thus saving wear and tear and decreasing the flipper reset
time.

Alvin G. - The coil is very similar to older Williams' games (around
Millionaire era).  The mechanism is flipper/link assembly like Williams, but
the flipper pawl is like the new Gottliebs (two hex screws lock the flipper
shaft in place).  This may actually be quite similar to the current Gottlieb
system.

-- Info originally appeared in Dave Hollinsworth's <ad836@osfn.rhilinet.gov>
   Playingtips guide.
-- Thanks to John Gantert <gantertj@vitro.com> for information.

>>6.9 - Can I tell if anything is wrong with the game BEFORE I play it?

Currently, the only company which signals game problems publically is
Williams/Bally.  If the game detects something wrong (such as a missing ball
or a stuck/nonregistering switch), then the credits display will change to
something like "Credits 0."  The period after the number of credits is the
indicator of some kind of malfunction.  DE games use to have a couple of
blinking lights on the front of their games but not any more.  Starting with
Stargate, on Gottlieb games (in attract mode) you can hold down the start
button the press the right flipper button to cycle through switches the game
suspects are bad.  Prior to this, you couldn't do anything.  Alvin G. games
implement a strategy similar to Williams called SmartDots(tm).  On the
credits screen, a dot will appear on the lower left if the game thinks a
pinball is missing.  A dot will appear on the lower right if the game detects
some kind of switch problem.  Alvin G. games DO compensate for these
problems.

-- Thanks to John Gantert <gantertj@vitro.com> for information.


                    ** Section 7 - Specific Game FAQs **
                    ------------------------------------

NOTE:  All of these questions are covered in their respective rules sheets (I
think!).  However, they still come up so often that we think they warrant a
space in the DFAQ...

>>7.1 - What is the 4-way combo in TAF?

Shoot the Bear Kick ramp, then the "Advance X" shot to the upper right
flipper, then the left ramp, then the 5x Graveyard (swamp) shot.  Doing
either the first 3 or last 3 of these gets you a 3-way combo.

>>7.2 - Why is/isn't there a rubber band in my TZ?

The rubber band in the jet bumpers was removed during the production run.
Starting at the IFPA '93 tournament (== L3 ROMs), games no longer had the
rubber band in there.  Though it protected the ball from left drains very
nicely, balls coming from the Powerfield would tend to bounce of the band
into the center drain!  The latter was deemed worse than the former, so out
it came.  Any game that shipped with L-3 roms and later does not have the
rubber band in it.  Some prototype machines may have newer ROMs in it, which
would explain why your machine (with, say, L-4 ROMs) has the rubber band.

For those of you that haven't seen the rubber band, it looks approximately
like this:

  O   O     (The O's represent the jet bumpers.)
   \
    O

>>7.3 - What are the songs used in CFTBL?

The game plays 3 out of a possible 5 every day.  The 5 songs it has are:

Get a Job (Silhouettes)
Summertime Blues (Eddie Cochran)
Rock Around the Clock (Bill Haley and the Comets)
Hand Jive (Johnny Otis)
Red River Rock (Johnny and the Hurricanes)

-- Thanks to the readers of alt.rock-n-roll.oldies for a couple of groups.

>>7.4 - What is the Vacation Jackpot in Whitewater?

If you get all 4 parts of the Vacation Planner some time during the game
(though the locks must be last), you get the 200M+change.  That means that
you must get a Class 6 River some time during the game, get to Wet Willies,
and have done all of the Boulder Rounds at least once.  After you've done
these 3 things, when you lock your third ball for your next multiball, you'll
get the Jackpot.  It goes up 10K for each game played, BTW.

>>7.5 - I just got the flipper bonus in TZ.  How did I do it?

If your end-of-ball bonus (NOT from the Camera award "collect bonus") gives
you enough points to get a replay, then during the replay animation, hit both
flipper buttons for the flipper bonus.

>>7.6 - What is the proper way to go in STTNG's Shuttle Simulation?

At each split in the path, you can go left or right (you HAVE to do one or
the other).  If you go L-L-R-R-L-L-R-L-L-L then you can get an easy 149M or
159M (depending on whether or not you were offered the extra ball after going
right the 3rd time) and an artifact.

>>7.7 - What is the Secret Mission in STTNG?

When you shoot the Shuttle Ramp, you are told the Holodeck is ready after 3
ramps, then 9 ramps, then 18, 24, ...  If nothing else important is being
displayed (like Explosive Millions or Rescue animations, etc.) then the
screen will tell you that "Holodeck X is ready" where X is a number 1, 2, 3,
or 4.  If the number is 3, then pull the gun trigger *3* times, and you'll
start the Secret Mission.  It's basically a frenzy where each target is worth
1M+(some weird number)+.  The spinner doesn't count for multiple hits.

>>7.8 - Why in God's name are there 3 High Score tables in STTNG?

Which table you get on is based on your score and how many buy-ins you used.
If you used 0 or 1 buy-ins, then your score is eligible for the Honor Roll or
Grand Champion positions.  If you used 2 or more buy-ins, then your score
will go in the Officer's Club (thus, the reason it comes after the Honor
Roll).  HOWEVER:  If your score is over 10B and is NOT the Grand Champion
score, then it goes into the Q Continuum.  An unfortunate side effect is that
if your score is over 10B, but not higher than the LOWEST score on the Q
Continuum, then you do NOT get a high score (and thus no credit reward).
Bleah.  If you get a Grand Champion score that pushed off a score that was
also above 10B, it'll still get pushed into the first place of the Honor
Roll, but only the last 10 digits will be displayed (i.e. no 10B digit).  It
looks mighty weird having a score of 2.9B over a score of 9.9B...

Fortunately, Williams seems to have finally decided on a regular high score
chart and a buy-in high score chart.  Buying in may or may not push you off
of the regular chart (e.g. on Shadow, you can't buy in at ALL or you get
pushed down to the buy-in high scores).

>>7.9 - Are there really secret flipper combinations in games?

Yep.  We currently only know of ones in Williams/Bally games.  The following
steps describe what you can try to do.  Most of them work only in attract
mode with no credits since you have to use the start button (therefore, free
play is also out of the question).  Also, it is best to do them right after a
game, slam tilt, or power-cycle.

L = left flipper, R = right flipper, S = start button, B = both flippers.
A number in front indicates hit the button that many times.

TAF - 7L S 14R S 20L S = cows
      13L S 1R S 2L S  = credits

TAFG - same as above, PLUS
       12L S 5R S 4L S = new cows

Whitewater - 3L S 15R S 23L S = cows

STTNG - B 8L R 5L R 5L R 6L 2R = Steve Ritchie games
        (works during normal play as well)

No Fear - use the STTNG code to get "Put on your 3-D glasses now"

Dr*c*l* - When he crosses his eyes, hit the start (or launch) button.


                      ** Section 8 - Video Pinball **
                      -------------------------------

>>8.1 - Video pinball???

Pinball is in fact becoming more and more popular these days with video games
becoming more tests of how much money you have rather than how much skill you
have (especially games like NBA Jam).  It only follows, then, that more and
more home pinball games come out.

>>8.2 - How accepted is video pinball?

There are some 100% pinball purists out there that absolutely refuse to
accept any implementation of video pinball, and it's not too hard to
understand their positions.  I think the vast majority of people accept it as
long as the implementation is good (I know I do).

>>8.3 - So what's available?

Due to the sheer number of programs out, I have disbanded this section for
now.  However, I can make a few recommendations...

Pinball Illusions has 4 tables, each with fairly decent rules.  These tables
are 2D scrollers and kind of "cartoony."  The best sim currently is Pro
Pinball:  Timeshock!, which was the sequel to Pro Pinball:  The Web, another
excellent simulation.  Timeshock! goes a long way to simulating an actual
machine with operator menus and audits.  Both of the Pro Pinball sims are 3D
non-scrollers.  Finally, I wouldn't buy anything from Sierra.  I just find
their pinball "sims" repulsive.  Non-serious players may enjoy them, though.

There is a PCPin FAQ/review list posted to rgp occasionally.

>>8.4 - Why shouldn't I buy stuff from Amtex?

Because they supposedly sponsored PAPA 5, and then didn't pay anything.  Not
PAPA for being a sponsor, and not most of the participants that won their
little tournaments.  No reason has ever been given, despite the fact that
they maintain a presence on the net.  This is certainly not the only reason,
but more than likely a major reason, that PAPA 6 will not be able to take
place this year.

They produce simulations of a game that is near and dear to a lot of our
hearts.  Their willful destructive behavior is this matter is something I'm
not taking lying down, and will never ever buy anything from them again
until they rectify the situation.  (*I'm* one of the people they owe money
to.)  I also recommend that anyone that truly cares about pinball should
also join me in boycotting their products and spreading the word about what
a dishonest and disreputable company Amtex is.

Rumors currently abound of their demise.


                 ** Section 9 - Pinball and Your Health **
                 -----------------------------------------

>>9.1 - Can I really get injured just by playing pinball?

It's possible.  If you play for long periods of time often, then you can
develop RSIs (repetitive strain injuries) and even CTS (Carpal Tunnel
Syndrome).  It is not unlike conditions developed by typists and chicken
cutters.  (If you don't know what I'm talking about, don't worry...)

-- Thanks to Michael Field <field@cae.wisc.edu> for suggesting this section.

>>9.2 - How can I avoid pinball-related injuries?

Well, the obvious answer is to cut back on your playing for awhile.  However,
this is not always possible.  :)  You can take drugs (like Ibuprofen, the
stuff in Advil) to reduce pain an inflamation, but this is certainly not
something that should be done constantly for obvious medical reasons.  If it
is only your wrists (i.e. tendonitis), then you could probably get away with
using wristbands.  However, you should also be aware of the possibility of
CTS, which if left untreated, can be extremely serious.  So far, a number of
people (including myself and Dave Stewart) have had great success with padded
gloves, such as the kind used by bikers and weightlifters.

There is an exercise that has been prescribed for people who sit at computers
all day that may also be of benefit:  Hold your arms out straight in front of
you.  Make a tight fist with each hand.  Then bend your hand inwards and hold
it after it stops going in for a few seconds.  Repeat this 20 or so times.
Feels pretty good after awhile.

-- Thanks to Michael Field and Dave Stewart for information.

>>9.3 - So how do I know if I'm getting CTS?

From a simple test you can do by yourself (or with a friend's help).  With
the suspect hand, hold your thumb and pinky together as tightly as you can.
With your other hand (or have your friend do it), use the index finger to try
and break the hold of your thumb and pinky.  When your hands are healthy, it
will be extremely difficult to break the hold.  One of the first signs of
CTS, though, is that this hold is extremely weak (so much so that a small
child could probably break the hold as well).

This doesn't mean that you have CTS.  What it does mean is that if you
continue the activity causing the pain (and sometimes numbness) in your hand,
you are at high risk of getting CTS, and should immediately take steps to
avoid it.  As noted above, using padded gloves while you play seems to do the
trick.  People may laugh or make comments to you, but hey - they're your
hands, and you'd probably like to keep the use of them, right?

-- Thanks to Dave Stewart <dstewart@eng.umd.edu> for information.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                           ** Related Documents **
                           -----------------------

The following documents are referred to in the DFAQ.  This is simply a
summary of them for your convenience.  The authors/maintainers of these
documents appear in the question their reference comes from.

Q #    File                      Description
-----  ------------------------- --------------------------------------------
Intro  Misc/abbreviations        "All" the abbreviations used in rgp
3.1:   Tips/playingtips          General pinball playing tips
3.4:   Binaries/Images/ds_bb.ps  Rough diagram for death saves and bang backs
       Binaries/Images/ds_bb.gif GIF of the above file
3.5:   Tips/bangbacks            How to save outlane drains
4.7:   Tourney/league*           Information for forming pinball leagues
5.9:   Info/pinball              List of every recent game made


                   ** The Hallowed List of Contributors **
                   ---------------------------------------

Keith Johnson     <keefer@access.digex.net>
Kevin Martin      <sigma@mcs.com>

Steve Baumgarten  <sbb@panix.com>
David Byers       <byers@lysator.liu.se>
Harry Cline       <clinehe@cig.mot.com>
Federico Croci    <wiz@pinball.nervous.com>
Terry Cumming     <terry.cumming@canrem.com>
Jonathan Deitch   <musjndx@gsusgi2.gsu.edu>
Brent Earl        <earl@rtsg.mot.com>
Paul Fernquist    <pfern@technix.technix.mn.org>
Michael Field     <field@cae.wisc.edu>
John Gantert      <gantertj@vitro.com>
Chris Hehman      <hehman@vnet.net>
Dave Hollinsworth <ad836@osfn.rhilinet.gov>
Louis Koziarz     <koziarz@mcs.com>
David Marston     <marston@coos.dartmouth.edu>
Jarod Nash        <j.nash@ukc.ac.uk>
Mark Phaedrus     <phaedrus@halcyon.com>
Scott Piehler     <rosco29@mindspring.com>
Ted Piknis        <bure@wam.umd.edu>
Lyman Sheats, Jr. <lyman@chinet.com>
Dave Stewart      <dstewart@eng.umd.edu>
Bill Ung          <ung@filenet.com>
Matt Walsh        <mtmr@walsh.dme.battelle.org>
Frank Wang        <fwang@sbcs.sunysb.edu>

Minor corrections/additions:

Matt Ackeret      <unknown@apple.com>
Johannes Gronvall <joha@nic.funet.edu>
Clive Jones       <c.jones@sni.co.uk>
Johan Lagerstrom  <vip@tripnet.se>
Todd McCarty      <astjm@acad3.alaska.edu>
David Smith       <maa036@lancaster.ac.uk>
Tuukka Tikkanen   <tic0@sata.fi>

-- 
Keith P. Johnson, keeper of rec.games.pinball DynaFAQ
Insults are random and for amusement only.
"Win this war for me."

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM