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FAQ: Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Expert Systems 1/1 [Monthly posting]


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Archive-name: fuzzy-logic/part1
Last-modified: Fri Mar 14 11:38:33 1997 by Mark Kantrowitz
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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
;;; *****************************************************************
;;; Answers to Questions about Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Expert Systems *
;;; *****************************************************************
;;; Written by Mark Kantrowitz, Erik Horstkotte, and Cliff Joslyn
;;; fuzzy.faq

Contributions and corrections should be sent to the mailing list
mkant+fuzzy-faq@cs.cmu.edu. 

Note that the mkant+fuzzy-faq@cs.cmu.edu mailing list is for
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and fuzzy expert systems; use the newsgroup comp.ai.fuzzy for that. If
a question appears frequently in that forum, it will get added to the
FAQ list.

The original version of this FAQ posting was prepared by Erik
Horstkotte of SysSoft <erik@syssoft.com>, with significant
contributions by Cliff Joslyn <joslyn@kong.gsfc.nasa.gov>.  The FAQ is
maintained by Mark Kantrowitz <mkant@cs.cmu.edu> with advice from Erik
and Cliff. To reach us, send mail to mkant+fuzzy-faq@cs.cmu.edu.

Thanks also go to Michael Arras <arras@forwiss.uni-erlangen.de> for
running the vote which resulted in the creation of comp.ai.fuzzy,
Yokichi Tanaka <tanaka@til.com> for help in putting the FAQ together,
and Walter Hafner <hafner@informatik.tu-muenchen.de>, Satoru Isaka
<isaka@oas.omron.com>, Henrik Legind Larsen <hll@ruc.dk>, Tom Parish
<tparish@tpis.cactus.org>, Liliane Peters <peters@borneo.gmd.de>, Naji
Rizk <mcs@inco.com.lb>, Peter Stegmaier <peter@ifr.ethz.ch>, Prof.
J.L. Verdegay <jverdegay@ugr.es>, and Dr. John Yen <yen@cs.tamu.edu> for
contributions to the initial contents of the FAQ.

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If you need to cite the FAQ for some reason, use the following format:
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   comp.ai.fuzzy, <month>, <year>,
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   mkant+fuzzy-faq@cs.cmu.edu. 

*** Table of Contents:

  [1] What is the purpose of this newsgroup?
  [2] What is fuzzy logic?
  [3] Where is fuzzy logic used?
  [4] What is a fuzzy expert system?
  [5] Where are fuzzy expert systems used?
  [6] What is fuzzy control?
  [7] What are fuzzy numbers and fuzzy arithmetic?
  [8] Isn't "fuzzy logic" an inherent contradiction? 
              Why would anyone want to fuzzify logic?
  [9] How are membership values determined?
 [10] What is the relationship between fuzzy truth values and probabilities?
 [11] Are there fuzzy state machines?
 [12] What is possibility theory?
 [13] How can I get a copy of the proceedings for <x>?
 [14] Fuzzy BBS Systems, Mail-servers and FTP Repositories
 [15] Mailing Lists
 [16] Bibliography
 [17] Journals and Technical Newsletters
 [18] Professional Organizations
 [19] Companies Supplying Fuzzy Tools
 [20] Fuzzy Researchers
 [21] Elkan's "The Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic" paper
 [22] Glossary
 [24] Where to send calls for papers (cfp) and calls for participation

Search for [#] to get to topic number # quickly. In newsreaders which
support digests (such as rn), [CNTL]-G will page through the answers.
 
*** Recent changes:

;;; 1.19:
;;; 26-JUN-95 mk    Updated listing for American NeuraLogix; new name and
;;;                 contact information.
;;;
;;; 1.20:
;;; 13-JUL-95 mk    Added email address to hyperlogic entry.
;;;
;;; 1.21:
;;; 31-OCT-95 mk    Added URL to HyperLogic page.
;;; 15-NOV-95 mk    Updated Technical Univ of Vienna Fuzzy mailing list entry.
;;; 20-FEB-96 mk    Added entry on LPA's FLINT.


================================================================
Subject: [1] What is the purpose of this newsgroup?
Date: 15-APR-93

The comp.ai.fuzzy newsgroup was created in January 1993, for the purpose
of providing a forum for the discussion of fuzzy logic, fuzzy expert
systems, and related topics.

================================================================
Subject: [2] What is fuzzy logic?
Date: 15-APR-93

Fuzzy logic is a superset of conventional (Boolean) logic that has been
extended to handle the concept of partial truth -- truth values between
"completely true" and "completely false".  It was introduced by Dr. Lotfi
Zadeh of UC/Berkeley in the 1960's as a means to model the uncertainty
of natural language. (Note: Lotfi, not Lofti, is the correct spelling
of his name.)

Zadeh says that rather than regarding fuzzy theory as a single theory, we
should regard the process of ``fuzzification'' as a methodology to
generalize ANY specific theory from a crisp (discrete) to a continuous
(fuzzy) form (see "extension principle" in [2]). Thus recently researchers
have also introduced "fuzzy calculus", "fuzzy differential equations",
and so on (see [7]).

Fuzzy Subsets:

Just as there is a strong relationship between Boolean logic and the
concept of a subset, there is a similar strong relationship between fuzzy
logic and fuzzy subset theory.

In classical set theory, a subset U of a set S can be defined as a
mapping from the elements of S to the elements of the set {0, 1},

   U: S --> {0, 1}

This mapping may be represented as a set of ordered pairs, with exactly
one ordered pair present for each element of S. The first element of the
ordered pair is an element of the set S, and the second element is an
element of the set {0, 1}.  The value zero is used to represent
non-membership, and the value one is used to represent membership.  The
truth or falsity of the statement

    x is in U

is determined by finding the ordered pair whose first element is x.  The
statement is true if the second element of the ordered pair is 1, and the
statement is false if it is 0.

Similarly, a fuzzy subset F of a set S can be defined as a set of ordered
pairs, each with the first element from S, and the second element from
the interval [0,1], with exactly one ordered pair present for each
element of S. This defines a mapping between elements of the set S and
values in the interval [0,1].  The value zero is used to represent
complete non-membership, the value one is used to represent complete
membership, and values in between are used to represent intermediate
DEGREES OF MEMBERSHIP.  The set S is referred to as the UNIVERSE OF
DISCOURSE for the fuzzy subset F.  Frequently, the mapping is described
as a function, the MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION of F. The degree to which the
statement

    x is in F

is true is determined by finding the ordered pair whose first element is
x.  The DEGREE OF TRUTH of the statement is the second element of the
ordered pair.

In practice, the terms "membership function" and fuzzy subset get used
interchangeably.

That's a lot of mathematical baggage, so here's an example.  Let's
talk about people and "tallness".  In this case the set S (the
universe of discourse) is the set of people.  Let's define a fuzzy
subset TALL, which will answer the question "to what degree is person
x tall?" Zadeh describes TALL as a LINGUISTIC VARIABLE, which
represents our cognitive category of "tallness". To each person in the
universe of discourse, we have to assign a degree of membership in the
fuzzy subset TALL.  The easiest way to do this is with a membership
function based on the person's height.

    tall(x) = { 0,                     if height(x) < 5 ft.,
                (height(x)-5ft.)/2ft., if 5 ft. <= height (x) <= 7 ft.,
                1,                     if height(x) > 7 ft. }

A graph of this looks like:

1.0 +                   +-------------------
    |                  /
    |                 /
0.5 +                /
    |               /
    |              /
0.0 +-------------+-----+-------------------
                  |     |
                 5.0   7.0

                height, ft. ->

Given this definition, here are some example values:

Person    Height    degree of tallness
--------------------------------------
Billy     3' 2"     0.00 [I think]
Yoke      5' 5"     0.21
Drew      5' 9"     0.38
Erik      5' 10"    0.42
Mark      6' 1"     0.54
Kareem    7' 2"     1.00 [depends on who you ask]

Expressions like "A is X" can be interpreted as degrees of truth,
e.g., "Drew is TALL" = 0.38.

Note: Membership functions used in most applications almost never have as
simple a shape as tall(x). At minimum, they tend to be triangles pointing
up, and they can be much more complex than that.  Also, the discussion
characterizes membership functions as if they always are based on a
single criterion, but this isn't always the case, although it is quite
common.  One could, for example, want to have the membership function for
TALL depend on both a person's height and their age (he's tall for his
age).  This is perfectly legitimate, and occasionally used in practice.
It's referred to as a two-dimensional membership function, or a "fuzzy
relation".  It's also possible to have even more criteria, or to have the
membership function depend on elements from two completely different
universes of discourse.

Logic Operations:

Now that we know what a statement like "X is LOW" means in fuzzy logic,
how do we interpret a statement like

    X is LOW and Y is HIGH or (not Z is MEDIUM)

The standard definitions in fuzzy logic are:

    truth (not x)   = 1.0 - truth (x)
    truth (x and y) = minimum (truth(x), truth(y))
    truth (x or y)  = maximum (truth(x), truth(y))

Some researchers in fuzzy logic have explored the use of other
interpretations of the AND and OR operations, but the definition for the
NOT operation seems to be safe.

Note that if you plug just the values zero and one into these
definitions, you get the same truth tables as you would expect from
conventional Boolean logic. This is known as the EXTENSION PRINCIPLE,
which states that the classical results of Boolean logic are recovered
from fuzzy logic operations when all fuzzy membership grades are
restricted to the traditional set {0, 1}. This effectively establishes
fuzzy subsets and logic as a true generalization of classical set theory
and logic. In fact, by this reasoning all crisp (traditional) subsets ARE
fuzzy subsets of this very special type; and there is no conflict between
fuzzy and crisp methods.

Some examples -- assume the same definition of TALL as above, and in addition,
assume that we have a fuzzy subset OLD defined by the membership function:

    old (x) = { 0,                      if age(x) < 18 yr.
                (age(x)-18 yr.)/42 yr., if 18 yr. <= age(x) <= 60 yr.
                1,                      if age(x) > 60 yr. }

And for compactness, let

    a = X is TALL and X is OLD
    b = X is TALL or X is OLD
    c = not (X is TALL)

Then we can compute the following values.

height  age     X is TALL       X is OLD        a       b       c
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3' 2"   65      0.00            1.00            0.00    1.00    1.00
5' 5"   30      0.21            0.29            0.21    0.29    0.79
5' 9"   27      0.38            0.21            0.21    0.38    0.62
5' 10"  32      0.42            0.33            0.33    0.42    0.58
6' 1"   31      0.54            0.31            0.31    0.54    0.46
7' 2"   45      1.00            0.64            0.64    1.00    0.00
3' 4"   4       0.00            0.00            0.00    0.00    1.00

For those of you who only grok the metric system, here's a dandy
little conversion table:

  Feet+Inches = Meters
  --------------------
    3'   2"     0.9652
    3'   4"     1.0160
    5'   5"     1.6510
    5'   9"     1.7526
    5'  10"     1.7780
    6'   1"     1.8542
    7'   2"     2.1844

An excellent introductory article is:

   Bezdek, James C, "Fuzzy Models --- What Are They, and Why?", IEEE
   Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 1:1, pp. 1-6, 1993.

For more information on fuzzy logic operators, see:

   Bandler, W., and Kohout, L.J., "Fuzzy Power Sets and Fuzzy Implication
   Operators", Fuzzy Sets and Systems 4:13-30, 1980.

   Dubois, Didier, and Prade, H., "A Class of Fuzzy Measures Based on
   Triangle Inequalities", Int. J. Gen. Sys. 8.
        
The original papers on fuzzy logic include:

   Zadeh, Lotfi, "Fuzzy Sets," Information and Control 8:338-353, 1965.

   Zadeh, Lotfi, "Outline of a New Approach to the Analysis of Complex
   Systems", IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man and Cyb. 3, 1973.

   Zadeh, Lotfi, "The Calculus of Fuzzy Restrictions", in Fuzzy Sets and
   Applications to Cognitive and Decision Making Processes, edited
   by L. A. Zadeh et. al., Academic Press, New York, 1975, pages 1-39.

================================================================
Subject: [3] Where is fuzzy logic used?
Date: 15-APR-93

Fuzzy logic is used directly in very few applications. The Sony PalmTop
apparently uses a fuzzy logic decision tree algorithm to perform
handwritten (well, computer lightpen) Kanji character recognition.

Most applications of fuzzy logic use it as the underlying logic system
for fuzzy expert systems (see [4]).

================================================================
Subject: [4] What is a fuzzy expert system?
Date: 21-APR-93

A fuzzy expert system is an expert system that uses a collection of
fuzzy membership functions and rules, instead of Boolean logic, to
reason about data. The rules in a fuzzy expert system are usually of a
form similar to the following:

    if x is low and y is high then z = medium

where x and y are input variables (names for know data values), z is an
output variable (a name for a data value to be computed), low is a
membership function (fuzzy subset) defined on x, high is a membership
function defined on y, and medium is a membership function defined on z.
The antecedent (the rule's premise) describes to what degree the rule
applies, while the conclusion (the rule's consequent) assigns a
membership function to each of one or more output variables.  Most tools
for working with fuzzy expert systems allow more than one conclusion per
rule. The set of rules in a fuzzy expert system is known as the rulebase
or knowledge base.

The general inference process proceeds in three (or four) steps. 

1. Under FUZZIFICATION, the membership functions defined on the
   input variables are applied to their actual values, to determine the
   degree of truth for each rule premise.

2. Under INFERENCE, the truth value for the premise of each rule is
   computed, and applied to the conclusion part of each rule.  This results
   in one fuzzy subset to be assigned to each output variable for each
   rule.  Usually only MIN or PRODUCT are used as inference rules. In MIN
   inferencing, the output membership function is clipped off at a height
   corresponding to the rule premise's computed degree of truth (fuzzy
   logic AND). In PRODUCT inferencing, the output membership function is
   scaled by the rule premise's computed degree of truth.

3. Under COMPOSITION, all of the fuzzy subsets assigned to each output
   variable are combined together to form a single fuzzy subset 
   for each output variable.  Again, usually MAX or SUM are used. In MAX
   composition, the combined output fuzzy subset is constructed by taking
   the pointwise maximum over all of the fuzzy subsets assigned tovariable
   by the inference rule (fuzzy logic OR).  In SUM composition, the
   combined output fuzzy subset is constructed by taking the pointwise sum
   over all of the fuzzy subsets assigned to the output variable by the
   inference rule.

4. Finally is the (optional) DEFUZZIFICATION, which is used when it is
   useful to convert the fuzzy output set to a crisp number.  There are
   more defuzzification methods than you can shake a stick at (at least
   30). Two of the more common techniques are the CENTROID and MAXIMUM
   methods.  In the CENTROID method, the crisp value of the output variable
   is computed by finding the variable value of the center of gravity of
   the membership function for the fuzzy value.  In the MAXIMUM method, one
   of the variable values at which the fuzzy subset has its maximum truth
   value is chosen as the crisp value for the output variable.

Extended Example:

Assume that the variables x, y, and z all take on values in the interval
[0,10], and that the following membership functions and rules are defined:

  low(t)  = 1 - ( t / 10 )
  high(t) = t / 10

  rule 1: if x is low and y is low then z is high
  rule 2: if x is low and y is high then z is low
  rule 3: if x is high and y is low then z is low
  rule 4: if x is high and y is high then z is high

Notice that instead of assigning a single value to the output variable z, each
rule assigns an entire fuzzy subset (low or high).

Notes:

1. In this example, low(t)+high(t)=1.0 for all t.  This is not required, but 
   it is fairly common.

2. The value of t at which low(t) is maximum is the same as the value of t at
   which high(t) is minimum, and vice-versa.  This is also not required, but
   fairly common.

3. The same membership functions are used for all variables.  This isn't
   required, and is also *not* common.


In the fuzzification subprocess, the membership functions defined on the
input variables are applied to their actual values, to determine the
degree of truth for each rule premise.  The degree of truth for a rule's
premise is sometimes referred to as its ALPHA.  If a rule's premise has a
nonzero degree of truth (if the rule applies at all...) then the rule is
said to FIRE. For example,

x       y       low(x)  high(x) low(y)  high(y) alpha1  alpha2  alpha3  alpha4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.0     0.0     1.0     0.0     1.0     0.0     1.0     0.0     0.0     0.0
0.0     3.2     1.0     0.0     0.68    0.32    0.68    0.32    0.0     0.0
0.0     6.1     1.0     0.0     0.39    0.61    0.39    0.61    0.0     0.0
0.0     10.0    1.0     0.0     0.0     1.0     0.0     1.0     0.0     0.0
3.2     0.0     0.68    0.32    1.0     0.0     0.68    0.0     0.32    0.0
6.1     0.0     0.39    0.61    1.0     0.0     0.39    0.0     0.61    0.0
10.0    0.0     0.0     1.0     1.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     1.0     0.0
3.2     3.1     0.68    0.32    0.69    0.31    0.68    0.31    0.32    0.31
3.2     3.3     0.68    0.32    0.67    0.33    0.67    0.33    0.32    0.32
10.0    10.0    0.0     1.0     0.0     1.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     1.0


In the inference subprocess, the truth value for the premise of each rule is
computed, and applied to the conclusion part of each rule.  This results in
one fuzzy subset to be assigned to each output variable for each rule.

MIN and PRODUCT are two INFERENCE METHODS or INFERENCE RULES.  In MIN
inferencing, the output membership function is clipped off at a height
corresponding to the rule premise's computed degree of truth.  This
corresponds to the traditional interpretation of the fuzzy logic AND
operation.  In PRODUCT inferencing, the output membership function is
scaled by the rule premise's computed degree of truth.

For example, let's look at rule 1 for x = 0.0 and y = 3.2.  As shown in the
table above, the premise degree of truth works out to 0.68.  For this rule, 
MIN inferencing will assign z the fuzzy subset defined by the membership
function:

    rule1(z) = { z / 10, if z <= 6.8
                 0.68,   if z >= 6.8 }

For the same conditions, PRODUCT inferencing will assign z the fuzzy subset
defined by the membership function:

    rule1(z) = 0.68 * high(z)
             = 0.068 * z

Note: The terminology used here is slightly nonstandard.  In most texts,
the term "inference method" is used to mean the combination of the things
referred to separately here as "inference" and "composition."  Thus
you'll see such terms as "MAX-MIN inference" and "SUM-PRODUCT inference"
in the literature.  They are the combination of MAX composition and MIN
inference, or SUM composition and PRODUCT inference, respectively.
You'll also see the reverse terms "MIN-MAX" and "PRODUCT-SUM" -- these
mean the same things as the reverse order.  It seems clearer to describe
the two processes separately.


In the composition subprocess, all of the fuzzy subsets assigned to each
output variable are combined together to form a single fuzzy subset for each
output variable.

MAX composition and SUM composition are two COMPOSITION RULES.  In MAX
composition, the combined output fuzzy subset is constructed by taking
the pointwise maximum over all of the fuzzy subsets assigned to the
output variable by the inference rule.  In SUM composition, the combined
output fuzzy subset is constructed by taking the pointwise sum over all
of the fuzzy subsets assigned to the output variable by the inference
rule.  Note that this can result in truth values greater than one!  For
this reason, SUM composition is only used when it will be followed by a
defuzzification method, such as the CENTROID method, that doesn't have a
problem with this odd case. Otherwise SUM composition can be combined
with normalization and is therefore a general purpose method again.

For example, assume x = 0.0 and y = 3.2.  MIN inferencing would assign the
following four fuzzy subsets to z:

      rule1(z) = { z / 10,     if z <= 6.8
                   0.68,       if z >= 6.8 }

      rule2(z) = { 0.32,       if z <= 6.8
                   1 - z / 10, if z >= 6.8 }

      rule3(z) = 0.0

      rule4(z) = 0.0

MAX composition would result in the fuzzy subset:

      fuzzy(z) = { 0.32,       if z <= 3.2
                   z / 10,     if 3.2 <= z <= 6.8
                   0.68,       if z >= 6.8 }


PRODUCT inferencing would assign the following four fuzzy subsets to z:

      rule1(z) = 0.068 * z
      rule2(z) = 0.32 - 0.032 * z
      rule3(z) = 0.0
      rule4(z) = 0.0

SUM composition would result in the fuzzy subset:

      fuzzy(z) = 0.32 + 0.036 * z


Sometimes it is useful to just examine the fuzzy subsets that are the
result of the composition process, but more often, this FUZZY VALUE needs
to be converted to a single number -- a CRISP VALUE.  This is what the
defuzzification subprocess does.

There are more defuzzification methods than you can shake a stick at.  A
couple of years ago, Mizumoto did a short paper that compared about ten
defuzzification methods.  Two of the more common techniques are the
CENTROID and MAXIMUM methods.  In the CENTROID method, the crisp value of
the output variable is computed by finding the variable value of the
center of gravity of the membership function for the fuzzy value.  In the
MAXIMUM method, one of the variable values at which the fuzzy subset has
its maximum truth value is chosen as the crisp value for the output
variable.  There are several variations of the MAXIMUM method that differ
only in what they do when there is more than one variable value at which
this maximum truth value occurs.  One of these, the AVERAGE-OF-MAXIMA
method, returns the average of the variable values at which the maximum
truth value occurs.

For example, go back to our previous examples.  Using MAX-MIN inferencing
and AVERAGE-OF-MAXIMA defuzzification results in a crisp value of 8.4 for
z.  Using PRODUCT-SUM inferencing and CENTROID defuzzification results in
a crisp value of 5.6 for z, as follows.

Earlier on in the FAQ, we state that all variables (including z) take on
values in the range [0, 10].  To compute the centroid of the function f(x),
you divide the moment of the function by the area of the function.  To compute 
the moment of f(x), you compute the integral of x*f(x) dx, and to compute the
area of f(x), you compute the integral of f(x) dx.  In this case, we would
compute the area as integral from 0 to 10 of (0.32+0.036*z) dz, which is

    (0.32 * 10 + 0.018*100) =
    (3.2 + 1.8) =
    5.0

and the moment as the integral from 0 to 10 of (0.32*z+0.036*z*z) dz, which is

    (0.16 * 10 * 10 + 0.012 * 10 * 10 * 10) =
    (16 + 12) =
    28

Finally, the centroid is 28/5 or 5.6.

Note: Sometimes the composition and defuzzification processes are
combined, taking advantage of mathematical relationships that simplify
the process of computing the final output variable values.

The Mizumoto reference is probably "Improvement Methods of Fuzzy
Controls", in Proceedings of the 3rd IFSA Congress, pages 60-62, 1989.

================================================================
Subject: [5] Where are fuzzy expert systems used?
Date: 15-APR-93

To date, fuzzy expert systems are the most common use of fuzzy logic.  They
are used in several wide-ranging fields, including:
   o  Linear and Nonlinear Control
   o  Pattern Recognition
   o  Financial Systems
   o  Operation Research
   o  Data Analysis

================================================================
Subject: [6] What is fuzzy control?
Date: 17-MAR-95

The purpose of control is to influence the behavior of a system by
changing an input or inputs to that system according to a rule or
set of rules that model how the system operates. The system being
controlled may be mechanical, electrical, chemical or any combination
of these.

Classic control theory uses a mathematical model to define a relationship
that transforms the desired state (requested) and observed state (measured)
of the system into an input or inputs that will alter the future state of
that system.

  reference----->0------->( SYSTEM ) -------+----------> output
                 ^                          |
                 |                          |
                 +--------( MODEL )<--------+feedback

The most common example of a control model is the PID (proportional-integral-
derivative) controller. This takes the output of the system and compares
it with the desired state of the system. It adjusts the input value based
on the difference between the two values according to the following
equation.
                       
      output =  A.e + B.INT(e)dt + C.de/dt

Where, A, B and C are constants, e is the error term, INT(e)dt is the
integral of the error over time and de/dt is the change in the error term.

The major drawback of this system is that it usually assumes that the system
being modelled in linear or at least behaves in some fashion that is a
monotonic function. As the complexity of the system increases it becomes
more difficult to formulate that mathematical model.

Fuzzy control replaces, in the picture above, the role of the mathematical
model and replaces it with another that is build from a number of smaller
rules that in general only describe a small section of the whole system. The
process of inference binding them together to produce the desired outputs.

That is, a fuzzy model has replaced the mathematical one. The inputs and
outputs of the system have remained unchanged.

The Sendai subway is the prototypical example application of fuzzy control.

References:

   Yager, R.R., and Zadeh, L. A., "An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic
   Applications in Intelligent Systems", Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.

   Dimiter Driankov, Hans Hellendoorn, and Michael Reinfrank,
   "An Introduction to Fuzzy Control", Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993.
   316 pages, ISBN 0-387-56362-8. [Discusses fuzzy control from a
   theoretical point of view as a form of nonlinear control.] 

   C.J. Harris, C.G. Moore, M. Brown, "Intelligent Control, Aspects of
   Fuzzy Logic and Neural Nets", World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-1042-6.

   T. Terano, K. Asai, M. Sugeno, editors, "Applied Fuzzy Systems",
   translated by C. Ascchmann, AP Professional. ISBN 0-12-685242-1.

================================================================
Subject: [7] What are fuzzy numbers and fuzzy arithmetic?
Date: 15-APR-93

Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the real line. They have a peak or
plateau with membership grade 1, over which the members of the
universe are completely in the set.  The membership function is
increasing towards the peak and decreasing away from it.

Fuzzy numbers are used very widely in fuzzy control applications. A typical
case is the triangular fuzzy number 

1.0 +                   +
    |                  / \
    |                 /   \
0.5 +                /     \
    |               /       \
    |              /         \
0.0 +-------------+-----+-----+--------------
                  |     |     |
                 5.0   7.0   9.0

which is one form of the fuzzy number 7. Slope and trapezoidal functions
are also used, as are exponential curves similar to Gaussian probability
densities.

For more information, see:

   Dubois, Didier, and Prade, Henri, "Fuzzy Numbers: An Overview", in
   Analysis of Fuzzy Information 1:3-39, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1987.

   Dubois, Didier, and Prade, Henri, "Mean Value of a Fuzzy Number", 
   Fuzzy Sets and Systems 24(3):279-300, 1987.

   Kaufmann, A., and Gupta, M.M., "Introduction to Fuzzy Arithmetic",
   Reinhold, New York, 1985.

================================================================
Subject: [8] Isn't "fuzzy logic" an inherent contradiction? 
              Why would anyone want to fuzzify logic?
Date: 15-APR-93

Fuzzy sets and logic must be viewed as a formal mathematical theory for
the representation of uncertainty. Uncertainty is crucial for the
management of real systems: if you had to park your car PRECISELY in one
place, it would not be possible. Instead, you work within, say, 10 cm
tolerances. The presence of uncertainty is the price you pay for handling
a complex system.

Nevertheless, fuzzy logic is a mathematical formalism, and a membership
grade is a precise number. What's crucial to realize is that fuzzy logic
is a logic OF fuzziness, not a logic which is ITSELF fuzzy. But that's
OK: just as the laws of probability are not random, so the laws of
fuzziness are not vague.

================================================================
Subject: [9] How are membership values determined?
Date: 15-APR-93

Determination methods break down broadly into the following categories:

1. Subjective evaluation and elicitation

   As fuzzy sets are usually intended to model people's cognitive states,
   they can be determined from either simple or sophisticated elicitation
   procedures. At they very least, subjects simply draw or otherwise specify
   different membership curves appropriate to a given problem. These
   subjects are typcially experts in the problem area. Or they are given a
   more constrained set of possible curves from which they choose. Under
   more complex methods, users can be tested using psychological methods.

2. Ad-hoc forms

   While there is a vast (hugely infinite) array of possible membership
   function forms, most actual fuzzy control operations draw from a very
   small set of different curves, for example simple forms of fuzzy numbers
   (see [7]). This simplifies the problem, for example to choosing just the
   central value and the slope on either side.

3. Converted frequencies or probabilities

   Sometimes information taken in the form of frequency histograms or other
   probability curves are used as the basis to construct a membership
   function. There are a variety of possible conversion methods, each with
   its own mathematical and methodological strengths and weaknesses.
   However, it should always be remembered that membership functions are NOT
   (necessarily) probabilities. See [10] for more information.

4. Physical measurement

   Many applications of fuzzy logic use physical measurement, but almost
   none measure the membership grade directly. Instead, a membership
   function is provided by another method, and then the individual
   membership grades of data are calculated from it (see FUZZIFICATION in [4]).

5. Learning and adaptation


For more information, see:

   Roberts, D.W., "Analysis of Forest Succession with Fuzzy Graph Theory",
   Ecological Modeling, 45:261-274, 1989.

   Turksen, I.B., "Measurement of Fuzziness: Interpretiation of the Axioms
   of Measure", in Proceeding of the Conference on Fuzzy Information and
   Knowledge Representation for Decision Analysis, pages 97-102, IFAC,
   Oxford, 1984.

================================================================
Subject: [10] What is the relationship between fuzzy truth values and
             probabilities?
Date: 21-NOV-94

This question has to be answered in two ways: first, how does fuzzy 
theory differ from probability theory mathematically, and second, how 
does it differ in interpretation and application.

At the mathematical level, fuzzy values are commonly misunderstood to be 
probabilities, or fuzzy logic is interpreted as some new way of handling 
probabilities.  But this is not the case.  A minimum requirement of 
probabilities is ADDITIVITY, that is that they must add together to one, or 
the integral of their density curves must be one.

But this does not hold in general with membership grades.  And while 
membership grades can be determined with probability densities in mind (see 
[11]), there are other methods as well which have nothing to do with 
frequencies or probabilities.

Because of this, fuzzy researchers have gone to great pains to distance
themselves from probability. But in so doing, many of them have lost track
of another point, which is that the converse DOES hold: all probability
distributions are fuzzy sets! As fuzzy sets and logic generalize Boolean
sets and logic, they also generalize probability.

In fact, from a mathematical perspective, fuzzy sets and probability exist 
as parts of a greater Generalized Information Theory which includes many 
formalisms for representing uncertainty (including random sets, 
Demster-Shafer evidence theory, probability intervals, possibility theory, 
general fuzzy measures, interval analysis, etc.).  Furthermore, one can 
also talk about random fuzzy events and fuzzy random events.  This whole 
issue is beyond the scope of this FAQ, so please refer to the following 
articles, or the textbook by Klir and Folger (see [16]).

Semantically, the distinction between fuzzy logic and probability theory 
has to do with the difference between the notions of probability and a 
degree of membership.  Probability statements are about the likelihoods of 
outcomes: an event either occurs or does not, and you can bet on it.  But 
with fuzziness, one cannot say unequivocally whether an event occured or 
not, and instead you are trying to model the EXTENT to which an event 
occured. This issue is treated well in the swamp water example used by 
James Bezdek of the University of West Florida (Bezdek, James C, "Fuzzy 
Models --- What Are They, and Why?", IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 
1:1, pp.  1-6).

   Delgado, M., and Moral, S., "On the Concept of Possibility-Probability
   Consistency", Fuzzy Sets and Systems 21:311-318, 1987.

   Dempster, A.P., "Upper and Lower Probabilities Induced by a Multivalued
   Mapping", Annals of Math. Stat. 38:325-339, 1967.

   Henkind, Steven J., and Harrison, Malcolm C., "Analysis of Four
   Uncertainty Calculi", IEEE Trans. Man Sys. Cyb. 18(5)700-714, 1988.

   Kamp`e de, F'eriet J., "Interpretation of Membership Functions of Fuzzy
   Sets in Terms of Plausibility and Belief", in Fuzzy Information and
   Decision Process, M.M. Gupta and E. Sanchez (editors), pages 93-98,
   North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982.

   Klir, George, "Is There More to Uncertainty than Some Probability
   Theorists Would Have Us Believe?", Int. J. Gen. Sys. 15(4):347-378, 1989.

   Klir, George, "Generalized Information Theory", Fuzzy Sets and Systems
   40:127-142, 1991.

   Klir, George, "Probabilistic vs. Possibilistic Conceptualization of
   Uncertainty", in Analysis and Management of Uncertainty, B.M. Ayyub et.
   al. (editors), pages 13-25, Elsevier, 1992.

   Klir, George, and Parviz, Behvad, "Probability-Possibility
   Transformations: A Comparison", Int. J. Gen. Sys. 21(1):291-310, 1992.

   Kosko, B., "Fuzziness vs. Probability", Int. J. Gen. Sys.
   17(2-3):211-240, 1990.

   Puri, M.L., and Ralescu, D.A., "Fuzzy Random Variables", J. Math.
   Analysis and Applications, 114:409-422, 1986.

   Shafer, Glen, "A Mathematical Theory of Evidence", Princeton University,
   Princeton, 1976.

================================================================
Subject: [11] Are there fuzzy state machines?
Date: 15-APR-93

Yes. FSMs are obtained by assigning membership grades as weights to the
states of a machine, weights on transitions between states, and then a
composition rule such as MAX/MIN or PLUS/TIMES (see [4]) to calculate new
grades of future states. Refer to the following article, or to Section
III of the Dubois and Prade's 1980 textbook (see [16]).

   Gaines, Brian R., and Kohout, Ladislav J., "Logic of Automata",
   Int. J. Gen. Sys. 2(4):191-208, 1976.

================================================================
Subject: [12] What is possibility theory?
Date: 15-APR-93

Possibility theory is a new form of information theory which is related
to but independent of both fuzzy sets and probability theory.
Technically, a possibility distribution is a normal fuzzy set (at least
one membership grade equals 1). For example, all fuzzy numbers are
possibility distributions. However, possibility theory can also be
derived without reference to fuzzy sets.

The rules of possibility theory are similar to probability theory, but
use either MAX/MIN or MAX/TIMES calculus, rather than the PLUS/TIMES
calculus of probability theory. Also, possibilistic NONSPECIFICITY is
available as a measure of information similar to the stochastic
ENTROPY.

Possibility theory has a methodological advantage over probability theory
as a representation of nondeterminism in systems, because the PLUS/TIMES
calculus does not validly generalize nondeterministic processes, while
MAX/MIN and MAX/TIMES do.

For further information, see:

   Dubois, Didier, and Prade, Henri, "Possibility Theory", Plenum Press,
   New York, 1988. 

   Joslyn, Cliff, "Possibilistic Measurement and Set Statistics",
   in Proceedings of the 1992 NAFIPS Conference 2:458-467, NASA, 1992.

   Joslyn, Cliff, "Possibilistic Semantics and Measurement Methods in
   Complex Systems", in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on
   Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, Bilal Ayyub (editor), IEEE Computer
   Society 1993.

   Wang, Zhenyuan, and Klir, George J., "Fuzzy Measure Theory", Plenum
   Press, New York, 1991.

   Zadeh, Lotfi, "Fuzzy Sets as the Basis for a Theory of Possibility",
   Fuzzy Sets and Systems 1:3-28, 1978.

================================================================
Subject: [13] How can I get a copy of the proceedings for <x>?
Date: 15-APR-93

   This is rough sometimes.  The first thing to do, of course, is to contact
   the organization that ran the conference or workshop you are interested in.
   If they can't help you, the best idea mentioned so far is to contact the
   Institute for Scientific Information, Inc. (ISI), and check with their
   Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings (ISTP volumes).

      Institute for Scientific Information, Inc.
      3501 Market Street
      Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
      Phone: +1.215.386.0100
      Fax: +1.215.386.6362
      Cable: SCINFO
      Telex: 84-5305

================================================================
Subject: [14] Fuzzy BBS Systems, Mail-servers and FTP Repositories
Date: 24-AUG-93

Aptronix FuzzyNET BBS and Email Server:

   408-261-1883, 1200-9600 N/8/1

   This BBS contains a range of fuzzy-related material, including:

      o  Application notes.
      o  Product brochures.
      o  Technical information.
      o  Archived articles from the USENET newsgroup comp.ai.fuzzy.
      o  Text versions of "The Huntington Technical Brief" by Dr. Brubaker.
         [The technical brief is no longer being updated, as Dr. Brubaker
          now charges for subscriptions. See [17] for details.]

   The Aptronix FuzzyNET Email Server allows anyone with access to Internet
   email access to all of the files on the FuzzyNET BBS.

   To receive instructions on how to access the server, send the following 
   message to fuzzynet@aptronix.com:

      begin
      help
      end

   If you don't receive a response within a day or two, or need help, contact 
   Scott Irwin <irwin@aptronix.com> for assistance.


Electronic Design News (EDN) BBS:

    617-558-4241, 1200-9600 N/8/1


Motorola FREEBBS:

    512-891-3733, 1200-9600 E/7/1


Ostfold Regional College Fuzzy Logic Anonymous FTP Repository:

    ftp.dhhalden.no:/pub/Fuzzy/ is a recently-started ftp site for
    fuzzy-related material, operated by Ostfold Regional College in
    Norway.  Currently has files from the Togai InfraLogic Fuzzy Logic
    Email Server, Tim Butler's Fuzzy Logic Anonymous FTP Repository, some
    demo programs and source code, and lists of upcoming conferences,
    articles, and literature about fuzzy logic.  Material to be included
    in the archive (e.g., papers and code) may be placed in the incoming/
    directory.  Send email to Randi Weberg <randiw@dhhalden.no>.


Tim Butler's Fuzzy Logic Anonymous FTP Repository & Email Server:

    ftp://ntia.its.bldrdoc.gov/pub/ contains information concerning fuzzy
    logic, including bibliographies (bib/), product descriptions and demo
    versions (com/), machine readable published papers (lit/), miscellaneous 
    information, documents and reports (txt/), and programs code and compilers 
    (prog/). You may download new items into the new/ subdirectory, or send
    them by email to fuzzy@its.bldrdoc.gov. If you deposit anything in new/, 
    please inform fuzzy@its.bldrdoc.gov. The repository is maintained by 
    Timothy Butler, tim@its.bldrdoc.gov.

    The Fuzzy Logic Repository is also accessible through a mail server,
    rnalib@its.bldrdoc.gov. For help on using the server, send mail to the
    server with the following line in the body of the message:
       @@ help

Togai InfraLogic Fuzzy Logic Email Server:

    The Togai InfraLogic Fuzzy Logic Email Server allows anyone with access
    to Internet email access to:

       o  PostScript copies of TIL's company newsletter, The Fuzzy Source.
       o  ASCII files for selected newsletter articles.
       o  Archived articles from the USENET newsgroup comp.ai.fuzzy.
       o  Fuzzy logic demonstration programs.
       o  Demonstration versions of TIL products.
       o  Conference announcements.
       o  User-contributed files.

    To receive instructions on how to access the server, send the following 
    message, with no subject, to fuzzy-server@til.com.
        help

    If you don't receive a response within a day or two, contact either
    erik@til.com or tanaka@til.com for assistance.

    Most of the contents of TIL's email server are mirrored by Tim Butler's 
    Fuzzy Logic Anonymous FTP Repository and the Ostfold Regional College 
    Fuzzy Logic Anonymous FTP Repository in Norway.

The Turning Point BBS:

    512-219-7828/7848, DS/HST 1200-19,200 N/8/1

    Fuzzy logic and neural network related files.

Miscellaneous Fuzzy Logic Files:

   The "General Purpose Fuzzy Reasoning Library" is available by
   anonymous FTP from ftp://utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/fj/fj.sources/v25/
   [133.11.11.11].  This yields the "General-Purpose Fuzzy Inference
   Library Ver. 3.0 (1/1)".  The program is in C, with English comments,
   but the documentation is in Japanese.  Some English documentation has
   been written by John Nagle, <nagle@shasta.stanford.edu>.

   CNCL is a C++ class library provides classes for simulation, fuzzy
   logic, DEC's EZD, and UNIX system calls. It is available from 
   ftp.dfv.rwth-aachen.de:/pub/CNCL [137.226.4.111]. Contact Martin
   Junius <mj@dfv.rwth-aachen.de> for more information.

   A demo version of Aptronix's FIDE 2.0 is available by anonymous ftp
   from ftp://ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/ai/areas/fuzzy/code/fide/. FIDE is a
   PC-based fuzzy logic design tool. It provides tools for the
   development, debugging, and simulation of fuzzy applications.
   For more information, contact info@aptronix.com.

   FuzzyCLIPS 6.02a is a version of the CLIPS rule-based expert system
   shell with extensions for representing and manipulating fuzzy facts
   and rules. In addition to the CLIPS functionality, FuzzyCLIPS can deal
   with exact, fuzzy (or inexact), and combined reasoning, allowing fuzzy
   and normal terms to be freely mixed in the rules and facts of an
   expert system. The system uses two basic inexact concepts, fuzziness
   and uncertainty. Versions are available for UNIX systems, Macintosh
   systems and PC systems. There is no cost for the software, but please
   read the terms for use in the FuzzyCLIPS documentation. FuzzyCLIPS is
   available via WWW (World Wide Web). It can be accessed indirectly
   through the Knowledge Systems Lab Server using the URL
      http://ai.iit.nrc.ca/home_page.html
   or more directly by using the URL
      http://ai.iit.nrc.ca/fuzzy/fuzzy.html
   or by anonymous ftp from
      ai.iit.nrc.ca:/pub/fzclips/
   For more information about FuzzyCLIPS send mail to fzclips@ai.iit.nrc.ca. 

   FuNeGen 1.0 is a fuzzy neural system capable of generating fuzzy
   classification systems (as C-code) from sample data.
   FuNeGen 1.0 and the papers/reports describing the application and the 
   theoretical background can be obtained by anonymous ftp from
      ftp://obelix.microelectronic.e-technik.th-darmstadt.de/pub/neurofuzzy/

   NEFCON-I (NEural Fuzzy CONtroller) is an X11 simulation environment
   based on Interviews designed to build and test neural fuzzy
   controllers.  NEFCON-I is able to learn fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules by
   using a kind of reinforcement learning that is driven by a fuzzy error
   measure.  To do this NEFCON-I communicates with another process, that
   implements a simulation of a dynamical process.  NEFCON-I can optimize
   the fuzzy sets of the antecedents and the conclusions of a given rule
   base, and it can also create a rulebase from scratch. NEFCON-I is
   available by anonymous ftp from
      ftp://ibr.cs.tu-bs.de/pub/local/nefcon/ [134.169.34.15]
   as the file nefcon_1.0.tar.gz. If you are using NEFCON-I, please
   send an email message to the author, Detlef Nauck <nauck@ibr.cs.tu-bs.de>.

   The Fuzzy Arithmetic Library is a very simple C++ implementation of a
   fuzzy number representation using confidence intervals, together with
   the basic arithmetic operators and trigonometrical functions. It is
   available by anonymous FTP from
      mathct.dipmat.unict.it:fuzzy [151.97.252.1]
   [Note the system is a VAX running VMS.] For more information, write to
   Salvatore Deodato <deodato@dipmat.unict.it>.

================================================================
Subject: [15] Mailing Lists
Date: 15-APR-93

The Fuzzy-Mail and NAFIPS-L mailing lists are now bidirectionally
gatewayed to the comp.ai.fuzzy newsgroup.

NAFIPS Fuzzy Logic Mailing List:

    This is a mailing list for the discussion of fuzzy logic, NAFIPS and 
    related topics, located at the Georgia State University.  The last time
    that this FAQ was updated, there were about 225 subscribers, located
    primarily in North America, as one might expect.  Postings to the mailing
    list are automatically archived.

    The mailing list server itself is like most of those in use on the
    Internet.  If you're already familiar with Internet mailing lists, the
    only thing you'll need to know is that the name of the server is

       listproc@listproc.gsu.edu 

    and the name of the mailing list itself is

       nafips-l@listproc.gsu.edu 

    If you're not familiar with this type of mailing list server, the
    easiest way to get started is to send the following message to
    listproc@listproc.gsu.edu:
       help 
    You will receive a brief set of instructions by email within
    a short time.

    Once you have subscribed, you will begin receiving a copy of each message
    that is sent by anyone to nafips-l@listproc.gsu.edu, and any message that 
    you send to that address will be sent to all of the other subscribers.

Technical University of Vienna Fuzzy Logic Mailing List:

    This is a mailing list for the discussion of fuzzy logic and related
    topics, located at the Technical University of Vienna in Austria.  The
    last time this FAQ was updated, there were about 980 subscribers.
    The list is slightly moderated (only irrelevant mails are rejected)
    and is two-way gatewayed to the aforementioned NAFIPS-L list and to
    the comp.ai.fuzzy internet newsgroup. Messages should therefore be
    sent only to one of the three media, although some mechanism for
    mail-loop avoidance and duplicate-message avoidance is activated.
    In addition to the mailing list itself, the list server gives
    access to some files, including archives and the "Who is Who in Fuzzy
    Logic" database that is currently under construction by Robert Fuller
    <rfuller@finabo.abo.fi>. There is also a WWW interface to the list
    at http://www.dbai.tuwien.ac.at/marchives/fuzzy-mail/index.html as well
    as a ftp://mira.dbai.tuwien.ac.at/pub/ site to access such
    files as the whoiswhoinfuzzy file mentioned above.

    Like many mailing lists, this one uses Anastasios Kotsikonas's LISTPROC
    system.  If you've used this kind of server before, the only thing you'll
    need to know is that the name of the server is
      listproc@dbai.tuwien.ac.at
    and the name of the mailing list is
      fuzzy-mail@dbai.tuwien.ac.at

    If you're not familiar with this type of mailing list server, the easiest
    way to get started is to send the following message to
    listproc@dbai.tuwien.ac.at:
      get fuzzy-mail info

    You will receive a brief set of instructions by email within a short time.

    Once you have subscribed, you will begin receiving a copy of each message
    that is sent by anyone to fuzzy-mail@dbai.tuwien.ac.at, and any
    message that you send to that address will be sent to all of the other
    subscribers.

Fuzzy Logic in Japan:

    There are two mailing lists for fuzzy logic in Japan. Both forward
    many articles from the international mailing lists, but the other
    direction is not automatic. 

    Asian Fuzzy Mailing System (AFMS):
       afuzzy@ea5.yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

       To subscribe, send a message to aserver@ea5.yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp
       with your name and email address. Membership is restricted to
       within Asia as a general rule.

       The list is executed manually, and is maintained by Prof. Mikio
       Nakatsuyama, Department of Electronic Engineering, Yamagata
       University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992 Japan, phone +81-238-22-5181, 
       fax +81-238-24-2752, email nakatsu@ea5.yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp. 

       All messages to the list have the Subject line replaced with "AFMS".
       The language of the list is English.

    Fuzzy Mailing List - Japan:
       fuzzy-jp@sys.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

       This is an unmoderated list, with mostly original contributions
       in Japanese (JIS-code).

       To subscribe, send subscriptions to the listserv
          fuzzy-jp-request@sys.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

       If you need to speak to a human being, send mail to the list
       owners, 
          fuzzy-admin@tamlab.sys.es.osaka-u.ac.jp
       Itsuo Hatono and Motohide Umano of Osaka University.

================================================================
Subject: [16] Bibliography
Date: 14-AUG-95

A list of books compiled by Josef Benedikt for the FLAI '93 (Fuzzy
Logic in Artificial Intelligence) conference's book exhibition is
available by anonymous ftp from 
   ftp://ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/ai/pubs/bibs/
as the file fuzzy-bib.text.

A short 1985 fuzzy systems tutorial by James Brule is available as
   http://life.anu.edu.au/complex_systems/fuzzy.html
An ascii copy is also available in the gzipped tar file
   ftp://ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/ai/areas/fuzzy/doc/intro/

Wolfgang Slany has compiled a BibTeX bibliography on fuzzy
scheduling and related fuzzy techniques, including constraint satisfaction,
linear programming, optimization, benchmarking, qualitative
modeling, decision making, petri-nets, production control,
resource allocation, planning, design, and uncertainty management. It
is available by anonymous ftp from 
   ftp://mira.dbai.tuwien.ac.at/pub/slany/
as the file fuzzy-scheduling.bib.Z (or .ps.Z), or by email from
  listproc@vexpert.dbai.tuwien.ac.at 
with 
   GET LISTPROC fuzzy-scheduling.bib
in the message body.


Non-Mathematical Works:

   Kosko, Bart, "Fuzzy Thinking: The New Science of Fuzzy Logic", Warner, 1993
   [For technical details, see Kosko, Bart, "Fuzzy cognitive maps",
   International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 24:65-75, 1986.]

   McNeill, Daniel, and Freiberger, Paul, "Fuzzy Logic: The Discovery
   of a Revolutionary Computer Technology", Simon and Schuster,
   1992. ISBN 0-671-73843-7. [Mostly history, but many examples of
   applications.] 

   Negoita, C.V., "Fuzzy Systems", Abacus Press, Tunbridge-Wells, 1981.

   Smithson, Michael, "Ignorance and Uncertainty: Emerging Paradigms",
   Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988.

   Brubaker, D.I., "Fuzzy-logic Basics: Intuitive Rules Replace Complex Math,"
   EDN, June 18, 1992.

   Schwartz, D.G. and Klir, G.J., "Fuzzy Logic Flowers in Japan," IEEE
   Spectrum, July 1992.
 
   Earl Cox, "The Fuzzy Systems Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to
   Building, Using, and Maintaining Fuzzy Systems", Academic Press,
   Boston, MA 1994. 615 pages, ISBN 0-12-194270-8 ($49.95). [Includes
   disk with ANSI C++ source code. Very good.]

   F. Martin McNeill and Ellen Thro, "Fuzzy Logic: A practical
   approach", Academic Press, 1994. 350 pages, ISBN 0-12-485965-8 ($40).
   [A good fuzzy logic primer.]

Textbooks:

   Dubois, Didier, and Prade, H., "Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and
   Applications", Academic Press, New York, 1980.

   Dubois, Didier, and Prade, Henri, "Possibility Theory", Plenum Press, New
   York, 1988.

   Goodman, I.R., and Nguyen, H.T., "Uncertainty Models for Knowledge-Based
   Systems", North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986.

   Kandel, Abraham, "Fuzzy Mathematical Techniques with Applications",
   Addison-Wesley, 1986.

   Kandel, Abraham, and Lee, A., "Fuzzy Switching and Automata", Crane
   Russak, New York, 1979.

   Klir, George, and Folger, Tina, "Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and
   Information", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987. ISBN 0-13-345638-2.

   Kosko, Bart, "Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems", Prentice Hall, Englewood
   Cliffs, NJ, 1992. ISBN 0-13-611435-0. [Very good.]

   R. Kruse, J. Gebhardt, and F. Klawonn, "Foundations of Fuzzy Systems"
   John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1994. ISBN 0471-94243-X ($47.95).
   [Theory of fuzzy sets.]

   Toshiro Terano, Kiyoji Asai, and Michio Sugeno, "Fuzzy Systems Theory
   and its Applications", Academic Press, 1992, 268 pages.  
   ISBN 0-12-685245-6. Translation of "Fajii shisutemu nyumon"
   (Japanese, 1987). Newly released as "Applied Fuzzy Systems", 1994,
   320 pages, ISBN 0-12-685242-1 ($40).
   
   Wang, Paul P., "Theory of Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications", Shanghai
   Science and Technology, Shanghai, 1982.

   Wang, Zhenyuan, and Klir, George J., "Fuzzy Measure Theory", Plenum
   Press, New York, 1991.

   Yager, R.R., (editor), "Fuzzy Sets and Applications", John Wiley
   and Sons, New York, 1987.

   Yager, Ronald R., and Zadeh, Lofti, "Fuzzy Sets, Neural Networks,
   and Soft Computing", Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994. 
   ISBN 0-442-01621-2, $64.95. 

   Zimmerman, Hans J., "Fuzzy Set Theory", Kluwer, Boston, 2nd edition, 1991.


Anthologies:

   Didier Dubois, Henri Prade, and Ronald R. Yager, editors,
   "Readings in Fuzzy Sets for Intelligent Systems", Morgan Kaufmann
   Publishers, 1993. 916 pages, ISBN 1-55860-257-7 paper ($49.95).

   "A Quarter Century of Fuzzy Systems", Special Issue of the International
   Journal of General Systems, 17(2-3), June 1990.

   R.J. Marks II, editor, "Fuzzy Logic Technology & Applications", IEEE,
   1994. IEEE Order# 94CR0101-6-PSP, $59.95 ($48.00 for IEEE members).
   Order from 1-800-678-IEEE. [Selected papers from past IEEE
   conferences. Focus is on papers concerning applications of fuzzy
   systems. There are also some overview papers.]

================================================================
Subject: [17] Journals and Technical Newsletters
Date: 24-AUG-93

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPROXIMATE REASONING (IJAR)
   Official publication of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing
   Society (NAFIPS). 
   Published 8 times annually. ISSN 0888-613X.
   Subscriptions: Institutions $282, NAFIPS members $72 (plus $5 NAFIPS dues)
   $36 mailing surcharge if outside North America.

   For subscription information, write to David Reis, Elsevier Science
   Publishing Company, Inc., 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York
   10010, call 212-633-3827, fax 212-633-3913, or send email to
   74740.2600@compuserve.com.

    Editor:
      Piero Bonissone
      Editor, Int'l J of Approx Reasoning (IJAR)
      GE Corp R&D
      Bldg K1 Rm 5C32A
      PO Box 8
      Schenectady, NY 12301 USA
      Email: bonissone@crd.ge.com
        Voice: 518-387-5155
        Fax:   518-387-6845
        Email: Bonissone@crd.ge.com


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FUZZY SETS AND SYSTEMS (IJFSS)
   The official publication of the International Fuzzy Systems Association.
   Subscriptions: Subscription is free to members of IFSA.
   ISSN: 0165-0114


IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS
        ISSN 1063-6706
        Editor in Chief: James Bezdek

THE HUNTINGTON TECHNICAL BRIEF
Technical newsletter about fuzzy logic edited by Dr. Brubaker. It is
mailed monthly, is a single sheet, front and back, and rotates among
tutorials, descriptions of actual fuzzy applications, and discussions
(reviews, sort of) of existing fuzzy tools and products.
[The Huntington Technical Brief was discontinued in December 1994.]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
UNCERTAINTY, FUZZINESS AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS (IJUFKS)
   Published 4 times annually.  ISSN 0218-4885.

   Intended as a forum for research on methods for managing imprecise,
   vague, uncertain and incomplete knowledge.

   Subscriptions: Individuals $90, Institutions $180. (add $25 for airmail)
   World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, Farrer Road, PO Box 128,
   Singapore 9128, Rep. of Singapore.
   E-mail worldscp@singnet.com.sg, phone 65-382-5663, fax
   65-382-5919.

   Web pages for this journal:
   http://www.wspc.co.uk/wspc/Journals/ijufks/ijufks.html

   Submissions: B Bouchon-Meunier, editor in chief, Laforia-IBP,
   Universite Paris VI, Boite 169, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05,
   FRANCE, phone 33-1-44-27-70-03, fax 33-1-44-27-70-00, e-mail
   bouchon@laforia.ibp.fr.

================================================================
Subject: [18] Professional Organizations
Date: 15-APR-93


INSTITUTION FOR FUZZY SYSTEMS AND INTELLIGENT CONTROL, INC.

    Sponsors, organizes, and publishes the proceedings of the International
    Fuzzy Systems and Intelligent Control Conference.  The conference is 
    devoted primarily to computer based feedback control systems that rely on 
    rule bases, machine learning, and other artificial intelligence and soft 
    computing techniques.  The theme of the 1993 conference was "Fuzzy Logic,
    Neural Networks, and Soft Computing."

    Thomas L. Ward
    Institution for Fuzzy Systems and Intelligent Control, Inc.
    P. O. Box 1297
    Louisville KY 40201-1297 USA
    Phone: +1.502.588.6342
    Fax: +1.502.588.5633
    Email: TLWard01@ulkyvm.louisville.edu, TLWard01@ulkyvm.bitnet


INTERNATIONAL FUZZY SYSTEMS ASSOCIATION (IFSA)

    Holds biannual conferences that rotate between Asia, North America,
    and Europe.  Membership is $232, which includes a subscription to the 
    International Journal of Fuzzy Sets and Systems.

    Prof. Philippe Smets
    University of Brussels, IRIDIA
    50 av. F. Roosevelt
    CP 194/6
    1050 Brussels, Belgium


LABORATORY FOR INTERNATIONAL FUZZY ENGINEERING (LIFE)

    Laboratory for International Fuzzy Engineering Research
    Siber Hegner Building 3FL
    89-1 Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku
    Yokohama-shi 231 Japan
    Email: <name>@fuzzy.or.jp


NORTH AMERICAN FUZZY INFORMATION PROCESSING SOCIETY (NAFIPS)

    Holds a conference and a workshop in alternating years.  

    President:
      Dr. Jim Keller
      President NAFIPS
      Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept
      University of Missouri-Col
      Columbia, MO 65211 USA
      Phone +1.314.882.7339
      Email: ecejk@mizzou1.missouri.edu, ecejk@mizzou1.bitnet

    Secretary/Treasurer:
      Thomas H. Whalen
      Sec'y/Treasurer NAFIPS
      Decision Sciences Dept
      Georgia State University
      Atlanta, GA 30303 USA
      Phone: +1.404.651.4080
      Email: qmdthw@gsuvm1.gsu.edu, qmdthw@gsuvm1.bitnet


SPANISH ASSOCIATION FOR FUZZY LOGIC AND TECHNOLOGY

    Prof. J. L. Verdegay
    Dept. of Computer Science and A.I.
    Faculty of Sciences
    University of Granada
    18071 Granada (Spain)
    Phone: +34.58.244019
    Tele-fax: +34.58.243317, +34.58.274258
    Email: jverdegay@ugr.es

CANADIAN SOCIETY FOR FUZZY INFORMATION AND NEURAL SYSTEMS (CANS-FINS)

   Dr. Madan M. Gupta, Director <guptam@sask.usask.ca>
   Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory
   College of Engineering
   Sakatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N OWO
   Tel: 306-966-5451
   Fax: 306-966-8710

   Dr. Ralph O. Buchal <rbuchal@charon.engga.uwo.ca>
   Department of Mechanical Engineering
   Univ. of Western Ontario
   London, Ontario, N6A 5B9
   Tel: 519-679-2111, x8454
   Fax: 519-661-3375

   Dr. Martin Laplante
   RES Inc.
   Suite 501, 100 Sparks Street
   Ottawa, Ont. KIP-5B7
   Tel: 613-238-3690
   Fax: 613-235-5889



================================================================
Subject: [19] Companies Supplying Fuzzy Tools
Date: 15-APR-93

*** Note: Inclusion in this list is not an endorsement for the product. ***

Accel Infotech Spore Pte Ltd:

   Accel Infotech is a distributor for FUZZ-C from Byte Craft.

   FUZZ-C generates C code that may be cross-compiled to the 6805, Z8C
   and COP8C microprocessors using separate compilers.
   FUZZ-C was reviewed in the March 1993 issue of AI Expert.

   For more information, send email to accel@solomon.technet.sg, call 
   +65-7446863 (Richard) or fax +65-7492467.

Adaptive Informations Systems:

    This is a new company that specializes in fuzzy information systems.

    Main products of AIS:

    - Consultancy and application development in fuzzy information retrieval
      and flexible querying systems  

    - Development of a fuzzy querying application for value added network
      services

    - A fuzzy solution for utilization of a large (lexicon based)
      terminological knowledge base for NL query evaluation

    Adaptive Informations Systems
    Hoestvej  8 B
    DK-2800  Lyngby
    Denmark
    Phone: 45-4587-3217
    Email: hll@dat.ruc.dk


Adaptive Logic (formerly American NeuraLogix):

   Products:
      AL220       8 bit fuzzy microcontroller(18 pin DIP or 20 pin
                  SOIC) with A/D & D/A(4I/O).
      NLX221      4-8 bit digital I/O single chip fuzzy microcontroller
                  with EEPROM memory.
      NLX222      4-8 bit analog and digital I/O single chip fuzzy
                  microcontroller. 
      NLX230      8 bit microcontroller utilizing fuzzy logic at 30 million
                  rules per second.
      NLX110      Fuzzy Pattern Comparator.
      NLX112/113  Fuzzy Data Correlators.
      INSiGHT IIe Real time emulator, programmer and development
                  software for AL220.
      INSiGHT     Development software for NLX22X family.
      INStANT     Programmer for NLX22X family.
      ADS230      Development System for NLX230.
      ADS110      Development System for NLX110

      Note: The AL220 was named Innovation Of the Year '94 by EDN
      Magazine in the microprocessor category.  Data sheets and
      application notes are available on the products plus local
      application assistance. 

	Adaptive Logic Inc.
	800 Charcot Ave., Suite 112
	San Jose, CA 95131
	Phone: 408-383-7200
	Fax:       408-383-7201
	Email:   75471.2025@compuserve.com

	Europe: 
	Applied Marketing & Technology Ltd.
	Saville Court, Saville Place, Clifton
	Bristol BS8 4EJ
	Phone: 117-9237594
	Fax:       117-9237598
	Email:    100435.1630@compuserve.com

	Japan:
	Nippon Precision Device
	Nichibei Time 24 Bldg.
	35 Tansu-cho
	Shinjuki-ku, Tokyo 162
	Phone: 332601411
	Fax:       332607100

	Adaptive Logic Inc.-R&D facility
	411 Central Park Drive
	Sanford, Fl 32771
	Phone: 407-322-5608
	Fax:   407-322-5609
	Email: 75471.2032@compuserve.com or info@adaptivelogic.com
        URL:   http://www.adaptivelogic.com/

Aptronix:

   Products:
     Fide      A MS Windows-hosted graphical development environment for
               fuzzy expert systems.  Code generators for Motorola's 6805, 
               68HC05, and 68HC11, and Omron's FP-3000 are available.  A
               demonstration version of Fide is available.

   Aptronix, Inc.
   2150 North First Street, Suite 300
   San Jose, Ca. 95131 USA
   Phone: 408-261-1888
   Fax:   408-261-1897
   Fuzzy Net BBS: 408-261-1883, 8/n/1


Aria Ltd.:

   Products:
     DB-fuzzy         A library of fuzzy information retrieval for CA-Clipper.
		      See ftp.cs.cmu.edu:/user/ai/areas/fuzzy/com/aria/ for
                      more information.

   Aria Ltd.
   Dubravska 3
   842 21 Bratislava
   SLOVAKIA
   Phone: (+42 7) 3709 286
   Fax:   (+42 7) 3709 232
   Email: aria@softec.sk

   ClippArt Ltd. is the exclusive distributor of DB-fuzzy.
   Any additional information about DB-fuzzy you can obtain
   from this company.

   ClippArt Ltd.   Polianky 15           Tel. (+42 7) 786 160
		   841 02 Bratislava     Fax  (+42 7) 786 160
		   Slovakia


ByteCraft, Ltd.:

   Products:
     Fuzz-C    "A C preprocessor for fuzzy logic" according to the cover of
               its manual.  Translates an extended C language to C source
               code.

   Byte Craft Limited
   421 King Street North
   Waterloo, Ontario
   Canada N2J 4E4
   Phone: 519-888-6911
   Fax:   519-746-6751
   Support BBS: 519-888-7626


Fril Systems Ltd:

   FRIL (Fuzzy Relational Inference Language) is a logic-programming
   language that incorporates a consistent method for handling
   uncertainty, based on Baldwin's theories of support logic, mass
   assignments, and evidential reasoning. Mass assignments give a
   consistent way of manipulating fuzzy and probabilistic uncertainties,
   enabling different forms of uncertainty to be integrated within a
   single framework. Fril has a list-based syntax, similar to the early
   micro-Prolog from LPA. Prolog is a special case of Fril, in which
   programs involve no uncertainty. Fril runs on Unix, Macintosh,
   MS-DOS, and Windows 3.1 platforms. 

   For further information, write to

      Dr B.W. Pilsworth
      Fril Systems Ltd
      Bristol Business Centre, 
      Maggs House,
      78 Queens Rd, 
      Bristol BS8 1QX, UK.

   A longer description is available as
      ftp://ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/ai/areas/fuzzy/com/fril/

Fujitsu:

   Products:
     MB94100   Single-chip 4-bit (?) fuzzy controller.


FuziWare:

   Products:
     FuziCalc  An MS-Windows-based fuzzy development system based on a
               spreadsheet view of fuzzy systems.

   FuziWare, Inc.
   316 Nancy Kynn Lane, Suite 10
   Knoxville, Tn. 37919 USA
   Phone: 800-472-6183, 615-588-4144
   Fax:   615-588-9487

FuzzySoft AG:

   Product:
      FuzzySoft     Fuzzy Logic Operating System runs under MS-Windows,
                    generates C-code, extended simulation capabalities.

   Selling office for Germany, Switzerland and Austria (all product
   inquiries should be directed here)

   GTS Trautzl GmbbH
   Gottlieb-Daimler-Str. 9
   W-2358 Kaltenkirchen/Hamburg
   Germany
   Phone: (49) 4191 8711
   Fax:   (49) 4191 88665


Fuzzy Systems Engineering:

   Products:
     Manifold Editor           ?
     Manifold Graphics Editor  ?

     [These seem to be membership function & rulebase editors.]
 
   Fuzzy Systems Engineering
   P. O. Box 27390
   San Diego, CA 92198 USA
   Phone: 619-748-7384
   Fax:   619-748-7384 (?)


HyperLogic Corporation:

   Products:
      CubiCalc            Windows-based Fuzzy Logic Shell. Includes
			  fuzzy and plant simulation, plots, file
			  I/O, DDE.

      CubiCalc RTC        Windows-based Fuzzy Logic Development
			  Environment. Superset of CubiCalc includes
			  run-time generator, code libraries, DLL for
			  Windows Applications (incl Visual Basic).

      CubiCard            Superset of CubiCalc RTC with data acquisition
			  capabilties via hardware interface board.

      CubiQuick           Inexpensive version of CubiCalc with limited
			  capabilties for classroom and small projects.
			  Academic discounts available.

      Rule Maker          Add-on to CubiCalc and higher products for
			  automatic rulebase generation. Provides four
			  different generation strategies.

   HyperLogic Corporation
   P.O. Box 300010
   Escondido, CA 92030-0010
   Tel: 619-746-2765
   Fax: 619-746-4089
   Email: prodinfo@hyperlogic.com

   The URL for their home page is http://www.hyperlogic.com/hl. It includes
   product descriptions, pricing information, their Tech Notes on various
   subjects, and several downloadable demonstration programs.
        

Inform:

   Products:
     fuzzyTECH 3.0     A graphical fuzzy development environment.  Versions
                       are available that generate either C source code or
                       Intel MCS-96 assembly source code as output.  A
                       demonstration version is available. Runs under MS-DOS.

   Inform Software Corp
   1840 Oak Street, Suite 324
   Evanston, Il. 60201 USA
   Phone:  708-866-1838

   INFORM GmbH
   Geschaeftsbereich Fuzzy--Technologien
   Pascalstraese 23
   W-5100 Aachen
   Tel: (02408) 6091
   Fax: (02408) 6090

IIS:

   IIS specializes in offering short courses on soft computing.  They
   also perform research and development in fuzzy logic, fuzzy control,
   neural networks, adaptive fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms.

   Intelligent Inference Systems Corp.
   P.O. Box 2908
   Sunnyvale, CA 94087
   Phone: (408) 730-8345
   Fax:   (408) 730-8550
   email: iiscorp@netcom.com
 
LPA, Ltd.:

   FLINT, a Fuzzy Logic INferencing Toolkit, is a versatile fuzzy logic
   inferencing system that makes fuzzy logic technology and fuzzy rules
   available within a sophisticated programming environment. FLINT
   supports standard and user-defined membership functions, linear and
   curved membership lines, automatic propagation of fuzzy values, range
   of and/or/not combinators, configurable linguistic hedges, standard
   and user-defined defuzzification algorithms. FLINT is available as a
   versatile programming toolkit for LPA Prolog running Windows 95/3.1/NT
   or Macintosh and as an extension to LPA's popular expert system
   toolkit, Flex.

   For further information contact:
   Logic Programming Associates Ltd.,      
   Studio 4, R.V.P.B., Trinity Road,       
   London, SW18 3SX, UK.

   Web: http://www.lpa.co.uk
   US Toll Free: 1-800-949-7567
   Tel: +44 181 871 2016
   Fax: +44 181 874 0449
   Email: lpa@cix.compulink.co.uk  

Metus Systems Group:

   Products:
     Metus Fuzzy Library       A library of fuzzy processing routines for
                               C or C++.  Source code is available.

   The Metus Systems Group
   1 Griggs Lane
   Chappaqua, Ny. 10514 USA
   Phone: 914-238-0647


Modico:

   Products:
     Fuzzle 1.8        A fuzzy development shell that generates either ANSI
                       FORTRAN or C source code.

   Modico, Inc.
   P. O. Box 8485
   Knoxville, Tn. 37996 USA
   Phone: 615-531-7008

National Semiconductor, Santa Clara CA, USA
http://www.commerce.net/directories/participants/ns/home.html

  NeuFuz is aimed at low end controls applications in automotive, 
  industrial, and appliance areas.  NeuFuz is a neural-fuzzy technology 
  which uses backpropagation techniques to initially select fuzzy rules 
  and membership functions.  Initial stages of design using NeuFuz 
  technology are performed using training data and backpropagation.  
  The result is a fuzzy associative memory (FAM) which implements an 
  approximation of the training data.  By implementing a FAM, rather 
  than a multi-layer perceptron, the designer has a solution which can 
  be understood and tuned to a particular application using Fuzzy Logic 
  design techniques.

       NeuFuz4 Learning Kit, Product ordering code (NSID): NF2-C8A-KIT
       - NeuFuz2 Neural Network Learning Software  
       - Up to 2 inputs, 1 output
       - 50 training patterns
       - Up to 3 membership functions
       - COP8 Code Generator (COP8 is National's family of 8-bit
            microcontrollers)

      NeuFuz4 Software Package, Product ordering code (NSID): NF4-C8A
       - NeuFuz4 Software
       - Neural Network Learning Software - Up to 4 inputs, 1 output and
          1200 training patterns
       - Up to 7 membership functions
       - COP8 Code Generator

     The NeuFuz4 Development System, Product ordering code: (NSID): 
     NF4-C8A-SYS. 
       - Neural Network Learning Software - Up to 4 inputs, 1 output and
         1200 training patterns
       - Up to 7 membership functions
       - COP8 Code Generator
       - COP8 In-Circuit Emulator "Debug Module"
         - Real-Time Emulation Microcontroller EPROM Programming
         - Real-Time Trace 
         - Complete Source/Symbolic Debug
      - One-Day Training on Customer Request
      - Access to Factory Expert via Telephone (Maximum 16 hrs.)

     NeuFuz4-C Learning Kit, Product ordering code (NSID): NF2-C-KIT
      - Up to 2 inputs, 1 output 50 training patterns
      - Up to 3 membership functions
      - ANSI Standard C Language Code Generator
      - Tutorial Examples for Neural Network Learning and Fuzzy Rule 
        Generation

    NeuFuz4-C Software Package, Product ordering code (NSID): NF4-C
      - Up to 4 inputs, 1 output and 1200 training patterns
      - Up to 7 membership functions
      - ANSI Standard C Language Code Generator
      - One-Day Training on Customer Request
      - Access to Factory Expert via Telephone (Maximum 16 hrs.)

Oki Electric:

   Products:
     MSM91U111         A single-chip 8-bit fuzzy controller.

   Europe:

     Oki Electric Europe GmbH.
     Hellersbergstrasse 2
     D-4040 Neuss, Germany
     Phone: 49-2131-15960
     Fax:   49-2131-103539

   Hong Kong:

     Oki Electronics (Hong Kong) Ltd.
     Suite 1810-4, Tower 1
     China Hong Kong City
     33 Canton Road, Tsim Sha Tsui
     Kowloon, Hong Kong
     Phone: 3-7362336
     Fax:   3-7362395

   Japan:

     Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.
     Head Office Annex
     7-5-25 Nishishinjuku
     Shinjuku-ku Tokyo 160 JAPAN
     Phone: 81-3-5386-8100
     Fax:   81-3-5386-8110

   USA:

     Oki Semiconductor
     785 North Mary Avenue
     Sunnyvale, Ca. 94086 USA
     Phone: 408-720-1900
     Fax:   408-720-1918


OMRON Corporation:

   Products:
     C500-FZ001        Fuzzy logic processor module for Omron C-series PLCs.
     E5AF              Fuzzy process temperature controller.
     FB-30AT           FP-3000 based PC AT fuzzy inference board.
     FP-1000           Digital fuzzy controller.
     FP-3000           Single-chip 12-bit digital fuzzy controller.
     FP-5000           Analog fuzzy controller.
     FS-10AT           PC-based software development environment for the
                       FP-3000.

   Japan

     Kazuaki Urasaki
     Fuzzy Technology Business Promotion Center
     OMRON Corporation
     20 Igadera, Shimokaiinji
     Nagaokakyo Shi, Kyoto 617  Japan
     Phone: 81-075-951-5117
     Fax:   81-075-952-0411

   USA Sales (all product inquiries should be directed here)

     Pat Murphy
     OMRON Electronics, Inc.
     One East Commerce Drive
     Schaumburg, IL 60173 USA
     Phone: 708-843-7900
     Fax:   708-843-7787/8568

   USA Research

     Satoru Isaka
     OMRON Advanced Systems, Inc.
     3945 Freedom Circle, Suite 410
     Santa Clara, CA 95054
     Phone: 408-727-6644
     Fax: 408-727-5540
     Email: isaka@oas.omron.com


Togai InfraLogic, Inc.:

   Togai InfraLogic (TIL for short) supplies software development tools,
   board-, chip- and core-level fuzzy hardware, and engineering services.
   Contact info@til.com for more detailed information.

   Products:
     FC110     (the FC110(tm) Digital Fuzzy Processor (DFP-tm)).  An
               8-bit microprocessor/coprocessor with fuzzy acceleration.
     FC110DS   (the FC110 Development System)  A software development package
               for the FC110 DFP, including an assembler, linker and Fuzzy
               Programming Language (FPL-tm) compiler.
     FCA       VLSI Cores based on Fuzzy Computational Acceleration (FCA-tm).
     FCA10AT   FC110-based fuzzy accelerator board for PC/AT-compatibles.
     FCA10VME  FC110-based four-processor VME fuzzy accelerator.
     FCD10SA   FC110-based fuzzy processing module.
     FCD10SBFC FC110-based single board fuzzy controller module.
     FCD10SBus FC110-based two-processor SBus fuzzy accelerator.
     FCDS      (the Fuzzy-C Development System)  An FPL compiler that emits
               K&R or ANSI C source to implement the specified fuzzy system.
     MicroFPL  An FPL compiler and runtime module that support using fuzzy
               techniques on small microcontrollers by several companies.
     TILGen    A tool for automatically constructing fuzzy expert systems from
               sampled data.
     TILShell+ A graphical development and simulation environment for fuzzy
               systems.

   USA

     Togai InfraLogic, Inc.
     5 Vanderbilt
     Irvine, CA 92718 USA
     Phone: 714-975-8522
     Fax: 714-975-8524
     Email: info@til.com


Toshiba:

   Products:
     T/FC150   10-bit fuzzy inference processor.
     LFZY1     FC150-based NEC PC fuzzy logic board.
     T/FT      Fuzzy system development tool.


TransferTech GmbH:

   Products:
     Fuzzy Control Manager (FMC)       Fuzzy shell, runs under MS-Windows

   TransferTech GmbH
   Cyriaksring 9A
   D-38118 Braunschweig
   Germany
   Tel: +49 531 890255
   Fax: +49 531 890355
   Email: info@transfertech.de
   URL: http://www.transfertech.de

================================================================
Subject: [20] Fuzzy Researchers
Date: 23-AUG-94

A list of "Who's Who in Fuzzy Logic" (researchers and research
organizations in the field of fuzzy logic and fuzzy expert systems)
may be obtained by sending a message to
  listproc@vexpert.dbai.tuwien.ac.at 
with 
  GET LISTPROC WHOISWHOINFUZZY
in the message body. New entries and corrections should be sent to
Robert Fuller <rfuller@finabo.abo.fi>. 

A copy of this list is also available by anonymous ftp from
   ftp://mira.dbai.tuwien.ac.at/pub/mlowner/
or
   ftp://ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/ai/areas/fuzzy/doc/whos_who/

================================================================
Subject: [21] Elkan's "The Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic" paper

The presentation of Elkan's AAAI-93 paper 
   Charles Elkan, "The Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic", in
   Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Artificial
   Intelligence, 698-703, 1993.
has generated much controversy. The fuzzy logic community claims that
the paper is based on some common misunderstandings about fuzzy logic, but
Elkan still maintains the correctness of his proof. (See, for
instance, AI Magazine 15(1):6-8, Spring 1994.) 

Elkan proves that for a particular set of axiomatizations of fuzzy
logic, fuzzy logic collapses to two-valued logic. The proof is correct
in the sense that the conclusion follows from the premises. The
disagreement concerns the relevance of the premises to fuzzy logic.
At issue are the logical equivalence axioms. Elkan has shown that if
you include any of several plausible equivalences, such as
   not(A and not B) == (not A and not B) or B
with the min, max, and 1- axioms of fuzzy logic, then fuzzy logic
reduces to binary logic. The fuzzy logic community states that these
logical equivalence axioms are not required in fuzzy logic, and that
Elkan's proof requires the excluded middle law, a law that is commonly
rejected in fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic researchers must simply take care
to avoid using any of these equivalences in their work.

It is difficult to do justice to the issues in so short a summary.
Readers of this FAQ should not assume that this summary is the last
word on this topic, but should read Elkan's paper and some of the
other correspondence on this topic (some of which has appeared in the
comp.ai.fuzzy newsgroup). 

Two responses to Elkan's paper, one by Enrique Ruspini and the other
by Didier Dubois and Henri Prade, may be found as
   ftp.cs.cmu.edu:/user/ai/areas/fuzzy/doc/elkan/response.txt

A final version of Elkan's paper, together with responses from members
of the fuzzy logic community, will appear in an issue of IEEE Expert
sometime in 1994. A paper by Dubois and Prade will be presented at AAAI-94.

================================================================
Subject: [22] Glossary

Hedge		

   A hedge is a one-input truth value manipulation operation. It modifies
   the shape of the truth function, in a manner analogous to the function
   of adjectives and adverbs in English. Some examples that are commonly seen
   in the literature are intensifiers like "very", detensifiers like
   "somewhat", and complementizers like "not".  One might define "very x"
   as the square of the truth value of x, and define "somewhat x" as the
   square root of the truth value of x.  Then you can make fuzzy logic
   statements like:
       y is very low
   which would evaluate to (y is low) * (y is low).  One can think of
   "not x" as being a hedge in the same sense, defining "not x" as one
   minus the truth value of x.

================================================================
Subject: [24] Where to send calls for papers (cfp) and calls for participation
Date: 15-MAY-95

Fuzzy related calls for papers and calls for participation should be
sent by email to conferences@iao.fhg.de, or posted to the moderated
newsgroup news.announce.conferences. Both actions will have the same
effect. Please keep Subject lines informative; if space permits,
mention the topic and location there, and avoid acronyms unless very
widely known. Submissions will simultaneously appear in the newsgroup
news.announce.conferences and on the WorldWideWeb server of
Fraunhofer-IAO at <URL:http://www.iao.fhg.de/Library/conferences> as
soon as they have been processed.  The fuzzy-mail mailing list (see
[15]) scans this news-group for items related to fuzzy and uncertainty.
Matching messages will be moderated like any other message sent to the
mailing list, and if selected, will be forwarded to the Asian
fuzzy-mailing list (see [15]), NAFIPS-L (see [15]), as well as the
internet news-group comp.ai.fuzzy (see [1]).  Sending it only to
conferences@iao.fhg.de is normally enough to distribute the message
efficiently to all the other media.

================================================================
;;; *EOF*

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