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=============================================================== Glossary Part 23: Terms beginning with "W" FREQUENTLY USED TERMS IN CONVENTIONAL FUSION RESEARCH AND PLASMA PHYSICS Edited by Robert F. Heeter, firstname.lastname@example.org Guide to Categories: * = plasma/fusion/energy vocabulary & = basic physics vocabulary > = device type or machine name # = name of a constant or variable ! = scientists @ = acronym % = labs & political organizations $ = unit of measurement The list of Acknowledgements is in Part 0 (intro). ================================================================== WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW # W: Chemical symbol for Tungsten @ W-7AS, W-7X: See Wendelstein entry * Wall Conditioning: Describes a class of procedures used to control the composition of materials adsorbed onto the walls of a plasma device. Conditioning is important because material from the walls can create impurities in the plasma, and these impurities typically degrade plasma performance. See also boronization, impurity control, electron cyclotron discharge cleaning. * Wall Loading: Fusion reactor thermal output power divided by the area of the wall facing the plasma. (Neutron wall loading is 4/5 of the total for D-T fusion.) & Waste, Radioactive: See Radioactive Waste. & Wavelength: The length of a single cycle of a wave; usually measured from crest-to-crest. For electromagnetic waves, the wavelength determines the type (radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-Ray, gamma-ray) of radiation; in the case of visible light, wavelength determines the color of the light. & Waves: & Weak (Nuclear) Force: > Wendelstein: A family of stellarators built in Garching, Germany. The machine currently in operation is Wendelstein-7AS (aka W-7AS). Wendelstein ("spiral rock") is a craggy Bavarian mountain; some of W-1 through W-6 were built, some were just paper studies; AS stands for "advanced stellarator" and refers on the physical side to an attempt to minimize neoclassical effects (see entry for Neo-classical Diffusion) such as the bootstrap current (see entry), and on the technical side to the use of out-of-plane coils as an alternative to linked coils. W-7X, a much larger, superconducting stellarator based on the same concepts has been proposed to be built by the European Union in Greifswald, on the north coast of Germany. * Whistler: A wave in a plasma which propagates parallel to the magnetic field produced by currents outside the plasma at a frequency less than that of the electron cyclotron frequency, and which is circularly polarized, rotating in the same sense as the electrons in the plasma (about the magnetic field); also known as the electron cyclotron wave. Whistlers are so-named because of their characteristic descending audio-frequency tone, which is a result of the dispersion relation for the wave (higher frequencies travel somewhat faster). This tone was frequently picked up during World War I by large ground-loop antennas (which were actually being used to spy on enemy field telephone signals). % Wisconsin - See University of Wisconsin-Madison