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=============================================================== Glossary Part 15: Terms beginning with "O" FREQUENTLY USED TERMS IN CONVENTIONAL FUSION RESEARCH AND PLASMA PHYSICS Edited by Robert F. Heeter, email@example.com Guide to Categories: * = plasma/fusion/energy vocabulary & = basic physics vocabulary > = device type or machine name # = name of a constant or variable ! = scientists @ = acronym % = labs & political organizations $ = unit of measurement The list of Acknowledgements is in Part 0 (intro). ================================================================== OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO @ OFE: Office of Fusion Energy; see entry @ OH: Ohmic Heating; see entry @ OH1, OH2L, OH2U: Ohmic Heating Coils (1,2, upper, lower) on Alcator C-Mod @ OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; see entry @ ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; see entry % Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Located in Oak Ridge, TN. Home of a series of various fusion devices. Recent machines have included the Elmo Bumpy Torus and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (stellarator). (Could use more info!) % Office of Fusion Energy: This is the office (within the Office of Energy Research in the U.S. Department of Energy) which administers the fusion energy research program. Web users can visit http://wwwofe.er.doe.gov/ for more info. ! Ohm, Georg Simon (1789-1854): Physicist who discovered the relationship between electric current, potential and resistance. (Yes, it is Georg. Swedish, I believe.) $ Ohm: Unit of electrical resistance. & Ohmic heating: Heating that results from the flow of current through a medium with electrical resistance. In plasmas subjected to ohmic heating, ions are heated almost entirely by transfer of energy from the hotter, more mobile electrons. * Ohmic heating coil: On a tokamak, this is the coil (generally a set of coils; part of the poloidal field system) used to induce an electric field in the plasma via a transformer effect. The electric field generates of a toroidal plasma current, with resultant ohmic heating. * Ohmic heating solenoid: See ohmic heating coil, solenoid. & Ohm's Law: The relationship between the net current and the electric field in a conducting medium. For simple resistors, the voltage equals current times resistance, V = I*R. In plasmas the "generalized Ohm's Law" is a more complex tensor relationship involving the vector current density, the vector for the electric field, and a generalized resistance tensor that relates the two. > OMEGA: Inertial confinement fusion facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester (NY). OMEGA uses a 24-beam Nd:glass laser at wavelengths of 1.054 or .351 microns. # Omega: Variable frequently used to denote frequencies. * O-Point: Place where the poloidal magnetic field vanishes in such a way that the nearby flux surfaces are elliptical, e.g. on the magnetic axis (see entry) or at the center of a magnetic island (see entry). (See also X-Point.) & Optical Axis: The line passing through both the centers of curvature of the optical surfaces of a lens; the optical centerline for all the centers of a lens system. & Optical Interferometer: This is an interferometer (see entry) which uses the interference of optical-frequency light waves. These are useful in measuring distances precisely, and can be used to test optical system elements (lenses, mirrors, etc.) during manufacture. * Optical Pumping: In laser physics, this denotes the process in which absorbed light is stored in the laser medium. If the absorption & storage process creates a population inversion, laser action can occur (and extract the energy stored by optical pumping in the form of laser emission). * Oscillator: In laser physics, this refers to a device to generate coherent optical energy. (i.e., it's another term for the laser-light creating device itself, minus the source of power which pumps the oscillator.) The oscillator generally consists of a laser medium placed within an optical resonant cavity (pair of mirrors). Optical energy will be trapped between the mirrors and the optical (laser) oscillations will grow so long as the gain of the laser medium exceeds the losses at the mirrors. * Outboard Side: portion of a tokamak / toroidal device on the outer side, opposite the central axis. * Overturning Moment: Torque ("moment") on a toroidal field coil in a tokamak, about the device's radial direction, that results from out-of-plane forces on the coil due to the interactions between the coil current and the poloidal (vertical) magnetic field. This torque tends to "overturn" the vertical toroidal field coil, and must be engineered against.