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=============================================================== Glossary Part 11: Terms beginning with "K" FREQUENTLY USED TERMS IN CONVENTIONAL FUSION RESEARCH AND PLASMA PHYSICS Edited by Robert F. Heeter, email@example.com Guide to Categories: * = plasma/fusion/energy vocabulary & = basic physics vocabulary > = device type or machine name # = name of a constant or variable ! = scientists @ = acronym % = labs & political organizations $ = unit of measurement The list of Acknowledgements is in Part 0 (intro). ================================================================== KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK # k: Mathematical symbol usually used for Boltzmann's Constant. Value is 1.4 x 10^-23 Joules/Kelvin (in SI units), or 1.4 x 10^-16 ergs/Kelvin (in cgs units). $ kA: KiloAmpere; see kilo, Ampere @ KDP: Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate; crystal used in frequency conversion of Nd:glass laser light. $ kW: KiloWatt (1000 watts); see also kilo, Watt $ kWh: kilowatt-hour; see entry & Kelvin: (K) temperature scale where zero degrees corresponds to absolute zero (no thermal energy); degrees have same size as in Celsius/centigrade scale. 273.16 K = zero C; 373.16 = 100 C. ! (Lord) Kelvin: honorary name given to William Thompson; 19th century British physicist (many contributions in many subfields). * Kerma: Kinetic Energy (of charged particles) produced by ionizing Radiation per unit MAss of irradiated material. (ergs/gm) & kilo: metric prefix used to indicate 1000 times the following unit. e.g., a kiloampere is 1000 amperes. $ kilowatt-hour: standard unit of electrical energy; equals one kilowatt of power delivered for one hour. Equivalent to 3.6 million joules. * Kinetic Pressure: Density of kinetic energy (energy in the thermal motions of the plasma particles). For an ideal plasma, pressure is given by p = nkT, that is: pressure = (density) * (Boltzmann's constant)* (temperature), * Kinetic Temperature: A measure of the energy of random motion (kinetic energy) of an assembly of particles in thermodynamic equilibrium. * Kinetic Theory: A theory which attempts to explain the behavior of physical systems using the assumptions that the systems are composed of large numbers of atoms/molecules/particles in vigorous motion, that energy and momentum are conserved in collisions of these particles, and that statistical methods can be applied to deduce the behavior of such systems. * Kink Instability: Instability resulting from excessive growth of a kink mode; see kink mode. * Kink Mode: Class of MHD instabilities which sometimes develop in a thin plasma column carrying a strong axial current. If a kink begins to develop in such a column the magnetic forces on the inside of the kink become larger than those on the outside, so that in general it tends to grow in magnitude. The column then becomes unstable and can be displaced into the walls of the discharge chamber, causing a disruption. & Klystron: An evacuated electron-beam tube in which electrons are given initial velocities such that the beam's charge density is modulated; the passage of a modulated current generates microwave radiation, some of which is then fed back to modulate the electrons' velocities. The result is a microwave amplifier. * Kruskal Limit: In tokamaks, a theoretical limiting value for plasma current beyond which MHD instabilities are predicted.