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This posting contains useful feminist references for the newsgroup soc.feminism. Copies of this FAQ may be obtained by anonymous ftp to rtfm.mit.edu under /pub/usenet/news.answers/feminism/refs3. Or, send email to email@example.com with send usenet/news.answers/feminism/refs1 send usenet/news.answers/feminism/refs2 send usenet/news.answers/feminism/refs3 in the body of the message, leaving the subject line empty. TABLE OF CONTENTS [1-8 in part I, 9-17 in part II] 18. Public Policies Regarding Women. 19. Reactions to Feminism. 20. Religion. 21. Sex and/or Violence, Sexual Abuse. 22. Sexual Harassment and Discrimination. 23. Test Biases. 24. Women of Color. 25. Women's Health. (Auto)Biographies. Miscellaneous. Acknowledgements. [continuing from part II] 18. Public Policies Regarding Women. ------------------------------------- Abramovitz, Mimi. _Regulating the Lives of Women. Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present_. An analysis of the impact of US social welfare policy, documents how the family ethic has been translated into punitive welfare approaches toward women Baldock, Cora V., and Bettina Cass, eds. _Women, Social Welfare, and the State in Australia_. Allen & Unwin, Sydney and Boston. 1983. Dahl, Tove Stang. _Women's Law: An Introduction to Feminist Jurisprudence_. Oxford University Press. 1987. Proposal for a "women's law" by Norwegian sociologist of law. Diamond, Irene, ed. _Families, Politics, and Public Policy_. New York. Longman. 1983. Enloe, Cynthia. _Bananas, Beaches and Bases_. A radical analysis of international politics revealing the crucial role of women in implementing government foreign policies. It deals with several problems, one of which is prostitution especially in asia, and also with regard to US military bases. Freeman, Michael D.A. . _The State, the Law, and the Family: Critical Perspectives_. Tavistock Publications, New York. 1984. A collection of articles, many British, on the interrelationship between the family, the state and patriarchy. Glendon, Mary Ann. _Abortion and Divorce in Western Law_. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. 1987. Overview and analysis of abortion and divorce laws in several western countries. Gordon, Linda, ed. _Women, the State, and Welfare_. University of Wisconsin Press. 1990. Collection on women and the welfare state. Includes articles by Elizabeth Schneider on rights, and Frances Fox Piven. Hernes, Helga Maria. _Welfare State and Woman Power: Essays in State Feminism_. Scandinavian Library series. Norwegian University Press, Oxford. Distributed by Oxford University Press. 1987. Critique of the patriarchal nature of the Scandinavian welfare state. Mason, Mary Ann. _The Equality Trap_. Simon & Schuster, New York. 1988. Discusses how the push for equality laws has actually been to the detriment of women, particularly in the area of family law. The author is a lawyer. Mueller, Carol M., ed. _The Politics of the Gender Gap: The Social Construction of Political Influence_. SAGE Publications, Newbury Park, CA. 1988. Ruggie, Mary. _The State and Working Women: A Comparative Study of Britain and Sweden_. Princeton University Press. 1984. Pateman, Carole. _The Sexual Contract_. Stanford University Press. 1988. The meaning of the social "contract" for women. Pateman, Carole. _The Disorder of Women: Democracy, Feminism and Political Theory_. Stanford University Press. 1989. A discussion of women's role in the rise of democratic theory. The meaning of consent. Paul, Ellen Frankel. _Equity and Gender: the Comparable Worth Debate_. 1990. Begins by explaining how comparable worth -- or pay equity imposed by law -- is a full frontal assault on the free market by those who scoff at the market's ability to provide justice, and argues that the free market, not the state, is the better ally of feminism. Petchesky, Rosalind. _Abortion: A Woman's Choice_. 1990. Excellent study of abortion politics in America. Examines the patriarchal and capitalist roots underlying the abortion controversy, as well as (in 1990 edition) the meaning of the rights discourse for women. Re-imagining "rights." Tribe, Laurence H. _Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes_. W.W. Norton, New York, London. 1990. ISBN: 0-393-30699-2. Tribe is a professor of constitutional law and brings this expertise to his evaluation of the constitutional question of abortion. Besides drawing a sympathetically balanced view of the two extremes, he shows what that consequences for the constitution would be upon defining a fetus as a "person." Excellent and very readable, unlike many constitutional analyses of any sort. Sassoon, Anne Showstack, ed. _Women and the State_. Unwin Hyman, Winchester, MA. 1988. An international collection of articles on women and the welfare state. Stetson, Dorothy McBride. _Women's Rights in the USA. Policy Debates and Gender Roles_. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Pacific Grove, CA. 1991. ISBN: 0-534-14898-0. The author examines the hottest current topics in the US that relate to women, and how the mjor controversies and policies affect gender roles and being female in this country. Wilson, Elizabeth. _Women and the Welfare State_. Tavistock Publications, London. 1977. 19. Reactions to Feminism. --------------------------- Faludi, Susan. _Backlash. The Undeclared War Against American Women_, (1991). Gives an overview of the reaction to feminism in America today. It is an incredible compendium of incorrect facts, bogus statistics, false logic and unfounded theories, all of which which are presented by society and the media in particular as "true" and "factual" in order to keep women subordinate. One caveat about this book is that the author seems unsympathetic to the difficult choices a woman must make if she wants to combine career and family. Kamen, Paula, "Feminism, a Dirty Word", The New York Times, November 23, 1990, page A37. Leidholdt, Dorchen and Janice G. Raymond, eds. _The Sexual Liberals and the Attack on Feminism_. Pergamon Press, New York. 1990. Essays which originated as speeches and panel presentations at a conferences on April 6, 1987, at the New York University Law School. Includes bibliographical references and index. Smith, Joan. _Misogynies: Reflections on Myths and Malice_. Fawcett Columbine Book, Ballantine Books, Publishers. 1989. ISBN:0-449-90591-8. From blurb: "Joan Smith has written a witty and bold collection of essays on the alarming subject of women-hating. She observes the phenomenon wryly and never succumbs to the fatuous generalizations which characterize misogyny itself...Misogyny, unlike sexism, grows in this way behind women's backs, which may be why we sometimes optimistcially believe it is no longer prevalent. It is aptly, intelligently and compassionately put before us again in this well-written book." (Literary Review). 20. Religion. -------------- Adler, Margot. _Drawing Down the Moon_. Revised edition. Beacon Press, Boston. 1986. ISBN: 0-8070-3253-0. This has a chapter on "Women, Feminism, and the Craft". It places feminist wicca in one of its contexts. Otherwise the book is mainly about neopaganism. Armstrong, Karen. _The Gospel According to Woman_. Anchor Books, Doubleday. 1987. ISBN: 0-385-24079-1 (trade paperback). A provocative interpretation of the history of women in Christianity. In particular, there are interesting parallels between the Virgins (who could stay separate from men) of Christian history and latter-day feminists. Beck, Evelyn Torton, ed. _Nice Jewish Girls. A Lesbian Anthology_. Revised and updated. Beacon Press, Boston. 1989. Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schussler. _Bread Not Stone_. Beacon Press, Boston. 1984. ISBN: 0-8070-1103-7 (trade paperback). Feminist biblical interpretation. Greenberg, Blu. _On Women and Judaism: A View from Tradition_. Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia. 1981. This discusses conflicts between Orthodox Judaism and feminism, and suggests resolutions of the conflicts within the boundaries of Jewish law. Hampson, Daphne. _Theology and Feminism_. Basil Blackwell Ltd/Inc. 1990. ISBN: 0-631-14944-9. Discusses the limitations of Christianity from a feminist perspective, and suggests ways for moving beyond Christianity. Heine, Susanne. _Women and Early Christianity: A Reappriasal_. Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis. 1988. ISBN: 0-8066-2359-4. Documents the strength of influence women had in early Christianity, uses this as basis for concluding that Christianity need not be anti-woman. Originally published in German under _Frauen der Fru:hen Christenheit_. Heschel, Susannah. _On Being a Jewish Feminist: A Reader_. Schocken, 1984. Kaye/Kantrowitz, Melanie and Irena Klepfisz. _The Tribe of Dina: A Jewish Women's Anthology_. Beacon Press. 1989. Koltun, Elizabeth. _The Jewish Woman: New Perspectives_. Schocken Books, 1976. Miles, Margaret R. . _Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West_. Beacon Press, Boston. 1989. Looks at how images of the female body have shaped and been shaped by religious and social forces. Although most of the emphasis is mediaeval, It has a final chapter that looks at a modern perspective. Has an excellent section on Hildegard von Bingen, one of the few female writers of the middle ages. Pagel, Elaine. _Adam, Eve, and The Serpent_. Random House, New York. 1988. Also, _The Gnostic Gospels_. Vintage Books edition, Random House, New York. 1989. The former is a thorough exploration of how the Genesis myth is inextricably interwined with western culture views of women. The latter shows how the early Christian church although initially receptive to women became patriarchal. Plaskow, Judith. _Standing Again at Sinai: Judaism From A Feminist Perspective_. Harper Collins, 1990. ISBN 0-06-066684-6. Plaskow discusses conflicts between Judaism and feminism, and suggests ways to make Judaism into a feminist religion. Ruther, Rosmary Radford. _Women-Church. Theology and Practice of Feminist Liturgical Communities_. ISBN 0-06-066834-2. This is a collection of liturgies for unconventional purposes (i.e. A Coming-Out rite for a Lesbian). They are not so much pagan as they are feminist. They ignore the distinctions between Christian and non-Christian. The thesis of the book is in part that women should create their own ritual without waiting for the "church" to catch up with their reality. Ruther has written other books with similar themes. Schneider, Susan Weidman. _Jewish and Female_. Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 0-671-60439-2. Sprentak, Charlene, ed. _The Politics of Women's Spirituality: Essays on the Rise of Spiritual Power within the Feminist Movement_. 1982. ISBN. 0-385-17241-9. This is a thick (590pp) sampler with short pieces by a number of important authors. A few are written as responses to others which gives a bit more sense of the dialog. Starhawk. _The Spiral Dance_. 10th anniversary edition, revised. Harper & Row, San Francisco. 1989. ISBN 0-06-250814-8. This has clearly been a very influential book. Z. Budapest is another mother of feminist wicca from the same era; Starhawk seems a bit more readable and less cookbook-like. Stone, Merlin. _When God Was a Woman_. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1976. ISBN: 0-15-696158-X (trade paperback). Historical revisionist view of early matriarchal & female-based worship. 21. Sex and/or Violence and Sexual Abuse. ------------------------------------------ *"Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization Among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women." Journal of Family Issues. v12 n3 p361. *"Four Theories of Rape: A Macrosociological Analysis". _Social Problems_ 34, No. 5 (1986) General-social-disinhibition theory is used to model the correlation between sexual magazines and rape. *_Pornography and Sexual Aggression_ Barry, Kathleen. _Female Sexual Slavery_. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979; New York University Press, London and New York, 1984. Bart, Pauline and Patricia O'Brien. _Stopping Rape: Successful Survival Strategies_. Pergamon Press, New York. 1985. Browne, Angela. _When Battered Women Kill_. Collier Macmillian, London; Free PRess, New York. 1987. Brownmiller, Susan. _Against Our Will_. Bantam. 1975. This is a disturbing, contradictory work. It is misrepresented both by feminist and anti-feminist camps; feminists lauding it as a quintessentially accurate portrayal of rape, the anti-feminists denouncing it as a virulently anti-male piece of propoganda. A landmark work that first documented the social and historical consequences of rape in our society. Caputi, Jane. _The Age of Sex Crime_. Bowling Green State University Popular Press, Bowling Green, OH. 1987. Case studies on murder and sex crimes. Ellis, Lee and Charles Beattie. "The Feminist Explanation for Rape. An Empirical Test," _Journal of Sex Research_, 19(1).74-93, Feb 1983. Abstract. The feminist explanation for rape includes the proposition that it derives from traditions of male domination in social, political, and economic matters. As a test of this thesis, official FBI and victimization statistics on rape were compared across 26 large United States central cities relative to various indicators of these cities' degree of social, political, and economic inequality between the sexes. Of 14 correlations, 4 were significant, 3 with a sign opposite to that predicted by the feminist explanation. When presumed effects of the two strongest control variables were removed by partial correlation techniques, only one coefficient was significant, and it was in the direction contrary to the feminist explanation. Rape rates appear unrelated to inequalities of earnings, education, occupational prestige, or employment. The belief that reducing sex disparities in social, political, and economic terms will reduce rape is not supported. 3 Tables, 55 References. Finkelhor, David and Kersti Yllo. _License to Rape: Sexual Abuse of Wives_. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1985; Free Press, New York, 1987. Gauthier and Saucier. "Preliminary Study of Early Sexual Abuse." Canadian _Journal of Psychiatry_. 1991. v36 n6 p422. (In French) This paper is in french, but they have an English abstract in Medline. They compared sexually abused adolescents with non-abused. From the abstract: "...[of abused children] their perception of self and of the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding that will spark discussion." Griffin, Susan. _The Politics of Rape_. Third revision and updated edition. Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1986. Original copyright 1970. "Another canon in the apologetics of rape is that, if it were not for learned social controls, all men would rape."..."But in truth rape is not universal to the human species." Griffin, Susan. "Rape: The All-American Crime" in _Rape: The Power of Consciousness_, Harper & Row, 1979. Haber, Joel D. "Abused Women and Chronic Pain," in _American Journal of Nursing_, v85, Sept. 1985, pp1010-1012. Study shows that abused women have more health problems than non-abused ones. Jones, Anne. _Women Who Kill_. Fawcett Crest, Ballantine Books, New York. 1981. From blurb: "When battered and abused women began to fight back -- and kill --- men began to fear that this would becom an epidemic. Some felt that women were getting away with murder: But were they? They were not. In fact, in many cases their punishment was harsher than that of men. But this book is much more than a desription of battered women who kill in self-defense. It is a social history and a fascinating story of women on the edge of society -- women driven to kill for a multitude of reasons. Here are tales of crime and punishment that reveal hard truths about American society and women's place in it." Kelly, Liz. _Surviving Sexual Violence_. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis; Polity Press, Cambridge UK. 1988. Kilpatrick, D.G. et al., "Mental health correlates of criminal victimization. A random community survey," _Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology_, Vol. 53, 866-873. 1985. Koss, M.P. "Hidden rape. sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of students in higher education." Chapter 1. In A.W. Burgess, ed, _Rape and sexual assault II_ (pp. 3-25). NY. Garland. 1988. Controversial. This was a study that showed a good percentage of the men surveyed believed certain things could be expected if they paid for dinner, etc. There were questions designed in such a way that would find out if the men had raped without using the word rape. They would answer yes to these questions but no to the questions containing the word rape. McFarlane, Judith. "Violence During Teen Pregnancy: Health Consequences for Mother and Child," in Levy, Barrie, ed, _Dating Violence_, Seal Press, 1991, pp136-141. A study that found 26% of prengant teens were currently in an abusive relationship; many noted the abuse began when the pregnancy did. Mercy JA., Saltzman LE., Intentional Injury Section, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. May 1989. "Fatal violence among spouses in the United States," 1976-85. _American Journal of Public Health_. 79(5).595-9. Abstract. In this paper we examine patterns and trends in homicides between marriage partners in the United States for 1976 through 1985 using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplemental Homicide Reports (FBI-SHR). We identified 16,595 spouse homicides accounting for 8.8 per cent of all homicides reported to the FBI-SHR during this 10-year period. The rate of spouse homicide for this 10-year period was 1.6 per 100,000 married persons. The risk of being killed by one's spouse was 1.3 times greater for wives than for husbands. Black husbands were at greater risk of spouse homicide victimization than Black wives or White spouses of either sex. The risk of victimization was greater for spouses in interracial than in intraracial marriages and increased as age differences between spouses increased. From 1976 through 1985, the risk of spouse homicide declined by more than 45.0 per cent for both Black husbands and wives but remained relatively stable for White husbands and wives. Demographic patterns in the risk of spouse homicide were similar to those reported for nonfatal spouse abuse suggesting that the causes of spouse homicide and nonfatal spouse abuse may be similar. Morgan, Robin. _The Demon Lover: On the Sexuality of Terrorism_. W.W. Norton and Company. 1989. ISBN: 0-393-02642-6 (hardback). Controversial. Blurb: "Something in each of us, no matter how we deny it and no matter how much we may deplore terrorist tactics, is fascinated by the terrorist. We might even ambivalently admire such a figure: a fanatic of dedication, a mixture of volatile impetuosity and severe discipline, an archetype of self-sacrifice. ...In this brilliant marriage of theory and personal experience, Robin Morgan...sets forth the first feminist analysis of the phenomenon of terrorism." Quigley, Paxton. _Armed and Female_. E.P. Dutton, New York. 1989. Paperback may be ordered from Second Amendment Foundation, 12500 NE Tenth Place, Bellavue WA 98005 for US$5.00, includes postage. Former anti-gun activist tells why she joined millions of other women in choosing a firearm for self-defense. Randall, Teri. "Domestic Violence Intervention Calls for More than Treating Injuries," in _Journal of the American Medical Association_, 264(8), August 22-29, 1990, pp939-940. "Battery appears to be the single most common cause of injury to women -- more common that automobile accidents, muggings and rapes combined." Russell, Diana H. _Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse, and Workplace Harassment_. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA. 1984. Russell, Diana E. H. and Nancy Howell. "The Prevalence of Rape in the United States Revisited," _Signs_, 8(4). 688-695, 1983. Lead author is in the Department of Social Sciences, Mills College, Oakland CA, and has written several books on sexual violence. According to survey findings, assuming that the rape rate remains the same, there is a 26% probability that woman will be the victim of a completed rape, increasing to 46% for attempted rape. Seng. "Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Study." _Adolescence_. 1989. v24 n95(really 95??) p665. Abstract: "...findings suggest that the relationship [abuse>prostitution] is not directed, but invokes runaway behavior as an intervening variable. It is not so much that sexual abuse leads to prostitution as it is that running away leads to prostitution." Scully, Diana. _Understanding Sexual Violence: A Study of Convicted Rapists_. Series: Perspectives on Gender, vol 3. Unwin Hyman, Boston. 1990. Stark, Evan, Anne Flitcraft and William Frazier. "Medicine and Patriarchal Violence: The Social Construction of a 'Private' Event," in _International Journal of Health Services_, 9(3), 1979, pp461-493. A study that found that medical records included the labels "neurotic," "hysteric," "hypochondriac," or "a well-known patient with multiple vague complaints" for one in four battered women compared to one in fifty non-battered women; one in four battered women are given pain medications/tranquilizers as compared to one in ten non-battered women. Strauss, M.A., Gelles, R.J., and Steinmetz, S.K. _Behind closed doors: Violence in American families_. Doubleday, New York, 1980. Followup work "Intimate Violence" (no detailed reference). These studies show that spousal violence levels are relatively independent of gender. They do not, however, include any consideration of motivation or the issues of 'self defense'. Warshaw, Robin. _I Never Called It Rape: The Ms. report on Recognizing, Fighting, and Surviving Date and Acquaintance Rape_. Afterword by Mary P. Koss. Harper and Row, New York. 1988. Wolfgang Marvin E., _Patterns in Criminal Homicide_. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 1958. Also (*Curtis 1974), (*Mercy & Saltzman 1989). The situation appears to bethat the rate that men kill women and that women kill men, and also the rate at which husbands kill wives and wives kill husbands, are nearly *equal* when looked at from a mortality point of view, and ignoring the issue of 'who started it'. Yllo, Kerst, and Michele Bograd, eds. _Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse_. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA. 1988. Includes important discussion of what statistics can or cannot show. Bibliographies. _National Crime Survey_ (NCS) This is an attempt to measure the actual victimization rates of how often people are affected by crimes. The survey is given to a population representative of all people over 12 years of age who live in a residence. There are two parts to the survey. a screening to determine who has been the victim of a crime; and a detailed questionnaire given to victims. The detailed questionnaire includes the details and date of the crime, and helps insure that crimes are classified properly (e.g., crimes falling outside the survey 'time window' are properly excluded). It is a large scale survey, covering approximately 60,000 households with 101,000 people. Approximately 96% of the selected population agreed to participate in the survey. _Statistical Abstracts of the U.S. - 1990_. Department of Commerce (Bureau of the Census), put out yearly. Cites the incidence of reported forcible rape as 37.6 per 100,000 total (i.e., men and women) population. _Uniform Crime Report_ (UCR) Based solely on police reports and is not intended to be a statistical measure of victimization The Uniform Crime Report is based on police reports. The data given by the UCR includes _only_ murder, not killings in self defense or deaths due to negligence - and the interpretation of which is which is left to the officer filing the report. _Uniform Crime Statistics_ (UCS, from the FBI) This derives the "one in four" figure given for the rate of rape among women. It used to be "one in five" until the FBI decided that marital rape counted as rape (in the mid 1980s). The FBI's definition of rape involves penetration of any orifice without consent. 1 in 4 is the rate at which girls are sexually abused (rape and molestation); 1 in 6 is the rate at which the same occurs for boys. 22. Sexual Harassment and Discrimination. ------------------------------------------ Baker, Douglas D., David E. Terpstra, and Kinley Larantz. "The Influence of Individual Characteristics and Severity of Harassing Behavior on Reactions to Sexual Harassment", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 5/6 (1990) 305-325. Bem, Sandra L. and Daryl J. Bem. "Does Sex-biased Job Advertising 'Aid and Abet' Sex Discrimination?", _Journal of Applied Social Psychology_, 3 (1973): 6-18. Chestler, Phyllis. [book review in psychology today, statistics on child custody awards] Dale, R.R. _Mixed or Single-sex Schools_. Vols. I & II. 1969. Wide range of research on secondary schools. Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs, and William J. Goode, eds. _The other half; roads to women's equality_. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1971. Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs, and Rose Laub Coser, eds. _Access to power : cross-national studies of women and elites_. Allen & Unwin, London and Boston. 1981. Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. _Deceptive distinctions : sex, gender, and the social order_. Yale University Press, New Haven; Russell Sage Foundation, New York. c1988. Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. _Woman's place; options and limits in professional careers_. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1970. *Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. "Bringing Women In: Rewards, Punishments, and the Structure of Achievement", pages 13-22. Game, Ann and Rosemary Pringle. _Gender at Work_. Allen and Unwin, Sydney and Boston. 1983. Sex discrimination in employment against women in Australia. *Goldberg, Philip, "Are Women Prejudiced Against Women?", _Trans- Action_, 5 (1986), 28-80. [am not sure what "Trans-Action" is] Gornick, Vivian and Barbara K. Moran, eds. _Women in Sexist Society_. New York: Basic Books, 1972. Kaschak, Ellyn. "Sex Bias in Student Evaluations of College Professors", _Psychology of Women Quarterly_, 2 (1978), 235-242. LaPlante, Alice. "Sexist Images Persist at Comdex", _Infoworld_, November 27, 1989, page 58. Lattin, Patricia Hopkins. "Academic Women, Affirmative Action, and Middle-America in the Eighties", in Resa L. Dudovitz, ed., _Women in Academe_. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 1984. 223-230. MacKinnon, Catharine. _Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination_. Yale University Press, New Haven. 1979. MacKinnon, Catharine. "Reflections on Sex Equality Under Law," in _Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review_. Vol. 20, no. 2. 1985. Paludi, Michele A. and William D. Bauer. "Goldberg Revisited: What's in an Author's Name", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 9 (1983) 387- 390. Paludi, Michele A. and Lisa A. Strayer. "What's in an Author's Name? Different Evaluations of Performance as a Function of Author's Name", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 12 (1985) 353-361. Pringle, Rosemary. _Secretaries Talk: Sexuality, Power and Work_, Verso, New York and London. 1989. Sex discrimination and sexual harrassment of women. Rowe, Mary P. "Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity", _Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal_, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1990. 153-163. Rowe, Mary P. "Dealing with Sexual Harassment", _Harvard Business Review_, May-June 1981, 42-47. Russ, Joanna. _How to Suppress Women's Writing_. University of Texas Press, 1983, ISBN 0-292-72445-4 (pbk). This book analyzes the multitude of subtle and not-so-subtle ways in which women writers have been given less than full credit for their work throughout history. It is the perfect companion volume to Ellen Moers's _Literary Women_. Sadker, Myra and David Sadker. "Sexism in the Schoolroom of the 80's", _Psychology Today_, March 1985. Selvin, Paul. "Does the Harrison Case Reveal Sexism in Math?", _Science_ 252 (June 28, 1991), 1781-1783. Simeone, Angela. _Academic Women: Working Towards Equality_. Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc., Massachusetts. 1987. Sproull, Lee, Sara Kiesler, and David Zubrow, eds. "Encountering an Alien Culture", in _Computing and Change on Campus_. Cambridge University Press, UK. 1987, pages 173-194. Stewart, Elizabeth, Nancy Hutchinson, Peter Hemmingway, and Fred Bessai. "The Effects of Student Gender, Race, and Achievement on Career Exploration Advice Given by Canadian Preservice Teachers", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 21 (1989) 247-262. Sumrall, Amber Coverdale and Dena Taylor, eds. _Sexual Harassment: Women Speak Out_. The Crossing Press, Freedom, CA 95019, 1992. ISBN 0-89594-544-4. ($10.95) Highly recommended. This book consists of short (2-4 pages) essays by women about their experiences with Sexual Harassment, everything from taunts and whistles to rape and other physical abuse. Stories are interspersed with comics drawn by women and some poetry. Many of the stories describe the early conditioning that women receive that makes us put up with so much. The book is dedicated to Anita Hill. Top, Titia J., "Sex Bias in the Evaluation of Performance in the Scientific, Artistic, and Literary Professions: A Review.", Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 24 (1991) 73-106. Weinraub, Marsha and Lynda M. Brown, "The Development of Sex- Role Stereotypes in Children: Crushing Realities", Franks and Rothblum, editors, _The Stereotyping of Women: Its Effects on Mental Health_, Springer Publishing Company, New York. 1983, pages 30-58. Weitzman, Lenore. _The Marriage Contract_. "...child care decisions. Twentieth century case law has established the presumption that prefers mothers as the custodians of their children after divorce, particularly if the children are of "tender years." [Mnookin, "Custody Adjudication," p. 235.] This maternal presumption WAS ESTABLISHED ALMOST ENTIRELY THROUGH JUDICIAL DECISIONS RATHER THAN BY STATUTES. For while most statues have put the wife on an equal footing with the husband, and have instructed the courts to award custody in the best interest of the child, judges typically have held that *it is in the child's best interest not to be separated from the mother* --unless she has been shown to be unfit. [Ibid.] "The child's best interest" has thus evolved into a judicially constructed presumption that the love and nurturance of a fit mother is always in the child's (and society's) best interest. The result has been a consistent pattern of decisions that both justify and further reinforce the maternal presumption.... "Over the past fifty years the assumption that the mother is the natural and proper custodian of the children has been so widely accepted that it has rarely been questioned, and even more rarely challenged. As Alan Roth asserts, many of the rationales offered by the courts for the maternal preference have the ring of divine-right doctrine [Alan Roth, "The Tender Years Presumption in Child Custody Disputes," _Journal_of_Family_Law_ 15, no. 3 (1972)]" "More recently the social science adduced to support the maternal presumption has been challenged, but the presumption itself has been considered wise because it avoids "the social costs" of contested cases. [See, for example, R. Levy and P. Ellsworth "Legislative Reform of Child Custody Adjudication," _Law_and_Society_Review_, Nov. 1969, p. 4] 23. Test Biases. ----------------- Brush, Stephen. _ibid_. When the SAT is used by college admissions to predict academic performance, it underpredicts the grades of women compared with those on men. If a man and a woman have the same SAT scores, the woman will tend to get higher grades in college. Thus an admissions process that gives the SAT significant weight will reject some women who would have done better than men who were accepted. In a reply to letters to the editor in the Jan-Feb 1992 _American Scientist_, Brush wrote: [A]ccording to Phyllis Rosser's study, "The SAT Gender Gap," the following question was answered correctly by males 27 percent more often than by females (a difference of 6 percent is significant to the 0.05 level of confidence). A high school basketball team has won 40 percent of its first 15 games. Beginning with the 16th game, how many games in a row does the team now have to win in order to have a 55 percent winning record? A) 3 B) 5 C) 6 D) 11 E) 15 With a strict time limit, the advantage goes to students who can quickly guess and verify the right answer without having to set up the equation first. Rosser, Phillis. "The SAT Gender Gap. Identifying the Causes," (Washington, D.C.: Center for Women Policy Studies, 1989). According to Phyllis Rosser, much of the SAT gender gap is an artifact of sex-biased test questions. Rosser points out that men have always received higher scores, on average, but their advantage in the mathematics part of the test was once offset by women's higher scores on the verbal part. Women lost this compensating factor in the early 1970s because of the gradual introduction of test questions about science, business and "practical affairs," and the elimination of some questions about human relations, the arts, and the humanities. There was no compensating change in the mathematics section. Block, Ned, ed. _The IQ Controversy_. Information on biases of all sorts found in IQ tests. 24. Women of Color. -------------------- Anzaldua, Gloria. _Borderlands: The New Mestiza = La Frontera_. Spinsters/Aunt Lute, San Francisco. 1987. Anzaldua, Gloria, ed. _Making face, making soul = Haciendo caras : creative and critical perspectives by women of color_. Aunt Lute Foundation Books, San Francisco. c1990. Collins, Patricia Hill. _Black Feminist Thought_. Unwin Hyman, Boston. 1990. Series title: Perspectives on Gender; v. 2. Maps out standpoint epistemology from African American feminist perspective. May also include under feminist epistemology. Davis, Angela. _Women, Race, and Class_. Random House, New York, 1981. DuBois, Ellen Carol and Vicki L. Ruiz, eds. _Unequal Sisters. A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women's History_. Routledge, New York. 1990. Excellent collection of articles, many historical studies and some narratives. Hooks, Bell. _Ain't I A Woman_. South End Press, 116 St. Botolph St., Boston, Mass. 02115. 1981. ISBN 0-89608-128-1. Examines the impact of sexism on black women during slavery, the historic devaluation of black womanhood, black male sexism, racism within the recent women's movement, and black women's involvement with feminism. The title comes from an address on the subject given by Sojourner Truth. Hooks, Bell. _Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black_. South End Press, Boston. 1989. Moraga, Cherrie, and Gloria Anzaldua, eds. _This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color_. Persephone Press, Watertown, MA, 1981. Kitchen Table Press, New York, 1983. Anthology of writings by women of color. Smith, Barbara, ed. _Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology_. First edition. Kitchen Table -- Women of Color Press, New York. 1983. 25. Women's Health. -------------------- Boston Women's Health Book Collective. _Our Bodies, Ourselves_. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1973. A very practical guide to women & our bodies. Boston Women's Health Collective. _The New Our Bodies, Ourselves_. Simon and Schuster, New York. 1984. Updated. Boston Women's Health Collective. _Our Bodies, Ourselves. Growing Older_. Oriented toward the 40+ crowd. ACT UP/New York Women and AIDS Book Group. _Women, AIDS, and Activisim_. South End Press, Boston, MA. 1990. New book on women and aids and politics. Corea, Gena. _The Hidden Malpractice_. A (sometimes alarmist) look at how medical practices overlooks and mistreats women. Raymond, Janice G., Renate Klein, and Lynette J. Dumble. _RU 486: Misconceptions, Myths and Morals_. Institute on Women and Technology, Cambridge, MA. 1991. Abortion, moral and ethical aspects; medical ethics. Includes bibliographical references. (Auto)Biographies. ------------------ Bateson, Mary Catherine. _Composing a Life_. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-26505-3 (paperback, $9.95). Bateson profiles five women in a wide variety of fields in an examination of how their careers happened to develop the way they did. Bennett, Betty T, )Mary Diana Dods, A Gentleman and a Scholar_. William Morrow and Company, New York. 1991. ISBN 0-688-08717-5 (hardcover). Komisar, Lucy. _Corazon Aquino: The Story of a Revolution_. G. Braziller, New York. 1987. Marlow, Joan. _The Great Women_. A&W Publishers, New York. 1979. ISBN: 0-89479-056-0. A compilation of 60 women of diverse ages and nations. Moers, Ellen, ed. _Literary Women_. Reprint. The Great Writers series. Oxford University Press, New York, 1985. Copywrite 1977. Describes women authors. Morgan, Robin. _Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist_. Random House, New York. 1977. Perl, Teri. _Math Equals: Biographies of Women Mathematicians and Related Activities_. Addison-Wesley. 1978. Miscellaneous. -------------- "Women on the Verge of an Athletic Showdown" in _Science News_, Jan 11, 1992, Vol 141, No. 2, p 141. Female track athletes are improving their performances at faster rates than men and, if the trend continues, should be running marathons as fast as men by 1998, says Brian J. Whipp, a physiologist at the University of California, Lost Angeles. He and UCLA co-worker Susan A. Ward predict that women will catch up with men in most track events by early next century. Adrian, M.J.: _Sports Women_. Medicine and Sport Science Vol. 24 Interesting essays ranging from physiology to Ancient Greece. Chopin, Kate, _The Awakening_. Capricorn Books. 1964. Garrett Press, Inc., New York, 1970. Norton, New York, 1976. Women's Press, London 1979. Cixous, Helene and Catharine Clement. _The Newly Born Woman_. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 1986. (Published in French in 1975). Dyer, K.F.: _Catching up the Men -- Women in Sport_. Junction Books (UK), 1982. ISBN 086245-075-X. This book debunks a lot of myths about female inferiority and fragility by careful investigation and documentation, another must read. Ehrenreich, Barbara and Deirdre English, "For Her Own Good: 150 Years of the Experts' Advice to Women", New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978. |Kramarae and Treichler: _A Feminist Dictionary_. 1985. | Defines many things from a feminist's point of view. Includes | a good deal of history, figures in the movement, etc. Lenskij, Helen: _Out of Bounds: Women, Sport and Sexuality_. Women's Press, Toronto, 1986. ISBN 0-88961-105-X. Very powerful book about the 20th century changes in how female sexuality, gender roles, and the waves of female athleticism have been perceived, and about how these factors influence each other. A must read. Mangan/Park (Eds.): _From Fair Sex to Feminism_. Frank Cass & Company Lim. 1987. ISBN 0-7146-4049-2. |Marine, Gene: _A Male Guide to Women's Liberation_. 1972. Sabo/Runfola (Eds.): _Jock -- Sports & Male Identity_. Spectrum/Prentice-Hall 1980. ISBN 0-13-510131-X. This book also contains several essays on female identity and sports. Steinem, Gloria. _Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions_. _Revolution from Within: A Book of Self-Esteem_ This is a collection of articles and essays written by her that was published sometime in the early 1980's. Some of them are a result of her earlier career as a journalist. The articles cover such things as: * Her becoming a Playboy Bunny (seriously!) in the early 1960's. * The presidential campaigns of 1968 and 1972. * "If Men Could Menstruate", a satirical piece in the vein of "If men could get pregnant, abortion would be a sacrament". * What present-day anti-abortionists have in common with Nazi Germany. Tuana, Nancy, ed. _Rereading the Canon_. Series. Penn State Press. This new series will consist of edited collections of essays, some original and some previously published, offering feminist reinterpretations of the writings of major figures in the Western philosophical tradition. Each volume will contain essays covering the full range of a single philosopher's thought and representing the diversity of approaches now being used by feminist critics. The series will begin with a volume on Plato; other early volumes will focus on Aristotle, Locke, Marx, Wittgenstein, de Beauvoir, Foucault, and Derrida. Inquiries should be directed to Nancy Tuana, School of Arts and Humanities, University of Texas at Dallas, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. |Tuttle, Lisa: _Encyclopedia of Feminism_. 1986. Velden, Lee van der & James H. Humphrey: Psychology and sociology of sport, vol. 1. AMS Press Inc., NY 1986. ISBN 0-404-63401-X. Woolf, Virginia. _Three Guineas_. 1938. Extensively reprinted. Written 50 years ago and sadly still very relevant. Woolf, Virginia. _A Room of One's Own_. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York. 1981, c1957. Winterson, Jeanette. _Oranges are not the only fruit_. Pandora Press (Unwin Hyman Limited, 15-17 Broadwick SAtreet, London). 1987. Acknowledgments. ---------------- My thanks to: Joseph Albert, Leslie Anderson, Rich Berlin, Mik Bickis, Anita Borg, Ed Blachman, Bob Blackshaw, Cindy Blank-Edelman, L.A. Breene, Janet L. Carson, Robert Coleman, Mats Dahlgren, David desJardins, Jublie DiBiase, Jym Dyer, Ellen Eades, Marc R. Ewing, Ronnie Falcao, Lisa Farmer, Sharon Fenick, Bob Freeland, Debbie Forest, Susan Gerhart, Jonathan Gilligan, Thomas Gramstad, Ron Graham, David Gross, Mary W. Hall, Stacy Horn, Kathryn Huxtable, Joel Jones, Bonita Kale, Joanne M. Karohl, Corinna Lee, Nancy Leveson, firstname.lastname@example.org (Loren), Jim Lippard, Albert Lunde, Jill Lundquist, Brian McGuinness, Fanya S. Montalvo, Tori Nasman, Mirjana Obradovic, Vicki O'Day, Diane L. Olsen, Joann Ordille, Jan Parcel, J. Rollins, Stewart Schultz, Mary Shaw, Anne Sjostrom, Ellen Spertus, Jon J. Thaler, Dave Thomson, Carolyn Turbyfill, Sarah Ullman, Max Meredith Vasilatos, Bronis Vidiguris, Paul Wallich, Sharon Walter, Karen Ward, Marian Williams, Celia Winkler, Michael Winston Woodring, Sue J. Worden, and Daniel Zabetakis. Especial thanks to the MLVL library catalogue system. -------------- Please mail in comments, additions, corrections, suggestions, and so on to email@example.com. --Cindy Tittle Moore "If an aborigine drafted an IQ test, for example, all of Western Civilization would probably flunk."