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soc.feminism References (part 3 of 3)


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Archive-name: feminism/refs3
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

[1-8 in part I, 9-17 in part II]
18.  Public Policies Regarding Women.
19.  Reactions to Feminism.
20.  Religion.
21.  Sex and/or Violence, Sexual Abuse.
22.  Sexual Harassment and Discrimination.
23.  Test Biases.
24.  Women of Color.
25.  Women's Health.

(Auto)Biographies.
Miscellaneous.
Acknowledgements.


[continuing from part II]

18.  Public Policies Regarding Women.
-------------------------------------

Abramovitz, Mimi. _Regulating the Lives of Women. Social Welfare Policy 
from Colonial Times to the Present_.
    An analysis of the impact of US social welfare policy, documents
    how the family ethic has been translated into punitive welfare
    approaches toward women

Baldock, Cora V., and Bettina Cass, eds.  _Women, Social Welfare, and the
State in Australia_.  Allen & Unwin, Sydney and Boston.  1983.

Dahl, Tove Stang. _Women's Law: An Introduction to Feminist
Jurisprudence_.  Oxford University Press.  1987.
     Proposal for a "women's law" by Norwegian sociologist of law.

Diamond, Irene, ed. _Families, Politics, and Public Policy_.  New
York. Longman. 1983.

Enloe, Cynthia.  _Bananas, Beaches and Bases_.
    A radical analysis of international politics revealing the crucial
    role of women in implementing government foreign policies.  It
    deals with several problems, one of which is prostitution especially
    in asia, and also with regard to US military bases.

Freeman, Michael D.A. . _The State, the Law, and the Family: Critical
Perspectives_.  Tavistock Publications, New York. 1984.
    A collection of articles, many British, on the interrelationship
    between the family, the state and patriarchy.

Glendon, Mary Ann. _Abortion and Divorce in Western Law_.  Harvard
University Press, Cambridge MA.  1987.
    Overview and analysis of abortion and divorce laws in several
    western countries.

Gordon, Linda, ed. _Women, the State, and Welfare_.  University of
Wisconsin Press.  1990.
    Collection on women and the welfare state.  Includes articles by
    Elizabeth Schneider on rights, and Frances Fox Piven.

Hernes, Helga Maria. _Welfare State and Woman Power: Essays in State
Feminism_.  Scandinavian Library series. Norwegian University Press,
Oxford.  Distributed by Oxford University Press.  1987.
    Critique of the patriarchal nature of the Scandinavian welfare state.
 
Mason, Mary Ann. _The Equality Trap_.  Simon & Schuster, New York.
1988.
    Discusses how the push for equality laws has actually been to the
    detriment of women, particularly in the area of family law.  The
    author is a lawyer.

Mueller, Carol M., ed.  _The Politics of the Gender Gap: The Social
Construction of Political Influence_.  SAGE Publications, Newbury
Park, CA.  1988.

Ruggie, Mary. _The State and Working Women:  A Comparative Study of
Britain and Sweden_.  Princeton University Press.  1984.

Pateman, Carole. _The Sexual Contract_.  Stanford University
Press.  1988.
    The meaning of the social "contract" for women.

Pateman, Carole. _The Disorder of Women:  Democracy, Feminism 
and Political Theory_.  Stanford University Press.  1989.
    A discussion of women's role in the rise of democratic theory.
    The meaning of consent.

Paul, Ellen Frankel.  _Equity and Gender: the Comparable Worth Debate_.
1990.
    Begins by explaining how comparable worth -- or pay equity imposed
    by law -- is a full frontal assault on the free market by those
    who scoff at the market's ability to provide justice, and argues
    that the free market, not the state, is the better ally of
    feminism.

Petchesky, Rosalind. _Abortion: A Woman's Choice_.  1990.
    Excellent study of abortion politics in America.  Examines the
    patriarchal and capitalist roots underlying the abortion
    controversy, as well as (in 1990 edition) the meaning of the
    rights discourse for women.  Re-imagining "rights."

Tribe, Laurence H.  _Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes_.  W.W. Norton,
New York, London. 1990.  ISBN: 0-393-30699-2.
    Tribe is a professor of constitutional law and brings this
    expertise to his evaluation of the constitutional question of
    abortion.  Besides drawing a sympathetically balanced view of the
    two extremes, he shows what that consequences for the constitution
    would be upon defining a fetus as a "person."  Excellent and very
    readable, unlike many constitutional analyses of any sort.

Sassoon, Anne Showstack, ed. _Women and the State_.  Unwin Hyman,
Winchester, MA.  1988.
    An international collection of articles on women and the welfare
    state.

Stetson, Dorothy McBride. _Women's Rights in the USA. Policy Debates 
and Gender Roles_.  Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Pacific Grove, CA.
1991.  ISBN: 0-534-14898-0.
    The author examines the hottest current topics in the US that
    relate to women, and how the mjor controversies and policies
    affect gender roles and being female in this country.

Wilson, Elizabeth.  _Women and the Welfare State_.  Tavistock
Publications, London.  1977.


19.  Reactions to Feminism.
---------------------------

Faludi, Susan. _Backlash. The Undeclared War Against American Women_,
(1991).
    Gives an overview of the reaction to feminism in America today.
    It is an incredible compendium of incorrect facts, bogus
    statistics, false logic and unfounded theories, all of which which
    are presented by society and the media in particular as "true" and
    "factual" in order to keep women subordinate.  One caveat about
    this book is that the author seems unsympathetic to the difficult
    choices a woman must make if she wants to combine career and
    family.

Kamen, Paula, "Feminism, a Dirty Word", The New York Times, 
November 23, 1990, page A37.

Leidholdt, Dorchen and Janice G. Raymond, eds.  _The Sexual Liberals
and the Attack on Feminism_.  Pergamon Press, New York.  1990.
    Essays which originated as speeches and panel presentations at a
    conferences on April 6, 1987, at the New York University Law
    School.  Includes bibliographical references and index.

Smith, Joan.  _Misogynies: Reflections on Myths and Malice_.  Fawcett
Columbine Book, Ballantine Books, Publishers. 1989.  ISBN:0-449-90591-8.
    From blurb:  "Joan Smith has written a witty and bold collection
    of essays on the alarming subject of women-hating.  She observes
    the phenomenon wryly and never succumbs to the fatuous
    generalizations which characterize misogyny itself...Misogyny,
    unlike sexism, grows in this way behind women's backs, which may
    be why we sometimes optimistcially believe it is no longer
    prevalent.  It is aptly, intelligently and compassionately put
    before us again in this well-written book." (Literary Review).    
    
    
20.  Religion.
--------------

Adler, Margot. _Drawing Down the Moon_.  Revised edition.  Beacon
Press, Boston.  1986.  ISBN: 0-8070-3253-0.
    This has a chapter on "Women, Feminism, and the Craft".  It places
    feminist wicca in one of its contexts.  Otherwise the book is
    mainly about neopaganism.

Armstrong, Karen. _The Gospel According to Woman_.  Anchor Books,
Doubleday. 1987.  ISBN: 0-385-24079-1 (trade paperback).
    A provocative interpretation of the history of women in
    Christianity.  In particular, there are interesting parallels
    between the Virgins (who could stay separate from men) of
    Christian history and latter-day feminists.
    
Beck, Evelyn Torton, ed. _Nice Jewish Girls. A Lesbian Anthology_.
Revised and updated.  Beacon Press, Boston.  1989.

Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schussler. _Bread Not Stone_.  Beacon Press,
Boston.  1984.  ISBN: 0-8070-1103-7 (trade paperback).
    Feminist biblical interpretation.

Greenberg, Blu. _On Women and Judaism: A View from Tradition_.  Jewish
Publication Society of America, Philadelphia.  1981.
    This discusses conflicts between Orthodox Judaism and feminism,
    and suggests resolutions of the conflicts within the boundaries of
    Jewish law.

Hampson, Daphne. _Theology and Feminism_.  Basil Blackwell Ltd/Inc.
1990. ISBN: 0-631-14944-9.
    Discusses the limitations of Christianity from a feminist
    perspective, and suggests ways for moving beyond Christianity.

Heine, Susanne. _Women and Early Christianity: A Reappriasal_.
Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis. 1988.  ISBN: 0-8066-2359-4.
    Documents the strength of influence women had in early
    Christianity, uses this as basis for concluding that Christianity
    need not be anti-woman.  Originally published in German under
    _Frauen der Fru:hen Christenheit_.
    
Heschel, Susannah. _On Being a Jewish Feminist:  A Reader_.  Schocken,
1984.
    
Kaye/Kantrowitz, Melanie and Irena Klepfisz. _The Tribe of Dina:
A Jewish Women's Anthology_.  Beacon Press. 1989.

Koltun, Elizabeth. _The Jewish Woman: New Perspectives_.  Schocken
Books, 1976.

Miles, Margaret R. . _Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and Religious
Meaning in the Christian West_.  Beacon Press, Boston.  1989.
    Looks at how images of the female body have shaped and been shaped
    by religious and social forces.  Although most of the emphasis is
    mediaeval, It has a final chapter that looks at a modern
    perspective.  Has an excellent section on Hildegard von Bingen,
    one of the few female writers of the middle ages.

Pagel, Elaine. _Adam, Eve, and The Serpent_. Random House, New York.
1988.  Also, _The Gnostic Gospels_.  Vintage Books edition, Random
House, New York.  1989.
    The former is a thorough exploration of how the Genesis myth is
    inextricably interwined with western culture views of women.  The
    latter shows how the early Christian church although initially
    receptive to women became patriarchal.

Plaskow, Judith. _Standing Again at Sinai:  Judaism From A Feminist
Perspective_.  Harper Collins, 1990.  ISBN 0-06-066684-6.
    Plaskow discusses conflicts between Judaism and feminism, and
    suggests ways to make Judaism into a feminist religion.
    
Ruther, Rosmary Radford. _Women-Church. Theology and Practice of
Feminist Liturgical Communities_.  ISBN 0-06-066834-2.
    This is a collection of liturgies for unconventional purposes
    (i.e. A Coming-Out rite for a Lesbian). They are not so much pagan
    as they are feminist.  They ignore the distinctions between
    Christian and non-Christian. The thesis of the book is in part
    that women should create their own ritual without waiting for the
    "church" to catch up with their reality.  Ruther has written other
    books with similar themes.

Schneider, Susan Weidman.  _Jewish and Female_.  Simon & Schuster.
ISBN: 0-671-60439-2.

Sprentak, Charlene, ed. _The Politics of Women's Spirituality:
Essays on the Rise of Spiritual Power within the Feminist Movement_.
1982.  ISBN. 0-385-17241-9.
    This is a thick (590pp) sampler with short pieces by a number of
    important authors. A few are written as responses to others which
    gives a bit more sense of the dialog.

Starhawk. _The Spiral Dance_.  10th anniversary edition, revised.
Harper & Row, San Francisco.  1989.  ISBN 0-06-250814-8.
    This has clearly been a very influential book.  Z. Budapest is
    another mother of feminist wicca from the same era; Starhawk seems
    a bit more readable and less cookbook-like.
    
Stone, Merlin. _When God Was a Woman_.  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
Publishers.  1976.  ISBN: 0-15-696158-X (trade paperback).
    Historical revisionist view of early matriarchal & female-based
    worship.


21.  Sex and/or Violence and Sexual Abuse.
------------------------------------------

*"Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization Among 
Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women." Journal of Family Issues. v12 n3
p361.

*"Four Theories of Rape: A Macrosociological Analysis".  _Social
Problems_ 34, No. 5 (1986)
    General-social-disinhibition theory is used to model the
    correlation between sexual magazines and rape.

*_Pornography and Sexual Aggression_
    
Barry, Kathleen.  _Female Sexual Slavery_.  Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 1979; New York University Press, London and New York, 1984.
    
Bart, Pauline and Patricia O'Brien.  _Stopping Rape: Successful 
Survival Strategies_.  Pergamon Press, New York. 1985.

Browne, Angela. _When Battered Women Kill_.  Collier Macmillian,
London; Free PRess, New York.  1987.
    
Brownmiller, Susan. _Against Our Will_. Bantam. 1975.
    This is a disturbing, contradictory work.  It is misrepresented
    both by feminist and anti-feminist camps; feminists lauding it as
    a quintessentially accurate portrayal of rape, the anti-feminists
    denouncing it as a virulently anti-male piece of propoganda.
    A landmark work that first documented the social and historical
    consequences of rape in our society.

Caputi, Jane. _The Age of Sex Crime_.  Bowling Green State University
Popular Press, Bowling Green, OH. 1987.
    Case studies on murder and sex crimes.

Ellis, Lee and Charles Beattie. "The Feminist Explanation for Rape. An
Empirical Test," _Journal of Sex Research_, 19(1).74-93, Feb 1983.
    Abstract. The feminist explanation for rape includes the
    proposition that it derives from traditions of male domination in
    social, political, and economic matters. As a test of this thesis,
    official FBI and victimization statistics on rape were compared
    across 26 large United States central cities relative to various
    indicators of these cities' degree of social, political, and
    economic inequality between the sexes. Of 14 correlations, 4 were
    significant, 3 with a sign opposite to that predicted by the
    feminist explanation. When presumed effects of the two strongest
    control variables were removed by partial correlation techniques,
    only one coefficient was significant, and it was in the direction
    contrary to the feminist explanation. Rape rates appear unrelated
    to inequalities of earnings, education, occupational prestige, or
    employment. The belief that reducing sex disparities in social,
    political, and economic terms will reduce rape is not supported. 3
    Tables, 55 References.
    
Finkelhor, David and Kersti Yllo. _License to Rape: Sexual Abuse of
Wives_.  Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1985; Free Press, New
York, 1987.

Gauthier and Saucier.  "Preliminary Study of Early Sexual Abuse."
Canadian _Journal of Psychiatry_. 1991. v36 n6 p422. (In French)
    This paper is in french, but they have an English abstract in
    Medline. They compared sexually abused adolescents with
    non-abused. From the abstract: "...[of abused children] their
    perception of self and of the ideal self was not affected by the
    sexual abuse, a finding that will spark discussion."

Griffin, Susan. _The Politics of Rape_. Third revision and updated
edition.  Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1986.
    Original copyright 1970.
    "Another canon in the apologetics of rape is that, if it were not
    for learned social controls, all men would rape."..."But in truth
    rape is not universal to the human species."

Griffin, Susan. "Rape: The All-American Crime" in _Rape: The Power of
Consciousness_, Harper & Row, 1979.

Haber, Joel D.  "Abused Women and Chronic Pain," in _American Journal
of Nursing_, v85, Sept. 1985, pp1010-1012.
    Study shows that abused women have more health problems than
    non-abused ones.

Jones, Anne. _Women Who Kill_.  Fawcett Crest, Ballantine Books, New
York. 1981.
    From blurb: "When battered and abused women began to fight back --
    and kill --- men began to fear that this would becom an epidemic.
    Some felt that women were getting away with murder: But were they?
    They were not.  In fact, in many cases their punishment was
    harsher than that of men.  But this book is much more than a
    desription of battered women who kill in self-defense.  It is a
    social history and a fascinating story of women on the edge of
    society -- women driven to kill for a multitude of reasons.  Here
    are tales of crime and punishment that reveal hard truths about
    American society and women's place in it."
    
Kelly, Liz. _Surviving Sexual Violence_. University of Minnesota
Press, Minneapolis; Polity Press, Cambridge UK.  1988.

Kilpatrick, D.G. et al., "Mental health correlates of criminal
victimization. A random community survey," _Journal of Consulting &
Clinical Psychology_, Vol. 53, 866-873.  1985.

Koss, M.P.  "Hidden rape. sexual aggression and victimization in
a national sample of students in higher education."  Chapter 1. In A.W.
Burgess, ed, _Rape and sexual assault II_ (pp. 3-25). NY. Garland. 1988.
    Controversial.  This was a study that showed a good percentage of
    the men surveyed believed certain things could be expected if they
    paid for dinner, etc.  There were questions designed in such a way
    that would find out if the men had raped without using the word
    rape.  They would answer yes to these questions but no to the
    questions containing the word rape.

McFarlane, Judith.  "Violence During Teen Pregnancy: Health
Consequences for Mother and Child," in Levy, Barrie, ed, _Dating
Violence_, Seal Press, 1991, pp136-141.
    A study that found 26% of prengant teens were currently in an
    abusive relationship; many noted the abuse began when the
    pregnancy did.

Mercy JA., Saltzman LE., Intentional Injury Section, Centers for
Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. May 1989. "Fatal violence among
spouses in the United States," 1976-85. _American Journal of Public
Health_. 79(5).595-9.
    Abstract. In this paper we examine patterns and trends in
    homicides between marriage partners in the United States for 1976
    through 1985 using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's
    Supplemental Homicide Reports (FBI-SHR). We identified 16,595
    spouse homicides accounting for 8.8 per cent of all homicides
    reported to the FBI-SHR during this 10-year period. The rate of
    spouse homicide for this 10-year period was 1.6 per 100,000
    married persons. The risk of being killed by one's spouse was 1.3
    times greater for wives than for husbands. Black husbands were at
    greater risk of spouse homicide victimization than Black wives or
    White spouses of either sex. The risk of victimization was greater
    for spouses in interracial than in intraracial marriages and
    increased as age differences between spouses increased. From 1976
    through 1985, the risk of spouse homicide declined by more than
    45.0 per cent for both Black husbands and wives but remained
    relatively stable for White husbands and wives. Demographic
    patterns in the risk of spouse homicide were similar to those
    reported for nonfatal spouse abuse suggesting that the causes of
    spouse homicide and nonfatal spouse abuse may be similar.

Morgan, Robin.  _The Demon Lover: On the Sexuality of Terrorism_.
W.W. Norton and Company.  1989.  ISBN: 0-393-02642-6 (hardback).
    Controversial.  Blurb: "Something in each of us, no matter how we
    deny it and no matter how much we may deplore terrorist tactics,
    is fascinated by the terrorist.  We might even ambivalently admire
    such a figure: a fanatic of dedication, a mixture of volatile
    impetuosity and severe discipline, an archetype of self-sacrifice.
    ...In this brilliant marriage of theory and personal experience,
    Robin Morgan...sets forth the first feminist analysis of the
    phenomenon of terrorism."

Quigley, Paxton.  _Armed and Female_.  E.P. Dutton, New York. 1989.
    Paperback may be ordered from Second Amendment Foundation, 12500
    NE Tenth Place, Bellavue WA 98005 for US$5.00, includes postage.
    Former anti-gun activist tells why she joined millions of other
    women in choosing a firearm for self-defense.

Randall, Teri.  "Domestic Violence Intervention Calls for More than
Treating Injuries," in _Journal of the American Medical Association_,
264(8), August 22-29, 1990, pp939-940.
    "Battery appears to be the single most common cause of injury to
    women -- more common that automobile accidents, muggings and rapes
    combined."

Russell, Diana H.  _Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse, and
Workplace Harassment_. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.  1984.

Russell, Diana E. H. and Nancy Howell. "The Prevalence of Rape 
in the United States Revisited," _Signs_, 8(4). 688-695, 1983.
    Lead author is in the Department of Social Sciences, Mills
    College, Oakland CA, and has written several books on sexual
    violence.  According to survey findings, assuming that the rape
    rate remains the same, there is a 26% probability that woman will
    be the victim of a completed rape, increasing to 46% for attempted
    rape.

Seng.  "Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative
Study."  _Adolescence_. 1989. v24 n95(really 95??) p665.
    Abstract: "...findings suggest that the relationship
    [abuse>prostitution] is not directed, but invokes runaway behavior
    as an intervening variable. It is not so much that sexual abuse
    leads to prostitution as it is that running away leads to
    prostitution."
    
Scully, Diana.  _Understanding Sexual Violence: A Study of Convicted
Rapists_.  Series: Perspectives on Gender, vol 3. Unwin Hyman, Boston.
1990.

Stark, Evan, Anne Flitcraft and William Frazier.  "Medicine and
Patriarchal Violence: The Social Construction of a 'Private'
Event," in _International Journal of Health Services_, 9(3), 1979, 
pp461-493.
    A study that found that medical records included the labels
    "neurotic," "hysteric," "hypochondriac," or "a well-known patient
    with multiple vague complaints" for one in four battered women
    compared to one in fifty non-battered women; one in four battered
    women are given pain medications/tranquilizers as compared to one
    in ten non-battered women.

Strauss, M.A., Gelles, R.J., and Steinmetz, S.K. _Behind closed doors:
Violence in American families_.  Doubleday, New York, 1980.  Followup
work "Intimate Violence" (no detailed reference).
    These studies show that spousal violence levels are relatively
    independent of gender.  They do not, however, include any
    consideration of motivation or the issues of 'self defense'.  

Warshaw, Robin. _I Never Called It Rape: The Ms. report on
Recognizing, Fighting, and Surviving Date and Acquaintance Rape_.
Afterword by Mary P. Koss.  Harper and Row, New York. 1988.

Wolfgang Marvin E., _Patterns in Criminal Homicide_. University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 1958. Also (*Curtis 1974), (*Mercy &
Saltzman 1989).
    The situation appears to bethat the rate that men kill women and
    that women kill men, and also the rate at which husbands kill
    wives and wives kill husbands, are nearly *equal* when looked at
    from a mortality point of view, and ignoring the issue of 'who
    started it'.

Yllo, Kerst, and Michele Bograd, eds. _Feminist Perspectives on Wife
Abuse_.  Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.  1988.
    Includes important discussion of what statistics can or cannot
    show.  Bibliographies.

_National Crime Survey_ (NCS)
    This is an attempt to measure the actual victimization rates of
    how often people are affected by crimes.  The survey is given to a
    population representative of all people over 12 years of age who
    live in a residence.  There are two parts to the survey. a
    screening to determine who has been the victim of a crime; and a
    detailed questionnaire given to victims.  The detailed
    questionnaire includes the details and date of the crime, and
    helps insure that crimes are classified properly (e.g., crimes
    falling outside the survey 'time window' are properly excluded).
    It is a large scale survey, covering approximately 60,000
    households with 101,000 people.  Approximately 96% of the selected
    population agreed to participate in the survey.

_Statistical Abstracts of the U.S. - 1990_. Department of Commerce
(Bureau of the Census), put out yearly.
    Cites the incidence of reported forcible rape as 37.6 per 100,000
    total (i.e., men and women) population.

_Uniform Crime Report_ (UCR)
    Based solely on police reports and is not intended to be a
    statistical measure of victimization The Uniform Crime Report is
    based on police reports.  The data given by the UCR includes
    _only_ murder, not killings in self defense or deaths due to
    negligence - and the interpretation of which is which is left to
    the officer filing the report.

_Uniform Crime Statistics_ (UCS, from the FBI)
    This derives the "one in four" figure given for the rate of rape
    among women.  It used to be "one in five" until the FBI decided
    that marital rape counted as rape (in the mid 1980s).  The FBI's
    definition of rape involves penetration of any orifice without
    consent.  1 in 4 is the rate at which girls are sexually abused
    (rape and molestation); 1 in 6 is the rate at which the same
    occurs for boys.


22.  Sexual Harassment and Discrimination.
------------------------------------------

Baker, Douglas D., David E. Terpstra, and Kinley Larantz. "The 
Influence of Individual Characteristics and Severity of Harassing 
Behavior on Reactions to Sexual Harassment", _Sex Roles: A Journal of
Research_,  5/6 (1990) 305-325.

Bem, Sandra L. and Daryl J. Bem. "Does Sex-biased Job Advertising 
'Aid and Abet' Sex Discrimination?", _Journal of Applied Social 
Psychology_, 3 (1973): 6-18.  

Chestler, Phyllis.  [book review in psychology today, statistics 
on child custody awards]

Dale, R.R.  _Mixed or Single-sex Schools_.  Vols. I & II.  1969.
    Wide range of research on secondary schools.

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs, and William J. Goode, eds.  _The other half;
roads to women's equality_.  Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
1971.
    
Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs, and Rose Laub Coser, eds.  _Access to power :
cross-national studies of women and elites_.  Allen & Unwin, London
and Boston. 1981.
    
Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs.  _Deceptive distinctions : sex, gender, and
the social order_.  Yale University Press, New Haven; Russell Sage
Foundation, New York.  c1988.
    
Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs.  _Woman's place; options and limits in
professional careers_.  University of California Press, Berkeley.
1970.

*Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. "Bringing Women In: Rewards, Punishments, 
and the Structure of Achievement", pages 13-22.

Game, Ann and Rosemary Pringle.  _Gender at Work_.  Allen and Unwin,
Sydney and Boston.  1983.
    Sex discrimination in employment against women in Australia.

*Goldberg, Philip, "Are Women Prejudiced Against Women?", _Trans-
Action_,  5 (1986), 28-80. [am not sure what "Trans-Action" is]

Gornick, Vivian and Barbara K. Moran, eds. _Women in Sexist Society_.
New York: Basic Books, 1972.

Kaschak, Ellyn. "Sex Bias in Student Evaluations of College Professors",  
_Psychology of Women Quarterly_, 2 (1978), 235-242.  

LaPlante, Alice. "Sexist Images Persist at Comdex", _Infoworld_,
November 27, 1989, page 58.

Lattin, Patricia Hopkins. "Academic Women, Affirmative Action, and 
Middle-America in the Eighties", in Resa L. Dudovitz, ed., _Women in 
Academe_.  Pergamon Press, Oxford.  1984.  223-230.

MacKinnon, Catharine.  _Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of
Sex Discrimination_.  Yale University Press, New Haven.  1979.

MacKinnon, Catharine.  "Reflections on Sex Equality Under Law," in
_Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review_.  Vol. 20, no. 2.
1985.

Paludi, Michele A. and William D. Bauer. "Goldberg Revisited: What's 
in an Author's Name", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 9 (1983) 387-
390.  

Paludi, Michele A. and Lisa A. Strayer. "What's in an Author's Name?  
Different Evaluations of Performance as a Function of Author's 
Name", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 12 (1985) 353-361.

Pringle, Rosemary.  _Secretaries Talk: Sexuality, Power and Work_, 
Verso, New York and London. 1989.
    Sex discrimination and sexual harrassment of women.

Rowe, Mary P. "Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle
Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity", _Employee
Responsibilities and Rights Journal_, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1990.  153-163.

Rowe, Mary P. "Dealing with Sexual Harassment", _Harvard Business
Review_, May-June 1981, 42-47.

Russ, Joanna. _How to Suppress Women's Writing_.  University of Texas
Press, 1983, ISBN 0-292-72445-4 (pbk).
    This book analyzes the multitude of subtle and not-so-subtle ways
    in which women writers have been given less than full credit for
    their work throughout history.  It is the perfect companion volume
    to Ellen Moers's _Literary Women_.

Sadker, Myra and David Sadker. "Sexism in the Schoolroom of the 
80's", _Psychology Today_, March 1985.

Selvin, Paul.  "Does the Harrison Case Reveal Sexism in Math?", 
_Science_ 252 (June 28, 1991), 1781-1783.  

Simeone, Angela.  _Academic Women: Working Towards Equality_.  Bergin
and Garvey Publishers, Inc., Massachusetts.  1987.

Sproull, Lee, Sara Kiesler, and David Zubrow, eds. "Encountering an
Alien Culture", in _Computing and Change on Campus_.  Cambridge
University Press, UK.  1987, pages 173-194.

Stewart, Elizabeth, Nancy Hutchinson, Peter Hemmingway, and Fred 
Bessai. "The Effects of Student Gender, Race, and Achievement on 
Career Exploration Advice Given by Canadian Preservice Teachers", 
_Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 21 (1989) 247-262.

Sumrall, Amber Coverdale and Dena Taylor, eds.  _Sexual Harassment:
Women Speak Out_.  The Crossing Press, Freedom, CA 95019, 1992.  ISBN
0-89594-544-4.  ($10.95)
  Highly recommended. This book consists of short (2-4 pages) essays
  by women about their experiences with Sexual Harassment, everything
  from taunts and whistles to rape and other physical abuse.  Stories
  are interspersed with comics drawn by women and some poetry.  Many
  of the stories describe the early conditioning that women receive
  that makes us put up with so much. The book is dedicated to Anita
  Hill.

Top, Titia J., "Sex Bias in the Evaluation of Performance in the 
Scientific, Artistic, and Literary Professions: A Review.", Sex Roles: A 
Journal of Research, 24 (1991) 73-106.

Weinraub, Marsha and Lynda M. Brown, "The Development of Sex-
Role Stereotypes in Children:  Crushing Realities", Franks and 
Rothblum, editors,  _The Stereotyping of Women: Its Effects on Mental
Health_, Springer Publishing Company, New York. 1983, pages 30-58.

Weitzman, Lenore.  _The Marriage Contract_. 

    "...child care decisions.  Twentieth century case law has
    established the presumption that prefers mothers as the custodians
    of their children after divorce, particularly if the children are
    of "tender years." [Mnookin, "Custody Adjudication," p. 235.]
    This maternal presumption WAS ESTABLISHED ALMOST ENTIRELY THROUGH
    JUDICIAL DECISIONS RATHER THAN BY STATUTES.  For while most
    statues have put the wife on an equal footing with the husband,
    and have instructed the courts to award custody in the best
    interest of the child, judges typically have held that *it is
    in the child's best interest not to be separated from the mother*
    --unless she has been shown to be unfit. [Ibid.]

    "The child's best interest" has thus evolved into a judicially
    constructed presumption that the love and nurturance of a fit
    mother is always in the child's (and society's) best interest.
    The result has been a consistent pattern of decisions that both
    justify and further reinforce the maternal presumption....

    "Over the past fifty years the assumption that the mother is the
    natural and proper custodian of the children has been so widely
    accepted that it has rarely been questioned, and even more rarely
    challenged.  As Alan Roth asserts, many of the rationales offered
    by the courts for the maternal preference have the ring of
    divine-right doctrine [Alan Roth, "The Tender Years Presumption in
    Child Custody Disputes," _Journal_of_Family_Law_ 15, no. 3 (1972)]"

    "More recently the social science adduced to support the maternal
    presumption has been challenged, but the presumption itself has
    been considered wise because it avoids "the social costs" of
    contested cases.  [See, for example, R. Levy and P. Ellsworth
    "Legislative Reform of Child Custody Adjudication,"
    _Law_and_Society_Review_, Nov. 1969, p. 4]


23.  Test Biases.
-----------------

Brush, Stephen. _ibid_.
    When the SAT is used by college admissions to predict academic
    performance, it underpredicts the grades of women compared with
    those on men.  If a man and a woman have the same SAT scores, the
    woman will tend to get higher grades in college.  Thus an
    admissions process that gives the SAT significant weight will
    reject some women who would have done better than men who were
    accepted.

    In a reply to letters to the editor in the Jan-Feb 1992
    _American Scientist_, Brush wrote:

    [A]ccording to Phyllis Rosser's study, "The SAT Gender Gap," the
    following question was answered correctly by males 27 percent more
    often than by females (a difference of 6 percent is significant to
    the 0.05 level of confidence).
	
        A high school basketball team has won 40 percent of its first
        15 games.  Beginning with the 16th game, how many games in a
        row does the team now have to win in order to have a 55
        percent winning record?
	
        A) 3    B) 5    C) 6    D) 11    E) 15
	
    With a strict time limit, the advantage goes to students who can
    quickly guess and verify the right answer without having to set up
    the equation first.

Rosser, Phillis. "The SAT Gender Gap. Identifying the Causes,"
(Washington, D.C.: Center for Women Policy Studies, 1989).
    According to Phyllis Rosser, much of the SAT gender gap is an
    artifact of sex-biased test questions. Rosser points out that men
    have always received higher scores, on average, but their
    advantage in the mathematics part of the test was once offset by
    women's higher scores on the verbal part.  Women lost this
    compensating factor in the early 1970s because of the gradual
    introduction of test questions about science, business and
    "practical affairs," and the elimination of some questions about
    human relations, the arts, and the humanities.  There was no
    compensating change in the mathematics section.

Block, Ned, ed. _The IQ Controversy_.
    Information on biases of all sorts found in IQ tests.


24.  Women of Color.
--------------------
    
Anzaldua, Gloria. _Borderlands: The New Mestiza = La Frontera_.
Spinsters/Aunt Lute, San Francisco.  1987.

Anzaldua, Gloria, ed.  _Making face, making soul = Haciendo caras :
creative and critical perspectives by women of color_.  Aunt Lute
Foundation Books, San Francisco.  c1990.

Collins, Patricia Hill. _Black Feminist Thought_.  Unwin Hyman,
Boston.  1990.  Series title: Perspectives on Gender; v. 2.
    Maps out standpoint epistemology from African American feminist
    perspective.  May also include under feminist epistemology.
    
Davis, Angela. _Women, Race, and Class_.  Random House, New York, 1981.

DuBois, Ellen Carol and Vicki L. Ruiz, eds. _Unequal Sisters. A
Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women's History_.  Routledge, New York.
1990.
    Excellent collection of articles, many historical studies and some
    narratives.

Hooks, Bell. _Ain't I A Woman_.  South End Press, 116 St. Botolph St.,
Boston, Mass. 02115.  1981.  ISBN 0-89608-128-1.
    Examines the impact of sexism on black women during slavery, the
    historic devaluation of black womanhood, black male sexism, racism
    within the recent women's movement, and black women's involvement
    with feminism.  The title comes from an address on the subject
    given by Sojourner Truth.

Hooks, Bell.  _Talking Back:  Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black_.
South End Press, Boston.  1989.

Moraga, Cherrie, and Gloria Anzaldua, eds. _This Bridge Called My
Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color_.  Persephone Press,
Watertown, MA, 1981.  Kitchen Table Press, New York, 1983.
    Anthology of writings by women of color.
    
Smith, Barbara, ed.  _Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology_.  First
edition.  Kitchen Table -- Women of Color Press, New York.  1983.


25.  Women's Health.
--------------------

Boston Women's Health Book Collective. _Our Bodies, Ourselves_.
Simon and Schuster, New York, 1973.
    A very practical guide to women & our bodies.

Boston Women's Health Collective.  _The New Our Bodies, Ourselves_.
Simon and Schuster, New York.  1984.
    Updated.

Boston Women's Health Collective. _Our Bodies, Ourselves. Growing Older_.
    Oriented toward the 40+ crowd.

ACT UP/New York Women and AIDS Book Group.  _Women, AIDS, and Activisim_.
South End Press, Boston, MA. 1990.
    New book on women and aids and politics.

Corea, Gena. _The Hidden Malpractice_.
    A (sometimes alarmist) look at how medical practices overlooks and
    mistreats women.

Raymond, Janice G., Renate Klein, and Lynette J. Dumble.  _RU 486:
Misconceptions, Myths and Morals_.  Institute on Women and Technology,
Cambridge, MA. 1991.
    Abortion, moral and ethical aspects; medical ethics.  Includes
    bibliographical references.


(Auto)Biographies.
------------------

Bateson, Mary Catherine. _Composing a Life_. Penguin Books.
ISBN 0-452-26505-3 (paperback, $9.95).
    Bateson profiles five women in a wide variety of fields in an
    examination of how their careers happened to develop the way they
    did.

Bennett, Betty T, )Mary Diana Dods, A Gentleman and a Scholar_.
William Morrow and Company, New York. 1991. ISBN 0-688-08717-5 
(hardcover).

Komisar, Lucy.  _Corazon Aquino: The Story of a Revolution_.  G.
Braziller, New York.  1987.

Marlow, Joan.  _The Great Women_.  A&W Publishers, New York.  1979.
ISBN: 0-89479-056-0.
    A compilation of 60 women of diverse ages and nations.

Moers, Ellen, ed.  _Literary Women_.  Reprint.  The Great Writers series.
Oxford University Press, New York, 1985.
    Copywrite 1977.  Describes women authors.

Morgan, Robin.  _Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist_.
Random House, New York.  1977.

Perl, Teri. _Math Equals: Biographies of Women Mathematicians and
Related Activities_. Addison-Wesley. 1978.


Miscellaneous.
--------------

"Women on the Verge of an Athletic Showdown" in _Science News_, Jan
11, 1992, Vol 141, No.  2, p 141.
  Female track athletes are improving their performances at faster
  rates than men and, if the trend continues, should be running
  marathons as fast as men by 1998, says Brian J. Whipp, a
  physiologist at the University of California, Lost Angeles.  He and
  UCLA co-worker Susan A. Ward predict that women will catch up with
  men in most track events by early next century.


Adrian, M.J.: _Sports Women_.  Medicine and Sport Science Vol. 24
     Interesting essays ranging from physiology to Ancient Greece.

Chopin, Kate, _The Awakening_.  Capricorn Books. 1964.  Garrett Press,
Inc., New York, 1970.  Norton, New York, 1976.  Women's Press, London 1979.

Cixous, Helene and Catharine Clement. _The Newly Born Woman_.
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 1986. (Published in French
in 1975).

Dyer, K.F.:  _Catching up the Men -- Women in Sport_.  Junction Books (UK),
1982.  ISBN 086245-075-X.
     This book debunks a lot of myths about female inferiority and
     fragility by careful investigation and documentation, another
     must read.

Ehrenreich, Barbara and Deirdre English, "For Her Own Good: 150 
Years of the Experts' Advice to Women", New York: Anchor 
Press/Doubleday, 1978.  

|Kramarae and Treichler: _A Feminist Dictionary_.  1985.
|    Defines many things from a feminist's point of view.  Includes
|    a good deal of history, figures in the movement, etc.

Lenskij, Helen:  _Out of Bounds: Women, Sport and Sexuality_.  Women's
Press, Toronto, 1986.  ISBN 0-88961-105-X.
     Very powerful book about the 20th century changes in how female
     sexuality, gender roles, and the waves of female athleticism have
     been perceived, and about how these factors influence each other.
     A must read.

Mangan/Park (Eds.): _From Fair Sex to Feminism_.  Frank Cass & Company Lim.
1987.  ISBN 0-7146-4049-2.

|Marine, Gene: _A Male Guide to Women's Liberation_.  1972.

Sabo/Runfola (Eds.): _Jock -- Sports & Male Identity_.
Spectrum/Prentice-Hall 1980.  ISBN 0-13-510131-X.
     This book also contains several essays on female identity and sports.

Steinem, Gloria.  _Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions_.
_Revolution from Within: A Book of Self-Esteem_
    This is a collection of articles and essays written by her that
    was published sometime in the early 1980's. Some of them are a
    result of her earlier career as a journalist. The articles cover
    such things as:
      * Her becoming a Playboy Bunny (seriously!) in the early 1960's.
      * The presidential campaigns of 1968 and 1972.
      * "If Men Could Menstruate", a satirical piece in the vein of
        "If men could get pregnant, abortion would be a sacrament".
      * What present-day anti-abortionists have in common with Nazi Germany.

Tuana, Nancy, ed.  _Rereading the Canon_.  Series.  Penn State Press.    
    This new series will consist of edited collections of essays, some
    original and some previously published, offering feminist
    reinterpretations of the writings of major figures in the Western
    philosophical tradition. Each volume will contain essays covering
    the full range of a single philosopher's thought and representing
    the diversity of approaches now being used by feminist critics.
    The series will begin with a volume on Plato; other early volumes
    will focus on Aristotle, Locke, Marx, Wittgenstein, de Beauvoir,
    Foucault, and Derrida. Inquiries should be directed to Nancy
    Tuana, School of Arts and Humanities, University of Texas at
    Dallas, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688.

|Tuttle, Lisa: _Encyclopedia of Feminism_.  1986.

Velden, Lee van der & James H. Humphrey: Psychology and sociology of sport,
vol. 1.  AMS Press Inc., NY 1986.  ISBN 0-404-63401-X.

Woolf, Virginia. _Three Guineas_. 1938.  Extensively reprinted.
    Written 50 years ago and sadly still very relevant.
    
Woolf, Virginia.  _A Room of One's Own_. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New
York.  1981, c1957.

Winterson, Jeanette.  _Oranges are not the only fruit_. Pandora Press
(Unwin Hyman Limited, 15-17 Broadwick SAtreet, London).  1987.


Acknowledgments.
----------------

My thanks to: Joseph Albert, Leslie Anderson, Rich Berlin, Mik Bickis,
Anita Borg, Ed Blachman, Bob Blackshaw, Cindy Blank-Edelman, L.A.
Breene, Janet L. Carson, Robert Coleman, Mats Dahlgren, David
desJardins, Jublie DiBiase, Jym Dyer, Ellen Eades, Marc R. Ewing,
Ronnie Falcao, Lisa Farmer, Sharon Fenick, Bob Freeland, Debbie
Forest, Susan Gerhart, Jonathan Gilligan, Thomas Gramstad, Ron Graham,
David Gross, Mary W. Hall, Stacy Horn, Kathryn Huxtable, Joel Jones,
Bonita Kale, Joanne M. Karohl, Corinna Lee, Nancy Leveson, lip@s1.gov
(Loren), Jim Lippard, Albert Lunde, Jill Lundquist, Brian McGuinness,
Fanya S.  Montalvo, Tori Nasman, Mirjana Obradovic, Vicki O'Day, Diane
L.  Olsen, Joann Ordille, Jan Parcel, J.  Rollins, Stewart Schultz,
Mary Shaw, Anne Sjostrom, Ellen Spertus, Jon J.  Thaler, Dave Thomson,
Carolyn Turbyfill, Sarah Ullman, Max Meredith Vasilatos, Bronis
Vidiguris, Paul Wallich, Sharon Walter, Karen Ward, Marian Williams,
Celia Winkler, Michael Winston Woodring, Sue J.  Worden, and Daniel
Zabetakis.

Especial thanks to the MLVL library catalogue system.

--------------

Please mail in comments, additions, corrections, suggestions, and so
on to feminism-request@ncar.ucar.edu.


--Cindy Tittle Moore

"If an aborigine drafted an IQ test, for example, all of Western
Civilization would probably flunk."  

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