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comp.dcom.fax FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) -- Part 1 of 2 ============================================================= Introduction The comp.dcom.fax FAQ is brought to you by Faximum Software Inc. This article contains the answers to some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) often seen in the USENET newsgroup comp.dcom.fax relating to facsimile standards, software, and hardware. It will be posted approximately monthly. Note that the World Wide Web (HTML) version contains additional information that is not part of the monthly posting. Also the WWW version is "master" copy and is updated regularly. The posted version may lag by several months. The WWW version may be reached at http://www.faximum.com/faqs/fax If you would like to make any submissions or corrections to the FAQ, please contact email@example.com. Your input is greatly appreciated. Suggested questions need not be accompanied by suggested answers. Areas that are in particular need of contributions are marked "[Need more information]". Flames and other comments (constructive or otherwise) are also welcomed. Note that this FAQ is primarily concerned with fax standards in general and computer-based fax in particular. It contains little information on commercial fax machines and related paraphenalia. If someone else would like to start and maintain such a section (or separate FAQ) they are more than welcome to do so. Otherwise, please send contributions to this FAQ. My apologies for the somewhat strange format of this FAQ. As mentioned elsewhere, this FAQ is now maintained in HTML (i.e. WWW) format and the posted version is generated automatically using lynx and a shell script. Obviously some more work is required in order to create a more visually pleasing flat-text version. How to Get a Current Copy of This FAQ This FAQ is crossposted to news.answers. As a consequence, this text will also be automatically archived on many FAQ servers all over the world (e.g., anonymous ftp to rtfm.mit.edu in directory /pub/usenet/news.answers). You'll also find there many other answers to frequently asked questions. This faq is stored in the directory fax-faq. Most FAQs (including the posted flat-text version of this FAQ) are available through Thomas Fine's WWW FAQ archive: http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu:80/hypertext/faq/usenet/FAQ-List.ht ml. This FAQ is also available on the WWW at http://www.faximum.com/faqs/fax . The WWW version is always the most current version. The text version can lag by up to a month from the html version. The current text version is available by FTP: ftp://ftp.faximum.com/pub/faqs/fax/fax-faq . You can also have the current text version of this FAQ mailed to you. Send any message (content not important) to firstname.lastname@example.org. regards g. George.Pajari@Faximum.COM * http://www.faximum.com/ George Pajari * Faximum Software * Tel: +1 (604) 925-3600 * Fax: ... 926-8182 1497 Marine Drive, Suite 300 * West Vancouver, BC * Canada V7T 1B8 Std. Disclaimers: The content of this article is the sole responsibility of the author(s) and contributors, and does not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of their employers or other companies mentioned. The information provided herein is believed to be correct but the author and contributors cannot accept any liability for errors and omissions. Readers are cautioned to verify any information before making decisions or taking action based upon this information. While every reasonable effort has been taken to maintain an objective and unbiased approach in the collection and presentation of this information, readers are advised that the author and possibly some of the contributors work for or have an interest in commercial organisations involved in the fax and/or computer industry. ============================================================================== TABLE OF CONTENTS A. INTRODUCTION G. GLOSSARY AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION Q. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Q.1 Can I use my * data modem to send/receive faxes? Q.1A Can my fax modem transmit data? Q.2 How can I fax PostScript or PCL documents using computer-based fax? Q.3 How can I view incoming faxes on my computer? Q.4 How can I print incoming faxes on my computer? Q.5 Can fax modems also handle data or voice calls? Q.6 What resolution are fax images? Q.7 Can I take a fax file and edit it? Q.8 Is there a standard program interface (API) for fax communications? Q.9 How can I share my single phone line with voice, fax, data, etc. Q.10 How can I send a fax over the Internet? Q.11 What legal restrictions are there on the use of facsimile devices? I. SOURCES OF INFORMATION I.1 Standards Related to Facsimile Communication I.2 Where to Obtain Standards Documents and Related Information I.3 Magazine Reviews of UNIX Fax Software I.4 Magazine Reviews of DOS/Windows Fax Software I.5 Magazine Reviews of Mac Fax Software I.6 Magazine Reviews of Fax Modems (see also O/S specific reviews) I.7 Magazine Reviews of Fax Machines I.8 Publications Devoted to Fax and Telecommunications I.9 Books on Fax I.10 Other Sources of Information on Fax I.11 Conferences on Fax I.12 Associations Related to Fax Technology I.13 Fax-on-Demand Phone Numbers I.14 Related FAQs I.15 Fax-Related URLs P. PRODUCT INFORMATION P.1 List of UNIX Fax Software P.2 List of MS-DOS Fax Software P.3 List of MacIntosh Fax Software P.4 List of Windows Fax Software P.5 List of OS/2 Fax Software P.6 List of Fax Modem Vendors P.7 List of Fax Board Vendors P.8 List of Vendors of Secure Fax Equipment P.9 List of Libraries and Related Information for Writing Fax Servers P.10 List of Vendors of Fax Protocol Test Equipment P.11 List of Vendors of UNIX-Based Fax-On-Demand Software/Systems P.12 List of Vendors of Fax-On-Demand Software/Systems P.13 List of Vendors of Products Delivered by Fax ============================================================================== G. GLOSSARY and BACKGROUND INFORMATION ANSI/AIIM MS53-1993 The American National Standard File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images - Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1 (ANSI/AIIM MS53-1993) was approved in 1993. The standard defines a format for a file containing one page with one image. Page sizes and image sizes can be specified. Both definite length and indefinite length are supported. Clipping of the image can be specified. Image coding may be according to ITU-T Recs. T.4 (one- and two-dimensional) and Rec. T.6. Bitmap may also be specified. Both facsimile style least significant bit and industry style most significant bit mapping are supported. (Definition courtesy of email@example.com (herman.r.silbiger) APPLI/COM The name for the ITU-T API for computer-based facsimile. See T.611 below for more information. Bell 103 A standard for 300 bps full duplex dial-up modems. Popular in the U.S. and Canada. In Europe the preferred standard is V.21. (Not used in fax but frequently supported by modems that handle fax.) BFT or Binary File Transfer A method of transferring files using fax modems (as an extension to the fax protocol). The ITU-T standard for BFT is T.434. The US version is TIA/EIA-614. Brooktrout Patent (taken from a press release from Brooktrout) Brooktrout's patent (number 4,918,722), issued by the US patent office in 1990, covers generally any method for the selection of facsimile messages and their deliver to a particular telephone number under control of commands entered through a telephone, for example in the form of signals generated from the telephone's touch-tone keypad. This method is employed in many fax-on-demand systems, which provide business users and service providers the ability to offer automated fax delivery of specified information in response to requests from customers, subscribers or other callers. [Editor's note: this patent is the subject of litigation and the current status or validity of this patent is not known.] CAS An API for fax devices invented by Intel and DCA and tied to the Intel and MS-DOS architectures. The full text of the specification may be obtained from ftp://ftp.faximum.com/pub/documents/cas.txt. CCITT Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique (a.k.a. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee). The old name for ITU-T, the body responsible for setting the international standards for telecommunications equipment. See ITU below. CED or Called Station Identifier The distinctive tone generated by a Group III fax machine when it answers the phone (2100 Hz). Class 1 The Class 1 fax modem standard describes an extension to the "Hayes Modem Command Set" to permit computers to send and receive faxes using fax modems. The Class 1 standard is a low-level specification in which most of the protocol work (i.e. T.30) as well as image generation (rasterising and T.4 compression) must be done by the computer (in software) while the modem only handles the basic modulation as well as converting the asynchronous data from the computer into the synchronous packets used in fax communications. The primary advantage of Class 1 modems is that fax protocol is implemented in software which means that new extensions to the fax protocol standard (i.e. T.30) can be implemented without requiring a ROM change in the modem (or without waiting for the modem manufacturer to get around to supporting the new feature). Also software developers are not dependent on the quality of the T.30 firmware in the modem (as are developers who use Class 2 modems). The primary disadvantages are (a) the software vendor has to handle the complexity of the T.30 protocol and (b) Class 1 is very sensitive to timing and multi-tasking operating systems (such as *IX) have great difficulty in reliably meeting the tight timing constraints and maintaining the fax connection. Lifting this timing limitation is the primary motivation behind the new proposed Class 4 standard. The official standard for Class 1 is EIA/TIA-578. (Note that if you are purchasing a copy of EIA/TIA-578 be sure to purchase also the TIA/EIA Telecommunications Systems Bulletin 43 (TSB43) which provides additional information missing from, or incorrect in, the original EIA/TIA-578 standard. Although the official standard is copyright EIA/TIA/ANSI, a draft version has been published electronically by Supra and is available from their BBS and FTP sites (see sections I.10, and I.15) and from Sam Leffler at SGI (retrieve his FlexFax package, described in section P.1). Class 2 The Class 2 fax modem standard describes an extension to the "Hayes Modem Command Set" to permit computers to send and receive faxes using fax modems. The Class 2 standard is a higher-level specification in which most of the protocol work (i.e. T.30) is done by the modem while the computer is responsible for managing the session and providing the image data in the appropriate format (i.e. T.4). The priimary advantage of Class 2 is that the low-level detail work is handled by the modem. Not only does this mean that software developers do not have to be burdened with having to support the T.30 protocol, it also relieves the host computer of all of the time-critical aspects of fax communications, making support of Class 2 modems under *IX systems possible. The biggest headache for software developers is that the Class 2 standard took a long time to be approved (more for political than technical reasons, IMHO) and many companies did not wait for the final version to be approved before shipping modems. As a result we have a situation (as of 93Q4) in which all shipping Class 2 modems adhere (more or less) to the first draft of the TR29.2 committee (document SP-2388) and not to the standard as it was approved. To compensate for this, the "new" Class 2 is referred to as Class 2.0 and the "old" as plain Class 2. (Warning - flame from a frustrated fax programmer on...) Even more disconcerting is the fact that most companies who have implemented (the old) Class 2 have done one or more things wrong (they must have been smoking *and* inhaling) so we have a further division of the standard into "true, old Class 2" (which includes the Everex 24/96D and MultiTech modems) and everything else (mostly based on the Rockwell chip which differs from SP-2388 in a number of ways, although some other chip makers, such as EXAR, have found even more ways than Rockwell to depart from SP-2388). It's so bad that most modem companies now implement the Rockwell version of Class 2 just because so many of the *%#& things have been shipped (i.e. Multitech has a special command which switches their modem from proper Class 2 operation to Rockwell-like operation just so they can interoperate with DOS software that expects Rockwell-like operation). And of course no one at Rockwell or EXAR or the other companies bothered to write down the difference between their version of Class 2 and the TR29.2 document. (Flame off.) The draft standard for the "old" Class 2 is SP-2388, Document TR-29/89-21R8, dated March 21, 1990. This is available by contacting the EIA/TIA directly. This is the standard implemented by all Class 2 modems on the market prior to the end of 1993. The official standard for the "new" Class 2 (also referred to as Class 2.0) is EIA/TIA/ANSI-592. This document is available from Global Engineering Documents (see below). As of 94Q4 the only modems known to the editor of this FAQ that support 2.0 are those produced by USRobotics and ZyXEL. Note that although many modems that implement Class 2 also support Class 1, Class 1 is *not* a subset of Class 2. Also, there are some modems that only support Class 2 and many that only support Class 1. Although the official standard is copyright EIA/TIA/ANSI, a draft version has been published electronically by Supra and is available from their BBS and FTP sites (see sections I.10, and I.15) and from Sam Leffler at SGI (retrieve his FlexFax package, described in section P.1). Class 3 A class number reserved for a project to define a standard for fax modems that would, in addition to handling the T.30 protocol (i.e. Class 2), also handle the conversion of ASCII data streams into images (i.e. T.4). Although there are a couple of fax modems that handle the ASCII to fax conversion, no draft document has been circulated and the future of this project is in doubt. Class 4 Class 1 with intelligent buffering to reduce the need for the host computer to respond instantly to the fax modem. Class 8 Not a fax standard at all but an extension to the Hayes command set to support voice. CNG or Calling Tone The distinctive tone that a fax machine ought to generate when placing a fax call (1100 Hz on for 1/2 second, off for 3 seconds). Note that the Group 3 fax standard only requires fax machines in "automatic operation" to generate this tone so that machines which require you to dial the number (either on the keypad of the fax machine or using an attached phone) need not generate this tone. The lack of CNG can cause some fax switches (see Q.9 below) problems. There has been a proposal to change the Group 3 standard to mandate CNG on all fax calls. CSI or Called Subscriber Information The "name" of the answering fax machine. An optional frame of information sent to the calling fax machine during Phase B (see T.30 below). Although many fax machines permit ASCII information, the T.30 standard states that this is to contain the international phone number of the fax machine, including the plus symbol, the country code, the area code, and the subscriber number using only digits, the plus symbol, and a space. (i.e. the North American fax number (604) 926-8182 ought to be programmed into the fax machine as +1 604 926 8182). DID or Direct Inward Dialling A special type of phone line (trunk) provided by the telco which associates multiple phone numbers with a single telephone line and which send a signal down the line when a call arrives which indicates which number was used to place this call. In some sense DID can be viewed as the opposite of Caller ID. With Caller ID the signal indicates which number placed the call (i.e. the phone number of the originator of the call). With DID the signal indicates which number was dialled (i.e. the phone number of the destination of the call). Note, however, that the signalling mechanism used for Caller ID is different from the method used for DID. In other words, equipment that can decode the Caller ID signals will not work on a DID trunk. Historically DID has been used by PBXs that provided direct dialling to internal extensions. For example, dialling 555-1201 would ring on extension 101. Dialling 555-1202 would come in on the same trunk to the PBX but the PBX would route the call to extension 102. Now DID is also used with fax modems and boards to provide routing of inbound faxes. Each employee or department is given a different fax number but all of the calls come in on the same DID trunk. The fax board (or external DID decode box) decodes the signal from the telco central office which indicates which number was dialled and uses this number to route the fax to the appropriate user or department. ECM or Error Correcting Mode An extension to T.30 to permit the receiving fax machine to request that portions of an image that were received with errors be retransmitted. Normally the T.4/T.30 protocol is error detecting but not error correcting. The receiving fax machine can usually tell when an error has impaired the image but cannot selectively request retransmission of the damaged portions of the image. The only options are to (a) ignore the errors (if few in number), (b) request that the page be resent (ignored by most fax machines), or (c) give up. EIA/TIA The Electronics Industry Association and the Telecommunications Industry Association. The U.S. bodies responsible for the development of standards related to telecommunications in general and for fax in particular. EIA/TIA-465 The US version of T.4 (will probably be accepted as T.4 in the near future). EIA/TIA-466 The US version of T.30 (will probably be accepted as T.30 in the near future). EIA/TIA-530 The US version of something or other related to fax. Need more information. EIA/TIA-578 See the definition of Class 1 (above). EIA/TIA-592 See the definition of Class 2 (above). EIA/TIA-602 The ANSI/EIA/TIA standard for the for modems. EIA/TIA-614 The ANSI/EIA/TIA standard for Group I Fax An old (now obsolete) standard for fax machines in which a page was transmitted in about six minutes at a resolution of 98 scan lines/inch. Group I devices frequently worked by attaching the page to be transmitted to a rotating drum (at 180 rpm) along which a photocell moves. Either amplitude modulation (the blacker the pixel the louder the tone) or frequency modulation (the blacker the pixel the higher the tone) can be used. The gory details may be found in ITU-T Recommendation T.2. Group II Fax An old (now almost obsolete) standard for fax machines in which a page was transmitted in about three minutes at a resolution of 100 scan lines/inch. Group II uses vestigial sideband amplitude modulation with phase shifts. A white pixel is represented by a louder tone. Group III One of the current standards for fax machines in which a page is transmitted in about one minute. See the definition of T.30 (below) for more details. Group IV A standard for fax transmission using ISDN at 64kbps. IS-101 The Interim Standard developed and published by the TIA 29.2 committee for voice modems (a set of extensions to the AT modem command set to support voice recording and playback with modems). ITU and ITU-T The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations specialized agency dealing with telecommunications. The purposes of the ITU as defined in the Convention are: + to maintain and extend international cooperation for the improvement and rational use of telecommunication of all kinds; + to promote the development of technical facilities and their most efficient operation with a view to improving the efficiency of telecommunication services, increasing their usefulness and making them, so far as possible, generally available to the public; + to harmonize the actions of nations in the attainment of those common ends. The ITU works to fulfil these basic purposes in three main ways: 1. international conferences and meetings; 2. technical cooperation; 3. publication of information, world exhibitions. The ITU is an organization, a union, of Member countries. As of 1993 there were 166 Members. The Union's headquarters are in Geneva, in the Place des Nations. Before 1993, the ITU consisted organizationally of five permanent organs: the General Secretariat, the International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB), the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR), the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) and the Telecommunications Development Bureau (BDT). In early 1993, the ITU was reorganized into the General Secretariat and three Sectors: Radiocommunication, Telecommunication Standardization and Telecommunication Development. The standards-making activities of the CCITT and CCIR have been consolidated into the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). The remainder of CCIR activities were integrated with the activities of the IFRB into the Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). The Development Sector (ITU-D) facilitates telecommunications development by offering technical cooperation and assistance. The ITU General Secretariat supports the activities of the three Sectors. (This description has been taken from material published by the ITU.) The standards promulgated by the ITU-T are called Recommendations and the recommendations of relevance to the fax world are the T series which govern the fax protocols and the V series which govern modem operation. (See also T.*, and V.*, below.) For more information on the ITU and the publications available from them, see the description of ITUDOC in section I.10 in Part 2 of this FAQ. MH or Modified Huffman compression Also known as Group III one-dimensional compression. See T.4. MR or Modified READ compression Also known as Group III two-dimensional compression. See T.4. One-Dimensional Compression See T.4 PostScript Fax PostScript Fax has to be considered in two pieces: First, we added G3 fax compatability to printers. The device accepts PS jobs from the Mac, PC, and Unix hosts (we have host driver support for all three) rasterizes these jobs at G3 resolutions with optional cover pages and captions, and then sends the fax. You get all of the usual bells and whistles like broadcast, delay, whatever. This differs from a "normal" fax machine in that you avoid printing and rescanning and thus get to transmit very high quality without extra effort. It differs from a PC fax modem because it is network shareable thus saving hardware and phone line charges. Our testing shows that our imaging is higher quality than popular PC fax programs, but there's no intrinsic reason they couldn't do just as well. Also, the fax modems tend to drag down the PC while sending or receiving, whereas we offload the really hard work of controlling the modem to the printer (yes, you can still print while transmitting). When we receive a G3 we automatically print it out, scaled to fit the available paper if necessary. This plain paper output is much nicer than a roll-fed device can produce. There's a trade-off vs. a PC fax modem. With PS Fax you don't have to leave your PC on to receive faxes, just your printer (which probably has a sleep mode), and you don't have to deal with the very slow printing speed that many fax modem packages seem to suffer from. But, if you wanted that file on the PC so you could edit it or re-transmnit it or... Well, we don't support receiving back to the PC yet. One obvious difference from a traditional fax machine is that PS Fax printers do not yet offer a scanner. Unless you have a scanner for your PC, there's no way to fax clippings or handwritten documents with PS Fax. Obviously, the "wonder box" printer, fax, copier, scanner is our next target. The other half of the equation is a thing called Postscript File Transfer. If both you and the person you're communicating with have PS Fax devices then the PS file gets sent rather than a G3. This usually results in a shorter phone call and it always results in significantly higher document quality including high resolution (ex 600 dpi), large format, color, etc. Compared to 30 million G3 units the PS Fax installed base is small, so the PSFT trick is only likely to work in closed environments. It's been most successful either in big corporations who use it to communicate between offices or for consultants who have a need to transmit very high quality output to their clients and can talk their clients into buying a PS Fax receiver. Courtesy of firstname.lastname@example.org (Mike Parker). You can also obtain more information on PostScript Fax from Adobe's WWW server: http://www.adobe.com/PS/PSFax.html. SP-2388 The first draft standard for Class 2 that was implemented by many companies while waiting for the final standard to be approved (see also the definition for Class 2 above). T.2 See Group I Fax. Not to be confused with T-1, a digital telephony standard that runs at 1.544 Mb/s (at least in North America). T.3 See Group II Fax. T.4 One of the ITU-T recommendations (i.e. standard) for Group III fax. In particular, this recommendation covers the page size, resolution, transmission time, and coding schemes supported for Group III fax. (See also the definition of T.30 below.) The basic coding scheme (called in the recommendation "One-dimensional coding scheme" but also known in the industry as MH or Modified Huffman) takes each scan line of pixels and compresses it by (a) converting the raster in a sequence of run lengths (the number of white pixels followed by the number of black pixels followed by the number of white pixels etc. and etc. until the entire raster has been converted into runlengths) and (b) encoding each run length into a unique variable-length bit string. The code words used for white and black runlengths are different and have been chosen in order to do a reasonable job of compressing a "typical" fax page. For example, in one dimensional encoding the following raster: OOOOOOOOOO****OOOOOO**OOOOOOO*OOOOOOOOO***... converted into run lengths: 10 4 6 2 7 1 9 3 ... encoded into MH bit strings: 00111 011 1110 11 1111 010 10100 10 (spaces have been added for readability and are not part of the MH bit string) Since our example has unusually short white run-length it does not accurately illustrate the degree of compression which can be achieved. For example, a normal fine resolution fax image contains about 3,800,000 pixels (464K). Using one-dimensional encoding this can be reduced to between 20K - 50K. In two-dimensional encoding, the first line of a group of lines is compressed using one-dimensional coding (see above) and subsequent lines are compressed using an algorithm that describes line n in terms of line n-1. Since there is usually a high-degree of correlation between the pixels of adjacent scan lines, this usually results in significant compression. Since the basic fax protocol (T.30) is error detecting (but not error correcting), there is a limit on the number of two-dimensionally compressed scan lines that can follow a 1-D line. This is to limit the propagation of errors through an image. This limit is referred to as 'k' in the standard and is 2 for standard-resolution faxes and 4 for high-resolution faxes. Unfortunately, this method of compression is computationally intensive and most (inexpensive) fax machines do not support it. See Standards Related to Facsimile Communication for information on how to obtain a copy of the T.4 standard. T.6 The recommendation that covers the image compression algorithm used for Group IV fax machines. T.6 is essentially the two-dimensional compression algorithm from T.4 (see above) except that 'k' is infinite (i.e. all lines are two dimensionally compressed). This can be done because Group IV fax machines operate over an error-free communications channel. See Standards Related to Facsimile Communication for information on how to obtain a copy of the T.6 standard. ITU-T recommendations (i.e. standard) for Group III fax. In particular, this recommendation covers the protocol used to manage the session and negotiate the capabilities supported by each fax machine. The details of the image format are covered by the T.4 recommendation (see above). The protocol describes each fax call as proceeding through five phases: A: Call Set-Up This phase covers the placing of the call on the PSTN and the distinctive tones the calling and called stations are to emit. B: Pre-Message Procedure for Identifying and Selecting Facilities During this phase the two fax machines: o agree on whether to use tones or binary codes to exchange information on capabilities (most current fax machines use binary codes) o (optionally) the called machine sends a CSI frame identifying it to the calling machine. o the called machine sends a DIS frame telling the calling machine what capabilities it has (i.e. resolution, page size, receiving speed, etc.) o (optionally) the calling machine sends a TSI frame identifying it to the called machine. o the calling machine sends a DCS frame telling the called machine what capabilities are in effect for this document (based on the calling machine's capabilities and the information received in the DIS frame). o the two machines determine the maximum baud rate that the communications link will reliable sustain (training & phasing) C: Message Transmission The fax is sent. The end of the last scan line is marked by a RTC code (return to control). D: Post-Message Procedure including End-of-message, Confirmation, and Multi-Page Procedures o the calling machine indicates what it wants to do next (send another page, terminate the call, request operator intervention, etc.). o the called machine indicates its response to the page and command just received (o.k., o.k. but retrain, not o.k., give up, etc.) At this point the machines go to one of phase B, C, or E depending on the exchange of commands and responses during phase D. E: Call Release Hang up the phone. See Standards Related to Facsimile Communication for information on how to obtain a copy of the T.30 standard. Gray Associates (manufacturers of fax protocol testing equipment) also have an in-depth discussion of fax protocols at http://www.grayfax.com/faxsminar.html. T.411 - T.418 Open document architecture (ODA) and interchange format standards. See Standards Related to Facsimile Communication for information on how to obtain a copy of the T.41x standards. T.434 The standard for Binary File Transfer Format (a method of encoding documents and sending them by fax without converting them to image format first. See Standards Related to Facsimile Communication for information on how to obtain a copy of the T.434 standard. T.611 Programmable communication interface (PCI) APPLI/COM for facsimile group 3, facsimile group 4, teletex and telex services. (i.e. an API for fax services). See Standards Related to Facsimile Communication for information on how to obtain a copy of the T.611 standard. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) The TIFF specification was developed by Aldus (now part of Adobe) and Microsoft as a general file format for storing raster images. A PostScript version of the specification may be obtained from ftp://ftp.faximum.com/pub/documents/TIFF6.ps The relevance of TIFF to fax is explained in the following entry. TIFF/F (Tagged Image File Format, Class F) The TIFF specification is an extremely general and extensible one which makes it difficult to write programs which can dependable handle all possible TIFF files. To simplify the problem somewhat the authors of the TIFF specification have developed the concept of TIFF classes. A TIFF class defines the tags that are required to be written by TIFF writers (i.e. those tags that TIFF readers may depend upon) and defines those tags (and tag values) which all TIFF readers of that class must be able to handle. TIFF Class F was developed by Joe Campbell while he was at Everex developing the first Class 2 fax modem. The Class F specification defines those tags (and by extension, those TIFF file formats) which ought to be used and supported by fax software. Many fax software companies support TIFF F files and some use it as their native file format for received and transmitted faxes (i.e. Faximum Software). A flat-text version of the TIFF-F specification may be obtained from i ftp://ftp.faximum.com/pub/documents/tiff_f.txt TSI or Transmitting Subscriber Information The "name" of the calling fax machine. An optional frame of information sent by the calling fax machine during Phase B (see T.30 above). See CSI (above) for details on the recommended format. Two-Dimensional Compression See T.4. V.17 The ITU-T recommendation for 14,400 bps *synchronous* half-duplex modems. Used during the image transmission phase of fax communications. Optional (most fax machines do not support V.17). V.21 The ITU-T standard for 300 bps full duplex dial-up modems. Popular in Europe. In U.S. and Canada the preferred standard is Bell 103. (Not used in fax but frequently supported by modems that handle fax.) V.22bis The ITU-T recommendation for 2400 bps asynchronous full-duplex modems. (Not used in fax but frequently supported by modems that handle fax.) V.27ter The ITU-T recommendation for 2400 and 4800 bps *synchronous* half-duplex modems. Used during the image transmission phase of fax communications. V.29 The ITU-T recommendation for 7200 and 9600 bps *synchronous* half-duplex modems. Used during the image transmission phase of fax communications. V.32 The ITU-T recommendation for 9600 bps asynchronous full-duplex modems. (Not used in fax but sometimes supported by modems that also handle fax.) V.32bis The ITU-T recommendation for 14,400 bps asynchronous full-duplex modems. (Not used in fax but sometimes supported by modems that also handle fax.) V.42 The ITU-T recommendation for error-checking and correction. (Not used in fax but sometimes supported by modems that also handle fax.) V.42bis The ITU-T recommendation for data compression. (Not used in fax but sometimes supported by modems that also handle fax.) X.5 The ITU-T recommentation for a Fax PAD facility in a public data network. X.38 The ITU-T recommentation for a Group 3 fax equipment/DCE interface for equipment accessing the fax PAD facility in a public data network. X.39 The ITU-T recommentation for procedures for the exchange of control information and user data between a fax PAD facility and a packet mode DTE. ============================================================================== FAX FAQ LEGAL NOTICE COPYRIGHT 1994, 1995 George Pajari ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The FAQ has been written in part, and compiled by, George Pajari. While reasonable efforts have been made to verify the information in this document, no liability can be accepted by George Pajari, Faximum Software, or the many contributors for the correctness of the information herein. Readers are cautioned to take such measures as they deem necessary to verify the information herein before taking any action based on this information. 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