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Esperanto FAQ (Oftaj demandoj) Part 2/2

( Part1 - Part2 )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Schools ]
Archive-name: esperanto/faq/part2
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-Modified: 1999-06-23

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
                  Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for
            soc.culture.esperanto and
                           (monthly posting)


1.  What is Esperanto?
2.  How easy is Esperanto to learn?
3.  Where does Esperanto's vocabulary come from?
4.  What about Esperanto's grammar and word-order?
5.  How many people speak Esperanto?
6.  How can I use Esperanto once I've learned it?
7.  Where do I find classes, textbooks, etc.?
8.  How come Esperanto doesn't have <favourite word or feature>?
9.  What are some common objections to Esperanto? How do speakers of
    Esperanto respond to them?
10. Are there any famous Esperanto speakers?
11. What about other "artificial" languages like Loglan, Ido, etc.?
12. What are PAG, PIV, PMEG, PV, TEJO and UEA?
13. How do you say "I love you" in Esperanto?


14. How can I type and display Esperanto's accented characters?
15. How can I represent these characters in E-mail or on Usenet?
16. What Esperanto material is available on the Internet?
17. What Esperanto material is available on other (non-Internet)
    on-line services?




Esperanto has six letters with accents: c, g, h, j, and s can have a
circumflex accent (^), and u can have a breve accent (similar to the
lower half of a small circle).

All modern operating systems, word processing programs, etc., can handle
these characters. Usually all that is required is to type some
combination of keys to represent them. However, "dumb" terminals
generally cannot overstrike accents with arbitrary characters, and so
cannot display Esperanto's accented characters, or any other language
with accents.


(Thanks to Arnold Victor and Dmitri Horowitz for preparing the following

Fonts with Esperanto's accented characters are available for use under
Mac OS. Due to the lack of a generally accepted standard encoding,
several encodings are currently in use; however, ISO 8859-3 (also called
"Latin-3") is becoming more and more common. Apple has proposed a
different standard encoding called "MacEsperanto".

To type Esperanto's accented characters conveniently, use an Esperanto
keyboard layout. Each encoding corresponds to a particular keyboard
layout; thus, if you are using a Latin-3 font, you must also use the
Latin-3 keyboard layout.

Fonts are installed as follows:

- Quit all applications first.

- Put the Esperanto font files in the Fonts folder in the System Folder.
(Or drag-drop the font file on the System Folder icon and it will
automatically be placed in the right folder.)

Keyboard layouts are installed as follows:

- Quit all applications first.

- Put the keyboard layout file in the System suitcase in the System
Folder. (Or drag-drop the keyboard layout file on the System Folder
icon; when the dialog appears, confirm that you want the file placed in
the right folder.)

To use Esperanto fonts in an application, do the following:

- Use the Keyboard control panel (under Control Panels in the Apple
menu) to select the appropriate keyboard layout. Esperanto keyboard
layouts are usually symbolized by a green star or by the Esperanto flag
(a green flag with a star in the upper left corner).

- Choose an Esperanto font with the same encoding as the keyboard layout
in the application.

With most keyboard layouts, including Latin-3, the accented characters
are typed by pressing the Option key together with the letter to be
accented. For example, Option and lowercase c will type the accented
letter c^, Option and uppercase C will type the accented letter C^, and
so on. With some keyboard layouts, the accented character u^ is placed
under Option-w.

You can check the location of the accented characters as follows:

- Make sure the appropriate keyboard layout is selected.

- Open the Key Caps desk accessory in the Apple menu.

- Select an Esperanto font with the same encoding as the keyboard layout
from the Key Caps menu.

- Check the keyboard layout displayed with the Option key, with the
Shift key, and with both the Option and Shift keys pressed.

A keyboard menu will let you switch between keyboard layouts more
conveniently. It appears on the menu bar to the left of the application
menu, which is itself on the outer right. It can be recognized by the
small flag which shows the selected keyboard layout.

With Mac OS version 8, a keyboard menu appears automatically when more
than one keyboard is selected in the Keyboard control panel (under
Control Panels in the Apple menu).

If you are using Mac OS version 7.x, you must install a system extension
to have the keyboard menu. A shareware extension called "Outboard
Keyboard" (5 USD) can be downloaded as part of the package Carpetbag

Install it as follows:

- Put the extension in the Extensions folder in the System Folder. (Or
drag-drop the keyboard layout file on the System Folder icon; when the
dialog appears, confirm that you want the file placed in the right

- Restart the computer.

Esperanto fonts with matching keyboard layouts can be downloaded from

The following resources are useful when using Esperanto in Internet

- Plug-in tables for the popular mailing program Eudora which allow you
to send and receive messages in MacEsperanto, Latin-3, and Code Page
853. Bitmap fonts and a keyboard layout are included. See

- A detailed description of how to convert Unicode TrueType fonts from
MS-Windows to MacEsperanto. The fonts are freely available from
Microsoft. See


WordPerfect 5.1 natively supports Esperanto's accented characters.

To display the Esperanto characters, select the 512-character screen
from the Setup menu: do Shift-F1, 2, 1, 5.

To type an accented character, type Ctrl-V and the code (including the
comma) as listed in the file CARACTER.DOC:

             ^       ^       ^       ^       ^       ^
Letter:      C       c       G       g       H       h

Code:        1,100   1,101   1,122   1,123   1,126   1,127

             ^       ^       ^       ^       -       -
Letter:      J       j       S       s       U       u

Code:        1,140   1,141   1,180   1,181   1,188   1,189

You can also type Ctrl-V followed by the character and the accent mark;
for example, Ctrl-V, C, ^, gives C-circumflex. However, there is no
breve on the keyboard, so u-breve cannot be done this way.

Lowercase circumflexed j looks lousy in most fonts, so many users prefer
to use a regular j and overstrike a circumflex accent: Shift-F8, 4, 5,
1, j, ^ (you may have to press the ^ key twice for the symbol to
appear), Return, Return, Return.

Your editor finds it convenient to use a macro called Alt-c to type
c-circumflex, Alt-g to type g-circumflex, and so on. The letters can
then be converted to upper case if desired by using Block (Alt-F4, or
F12) and then Switch (Shift-F3, 1).

If you wish to type and see the accented characters with a program that
does not natively support them, for example, a text editor, then you can
use the freeware programs VGA-ESP and Klavint.

VGA-ESP makes the 12 accented characters available on the monitor. The
only requirement is to have an EGA, VGA or Super VGA video card -- any
computer bought after 1985 should be fine.

Klavint provides an easy way to type these characters in applications
that don't support them natively. Once Klavint is installed, you can
type the accented characters by using the semi-colon key. For example,
;c will give the letter c^ and ;g will give the letter g^. Other options
are also available, as explained in the documentation.

VGA-ESP and Klavint are available at
Source code in assembler is provided; the programs are copyrighted but

Windows 3.1 and Windows 95:

Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 are very similar in this respect, so we'll
deal with them at the same time, indicating any differences.

Many fonts with the necessary accented characters are available at
To view True Type fonts without having to install them, use the
freeware program Trowser, available at

Esperanto fonts are also included with the commercial program
WordPerfect for Windows.

To install new fonts under Windows 3.1, go to the group Main, open
Control Panel, then open Fonts. Choose "Add", indicate the font's
location, and choose OK.

Under Windows 95, go to the Control Panel and open Fonts. In the File
menu, choose "Install New Fonts", indicate the font's location, and
choose OK.

Another option is to use the freeware program Supersigno, which
automatically adds the necessary characters to your existing fonts. This
program is available at

To type the accented characters, use the "Character Map" program,
located in the Accessories group. Choose your font, then click on the
character. You can either use Double-Click, Copy and Paste to copy the
character to your application or, more simply, use the keystroke
combination indicated in the bottom right corner of the Character Map

Almost all Esperanto fonts use the Latin-3 coding. Here are the
keystrokes for these fonts. In all cases, press and hold the Alt key,
type the code using the numeric keypad (not the numbers on the top row
of the alphabetic keypad), and release the Alt key.

             ^       ^       ^       ^       ^       ^
Letter:      C       c       G       g       H       h

Code:        0198    0230    0216    0248    0166    0182

             ^       ^       ^       ^       -       -
Letter:      J       j       S       s       U       u

Code:        0172    0188    0222    0254    0221    0253

Under Windows 3.1, you may find it easier to use the Recorder
application (in Accessories) to create macros for these keystroke
combinations. Recorder is no longer included with Windows 95, but you
can copy it from a Windows 3.1 installation and run it under Windows
95. Remember that Recorder must be running to replay a macro.

Here's how to create a macro that will automatically type c-circumflex
when you press Ctrl-C. (These instructions are adapted from the on-line
help for Recorder.)

1. Position the cursor in the application where you want to start
   recording the macro.

2. Switch to Recorder.

3. From the Macro menu, choose Record.

4. In the appropriate boxes, specify a macro name (for example,
   c-accent) and the shortcut key (Ctrl-C). You can also type a
   description, if you want.

5. To begin recording the macro, choose the Start button.

6. Type the keystrokes for c-circumflex (Alt-0230). [This only works for
   me if I type the keystroke combination twice. I have no idea
   why. -- Ed.]

7. To stop recording, click the Recorder icon, or press Ctrl-Break.

8. Select the Save Macro option and choose the OK button.

9. From the File menu, choose Save As and save the macro.

Another way to type the accented characters is to use the freeware
program Keys, available at
This program provides a convenient way to remap the keyboard. Yet
another option is to use the program Supersigno mentioned above, which
also provides an easier way to type the accented characters.

[To do: Evaluate and add Ek, available at
for Windows 95/98.]


(Thanks to Konrad Hinsen for the following information.)

It is sometimes possible to install a font with Esperanto's accented
characters on a Unix system not using the X Window System, but the
procedure to do so is different for each Unix system and possibly for
each terminal type. Look in your documentation, or ask your system
administrator. In the case of Linux, there is a fairly standardized
procedure if you are working on an EGA/VGA screen. Check the
documentation of the command setfont, which is part of most Linux

If you are using a Unix system with X11 (by far the most popular
windowing system for Unix), you must install a text font with ISO 8859-3
encoding (also known as "Latin-3"). Several such fonts are listed at
A good font set is
which contains ISO 8859-3 versions of the Adobe fonts Courier, Times,
Helvetica, and New Century Schoolbook in several sizes. It also contains
installation instructions.

Once you have installed an appropriate font, you must tell your programs
to use it. Most X11 programs, e.g. xterm or emacs, accept the option
"-fn fontname" to specify the font to be used. X11 font names can be
rather long and complicated; use the program "xfontsel" to select a font
and obtain its full name. Note that some older Unix programs are not
"8-bit clean", which means that they do not recognize characters with
codes over 128 as letters. Such programs cannot be made to work with ISO
8859-3 fonts, but neither with the common ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) fonts
used for Western European languages.

To write in Esperanto, you must also be able to type accented
characters. Unfortunately, this is a much more difficult problem. The
X11 input system is, well, rather messy, and details differ between
versions and vendors. Another problem is that different keyboards are
used in different countries, and that you probably want to keep all the
characters on your keyboard accessible. So there are two problems:
deciding how you want to type the additional characters, and persuading
X11 to arrange the keyboard correctly.

Basically, the options for typing Esperanto characters are:

1)  Via some unused keys or key combinations. Keys that are
    often unused are the function keys or the shifted numeric keypad
    keys. Assigning the Esperanto characters to such unused keys is
    rather straightforward, and will be explained below.

2)  Via the standard keys plus a modifier. Modifiers are keys such
    as Shift, Control, Meta, or Alt. The Shift combinations are usually
    all taken, and Control, Meta and Alt are used by many programs for
    command entry, so in most cases this option is difficult to realize.

3)  Via the compose key. X11 supports the entry of accented characters
    via a special "compose" key. Unfortunately, many programs don't work
    correctly with the compose key, and most X11 implementations support
    it only for the ISO 8859-1 character set. You may be able to work
    around these obstacles, but no general recommendations can be given.

The first option is implemented as follows:

1)  Create a file called .xmodmaprc in your home directory, containing
    the following lines:

== File .xmodmaprc ====================================================
! Define Esperanto accented characters on shifted function keys

! ccircumflex
keysym F1 = F1 ae
! Ccircumflex
keysym F2 = F2 AE
! gcircumflex
keysym F3 = F3 oslash
! Gcircumflex
keysym F4 = F4 Ooblique
! hcircumflex
keysym F5 = F5 paragraph
! Hcircumflex
keysym F6 = F6 brokenbar
! jcircumflex
keysym F7 = F7 onequarter
! Jcircumflex
keysym F8 = F8 notsign
! scircumflex
keysym F9 = F9 thorn
! Scircumflex
keysym F10 = F10 THORN
! ubreve
keysym F11 = F11 yacute
! Ubreve
keysym F12 = F12 Yacute
== End of .xmodmaprc ==================================================

2)  Execute the command
        xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc
    To have this command executed automatically, you must put it into a
    special file, which might be called .xinitrc, .xsession or something
    else; you will have to ask your system administrator for assistance.

The keyboard definition shown above will put the 12 special Esperanto
characters on the 12 function keys when used together with the Shift

   ***   I'd like to add information on other operating systems,
   ***   especially OS/2 and Windows NT. Please contact me if you wish
   ***   to help with this.

TeX and LaTeX:

(Thanks to Edmund Grimley-Evans for this information.)

TeX and LaTeX are professional typesetting systems, available as free
software for most computers. Though they are not always easy to use,
they are extremely flexible; they are the standard tool for typesetting
scientific articles and are often used for complex typesetting in the

With TeX or LaTeX any diacritic can be applied to any character, so it
is no harder to produce c-circumflex (\^c) than e-acute (\'e), say. A
large number of "style files" exist to facilitate the use of particular
languages; "esperant.sty" and "espo.sty", available at
and elsewhere, both allow Esperanto's diacritics to be entered as
"^C ... ^u", and the same convention is used by the Babel package for
LaTeX2e which supports about 30 language, including Esperanto.

The programs produce "^j" by putting a circumflex onto a dotless j.
Although TeX's default Computer Modern font has a dotless j (\j), most
commercial fonts, including those that are built into laser printers, do
not. There is a work-around, available as "dotlessj.sty", that involves
blanking out the dot on an ordinary j; see

Note that the Babel package does not include a hyphenation table for
Esperanto so it is usually best to discourage automatic hyphenation
(\hyphenpenalty=5000) and specify the hyphenation of particular words
where required (\hyphenation{Esp-er-anto}).


Accented characters are not included in standard, 7-bit ASCII. Since
only 7-bit ASCII can be reliably transmitted over the net, this leads to
problems when trying to use Esperanto in E-mail and Usenet news. These
problems are not unique to Esperanto; all languages with accents have

Two approaches are possible: using ASCII to represent the accented
characters, or using 8-bit codes and sending them somehow over the net.

Using Standard ASCII:

There are two major work-arounds to represent Esperanto's accented
letters using standard 7-bit ASCII: using the letter "h" to represent
the circumflex, and using the letter "x" to represent all accents.

                    ^    ^    ^    ^    ^    -
Esperanto letter:   c    g    h    j    s    u

"h" method:         ch   gh   hh   jh   sh   u

"x" method:         cx   gx   hx   jx   sx   ux

The "h" method is canonical in Esperanto since the "Fundamento de
Esperanto", which forms the basis of the language, expressly provides
for it. Note that "u with breve" is represented by "u" alone, not "uh".

The "x" method is a recent coinage and first appeared among computer
users; it is used only on the Net.

The following arguments are made in favour of the "x" method:

- The "h" method is ambiguous. Is the letter "h" really supposed to be
there, or is it supposed to represent an accent? The letter "x" doesn't
exist in Esperanto, so there is no ambiguity: any "x" in an Esperanto
text must represent an accent. Rebuttal: This kind of confusion never
happens in practice. "Flughaveno" can only be the Esperanto word for
"airport", since "flug^aveno" isn't a word.

- The "x" method is more suitable for machine treatment of text
(sorting, indexing, etc.). In Esperanto, letters with accents are
different from letters without accents: the alphabet is A, B, C, C^, D,
etc. Since "x" is very close to the end of the alphabet, sorting
algorithms will almost always put the accented letters in their proper
alphabetical order. Rebuttal: These are highly specialized needs.
People who must make their texts machine-treatable can use whatever
method suits their requirements, but this is irrelevant for the vast
majority of Esperanto speakers.

The "x" method was very popular in the early years of the net, but the
"h" method has clearly been gaining ground recently, as more "ordinary"
Esperantists (as opposed to professional computer users, etc.) have
started using the net. Either method may be used with confidence.

The "x" method is perhaps more suitable for beginners, since it removes
all ambiguity, so that a beginner won't try to look up "flug^aveno" in
the dictionary.

Other methods are also used, such as typing a circumflex accent (^)
before or after the accented letter, but these are rarer.

These work-arounds should only be used when one is restricted to 7-bit
ASCII. It is wrong to use them when the real characters are available.
All word processing programs can handle the accented letters correctly;
most typewriters (especially electronic typewriters) can also do so. It
is also wrong to use these work-arounds when hand-writing.

Using 8-bit Codes:

Esperanto is covered by the 8-bit encoding known as Latin-3 (ISO
8859-3:1988). Since 8-bit codes usually cannot be reliably transmitted
over the net, some "data massaging" is necessary.

For E-mail, a standard known as MIME (Multi-Purpose Internet Mail
Extension) converts 8-bit characters to 7-bit ASCII for transmission,
and converts the message back to 8 bits upon reception. Many E-mail
programs can do this conversion automatically; however, users with shell
accounts (especially students) often cannot see MIME messages properly.
For this reason, one should ensure that the recipient's system supports
MIME before sending messages in this format.

The use of MIME in Usenet is neither specifically permitted nor
expressly prohibited. Most newsreaders can't handle postings in MIME, so
it is best not to use it in Usenet.

Some users post messages in soc.culture.esperanto and other Usenet
groups using "raw" Latin-3 codes, without attempting to "protect" them
with a 7-bit encoding. This has lead to some heated discussions between
those who say that they can receive the original 8-bit Latin-3 codes,
and those who say that they often (or always) receive gibberish.

Even if the codes are transmitted properly, they can only be viewed as
Esperanto characters if a Latin-3 font is used; users whose language
requires the use of an incompatible 8-bit font (e.g. Russian and
Japanese) will have problems viewing these characters in any event.

Esperanto's accented characters are covered by the incipient "wide
character" standard Unicode (ISO 10646-1:1993), so these problems will
be solved if and when Unicode is widely adopted and implemented. Unicode
is a widely endorsed 16-bit character code covering all languages,
including non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese and Japanese.


For everyday use, it is probably best to use either the "h" method or
the "x" method, both for E-mail and for Usenet news. These methods are
widely used and recognized, and both work well in practice.

If one is sure that the recipient can handle MIME messages, then this
format can be used for E-mail.

No satisfactory 8-bit solution exists today for Usenet. Either the "h"
method or the "x" method should be used for Usenet news.



The main Usenet newsgroup devoted to Esperanto is soc.culture.esperanto.
It has an estimated readership of several tens of thousands. The group's
charter specifies that postings may be in Esperanto on any topic, or
about Esperanto in any language (e.g. informational postings or requests
for information).

The preferred language of soc.culture.esperanto is Esperanto. Beginners
are ESPECIALLY ENCOURAGED to post in Esperanto, or maybe bilingually in
Esperanto alongside their native tongue. The complete text of the
charter is available at:

If you are cross-posting articles to other newsgroups, please do NOT
post in Esperanto, unless English (or the usual language of that
newsgroup) is also included, preferably as the primary language. Aside
from being rude, such postings have tended to create a lot of unwanted
cross-posted response traffic, usually of an anti-Esperanto inflammatory
nature. Similarly, while it may sometimes be appropriate to mention
Esperanto in other newsgroups, continued discussion of Esperanto in
inappropriate groups like comp.lang.c will generate more heat than
light, and should be avoided.

For those who cannot read the newsgroup, there is a "news to mail
gateway" which sends the postings to subscribers by E-mail. All
correspondence related to the mailing list should be sent to:

Every message sent to the mailing list is forwarded to
soc.culture.esperanto, and every article from soc.culture.esperanto is
forwarded to the mailing list. Thus, if you are reading the newsgroup,
you do not need to be on the mailing list.

To UNsubscribe from the mailing list, again send a message to:

The newsgroup is also gatewayed to the FidoNet echo Esperanto (see below
under FidoNet).

Incidentally, the link between the newsgroup and the mailing list means
that mailing list members will sometimes see strange messages having
nothing to do with Esperanto, caused when some lackwit cross-posts a
message to all the soc.* newsgroups. These people do not read the
newsgroup anyway, so replies sent to the mailing list (rather than the
original sender) will not reach them.

The newsgroup alt.uu.lang.esperanto.misc should deal in principle with
Esperanto instruction ("UU" stands for "Usenet University"), but it is
little used in practice. Still, it is an appropriate place for
beginners' questions, information on learning Esperanto, etc.

The two groups just mentioned -- soc.culture.esperanto and
alt.uu.lang.esperanto.misc -- have existed for several years. Very
recently, some new groups have been created in the alt.* hierarchy.
Because of the rules which apply to that hierarchy, alt.* groups are
often created without any real need and with no clear purpose.

There is some traffic in, mostly articles
cross-posted from soc.culture.esperanto or other groups.

There are also several groups in the newly-created alt.esperanto.*
hierarchy, but their propagation is poor and they are hardly used,
except perhaps for alt.esperanto.beginner.

In short, soc.culture.esperanto (and its corresponding mailing list) is
appropriate for all posts in or about Esperanto. If desired, questions
about learning Esperanto, help for beginners, and the like may be posted
instead in alt.uu.lang.esperanto.misc or, perhaps, in
alt.esperanto.beginner, but they are still entirely appropriate in
soc.culture.esperanto. It is probably best to ignore the other groups.

FTP Archives:

The following FTP archive has a major Esperanto collection:

    esperanto-texts.dir: Texts in Esperanto
    fonts.dir: Esperanto fonts for Macintosh, DOS, Unix
    hypercourse.dir: HyperCard course for Macintosh
    introductions.dir: General information about Esperanto
    other-tongues.dir: Comparisons between Esperanto and other
       auxiliary languages
    software.dir: Programs related to Esperanto
    word-lists.dir: Dictionaries and glossaries

An FTP archive is also being prepared at
but was not yet set up at the time of writing.


There is now A LOT of material about Esperanto on the Web. Here are some
resources which should help you find what you want.

Mult-lingva inform-centro (Multilingual Information Centre):

        Information on Esperanto and links to Esperanto resources in
        35 languages.

Lists of Esperanto associations with WWW pages:

        Links to national Esperanto organizations with WWW pages. In
        Esperanto, but each country is represented by its flag, so it
        should be easy enough to find the information you're looking

        Links to international Esperanto organizations with WWW pages.
        In Esperanto.

        Home page of the World Esperanto Association and of the World
        Organization of Young Esperantists. In Esperanto and English.

The following pages are entirely in Esperanto:

"Yellow Pages":

        List of Esperanto resources on the Web. Maintained by Martin
        Weichert. Much of the information in this section of the FAQ is
        taken from the "Yellow Pages".

Virtual Esperanto Library:

        Links to information about Esperanto, organizations, culture and
        science, and computers. Maintained by Martin Weichert.

See also the usual WWW search services, for example Yahoo at:

If you're feeling adventurous, try simply searching for "Esperanto" with
Alta Vista (700 000 references), Infoseek (25 000 references), or 
Deja News (48 000 references using "Power Search").

Mailing Lists:

Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.esperanto is available as a mailing list.
See under "Usenet", above.

Other mailing lists include:

BJA-LISTO: On planned languages with a social base, or "social
interlinguistics". To subscribe, send "subscribe bja-listo
your_name@your_address" to See also the WWW
pages at

DENASK-L: Esperanto as a home language or first language. Most active
subscribers seem to be parents raising their children in Esperanto. Mail
to Jouko Lindstedt <> to subscribe. See also
the WWW page at

ESPER-L: General discussion in Esperanto. To subscribe, send "subscribe
esper-l" to

VERDVERD: About ecology. To subscribe, send "subscribe verdverd
your_name@your_address" to Maintainer:
Andrzej Zwawa <>.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC):

Channel #esperanto: Tuesday, 15:00 - 17:00 UTC,
and Monday, 3:00 - 6:00 UTC

Esperanto instruction: Thursday, 2:00 UTC

Other Internet Resources:

Enrique Ellemberg <> coordinates an Esperanto penpal
service. For more information, see
or send mail to Enrique.

Some libraries have on-line listings of their Esperanto holdings. On the
Internet, try:

    Library of Congress, USA (550 titles):
    Limited hours during week-ends

    University of California, USA (640 titles):

    Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands (475 titles):
    username "opc"

    Universitaet des Saarlandes, Germany (535 titles):

    Internationale Esperanto-Museum Wien, Austria
    (18 000 titles, of which about 1000 are currently listed in the
    on-line catalogue):


Several Bulletin Board Systems (BBSes) provide Esperanto services.

In North America:

    USA: Microdot BBS, (812) 944-3907, New Albany, Indiana (near
    Part of the WWIV network of BBS systems. WWIV systems may
    subscribe to the Esperanto group "La Samideanoj".

    USA: Satronics TBBS, (215) 464-3562 (1200-2400 bps 8-N-1),
    (215) 698-1905 (28 800 bps 8-N-1)
    Sysop: Mark F. Miller <>
    Has an Esperanto forum. No telnet or WWW access.
    Satronics TBBS is a non-commercial, community-supported BBS.

In South America:

    Brazil: EducNet BBS, +55 61 347 24 83; area no 5 is in Esperanto
    Sysop: Erasmo Gagliardi <>

In Europe:

    Netherlands: Esperantlingva Bultenejo Saluton!,
    tel. +31-53-4326886. FidoNet 2:283/323.
    Sysop: Wim Koolhoven <>
    Devoted entirely to Esperanto.

    Italy: AGORA' telematiko, Torre Argentina Societa' di
    Servizi S.p.A.
    tel. 39-6-6892828 (10) 300/1200/2400 MNP5 N81
         39-6-6832366 (10) 300 > 9600 MNP5 N81 V42 V42bis USRobotics
         1421 (Easy Way Itapac)
    Itapac     NUA 26500016 (32) 1200 N81 S71  DNIC 0222
    Tymnet     login: agora (16) 2400 N81 S71
    Internet   telnet:
    Sysop: "Esperanto" Radikala Asocio <>


International echo: ESPERANTO (same as Usenet group
soc.culture.esperanto), Mario Mueller, 2:241/200.9

Dutch echo: ESPERANTO.028, Wim Koolhoven, 2:283/323

Portuguese echo: ESPERANTO_36, Ze Manel, 2:361/1
(Or Fausto Karvalo, 2:361/1? Still works?)

Common, partly in Russian: ESPERANTO.RUS, Anatoli Gulidov,

Courses, for speakers of Russian and Ukrainian: DR.ESPERANTO,
Va Milushnikov, 2:465/101.2


The mailing list ESPER-L mentioned above is also available in Bitnet.
Send "subscribe esper-l" to listserv@trearn. (Use this address only if
mailing from a Bitnet account. If mailing from an Internet account,
use the address, as mentioned above.)

Minitel, France:

3615 ESPERANTO (1,27 FRF/min):
     General information, contacts, upcoming events

3614 CNX*#ESPERANT (0,36 FRF/min):
     Discussion group, personal mailboxes

3614 CNX*#JEFO (0,36 FRF/min):
     Reserved for members of JEFO (French Organization of Young

3614 PING
     Online chat and mailbox service in four languages
     (French, Esperanto, Italian, and English)

     "300 pages about/in Esperanto"


CompuServe Information Service (CIS) has an Esperanto board in its
Foreign Languages Education Forum. CIS subscribers can type GO FLEFO for
further information.


There is an Esperanto forum in the section "Foreign Languages".

America On Line (AOL):

America Online has about 140 members whose list of interests include
"Esperanto", but no specific Esperanto forum exists.


GEnie has some discussion of Esperanto in the Public Affairs Roundtable
board, Category 15 -- International Affairs, Topic 29.


This FAQ was written by Mike Urban <>. It was brought up
to date and is now maintained by Yves Bellefeuille <>.

Principal contributors: Ken Caviness <>, Alan Gould
<>, Edmund Grimley-Evans
<>, Don Harlow <>,
Konrad Hinsen <>, Dmitri Horowitz
<>, Arnold Victor <>,
Martin Weichert <>, and David Wolff

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

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Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer:
Yves Bellefeuille <>

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM