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alt.hemp CANNABIS/MARIJUANA FAQ


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Archive-name: drugs/hemp-marijuana
Version: 1.0

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
   -------------------------------------------------------
  Welcome to Frequently Asked Questions about Cannabis Hemp
   -------------------------------------------------------


This document contains straight answers to tough questions
about hemp and marijuana.  Every effort has been made to
ensure their accuracy, and sources, if not provided, are
available by request.  BE WARNED -- this text has changed
minds.  The author and contributers do not take
responsibility for any change in outlook, new ideas, or
re-evaluation of one's relationship with current political
parties which may result from allowing photons to travel
into your eyeballs, even when said photons originate from a
cathode ray tube, backlit LCD screen, microfiche reader or
illuminated sheet of paper on which this document is being
displayed.  Unless of course you feel like showering us 
with fan mail and candy-grams.  In that case we'll take the
blame.





       Copyright (c)  1 9 9 4   by Brian S. Julin



               --------------------------

The following persons have contributed to this document at
some point in it's evolution: Laura Kriho
<cohip@darkstar.cygnus.com> (original list of questions),
Marc Anderson (fact finding), Paul L. Allen (LaTeX
formatting) ,plus some others who haven't said they want
their name put in.

This material is maintained and written by Brian S. Julin,
with help from several other individuals.  It is copyrighted
material.  The copyright is only there to prevent anyone
from editing or selling this material.  Feel free to
redistribute the material in any form as long as it is
unaltered in content, and no credit or money is taken for
the contents themselves.  Comments, questions, contributions
or ideas should be mailed to verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu or
c/o Brian S. Julin at UMACRC, S.A.O.  Mailbox #2, Student
Union Building, UMASS, 01003

More information on the document is at the end -- wouldn't
want to bore you...   So without further ado:


                   ----------------------
                   C  O  N  T  E  N  T  S
                   ----------------------

Part1: What's all this fuss about hemp?

1a)  What is hemp?
1b)  What is cannabis?
1c)  Where did the word `marijuana' come from?
2a)  How can hemp be used as a food?
2b)  What are the benefits of hemp compared to other food crops?
2c)  How about soy?  
      Is hemp competitive as a world source of protein?
3a)  How can hemp be used for cloth?
3b)  Why is it better than cotton?
4a)  How can hemp be used to make paper?
4b)  Why can't we just keep using trees?
5a)  How can hemp be used as a fuel?
5b)  Why is it better than petroleum?
6a)  How can hemp be used as a medicine?
6b)  What's wrong with all the prescription drugs we have?
7)   What other uses for hemp are there?

Part 2: So why aren't we using hemp, then?

1)   How and why was hemp made illegal?
2)   OK, so what the heck does all this other stuff have to do 
      with hemp?
3)   Now wait, just hold on.  You expect me to believe that
      they wouldn't have thought to pass a better law, one that
      banned marijuana and allowed commercial hemp, instead of
      throwing the baby out with the bath water?
4)   Is there a lesson to be learned from all this?

Part 3: Does it?  Doesn't it?  Is it true that?

1)   Doesn't marijuana stay in your fat cells and keep you
      high for months?
2)   But ... isn't today's marijuana much more potent than it
      was in the Sixties?  
      (Or, more often ... Marijuana is 10 times more powerful than 
      it was in the Sixties!)
3a)  Doesn't Marijuana cause brain damage?
3b)  If it doesn't kill brain cells, how does it get you `high'?
4)   Don't people die from smoking pot?
5)   I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?
6a)  Is marijuana going to make my boyfriend go psycho?
6b)  Don't users of marijuana withdraw from society?
7)   Is it true that marijuana makes you lazy and unmotivated?
8)   Isn't marijuana a gateway drug?  
      Doesn't it lead to use of harder drugs?
9a)  I don't want children (minors) to be able to smoke marijuana.  
      How can I stop this?
9b)  Won't children be able to steal marijuana plants that
      people are growing?
10a) Hey, don't you know that marijuana drops testosterone
      levels in teenage boys causing [various physical and
      developmental problems]?
10b) Doesn't heavy marijuana use lower the sperm count in males?
10c) I heard marijuana use by teenage girls may impair hormone
      production, menstrual cycles, and fertility.  Is this true?
11)  Go away.
12)  Isn't smoking marijuana worse for you than smoking cigarettes?
13)  Don't children born to pot-smoking mothers suffer from
      ``Fetal Marijuana Syndrome?''
14)  Doesn't marijuana cause a lot of automobile accidents?
15)  Aren't you afraid everyone will get hooked?
16a) Is urine testing for marijuana use as a terms of
      employment a good idea?  
      I want to make sure my business is run safely.
16b) Isn't all this worth the trouble, though, in order to
      reduce accident risks and health care costs?
17)  Wouldn't it be best to just lock the users all up?
18)  I heard that there are over 400 chemicals in marijuana...
      Wellllll...? 
19)  Doesn't that stuff mess up your immune system and make
      it easier for you catch colds?

Part 4:  Why is it still illegal?

1)   Why is it STILL illegal?:
2)   What can I do to bring some sense into our marijuana laws?
3a)  Where can I get more information?
3b)  Umm, I'm computer illiterate, so that just went way over
      my head.  Are there any good books I could go get instead?
4)   Do you have any advice for people who want to organize
      their own group?

Part 5:  Sources by question number

Part 6:  About the alt.hemp FAQ.

 
                 ----------------------
                 P  A  R  T     O  N  E
                 ----------------------

            WHAT'S ALL THIS FUSS ABOUT HEMP?  


1a) What is hemp?
 
    For our purposes, hemp is the plant called `cannabis
    sativa.'  There are other plants that are called hemp, but
    cannabis hemp is the most useful of these plants.  In fact,
    `cannabis sativa' means `useful (sativa) hemp (cannabis)'.
    
    `Hemp' is any durable plant that has been used since
    pre-history for many purposes.  Fiber is the most well known
    product, and the word `hemp' can mean the rope or twine
    which is made from the hemp plant, as well as just the stalk
    of the plant which produced it.




1b) What is cannabis?

    Cannabis is the most durable of the hemp plants, and it
    produces the toughest cloth, called `canvass.'  (Canvass was
    widely used as sails in the early shipping industry, as it
    was the only cloth which would not rot on contact with sea
    spray.)  The cannabis plant also produces three other very
    important products which the other hemp plants do not (in
    usable form, that is): seed, pulp, and medicine.
    
    The pulp is used as fuel, and to make paper.  The seed is
    suitable for both human and animal foods.  The oil from the
    seed can be used in as a base for paints and varnishes.  The
    medicine is a tincture or admixture of the sticky resin in
    the blossoms and leaves of the hemp plant, and is used for a
    variety of purposes.




1c) Where did the word `marijuana' come from?
 
    The word `marijuana' is a Mexican slang term which became
    popular in the late 1930's in America, during a series of
    media and government programs which we now refer to as the
    `Reefer Madness Movement.'  It refers specifically to the
    medicine part of cannabis, which Mexican soldiers used to
    smoke.

    Today in the U.S., hemp (meaning the roots, stalk, and stems
    of the cannabis plant) is legal to possess.  No one can
    arrest you for wearing a hemp shirt, or using hemp paper.
    Marijuana (The flowers, buds, or leaves of the cannabis
    plant) is not legal to possess, and there are stiff fines
    and possible jail terms for having any marijuana in your
    possession.  The seeds are legal to possess and eat, but
    only if they are sterilized (will not grow to maturity.)
    
    Since it is not possible to grow the hemp plant without
    being in possession of marijuana, the United States does not
    produce any industrial hemp products, and must import them
    or, more often, substitute others.  (There is a way to grow
    hemp legally, but it involves filing an application with the
    Drug Enforcement Administration and the DEA very rarely ever
    gives its permission.)  This does not seem to have stopped
    people from producing and using marijuana, though.  In many
    of the United States, marijuana is the number one cash crop,
    mostly because it fetches a very high price on the black
    market.




2a) How can hemp be used as a food?

    Hemp seed is a highly nutritious source of protein and
    essential fatty oils.  Many populations have grown hemp for
    its seed -- most of them eat it as `gruel' which is a lot
    like oatmeal.  The leaves can be used as roughage, but not
    without slight psycho-active side-effects.  Hemp seeds do
    not contain any marijuana and they do not get you `high.'

    Hemp seed protein closely resembles protein as it is found
    in the human blood.  It is fantastically easy to digest, and
    many patients who have trouble digesting food are given hemp
    seed by their doctors.  Hemp seed was once called `edestine'
    and was used by scientists as the model for vegetable
    protein.

    Hemp seed oil provides the human body with essential fatty
    acids.  Hemp seed is the only seed which contains these oils
    with almost no saturated fat.  As a supplement to the diet,
    these oils can reduce the risk of heart disease.  It is
    because of these oils that birds will live much longer if
    they eat hemp seed.

    With hemp seed, a vegan or vegetarian can survive and eat
    virtually no saturated fats.  One handful of hemp seed per
    day will supply adequate protein and essential oils for an
    adult.




2b) What are the benefits of hemp compared to other food crops?
 
    Hemp requires little fertilizer, and grows well almost
    everywhere.  It also resists pests, so it uses little
    pesticides.  Hemp puts down deep roots, which is good for
    the soil, and when the leaves drop off the hemp plant,
    minerals and nitrogen are returned to the soil.  Hemp has
    been grown on the same soil for twenty years in a row
    without any noticeable depletion of the soil.

    Using less fertilizer and agricultural chemicals is good for
    two reasons.  First, it costs less and requires less effort.
    Second, many agricultural chemicals are dangerous and
    contaminate the environment -- the less we have to use, the
    better.




2c) How about soy?  
    Is hemp competitive as a world source of protein?

    Hemp does not produce quite as much protein as soy, but
    hemp seed protein is of a higher quality than soy.
    Agricultural considerations may make hemp the food crop of
    the future.  In addition to the fact that hemp is an easy
    crop to grow, it also resists UV-B light, which is a kind of
    sunlight blocked by the ozone layer.  Soy beans do not take
    UV-B light very well.  If the ozone layer were to deplete by
    16%, which by some estimates is very possible, soy
    production would fall by 25-30%.
    
    We may have to grow hemp or starve -- and it won't be the
    first time that this has happened.  Hemp has been used to
    `bail out' many populations in time of famine.
    Unfortunately, because of various political factors,
    starving people in today's underdeveloped countries are not
    taking advantage of this crop.  In some places, this is
    because government officials would call it `marijuana' and
    pull up the crop.  In other countries, it is because the
    farmers are busy growing coca and poppies to produce cocaine
    and heroin for the local Drug Lord.  This is truly a sad
    state of affairs.  Hopefully someday the Peace Corps will be
    able to teach modern hemp seed farming techniques and end
    the world's protein shortage.





3a) How can hemp be used for cloth?
     
    The stalk of the hemp plant has two parts, called the
    bast and the hurd.  The fiber (bast) of the hemp plant can
    be woven into almost any kind of cloth.  It is very durable.
    In fact, the first Levi's blue jeans were made out of hemp
    for just this reason.  Compared to all the other natural
    fibers available, hemp is more suitable for a large number
    of applications.
    
    Here is how hemp is harvested for fiber: A field of closely
    spaced hemp is allowed to grow until the leaves fall off.
    The hemp is then cut down and it lies in the field for some
    time washed by the rain.  It is turned over once to expose
    both sides of the stalk evenly.  During this time, the hurd
    softens up and many minerals are returned to the soil.  This
    is called `retting,' and after this step is complete, the
    stalks are brought to a machine which separates the bast and
    the hurd.  We are lucky to have machines today -- men used
    to do this last part by hand with hours of back-breaking
    labor.





3b) Why is it better than cotton?

    The cloth that hemp makes may be a little less soft than
    cotton, (though there are also special kinds of hemp, or
    ways to grow or treat hemp, that can produce a soft cloth)
    but it is much stronger and longer lasting. (It does not
    stretch out.)  Environmentally, hemp is a better crop to
    grow than cotton, especially the way cotton is grown
    nowadays.  In the United States, the cotton crop uses half
    of the total pesticides.  (Yes, you heard right, one half of
    the pesticides used in the entire U.S. are used on cotton.)
    Cotton is a soil damaging crop and needs a lot of
    fertilizer.




4a) How can hemp be used to make paper?
 
    Both the fiber (bast) and pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant
    can be used to make paper.  Fiber paper was the first kind
    of paper, and the first batch was made out of hemp in
    ancient China.  Fiber paper is thin, tough, brittle, and a
    bit rough.  Pulp paper is not as strong as fiber paper, but
    it is easier to make, softer, thicker, and preferable for
    most everyday purposes.  The paper we use most today is a
    `chemical pulp' paper made from trees.  Hemp pulp paper can
    be made without chemicals from the hemp hurd.  Most hemp
    paper made today uses the entire hemp stalk, bast and hurd.
    High-strength fiber paper can be made from the hemp baste,
    also without chemicals.
    
    The problem with today's paper is that so many chemicals are
    used to make it.  High strength acids are needed to make
    quality (smooth, strong, and white) paper out of trees.
    These acids produce chemicals which are very dangerous to
    the environment.  Paper companies do their best to clean
    these chemicals up (we hope.)  Hemp offers us an opportunity
    to make affordable and environmentally safe paper for all of
    our needs, since it does not need much chemical treatment.
    It is up to consumers, though, to make the right choice --
    these dangerous chemicals can also be used on hemp to make a
    slightly more attractive product.  Instead of buying the
    whiter, brighter role of toilet paper, we will need to think
    about what we are doing to the planet.
    
    Because of the chemicals in today's paper, it will turn
    yellow and fall apart as acids eat away at the pulp.  This
    takes several decades, but because of this publishers,
    libraries and archives have to order specially processed
    acid free paper, which is much more expensive, in order to
    keep records.  Paper made naturally from hemp is acid free
    and will last for centuries.




4b) Why can't we just keep using trees?

    The chemicals used to make wood chemical pulp paper today
    could cause us a lot of trouble tomorrow.  Environmentalists
    have long been concerned about the effects of dioxin and
    other compounds on wildlife and even people.  Beyond the
    chemical pollution, there are agricultural reasons why we
    should use cannabis hemp instead.  When trees are harvested,
    minerals are taken with them.  Hemp is much less damaging to
    the land where it is grown because it leaves these minerals
    behind.
    
    A simpler answer to the above question is:

    Because we are running out!  It was once said that a
    squirrel could climb from New England to the banks of the
    Mississippi River without touching the ground once.  The
    European settler's appetite for firewood and farmland put an
    end to this.  When the first wood paper became a huge
    industry, the United States Department of Agriculture began
    to worry about the `tree supply.'  That is why they went in
    search of plant pulp to replace wood.  Today some
    `conservatives' argue that there are more forests now than
    there ever were.  This is neither true, realistic nor
    conservative: these statistics do not reflect the real
    world.  Once trees have been removed from a plot of land, it
    takes many decades before biological diversity and natural
    cycles return to the forest, and commercial tree farms
    simply do not count as forest -- they are farm land.

    As just mentioned, many plant fibers were investigated by
    the USDA -- some, like kenaf, were even better suited than
    cannabis hemp for making some qualities of paper, but hemp
    had one huge advantage: robust vitality.  Hemp generates
    immense amounts of plant matter in a three month growing
    season.  When it came down to producing the deluge of paper
    used by Americans, only hemp could compete with trees.  In
    fact, according to the 1916 calculations of the USDA, one
    acre of hemp would replace an entire four acres of forest.
    And, at the same time, this acre would be producing textiles
    and rope.
    
    Today, only 4% of America's old-growth forest remains
    standing -- and there is talk about building roads into that
    for logging purposes!  Will our policy makers realize in
    time how easy it would be to save them?
    



5a) How can hemp be used as a fuel?
 
    The pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant can be burned as is or
    processed into charcoal, methanol, methane, or gasoline.
    The process for doing this is called destructive
    distillation, or `pyrolysis.'  Fuels made out of plants like
    this are called `biomass' fuels.  This charcoal may be
    burned in today's coal-powered electric generators.
    Methanol makes a good automobile fuel, in fact it is used in
    professional automobile races.  It may someday replace
    gasoline.
    
    Hemp may also be used to produce ethanol (grain alcohol.)
    The United States government has developed a way to make
    this automobile fuel additive from cellulosic biomass.  Hemp
    is an excellent source of high quality cellulosic biomass.
    One other way to use hemp as fuel is to use the oil from the
    hemp seed -- some diesel engines can run on pure pressed
    hemp seed oil.  However, the oil is more useful for other
    purposes, even if we could produce and press enough hemp
    seed to power many millions of cars.




5b) Why is it better than petroleum?

    Biomass fuels are clean and virtually free from metals
    and sulfur, so they do not cause nearly as much air
    pollution as fossil fuels.  Even more importantly, burning
    biomass fuels does not increase the total amount of carbon
    dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere.  When petroleum products
    are burned, carbon that has been stored underground for
    millions of years is added to the air; this may contribute
    to global warming through the `Greenhouse Effect', (a
    popular theory which says that certain gases will act like a
    wool blanket over the entire Earth, preventing heat from
    escaping into space.)  In order to make biomass fuels, this
    carbon dioxide has to be taken out of the air to begin with
    -- when they are burned it is just being put back where it
    started.

    Another advantage over fossil fuels is that biomass fuels
    can be made right here in the United States, instead of
    buying them from other countries.  Instead of paying oil
    drillers, super-tanker captains, and soldiers to get our
    fuel to us, we could pay local farmers and delivery drivers
    instead.  Of course, it is possible to chop down trees and
    use them as biomass.  This would not be as beneficial to the
    environment as using hemp, especially since trees that are
    cut down for burning are `whole tree harvested.'  This means
    the entire tree is ripped up and burned, not just the wood.
    Since most of the minerals which trees use are in the
    leaves, this practice could ruin the soil where the trees
    are grown.  In several places in the United States, power
    companies are starting to do this -- burning the trees in
    order to produce electricity, because that is cheaper than
    using coal.  They should be using hemp, like researchers in
    Australia started doing a few years ago.  (Besides, hemp
    provides a higher quality and quantity of biomass than trees
    do.)





6a) How can hemp be used as a medicine?
 
    Marijuana has thousands of possible uses in medicine.
    Marijuana (actually cannabis extract) was available as a
    medicine legally in this country until 1937, and was sold as
    a nerve tonic -- but mankind has been using cannabis
    medicines much longer than that.  Marijuana appears in
    almost every known book of medicine written by ancient
    scholars and wise men.  It is usually ranked among the top
    medicines, called `panaceas', a word which means `cure-all'.
    The list of diseases which cannabis can be used for
    includes: multiple sclerosis, cancer treatment, AIDS (and
    AIDS treatment), glaucoma, depression, epilepsy, migraine
    headaches, asthma, pruritis, sclerodoma, severe pain, and
    dystonia.  This list does not even consider the other
    medicines which can be made out of marijuana -- these are
    just some of the illnesses for which people smoke or eat
    whole marijuana today.

    There are over 60 chemicals in marijuana which may have
    medical uses.  It is relatively easy to extract these into
    food or beverage, or into some sort of lotion, using butter,
    fat, oil, or alcohol.  One chemical, cannabinol, may be
    useful to help people who cannot sleep.  Another is taken
    from premature buds and is called cannabidiolic acid.  It is
    a powerful disinfectant.  Marijuana dissolved in rubbing
    alcohol helps people with the skin disease herpes control
    their sores, and a salve like this was one of the earliest
    medical uses for cannabis.  The leaves were once used in
    bandages and a relaxing non-psychoactive herbal tea can be
    made from small cannabis stems.
    
    The most well known use of marijuana today is to control
    nausea and vomiting.  One of the most important things when
    treating cancer with chemotherapy or when treating AIDS with
    AZT or Foscavir, being able to eat well, makes the
    difference between life or death.  Patients have found
    marijuana to be extremely effective in fighting nausea; in
    fact so many patients use it for this purpose even though it
    is illegal that they have formed `buyers clubs' to help them
    find a steady supply.  In California, some city governments
    have decided to look the other way and allow these clubs to
    operate openly.
    
    Marijuana is also useful for fighting two other very serious
    and wide-spread disabilities.  Glaucoma is the second
    leading cause of blindness, caused by uncontrollable eye
    pressure.  Marijuana can control the eye pressure and keep
    glaucoma from causing blindness.  Multiple Sclerosis is a
    disease where the body's immune system attacks nerve cells.
    Spasms and many other problems result from this.  Marijuana
    not only helps stop these spasms, but it may also keep
    multiple sclerosis from getting worse.





6b) What's wrong with all the prescription drugs we have?

    They cost money and are hard to make.  In many cases,
    they do not work as well, either.  Some prescription drugs
    which marijuana can replace have very bad, even downright
    dangerous, side-effects.  Cannabis medicines are cheap,
    safe, and easy to make.

    Many people think that the drug dronabinol should be used
    instead of marijuana.  Dronabinol is an exact imitation of
    one of the chemicals found in marijuana, and it may actually
    work on a lot of the above diseases, but there are some big
    problems with dronabinol, and most patients who have used
    both dronabinol and marijuana say that marijuana works
    better.

    The first problem with Dronabinol is that it is even harder
    to get than marijuana.  Many doctors do not like to
    prescribe dronabinol, and many drug stores do not want to
    supply it, because a lot of paperwork has to be filed with
    the Drug Enforcement Administration.  Secondly, dronabinol
    comes in pills which are virtually useless to anyone who is
    throwing up, and it is hard to take just the right amount of
    dronabinol since it cannot be smoked.  Finally, because
    dronabinol is only one of the many chemicals in cannabis, it
    just does not work for some diseases.  Many patients do not
    like the effects of dronabinol because it does not contain
    some of the more calming chemicals which are present in
    marijuana.




7) What other uses for hemp are there?

    One of the newest uses of hemp is in construction
    materials.  Hemp can be used in the manufacture of `press
    board' or `composite board.'  This involves gluing fibrous
    hemp stalks together under pressure to produce a board which
    is many times more elastic and durable than hardwood.
    Because hemp produces a long, tough fiber it is the perfect
    source for press-board.  Another interesting application of
    hemp in industry is making plastic.  Many plastics can be
    made from the high-cellulose hemp hurd.  Hemp seed oil has a
    multitude of uses in products such as varnishes and
    lubricants.
    
    Using hemp to build is by no means a new idea.  French
    archeologists have discovered bridges built with a process
    that mineralizes hemp stalks into a long-lasting cement.
    The process involves no synthetic chemicals and produces a
    material which works as a filler in building construction.
    Called Isochanvre, it is gaining popularity in France.
    Isochanvre can be used as drywall, insulates against heat
    and noise, and is very long lasting.
    
    `Bio-plastics' are not a new idea, either -- way back in the
    1930's Henry Ford had already made a whole car body out of
    them -- but the processes for making them do need more
    research and development.  Bio-plastics can be made without
    much pollution.  Unfortunately, companies are not likely to
    explore bio-plastics if they have to either import the raw
    materials or break the law.  (Not to mention compete with
    the already established petrochemical products.)



                    -----------------------
                    P  A  R  T      T  W  O
                    -----------------------




              WELL WHY AREN'T WE USING HEMP, THEN?  


1) How and why was hemp made illegal?

    Tough question!  In order to explain why hemp, the most
    useful plant known to mankind, became illegal, we have to
    understand the reasons why marijuana, the drug, became
    illegal.  In fact, it helps to go way back to the beginning
    of the century and talk about two other drugs, opium (the
    grandfather of heroin) and cocaine.
    
    Opium, a very addictive drug (but relatively harmless by
    today's standards) was once widely used by the Chinese.  The
    reasons for this are a whole other story, but suffice to say
    that when Chinese started to immigrate to the United States,
    they brought opium with them.  Chinese workers used opium to
    induce a trance-like state which helped make boring,
    repetitive tasks more interesting.  It also numbs the mind
    to pain and exhaustion.  By using opium, the Chinese were
    able to pull very long hours in the sweat shops of the
    Industrial Revolution.  During this period of time, there
    was no such thing as fair wages, and the only way a worker
    could make a living was to produce as much as humanly
    possible.
    
    Since they were such good workers, the Chinese held a lot of
    jobs in the highly competitive industrial work-place.  Even
    before the Great Depression, when millions of jobs
    disappeared overnight, the White Americans began to resent
    this, and Chinese became hated among the White working
    class.  Even more than today, White Americans had a very big
    political advantage over the Chinese -- they spoke English
    and had a few relatives in the government, so it was easy
    for them to come up with a plan to force Chinese immigrants
    to leave the country (or at least keep them from inviting
    all their relatives to come and live in America.)  This plan
    depended on stirring up racist feelings, and one of the
    easiest things to focus these feelings on was the foreign
    and mysterious practice of using opium.
    
    We can see this pattern again with cocaine, except with
    cocaine it was Black Americans who were the target.  Cocaine
    probably was not especially useful in the work-place, but
    the strategy against Chinese immigrants (picking on their
    drug of choice) had been so successful that it was used
    again.  In the case of Blacks, though, the racist feelings
    ran deeper, and the main thrust of the propaganda campaign
    was to control the Black community and keep Blacks from
    becoming successful.  Articles appeared in newspapers which
    blamed cocaine for violent crime by Blacks.  Black Americans
    were painted as savage, uncontrollable beasts when under the
    influence of cocaine -- it was said to make a single Black
    man as strong as four or five police officers.  (sound
    familiar?)  By capitalizing on racist sentiments, a powerful
    political lobby banned opium and then cocaine.
    
    Marijuana was next.  It was well known that the Mexican
    soldiers who fought America during the war with Spain smoked
    marijuana.  Poncho Villa, A Mexican general, was considered
    a nemesis for the behavior of his troops, who were known to
    be especially rowdy.  They were also known to be heavy
    marijuana smokers, as the original lyrics to the song `la
    cucaracha' show.  (The song was originally about a Mexican
    soldier who refused to march until he was provided with some
    marijuana.)
    
    After the war had ended and Mexicans had begun to immigrate
    into the South Eastern United States, there were relatively
    few race problems.  There were plenty of jobs in agriculture
    and industry and Mexicans were willing to work cheap.  Once
    the depression hit and jobs became scarce, however, Mexicans
    suddenly became a public nuisance.  It was said by
    politicians (who were trying to please the White working
    class) that Mexicans were responsible for a violent crime
    wave.  Police statistics showed nothing of the sort -- in
    fact Mexicans were involved in less crime than Whites.
    Marijuana, of course, got the blame for this phony outbreak
    of crime and health problems, and so many of these states
    made laws against using cannabis.  (In the Northern states,
    marijuana was also associated with Black jazz musicians.)
    
    Here is where things start to get complicated.  Put aside,
    for a moment, all the above, because there are a few other
    things involved in this twisted tale.  At the beginning of
    the Great Depression, there was a very popular movement
    called Prohibition, which made alcohol illegal.  This was
    motivated mainly by a Puritan religious ethic left over from
    the first European settlers.  Today we have movies and
    television shows such as the ``Untouchables'' which tell us
    what it was like to live during this period.  Since it is
    perhaps the world's most popular drug, alcohol prohibition
    spawned a huge `black market' where illegal alcohol was
    smuggled and traded at extremely high prices.  Crime got
    out-of-hand as criminals fought with each other over who
    could sell alcohol where.  Organized crime became an
    American institution, and hard liquor, which was easy to
    smuggle, took the place of beer and wine.
    
    In order to combat the crime wave, a large police force was
    formed.  The number of police grew rapidly until the end of
    Prohibition when the government decided that the best way to
    deal with the situation was to just give up and allow people
    to use alcohol legally.  Under Prohibition the American
    government had essentially (and unwittingly) provided the
    military back-up for the take-over of the alcohol business
    by armed thugs.  Even today, the Mob still controls liquor
    sales in many areas.  After Prohibition the United States
    was left with nothing to show but a decade of political
    turmoil -- and a lot of unemployed police officers.
    
    During Prohibition, being a police officer was a very nice
    thing -- you got a relatively decent salary, respect,
    partial immunity to the law, and the opportunity to take
    bribes (if you were that sort of person.)  Many of these
    officers were not about to let this life-style slip away.
    Incidentally, it was about this time when the Federal Bureau
    of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs was reformed, and a man
    named Harry J. Anslinger was appointed as its head.
    (Anslinger was appointed by his uncle-in-law, Andrew Mellon,
    who was the Secretary of the United States Treasury.)
    Anslinger campaigned tirelessly for funding in order to hire
    a large force of narcotics officers.  After retiring,
    Anslinger once mused that the FBNDD was a place where young
    men were given a license to steal and rape.
    
    The FBNDD is the organization which preceded what we now
    call the DEA, and was responsible for enforcing the new
    Federal drug laws against heroin, opium, and cocaine.  One
    of Anslinger's biggest concerns as head of the FBNDD was
    getting uniform drug laws passed in all States and the
    Federal legislature.  (Anslinger also had a personal dislike
    of jazz music and the Black musicians who made it.  He hated
    them so much that he spent years tracking each of them and
    dreamed of arresting them all in one huge, cross-country
    sweep.)  Anslinger frequented parent's and teacher's
    meetings giving scary speeches about the dangers of
    marijuana, and this period of time became known as Reefer
    Madness.  (The name comes from the title of a silly movie
    produced by a public health group.)





2) OK, so what the heck does all this other stuff have to do 
   with hemp?

    To make a long story short, during the first decades of this 
    century, opium was made illegal to kick out the Chinese 
    immigrants who had flooded the work-force.  Cocaine was made 
    illegal to repress and control the Black community.  
    And, marijuana was made illegal in order to control Mexicans 
    in the Southeast (and Blacks.)  All these laws were based 
    mainly on emotional racism, without much else to back them 
    up -- you can easily tell this by reading the hearings held 
    in state legislatures.  Also at this time, the end of 
    Prohibition left us with a large force of unemployed police 
    officers, who looked for work enforcing the new drug laws.
    Consequently, these same police officers needed to convince
    the country that their jobs were important.  They did so by
    scaring parents about the dangers of drugs.  All this set
    the stage for a law passed in the Federal legislature which
    put a prohibitive tax on marijuana.  This is what killed the
    hemp industry in 1937, since it made business in hemp
    impossible.
    
    Before the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, the state of Kentucky was
    the center of a relatively large American hemp industry
    which produced cloth and tow (rope for use in shipping.)
    The industry would have been larger, but hemp had one major
    disadvantage: processing it required a lot of work.  Men had
    to `brake' hemp stalks in order to separate the fiber from
    the woody core.  This was done on a small machine called a
    hand-brake, and it was a job fit for Hercules.  It was not
    until the 1930's that machines to do this became widely
    available.
    
    Today we use paper made by a process called `chemical
    pulping'.  Before this, trees were processed by `mechanical
    pulping' instead, which was much more expensive.  At about
    the same time as machines to brake hemp appeared, the idea
    of using hemp hurds for making paper and plastic was
    proposed.  Hemp hurds were normally considered to be a
    worthless waste product that was thrown away after it was
    stripped of fiber.  New research showed that these hurds
    could be used instead of wood in mechanical pulping, and
    that this would drastically reduce the cost of making paper.
    Popular Mechanics Magazine predicted that hemp would rise to
    become the number one crop in America.  In fact, the 1937
    Marijuana Tax Act was so unexpected that Popular Mechanics
    had already gone to press with a cover story about hemp,
    published in 1938 just two months after the Tax Act took
    effect.
    

3) Now wait, just hold on.  You expect me to believe that
   they wouldn't have thought to pass a better law, one that
   banned marijuana and allowed commercial hemp, instead of
   throwing the baby out with the bath water?

    There's more.  `Chemical pulping' paper was invented at
    about this time by Dupont Chemicals, as part of a
    multi-million dollar deal with a timber holding company and
    newspaper chain owned by William Randolph Hearst.  This deal
    would provide the Hearst with a source of very cheap paper,
    and he would go on to be known as the tycoon of `yellow
    journalism' (so named because the new paper would turn
    yellow very quickly as it got older.)  Hearst knew that he
    could drive other papers out of competition with this new
    advantage.  Hemp paper threatened to ruin this whole plan.
    It had to be stopped, and the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was
    the way they did it.  As a drug law, the Tax Act really was
    not a very big step -- it did not really accomplish much at
    all and many historians have caught themselves wondering why
    the bill was even written.  Big business interests took
    advantage of the political climate of racism and anti-drug
    rhetoric to close the free market to hemp products, and
    _that_, my friend, is how hemp became illegal.

    (Whew!)

    For the 1930's, this business venture was one very large
    transaction; it included other timber companies and a few
    railroads.  Dupont's entire deal was backed by a banker
    named Andrew Mellon.  Don't look up!  That's the same Andrew
    Mellon who appointed his nephew-in-law Harry Anslinger to
    head up the FBNDD in 1931.  The Marijuana Tax Act was passed
    in a very unorthodox way, and nobody who would have objected
    was informed about the bill.  The American Medical
    Association found out about the bill only two days before
    the hearings, and sent a representative to object to the
    banning of cannabis medicines.  A hemp bird seed salesman
    also showed up and complained.  However, the bill was
    passed, partially due to the testimony of Harry J.
    Anslinger.
    
    Not that Americans would have protested against this bill,
    even if they had known it existed most Americans did not
    know that cannabis hemp and marijuana is the same thing.
    The separate word `marijuana' was one of the reasons for
    this.  Nobody would associate the evil weed from Mexico with
    the stuff they tied their shoes with.  Also, this was the
    time when synthetic fabrics were the latest fad -- nobody
    was interested in natural fibers any more.  To top this all
    off the word `hemp' was often wrongly used to refer to other
    natural fabrics, specifically jute.
    
    The ignorance of hemp continues today, but it is even more
    scary.  During the 1970's (Reefer Madness II) all mention of
    the word `hemp' was removed from high school text books here
    in the United States.  So much for free speech!  When Jack
    Herer, the world's most beloved hemp activist, asked a
    curator at the Smithsonian Museum why this word had been
    removed from all their exhibits, the answer he got was
    astounding: ``Children do not need to know about hemp
    anymore.  It confuses them.''  Jack Herer went on to uncover
    a film made by the United States government, a film which
    the government did not want to admit existed.  The film
    ``Hemp For Victory'' details how the United States
    government bypassed the Tax Act during World War II, when
    they needed hemp for the War Effort, and ran a large
    hemp-growing project in Kentucky and California.  (Bravo,
    Jack!)
    

4) Is there a lesson to be learned from all this?

    Several.  The first is that hate does not pay.  It is
    ironic that the racism of the American people would end up
    hurting them this way -- a sort of divine justice if you
    will.  Because Americans were blinded by fear, hatred, and
    intolerance of other races, they allowed a prosperous future
    to slip between their fingers.  Another thing this whole
    history tells us is that Americans need to take Democracy
    more seriously.  If they had devoted more of their time to
    informing themselves about the world around them, they would
    have known what the real issues were.  Instead they read the
    tabloids -- look where that has gotten us.  Finally, now
    that we have put marijuana prohibition into historical
    context, we can see clearly that it had nothing to do with
    public safety, or national security, or what have you.  By
    all rights, marijuana should not have been made illegal in
    the first place.  If today prohibition still has no rational
    basis to stand on, then let us repeal it.
    
    One point which bears emphasizing is this: the laws which
    are passed in this country may not mean what they say on
    paper.  Historically the United States has a long record of
    passing laws with ulterior motives.  Even when there is no
    ulterior motive, though, passing laws which are not specific
    enough leads to abuse.  Most of our tough drug laws are like
    this -- enacted to fight drug kingpins, but enforced against
    casual drug users and small-time drug dealers.  In fact,
    most of these laws never even get used against a real drug
    kingpin, and the first people prosecuted under the statutes
    are not what the legislators had in mind.  If this upsets
    you, you should pay more attention to what goes on in your
    legislature.

  
                   -----------------------------
                   P  A  R  T      T  H  R  E  E
                   -----------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The next question would normally be ``Why is it _still_ not
legal,'' but since we have uncovered an understanding of the
history, it is time to take a little detour.  Politicians
love to tell us that marijuana must remain illegal for our
own good.  In the next section we will examine some of the
so-called facts about marijuana so that you can decide for
yourselves whether you agree or not.  Is marijuana
prohibition there to protect the people, or is it just the
result of decades of refusal to admit our
mistakes?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------



             DOES IT?  DOESN'T IT?  IS IT TRUE THAT?




1) Doesn't marijuana stay in your fat cells and keep you
   high for months?

    No.  The part of marijuana that gets you high is called
    `Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.'  Most people just call this
    THC, but this is confusing: your body will change
    Delta-9-THC into more inert molecules known as
    `metabolites,' which don't get you high.  Unfortunately,
    these chemicals also have the word `tetrahydrocannabinol' in
    them and they are also called THC -- so many people think
    that the metabolites get you high.  Anti-drug pamphlets say
    that THC gets stored in your fat cells and then leaks out
    later like one of those `time release capsules' advertised
    on television.  They say it can keep you high all day or
    even longer.  This is not true, marijuana only keeps you
    high for a few hours, and it is not right to think that a
    person who fails a drug test is always high on drugs,
    either.

    Two of these metabolites are called
    `11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol' and
    `11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol' but we will
    call them 11-OH-THC and 11-nor instead.  These are the
    chemicals which stay in your fatty cells.  There is almost
    no Delta-9-THC left over a few hours after smoking
    marijuana, and scientific studies which measure the effects
    of marijuana agree with this fact.





2) But ... isn't today's marijuana much more potent than it
   was in the Sixties?  
   (Or, more often ... Marijuana is 10 times more powerful than 
   it was in the Sixties!)

    GOOD!  Actually, this is not true, but if it were, it
    would mean that marijuana is safer to smoke today than it
    was in the Sixties.  (More potent cannabis means less
    smoking means less lung damage.)  People who use this
    statistic just plain do not know what they are talking
    about.  Sometimes they will even claim that marijuana is now
    twenty to thirty times stronger, which is physically
    impossible because it would have to be *over* 100%
    Delta-9-THC.  The truth is, marijuana has not really changed
    potency all that much, if at all, in the last several
    hundred years.  Growing potent cannabis is an ancient art
    which has not improved in centuries, despite all our modern
    technology.  Before marijuana was even made illegal, drug
    stores sold tinctures of cannabis which were over 40% THC.
    
    Even so, the point is moot because marijuana smokers engage
    in something called `auto-titration.'  This basically means
    smoking until they are satisfied and then stopping, so it
    does not really matter if the marijuana is more potent
    because they will smoke less of it.  Marijuana is not like
    pre-moistened towelettes or snow-cones.  There is nothing
    forcing marijuana smokers to smoke an entire joint.
    
    Experienced marijuana users are accustomed to smoking
    marijuana from many different suppliers, and they know that
    if they smoke a whole joint of very potent bud they will get
    `TOO STONED'.  Since being `too stoned' is a rather
    unpleasant experience, smokers quickly learn to take their
    time and `test the waters' when they do not know how strong
    their marijuana is.





3a) Doesn't Marijuana cause brain damage?

    The short answer: No.

    The long answer: The reason why you ask this is because you
    probably heard or read somewhere that marijuana damages
    brain cells, or makes you stupid.  These claims are untrue.
    
    The first one -- marijuana kills brain cells -- is based on
    research done during the second Reefer Madness Movement.  A
    study attempted to show that marijuana smoking damaged brain
    structures in monkeys.  However, the study was poorly
    performed and it was severely criticized by a medical review
    board.  Studies done afterwards failed to show any brain
    damage, in fact a very recent study on Rhesus monkeys used
    technology so sensitive that scientists could actually see
    the effect of learning on brain cells, and it found no
    damage.
    
    But this was Reefer Madness II, and the prohibitionists were
    looking around for anything they could find to keep the
    marijuana legalization movement in check, so this study was
    widely used in anti-marijuana propaganda.  It was recanted
    later.
    
    (To this day, the radical anti-drug groups, like P.R.I.D.E.
    and Dr.  Gabriel Nahas, still use it -- In fact, America's
    most popular drug education program, Drug Abuse Resistance
    Education, claims that marijuana ``can impair memory
    perception & judgement by destroying brain cells.''  When
    police and teachers read this and believe it, our job gets
    really tough, since it takes a long time to explain to
    children how Ms. Jones and Officer Bob were wrong.)
    
    The truth is, no study has ever demonstrated cellular
    damage, stupidity, mental impairment, or insanity brought on
    specifically by marijuana use -- even heavy marijuana use.
    This is not to say that it cannot be abused, however.





3b) If it doesn't kill brain cells, how does it get you `high'?

    Killing brain cells is not a pre-requisite for getting
    `high.'  Marijuana contains a chemical which substitutes for
    a natural brain chemical, with a few differences.  This
    chemical touches special `buttons' on brain cells called
    `receptors.'  Essentially, marijuana `tickles' brain cells.
    The legal drug alcohol also tickles brain cells, but it will
    damage and kill them by producing toxins (poisons) and
    sometimes mini-seizures.  Also, some drugs will wear out the
    buttons which they push, but marijuana does not.





4) Don't people die from smoking pot?

    Nobody has ever overdosed.  For any given substance,
    there are bound to be some people who have allergic
    reactions.  With marijuana this is extremely rare, but it
    could happen with anything from apples to pop-tarts.  Not
    one death has ever been directly linked to marijuana itself.
    In contrast, many legal drugs cause hundreds to hundreds of
    thousands of deaths per year, foremost among them are
    alcohol, nicotine, valium, aspirin, and caffiene.  The
    biggest danger with marijuana is that it is illegal, and
    someone may mix it with another drug like PCP.
    
    Marijuana is so safe that it would be almost impossible to
    overdose on it.  Doctors determine how safe a drug is by
    measuring how much it takes to kill a person (they call this
    the LD50) and comparing it to the amount of the drug which
    is usually taken (ED50).  This makes marijuana hundreds of
    times safer than alcohol, tobacco, or caffiene.  According
    to a DEA Judge ``marijuana is the safest therapeutically
    active substance known to mankind.''
    




5) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?

    The effect of marijuana on memory is its most dramatic
    and the easiest to notice.  Many inexperienced marijuana
    users find that they have very strange, sudden and
    unexpected memory lapses.  These usually take the form of
    completely forgetting what you were talking about when you
    were right in the middle of saying something important.
    However, these symptoms only occur while a person is `high'.
    They do not carry over or become permanent, and examinations
    of extremely heavy users has not shown any memory or
    thinking problems.  More experienced marijuana users seem to
    be able to remember about as well as they do when they are
    not `high.'

    Studies which have claimed to show short-term memory
    impairment have not stood up to scrutiny and have not been
    duplicated.  Newer studies show that marijuana does not
    impair simple, real-world memory processes.  Marijuana does
    slow reaction time slightly, and this effect has sometimes
    been misconstrued as a memory problem.  To put things in
    perspective, one group of researchers made a control group
    hold their breath, like marijuana smokers do.  Marijuana
    itself only produced about twice as many effects on test
    scores as breath holding.  Many people use marijuana to
    study.  Other people cannot, for some reason, use marijuana
    and do anything that involves deep thought.  Nobody knows
    what makes the difference.




6a) Is marijuana going to make my boyfriend go psycho?
    
    Marijuana does not `cause' psychosis.  Psychotic people
    can smoke marijuana and have an episode, but there is
    nothing in marijuana that actually initiates or increases
    these episodes.  Of course, if any mentally ill person is
    given marijuana for the first time or without their
    knowledge, they might get scared and `freak.'  Persons who
    suffer from severe psychological disorders often use
    marijuana as a way of coping.  Because of this, some
    researchers have assumed that marijuana is the cause of
    these problems, when it is actually a symptom.  If you have
    heard that marijuana makes people go crazy, this is probably
    why.
    




6b) Don't users of marijuana withdraw from society?

    To some extent, yes.  That's probably just because they
    are afraid of being arrested, though.  The same situation
    exists with socially maladjusted persons as does with the
    mentally ill.  Emotionally troubled individuals find
    marijuana to be soothing, and so they tend to use it more
    than your average person.  Treatment specialists see this,
    and assume that the marijuana is causing the problem.  This
    is a mistake which hurts the patient, because their doctors
    will pay less attention to their actual needs, and
    concentrate on ending their drug habit.  Sometimes the
    cannabis is even helping them to recover.  Cannabis can be
    abused, and it can make these situations worse, but
    psychologists should approach marijuana use with an open
    mind or they risk hurting their patient.
    
    Marijuana itself does not make normal people anti-social.
    In fact, a large psychological study of teenagers found that
    casual marijuana users are more well adjusted than `drug
    free' people.  This would be very amusing, but it is a
    serious problem.  There are children who have emotional
    problems which keep them from participating in healthy,
    explorative behavior.  They need psychological help but
    instead they are skipped over.  Marijuana users who do not
    need help are having treatment forced on them, and in the
    mean-time marijuana takes the blame for the personality
    characteristics and problems of the people who like to use
    it improperly.
    




7) Is it true that marijuana makes you lazy and unmotivated?

    Not if you are a responsible adult, it doesn't.  Ask the
    U.S. Army.  They did a study and showed no effect.  If this
    were true, why would many Eastern cultures, and Jamaicans,
    use marijuana to help them work harder?  `Amotivational
    syndrome' started as a media myth based on the racial
    stereotype of a lazy Mexican borracho.  The prohibitionists
    claimed that marijuana made people worthless and sluggish.
    Since then, however, it has been scientifically researched,
    and a symptom resembling amotivational syndrome has actually
    been found.  However, it only occurs in adolescent teenagers
    -- adults are not affected.
    
    When a person reaches adolescence, their willingness to work
    usually increases, but this does not happen for teenagers
    using marijuana regularly -- even just on the weekends.  The
    actual studies involved monkeys, not humans, and the results
    are not verified, but older studies which tried to show
    `amotivational syndrome' usually only suceeded when they
    studied adolescents.  Adults are not effected.
    
    The symptoms are not permanent, and motivation returns to
    normal levels several months after marijuana smoking stops.
    However, a small number of people may be unusually sensitive
    to this effect.  One of the monkeys in the experiment was
    severely amotivated and did not recover.  Doctors will need
    to study this more before they know why.
    




8) Isn't marijuana a gateway drug?  
   Doesn't it lead to use of harder drugs?

    This is totally untrue.  In fact, researchers are looking
    into using marijuana to help crack addicts to quit.  There
    are 40 million people in this country (U.S.) who have smoked
    marijuana for a period of their lives -- why aren't there
    tens of millions of heroin users, then?  In Amsterdam, both
    marijuana use and heroin use went *down* after marijuana was
    decriminalized -- even though there was a short rise in
    cannabis use right after decriminalization.  Unlike
    addictive drugs, marijuana causes almost no tolerance.  Some
    people even report a reverse tolerance.  That is, the longer
    they have used the less marijuana they need to get `high.'
    So users of marijuana do not usually get bored and `look for
    something more powerful'.  If anything, marijuana keeps
    people from doing harder drugs.
    
    The idea that using marijuana will lead you to use heroin or
    speed is called the `gateway theory' or the `stepping stone
    hypothesis.'  It has been a favorite trick of the anti-drug
    propaganda artists, because it casts marijuana as something
    insidious with hidden dangers and pitfalls.  There have
    never been any real statistics to back this idea up, but
    somehow it was the single biggest thing which the newspapers
    yelled about during Reefer Madness II.  (Perhaps this was
    because the CIA was looking for someone to blame for the
    increase in heroin use after Viet Nam.)
    
    The gateway theory of drug use is no longer generally
    accepted by the medical community.  Prohibitionists used to
    point at numbers which showed that a large percentage of the
    hard drug users `started with marijuana.'  They had it
    backwards -- many hard drug users also use marijuana.  There
    are two reasons for this.  One is that marijuana can be used
    to `take the edge off' the effects of some hard drugs.  The
    other is a recently discovered fact of adolescent psychology
    -- there is a personality type which uses drugs, basically
    because drugs are exciting and dangerous, a thrill.
    
    On sociological grounds, another sort of gateway theory has
    been argued which claims that marijuana is the source of the
    drug subculture and leads to other drugs through that
    culture.  By the same token this is untrue -- marijuana does
    not create the drug subculture, the drug subculture uses
    marijuana.  There are many marijuana users who are not a
    part of the subculture.
    
    This brings up another example of how marijuana legalization
    could actually reduce the use of illicit drugs.  Even though
    there is no magical `stepping stone' effect, people who
    choose to buy marijuana often buy from dealers who deal in
    many different illegal drugs.  This means that they have
    access to illegal drugs, and might decide to try them out.
    In this case it is the laws which lead to hard drug use.  If
    marijuana were legal, the drug markets would be separated,
    and less people would start using the illegal drugs.  Maybe
    this is why emergency room admissions for hard drugs have
    gone down in the states that decriminalized marijuana during
    the 70's.
    




9a) I don't want children (minors) to be able to smoke marijuana.  
    How can I stop this?

    Legalize it.  They can smoke it now; it is about as easy
    to get as alcohol.  There would be less marijuana being sold
    in schools, playgrounds, and street corners, though, if it
    was sold legally through pharmacies -- because the dealers
    would not be able to compete with the prices.  If you are a
    parent, the choice is really up to you: Do you want your
    children to sneak off with their friends and use marijuana
    which they bought off the street, or do you want to talk to
    them calmly and explain to them why they should wait until
    they are older?  Your children are not going to walk up to
    you and tell you that they use an illegal drug, but if it
    was not such a big deal they might give you a chance to
    explain your feelings.  Besides, would you rather children
    use speed, cocaine, and alcohol?
    
    Consider, also, that children have a natural urge to do
    things that they aren't supposed to.  It is called
    curiosity.  By making such a fuss over marijuana, you make
    it interesting (some call it the `forbidden fruit' factor.)
    This is made worse when children are lied to about drugs by
    teachers and police -- they lose respect for the school and
    the government.  In a lot of ways, it is the hysteria about
    drugs which causes the most harm.  When marijuana users do
    none of the horrible things they are supposed to, children
    may think that other more harmful drugs are OK, too.  Your
    children will not respect you unless you are calm and give
    good reasons for your rules.  The first step is for you, the
    parent, to learn the facts about drugs.





9b) Won't children be able to steal marijuana plants that
    people are growing?

    Well, if you are worried about them stealing the hemp
    plants from the paper-pulp farm down the road, you should
    know that the commercial grades of hemp do not contain much
    THC (the stuff that gets you high.)  If they were to smoke
    it, they would probably just get a headache.  Otherwise, it
    should be the responsibility of the grower to take measures
    to prevent this.  Most ``home-grown'' marijuana is
    cultivated indoors anyway.  If the children in your town
    have nothing better to do than go around stealing marijuana
    to smoke, your town needs to buy a library or something.





10a) Hey, don't you know that marijuana drops testosterone
     levels in teenage boys causing [various physical and
     developmental problems]?
 
    Marijuana does not turn young healthy boys into lanky,
    girlish looking wimps, no.  This scare tactic (call it
    homo-phobic if you will) was a common device used in early
    anti-drug literature.  It attempts to scare boys away from
    marijuana by telling them, essentially, that it will turn
    them into a girl.  Young men probably should not use
    marijuana heavily (see the section on amotivational
    syndrome), but the risks are not horrendous.
    
    Anti-marijuana pamphlets used this claim often during Reefer
    Madness II, but the studies which are cited are mostly
    faulty or misinterpreted.  This is not to say that marijuana
    use does not affect childhood development at all, just that
    the effects are not as drastic as some people would like
    them to sound.  In fact they are pretty much unknown.
    




10b) Doesn't heavy marijuana use lower the sperm count in males?

    Not by much, (if at all) and this can be a good thing.
    It does not make you impotent or sterile.  (If it did --
    there would be no Rastafarians left!)  Give those testicles
    a rest, already!  Marijuana is certainly _not_ birth
    control, please don't let your lover tell you it is.
    
    Many people think that marijuana enhances their sex lives.
    It is not an aphrodisiac, that is, it does not make people
    want to have sex.  What it does do for some people is make
    everything more sensual -- it makes food taste better and
    feelings and emotions more vivid.





10c) I heard marijuana use by teenage girls may impair hormone
     production, menstrual cycles, and fertility.  Is this true?

    Also unproven and unfounded, but there is no data
    available to tell either way, (and it won't be coming from
    the U.S. -- current U.S.  laws prohibit research on women.)
    This is the female version of the boy's ``It'll turn you
    into a sissy'' tactic.  As far as anyone knows, it is only a
    scare tactic.





11) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?

    Go away.





12) Isn't smoking marijuana worse for you than smoking cigarettes?
    
    There are many reasons why it is not.  You may have heard
    that ``one joint is equal to ten cigarrettes'' but this is
    exagerrated and misleading.  Marijuana does contain more tar
    than tobacco -- but low tar cigarettes cause just as much
    cancer, so what is that supposed to mean?  Scientists have
    shown that smoking any plant is bad for your lungs, because
    it increases the number of `lesions' in your small airways.
    This usually does not threaten your life, but there is a
    chance it will lead to infections.  Marijuana users who are
    worried about this can find less harmful ways of taking
    marijuana like eating or vaporizing.  (Be careful --
    marijuana is safe to eat -- but tobacco is not, you might
    overdose!)  Marijuana does not seem to cause cancer the way
    tobacco does, though.
    
    Here is a list of interesting facts about marijuana smoking
    and tobacco smoking:

    o   Marijuana smokers generally don't chain smoke, and 
        so they smoke less.  (Marijuana is not physically 
        addictive like tobacco.)  The more potent marijuana 
        is, the less a smoker will use at a time.

    o   Tobacco contains nicotine, and marijuana doesn't.
        Nicotine may harden the arteries and may be
        responsible for much of the heart disease caused by
        tobacco.  New research has found that it may also
        cause a lot of the cancer in tobacco smokers and
        people who live or work where tobacco is smoked.
        This is because it breaks down into a cancer causing
        chemical called `N Nitrosamine' when it is burned
        (and maybe even while it is inside the body as well.)
        
    o   Marijuana contains THC.  THC is a bronchial dilator,
        which means it works like a cough drop and opens up
        your lungs, which aids clearance of smoke and dirt.
        Nicotine does just the opposite; it makes your lungs
        bunch up and makes it harder to cough anything up.
        
    o   There are benefits from marijuana (besides bronchial
        dilation) that you don't get from tobacco.  Mainly,
        marijuana makes you relax, which improves your health
        and well-being.
        
    o   Scientists do not really know what it is that causes
        malignant lung cancer in tobacco.  Many think it may
        be a substance known as Lead 210.  Of course, there
        are many other theories as to what does cause cancer,
        but if this is true, it is easy to see why NO CASE OF
        LUNG CANCER RESULTING FROM MARIJUANA USE ALONE HAS
        EVER BEEN DOCUMENTED, because tobacco contains much
        more of this substance than marijuana.
        
    o   Marijuana laws make it harder to use marijuana
        without damaging your body.  Water-pipes are illegal
        in many states.  Filtered cigarettes, vaporizers, and
        inhalers have to be mass produced, which is hard to
        arrange `underground.'  People don't eat marijuana
        often because you need more to get as high that way,
        and it isn't cheap or easy to get (which is the
        reason why some people will stoop to smoking leaves.)
        This may sound funny to you -- but the more legal
        marijuana gets, the safer it is.

                   -------------------------

    It is pretty obvious to users that marijuana prohibition
    laws are not ``for their own good.''  In addition to the
    above, legal marijuana would be clean and free from
    adulturants.  Some people add other drugs to marijuana
    before they sell it.  Some people spray room freshener on it
    or soak in in chemicals like formaldehyde!  A lot of the
    marijuana is grown outdoors, where it may be sprayed with
    pesticides or contaminated with dangerous fungi.  If the
    government really cared about our health, they would form an
    agency which would make sure only quality marijuana was
    sold.  This would be cheaper than keeping it illegal, and it
    would keep people from getting hurt and going to the
    emergency room.




13) Don't children born to pot-smoking mothers suffer from
    ``Fetal Marijuana Syndrome?''

    If a fetal cannabis syndrome exists, cases are so rare
    that it cannot be demonstrated.  Many mothers use marijuana
    during pregnancy -- it controls the nausea called `morning
    sickness' and many say it actually increases the appetite
    and reduces stress.  This is especially important in less
    developed countries, where modern medical care is not as
    easily available, but even so, the benefits of responsible
    marijuana use may outweigh the risks even under modern
    medicine.
    
    Studies conducted in Jamiaca have shown that mothers who
    smoke marijuana have healthier children, but this may be due
    to the extra income generated by marijuana dealing and other
    factors.  It has been a common ploy in the War on Drugs to
    claim that marijuana, and especially cocaine, causes birth
    defects or behavior problems like alcohol does.  This scares
    caring mothers into thinking drugs are `evil.'  The claims
    are not based on valid scientific research -- many of them
    do not even consider the life-style or living conditions of
    the mothers before pointing at drugs with the blame.
    
    Obviously, pregnant mothers should not smoke as much pot as
    they possibly can.  If marijuana is abused, it may hurt the
    health of both mother and child.  Delta-9-THC does cross the
    placenta and enter the fetus.  Oddly, though, the marijuana
    metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-THC does not, and the
    fetus does not break delta-9-THC down into 11-nor like the
    mother's body does, so unborn children are not exposed to
    11-nor.  The third trimester is the time when the child is
    most vulnerable.  Parents should bear these facts in mind
    when they make decisions about using cannabis.





14) Doesn't marijuana cause a lot of automobile accidents?

    Not really.  The marijuana using public has the same or
    lower rate of automobile accidents as the general public.
    Studies of marijuana smoking while driving showed that it
    does affect reaction time, but not nearly as much as
    alcohol.  Also, those who drive `stoned' have been shown to
    be less foolish on the road (they demonstrate `increased
    risk aversion'.)  Recent studies have emphasized that
    alcohol is the major problem on our highways, and that
    illicit drugs do not even come close to being as dangerous.
    
    As funny as it may seem, you may be safer driving `stoned',
    as long as you aren't `totally blasted' and seeing things --
    but few users are irresponsible enough to drive in this
    state of mind, anyway.  Still, many people have reported
    making mistakes while driving because they were stoned.
    
    There are those who think that marijuana is a major problem
    on the streets, because of a newspaper article or news story
    which they have seen which said a large number of people who
    were killed in driving accidents tested postive for
    marijuana use.  For various reasons, these studies are not
    reliable:
    
    o   Some studies use drug tests which can only tell
        whether a person has used marijuana in the last
        month.
    
    o   Some studies were done near colleges or other areas
        where drinking, marijuana use, and accidents are all
        very high, and they did not correct for age or
        alcohol use.
    
    o   In many of the studies there were more stoned drivers
        killed -- but it was not their fault, and when the
        police ``culpability scores'' were factored in
        marijuana was not to blame for the accidents.





15) Aren't you afraid everyone will get hooked?

    Marijuana produces no withdrawal symptoms no matter how
    heavy it is used.  It is habit forming (psychologically
    addictive), but not physically addictive.  The majority of
    people who quit marijuana don't even have to think twice
    about it.  Comparing marijuana to addictive drugs is really
    quite silly.

    For a drug to be physically addictive, it must be
    reinforcing, produce withdrawal symptoms, and produce
    tolerance.  Marijuana is reinforcing, because it feels good,
    but it does not do the other two things.  Caffeine, nicotine
    and alcohol are all physically addictive.





16a) Is urine testing for marijuana use as a terms of
     employment a good idea?  
     I want to make sure my business is run safely.

    No!  Some of your most brilliant, hard working, and
    reliable employees are marijuana users.  When you drug test,
    you put all marijuana users in the same place as the abusers
    -- the unemployment line.  Drug testing is bad for business.
    (Not to mention it is an invasion of privacy.)  If a worker
    has a drug problem, you can tell by testing how well he does
    his job.  Firing *all* the drug users who work for you will
    hurt your business, costs money, and will get people very
    mad at you -- and for what?  There isn't even any hard
    evidence that marijuana users have more accidents or health
    problems.
    
    Your employees will probably resent being drug tested; drug
    testing allows an employer to govern the actions of an
    employee in his off time -- even when these actions do not
    effect his job performance.  (As told above, marijuana drug
    tests do not test whether a person is `high'.  They test
    whether or not they have used in the last few weeks.)
    Asking employees to urinate in a plastic cup every month is
    not a good way to make them feel like part of the business,
    or make friends, either.  There is growing concern about
    drug tests, sometimes because they misfire and accuse the
    wrong person, but mostly because they might be used to find
    out other confidential information about an employee.  Legal
    professionals are beginning to question whether they are
    even constitutional.





16b) Isn't all this worth the trouble, though, in order to
     reduce accident risks and health care costs?

    Everyone knows that marijuana users are bad employees,
    right?  Wrong -- or at least someone forgot to tell the
    millions of hard working marijuana smokers that.  Drug
    testing companies will hand you piles of statistics which
    they say prove marijuana use costs you money.  The truth is
    there are just as many studies which show that marijuana
    users are more successful, use less health care, and produce
    more than non-users.  Before you buy into workplace drug
    testing, make sure you get the other side of the story.
    
    In the 1980's, the Bush administration went to great lengths
    to promote drug testing.  In fact, George Bush estimated the
    cost of drug use at over 60 billion dollars a year, based on
    a study which supposedly showed that persons who had used
    marijuana at some time during their life were less
    successful.  The very same study could be used to show that
    current, heavy users of marijuana and other illegal drugs
    were actually more successful.  Something is a bit fishy
    here, and when you add to that the fact that several former
    heads of the DEA and former Drug Czars now own or work in
    the urinalysis industry, this whole scene begins to smell a
    bit funny.





17) Wouldn't it be best to just lock the users all up?

    How do you plan to pay for that?  Already, well over five
    percent of the people in this country (U.S) are in custody
    (including probation, parole, bail, etc.)  Murderers and
    rapists are being let out of our penatentiaries right now to
    make room for a few more `deadheads' -- there are about
    2,500 Grateful Dead fans in our federal prisons.
    Imprisoning one person for one year costs about $20,000.
    The United States leads the world in imprisonment -- at any
    one time, 425 people out of every 100,000 are behind bars.
    In the Federal Prison System, one fifth of the prisoners are
    drug offenders who have done nothing violent.  State laws
    are usually less strict, but state mandatory minumum
    sentences for drugs are getting more popular.
    
    Our prisons and our courtrooms are so crowded that the
    American Bar Association's annual report on the state of the
    Justice System is basically one long plea for an end to drug
    laws that imprison users.  Even the Clinton Administration
    recognizes that locking people up is not the solution.  This
    is especially true for the people who actually have drug
    abuse problems -- they need treatment, not mistreatment.
    The Drug War put mandatory minimum jail sentences for drug
    crimes on the lawbooks.  If we do not take those laws (at
    least) back off, we will be in sorry shape come the end of
    the century.  A retroactive policy of marijuana legalization
    or decriminalization would go a long way in helping to solve
    this crisis.
    
    Also consider this -- Once a person gets put in jail, he
    becomes angry with the world.  He will probably be
    victimized while he is there, and most likely will learn
    criminal behaviors from hard-core violent offenders.  There
    is also a very good chance that he will have caught AIDS or
    tuberculosis by the time he gets let back out.  By locking
    up drug users, you are digging yourself a very big trench to
    fall in -- is it worth it?
    
    Besides, lots of these people don't deserve to be in jail.
    Why should they serve time just because they like to get
    `high' on marijuana?  Especially when someone can drink
    alcohol without being arrested...  what kind of law is that?
    You have to think about what kind of a world you are making
    for yourself before you act.  How are the police of the
    future going to treat the people?  How far are you willing
    to let the government go to get the drug users?  How many of
    your own rights will you sacrifice by trying to jail `the
    druggies'?





18) I heard that there are over 400 chemicals in marijuana...
    Wellllll...?
 
    True, but so what?  There are also over 400 chemicals in
    many foods, (including coffee, which contains over 800
    chemicals and many rat carcinogens) and we don't see police
    arresting people in McDonald's, or giving Driving while
    Eating citations.  Only THC is very psycho-active; a few
    other chemicals also have very small degrees of
    psycho-activity.  People who use marijuana do not get sick
    more, or die earlier, or lose their jobs (except to drug
    tests), or have mutant kids...  so what's your point?
    
    The fact that there are over 60 unique chemicals in
    cannabis, called `cannabinoids,' is something that
    scientists find very interesting.  Many of these
    cannabinoids may have valuable effects as medicine.  For
    example, `cannabinol' is a cannabinoid which can help people
    with insomnia.  Doctors think that this chemical is why most
    patients prefer to use marijuana rather than pure
    Delta-9-THC pills (called dronabinol) -- the cannabinol
    takes the edge off being `high' and calms the nerves.
    Another cannabinoid, `cannabidiolic acid', is a very
    effective anti-biotic, like pennicillin.  Many of these
    chemicals can be extracted from marijuana without any fancy
    laboratory equipment.
    




19) Doesn't that stuff mess up your immune system and make
    it easier for you catch colds?

    Marijuana (Delta-nine-THC) does have an `immunosuppressive 
    effect.'  It acts on certain cells in the liver, called 
    macrophages, in much the same way that it acts on brain 
    cells.  Instead of stimulating the cells, though, it shuts 
    them off.  This effect is temporary (just like the `high') 
    and goes away quickly; people who suffer from multiple 
    sclerosis may actually find this effect useful in fighting 
    the disease.

    Recent research has also found that marijuana metabolites
    are left over in the lungs for up to seven months after the
    smoking has stopped.  While they are there, the immune
    system of the lungs may be affected (but the macrophages do
    not get ``turned off'' like in the liver.)  The effects of
    smoking itself are probably worse than the effects of the
    THC, and last just as long.

    All this said, doctors still have not decided whether
    marijuana users are at risk for colds or not.  With the
    possible exception of bronchitis, there are no numbers which
    suggest that marijuana users catch more colds, but... this
    did not stop Carlton Turner, a United States Drug Czar, from
    saying many times in his public addresses that marijuana
    caused AIDS and homosexuality.  His claims were so ridiculus
    that the Washington Post and Newsweek Magazine made fun of
    him, and he was forced to resign.
    
    Today, AIDS patients use marijuana to treat their symptoms
    without any aparrent problems.  Some studies suggest that
    marijuana may actually stimulate certain forms of immunity.
    Researchers have tried to show major effects on the healthy
    human's immune system, but if marijuana does have any
    substantial effects, good or bad, they are either too 
    subtle or too small to notice.


                 --------------------------
                 P  A  R  T      F  O  U  R
                 --------------------------


                  WHY IS IT STILL ILLEGAL?


1) Why is it STILL illegal?:

    The official answer: Because you shouldn't use it.
    You can't use it because it is illegal, and it is illegal so
    you can't use it.  You should not use it.  It is illegal.
    It is illegal so you should not use it.

    The manic-depressive answer: It'll never happen.  People are
    too unorganized/stupid/disempowered.  It's just futility.
    Try, but don't expect to get anywhere.  I won't get my hopes
    up.

    The paranoid-schizophrenic answer: Don't you SEE?!?!?  The
    guys at the top have it SEWN!!  They own everything.
    They'll never let it happen.  I shouldn't even be talking to
    you, but let me give you some advice!!  listen...  you
    shouldn't mess with THEM, THEY know everything.  THEY are
    practically psychic, see?  And the only way to get it to
    happen is to become one of THEM.  You'd better watch it, or
    THEY will come and take you away -- THEY do that, you know.
    It's all a CONSPIRACY!!!

    The neurotic answer: Marijuana?  Eeek!  Don't you know that
    stuff is dangerous?  People don't make laws for no good
    reason, you know!  Where did you hear about marijuana?
    Wait!  Don't tell me, I don't want to know.  If anybody even
    knew you thought it should be legal -- well -- they'd never
    talk to you again!  Don't you know that marijuana this...
    marijuana that...  ...  ...  ...

    THE REAL ANSWER: Marijuana is still illegal because enough
    people have not yet stood up together and said:

         `` THIS IS STUPID!!
    
                 I WANT CANNABIS HEMP LEGAL!!!
    
                       FOR PRODUCTS;
    
                              FOR MEDICINE;
    
                                     FOR FOOD;
    
                                            FOR FUN;
    
    FOR GOODNESS'S SAKE!  ISN'T THAT WHAT LIFE'S ALL ABOUT ?!''

    Without large-scale grass roots support, marijuana will
    never be legal.  Every person that stands up for
    marijuana/hemp legalization makes us that much stronger, and
    our voices that much louder.  Believe me, we appreciate all
    the support we get.  Almost as importantly, it makes it that
    much harder for people to say ``that's a stupid idea'' or
    ``nobody really believes that.''

    If you aren't convinced yet, Or if you are having trouble 
    swallowing any of the answers given,  I encourage you to 
    learn more about the issues.  Try the sources listed at the end.

    If you're with us, let us know!  Let everybody know, unless
    it will get you canned or arrested, but most importantly,
    keep an eye on what's going on, and try to lend a hand when
    you can.  Also, know your stuff, so if you have to, you can
    convince a friend or loved one that *you* are not nuts --
    the rest of the world is.





2)  What can I do to bring some sense into our marijuana laws?

    There are many things you can do.  Activists are
    working right now at all levels to reform marijuana laws.
    If you cannot afford to be an activist, there are many ways
    you can help -- activists find themselves short of money,
    time, and occasionally even friendly company.  Get to know a
    hemp or marijuana legalization activists in your area, and
    just keep up to date on what they are planning.  Odds are
    you will find something that you can easily do which will
    help them out a whole lot.  There is a list available called
    the Liberty Activist's List which will give you the phone
    numbers or address of groups near you.  Also, you may call
    the National Office of NORML (The National Organization for
    the Reform of Marijuana Laws) at 1-202-483-5500.  The most
    important thing you can do on your own, though, is to keep
    tabs on your state and local legislators, and let them know
    that this is an issue to be taken seriously.

    Many activist groups offer `memberships.'  These usually
    involve a fee for joining the group, and a newsletter that
    keeps you up to date on the group's activities.  This way
    you know when and why to write your legislators, and thought
    provoking information which you normally would not get is
    delivered to you.  If and when you need to, most
    importantly, you will be able to contact the group and seek
    or give advice.

3a)  Where can I get more information?

    Many places.  One of the best is by using electronic
    communications.  The Information Superhighway has been a
    tremendous leap forwards for our movement, and there is a
    lot of information available.  Start by sending e-mail to
    "({{{readme}}})<verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu>".  There is an
    e-mail file-server set up at this address, and just about
    anyone with Internet e-mail can use it.  The server contains
    many files about marijuana, and more importantly directories
    and pointers on how to get more information by WWW, GOPHER,
    FTP, IRC, and TELNET.  For a overview list of these
    resources send mail to
    "({{{netlinks}}})<verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu>".  If you
    have trouble making this work, send a note asking for help
    to "verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu"
    
    A copy of the Liberty Activist's List is also available
    through this server, by mailing to
    "({{{groups}}})<verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu>."  This will
    help you get in touch with activists near you.  If you are
    interested, there is an excellent mailing list devoted to
    Drug War issues.  It is called DRCnet and you may send mail
    to "borden@netcom.com" for information on becoming involved.





3b) Umm, I'm computer illiterate, so that just went way over
    my head.  Are there any good books I could go get instead?

    Here is a list of some of the must-read books and
    articles about marijuana and legalization.  Check the
    source section of this FAQ for more information about
    these and other sources.

    ``The Emperor Wears No Clothes'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of
    Clubs/HEMP, 1993/1994

    ``Hemp, Life-Line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub. data
    pending
    
    ``Marihuana Reconsidered'' by Lester Grinspoon pub. 1977.
    Harvard University Press.  pub. 1993 data pending.
        
    ``Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon
    pub. Yale University Press 1993.
    
     *** Journal Articles of General Interest ***

    ``Marijuana Laws: A Need for Reform'' by Roger Allan Glasgow
    in ``Arkansas Law Review'' Vol. 22(340) pp. 359-375.

     *** Government commissions recommending legalization ***
    
    The Panama Canal Zone Report of 1925, pub.  United States
    Government.

    Mayor LaGuardia's Committee on Marijuana (New York) Report
    issued 1944. (Initiated 1938 -- an extensive study of
    marijuana) pub. New York City Government

    The Final Report of the Le Dain Commission on Marijuana 
    Legalization, pub. Canadian Gov't

    Final Report if the National Commission on Marijuana, 1972,
    pub. United States Government  entitled ``Marijuana -- a
    Signal of Misunderstanding''

     *** Court Rulings ***

    ``In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition'' by Hon.
    Francis L. Young Docket# 86-22 1989.



4)  Do you have any advice for people who want to organize
    their own group?

    There are some very good books that will help new
    organizers hit the ground running.  Here are two titles you
    should try to locate:
    
    Si Kahn ``Organizing: A Guide For Grassroots Leaders''
    McGraw-Hill 1982 0-07-033215-0 (0-07-033199-5 paperback)
    
    Ed Hedemann ``The War Resisters League Organizers Manual''
    1981 0-940862-00-X
                                     The War Resisters League
                            339 Lafayeyette St., New York, NY
    

                  -------------------------
                  P  A  R  T     F  I  V  E
                  -------------------------
 
                  SOURCES BY QUESTION NUMBER




(Sorry for the pathetic bibliography.  As soon as time and software
 permits it will be cleaned up, cross referenced, and expanded.)

1a) What Is Hemp?


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


``The Marijuana Farmers'' by Jack Frazier pub. Solar Age Press New
Orleans, 1972.


1b) What is cannabis?


``Hemp, Life-line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub data pending.



(Mexican slang term)


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


(hemp can be grown legally)


``Hemp, Life-line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub data pending.


John Birrenbach's legal hemp FAQ pub. Institute for Hemp 1993.


(number one cash crop)


``Drugs, Crime and the Justice System'' pub.  United States Government
Printing Office Washington, DC.  December, 1992.


``Information Please Almanac'' pub. Simon and Schuster New York, 1993.


2a) How can hemp be used as a food?


(protien)


A. J. St. Angelo, E. J. Conkerton, J. M. Dechary, A. M. Altschul in
``Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' Vol. 121 pp. 181. 1966.


A. J. St. Angelo, L. Y. Yatsu, A. M. Altschul in ``Archives of
Biochemistry and Biophysics'' Vol. 124 pp. 199-205. 1966.


``Chromatography of Edestine at 50 Degrees'' by D. M. Stockwell, J. M.
Dechary, A. M. Altschul in ``Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' Vol. 82
pp. 221. 1964.


(essential fatty acid oils)


``Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill'' by Udo Erasmus pub.


``Hemp-seed Oil Compared with Other Common Vegetable Oils'' by Gerald
X. Diamond in ``Cannabis Hemp Information Kit'' pub.


``Therapeutic Hemp Oil'' by Andrew Weil M.D. in ``Natural Health''
March/April, 1993.


2b) What are the benefits of hemp compared to other food crops?


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


2c) How about soy?  Is hemp competitive as a world source of protein?


(hemp vs. soy)


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``Chromatography of Edestine at 50 Degrees'' by D. M. Stockwell, J. M.
Dechary, A. M. Altschul in ``Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' Vol. 82
pp. 221. ed. pub., 1964.


(resistance to UV-B sunlight)


``UV-B Effects on Terrestrial Plants'' by Manfred Tevinie, Alan H.
Teremura in ``Photochemistry and Photobiology'' Vol. 50 Iss. 4 pp.
479-487. pub. Pergamon Press Oxford, New York, 1989.


(agricultural consequences of drug policy in underdeveloped nations)


cites pending


3a) How can hemp be used for cloth?


``Hemp, Flax, Jute, Ramie, Kenaf and Other Industrial Fibers a
Comparison of Properties and Applications '' by Gerald X. Diamond in
``Cannabis Hemp Information Kit'' pub Washington Citizens for Drug
Policy Reform.


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


``The Marijuana Farmers'' by Jack Frazier pub. Solar Age Press New
Orleans, 1972.


3b) Why is it better than cotton?


``Hemp, Flax, Jute, Ramie, Kenaf and Other Industrial Fibers a
Comparison of Properties and Applications '' by Gerald X. Diamond in
``Cannabis Hemp Information Kit'' pub. Washington Citizens for Drug
Policy Reform.


4a) How can hemp be used to make paper?


``It's Time to Reconsider Hemp'' by Jim Young in ``Pulp & Paper'' pp.
7. June, 1991.


``Hemp Variations as Pulp Source Researched in the Netherlands'' by E.
P. M. de Meijer in ``Pulp & Paper'' pp. 41-42. July, 1993.


``The Manufacture of Paper from Hemp Hurds'' by Jason L. Merril in
``USDA Bulletin/Yearbook of the United States Department of
Agriculture'' Iss. 404 pp. 7-25. pub. United States Department of
Agriculture


4b) Why can't we just keep using trees?


``The Production and Handling of Hemp Hurds'' by Lyster H. Dewey in
"USDA Bulletin" Iss. 404 pp. 1-6. pub.  United States Department of
Agriculture.


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


5a) How can hemp be used as a fuel?


``Farming For Fuel]'' by Folke Dovring pub data pending.


``Pretreatment Research Overview'' by K. Grohmann, R. Torget, M.
Himmel in ``The DOE SERI Ethanol From Biomass Program'' pub. The
United States Department of Energy.


``Overview: The DOE SERI Ethanol From Biomass Program '' by C. E.
Wyman pub. The United States Department of Energy.


5b) Why is it better than petroleum?


``Towards a Green Economy'' by Lynn Osburn (pamphlet)


other cites pending


6a) How can hemp be used as a medicine?


``Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D. and
James B. Bakalar pub. Yale University Press New Haven, 1993.


``Therapeutic Issues of Marijuana and THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)'' by
J. Thomas Ungerieder, Therese Andrysiak in ``The International Journal
of the Addictions'' Vol. 20 pp. 691-699. ed. pub. M. Dekker New York,
1985.


6b) What's wrong with all the prescription drugs we have?


``Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D. and
James B. Bakalar pub. Yale University Press New Haven, 1993.


7) What other uses for hemp are there?


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.

Note: 93/94 edition of the Emperor only.





             WELL WHY AREN'T WE USING HEMP, THEN?


1) How and why was hemp made illegal?


``Drugs and minority oppression'' by John Helmer pub. Seabury Press
New York, 1975.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


2) OK, so what the heck does all this other stuff...


``The Manufacture of Paper from Hemp Hurds'' by Jason L. Merril in
``USDA Bulletin/Yearbook of the United States Department of
Agriculture'' Iss. 404 pp. 7-25. pub. United States Department of
Agriculture


``New Billion-Dollar Crop'' in ``Popular Mechanics'' February, 1938.


``Flax and Hemp From the Seed to the Loom '' by George A. Lower in
``Mechanical Engineering'' February, 1937.


3) Now wait, just hold on.  You expect me to believe....


``Hemp, Life-line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub data pending.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


``New Billion-Dollar Crop'' in ``Popular Mechanics'' pub. February,
1938.


``Flax and Hemp From the Seed to the Loom '' by George A. Lower in
``Mechanical Engineering'' February, 1937.


4) Is there a lesson to be learned from all this?


``Manufacturing Consent'' by Noam Chomsky pub data pending.


``Marijuana Laws: A Need for Reform'' by Roger Allan Glasgow in
``Arkansas Law review'' Vol. 22 Iss. 340 pp. 359-375.


                   DOES IT?  DOESN'T IT?  IS IT TRUE?


1) Doesn't marijuana stay in your fat cells and keep you high ...


``Marijuana Chemistry Genetics, Processing, and Potency'' by Michael
Starks pub. Ronin Inc., 1990.


``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and Neurophysiology'' ed. Laura
Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, 1992.


2) But ... isn't today's marijuana much more potent than it was...


``Cannabis 1988. Old Drug, New Dangers The Potency Debate '' by Todd
H. Mikuriya M.D., Michael R. Aldrich Ph.D. in ``Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs'' Vol. 20 Iss. 1 pp. 47-55 pub. Haight-Ashbury
Publications in association with the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical
Clinic San Francisco, Calif. : January March, 1988.


3a) Doesn't Marijuana cause brain damage?


``The Chronic Cerebral Effects of Cannabis Use I Methodological Issues
and Neurological Findings '' by Renee C. Wert Ph.D., Michael L. Raulin
Ph.D Vol. 21 Iss. 6 pp. 605-628. 1986.


``The Chronic Cerebral Effects of Cannabis Use II Psychological
Findings and Conclusions '' by Renee C. Wert Ph.D., Michael L. Raulin
Ph.D Vol. 21 Iss. 6 pp. 629-642. 1986.


``Neurotoxicity of Cannabis and THC A Review of Chronic Exposure
Studies in Animals '' by Andrew C. Scallet in ``Pharmacology,
Biochemistry & Behavior'' Vol. 40 pp. 671-676. 1991.


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Rhesus Monkey IV
Neurochemical Effects and Comparison to Acute and Chronic Exposure to
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Rats'' by Syed F. Ali, Glenn D.
Newport, Andrew C. Scallet, Merle G. Paule, John R. Bailey, William
Slikker Jr in ``Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior'' Vol. 40 pp.
677-682. 1991.


``Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of Chronic
Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate'' by William Slikker
Jr. et al. in ``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and
Neurophysiology'' Laura Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC Press Boca
Raton, FL, 1992.


(the following are the studies which were found to be flawed)


``Effects of Cannabis Sativa on Ultrastructure of the Synapse in
Monkey Brain'' by J. W. Harper, R. G. Heath, W. A. Myers in ``Journal
of Neuroscience Research'' Vol. 3 pp. 87-93. 1977.


``Chronic Marihuana Smoking Its Effects on Function and Structure of
the Primate Brain '' by R. G. Heath, A. T. Fitzjarrell, R. E. Garey,
W. A. Myers in ``Marihuana: Biological Effects Analysis, Metabolism,
Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain '' Gabriel G. Nahas, W. D.
M. Paton ed. pub. Pergamon Press Oxford, 1979.


``Cannabis Sativa Effects on Brain Function and Ultrastructure in
Rhesus Monkeys '' by R. G. Heath, A. T. Fitzjarrell, C. J. Fontana, R.
E. Garey in ``Biological Psychiatry'' Vol. 15 pp. 657-690. 1980.


(D.A.R.E. says pot kills brain cells)


DARE Officers training manual section T page 5.


3b) If it doesn't kill brain cells....


``Structure of a Cannabinoid Receptor'' by L. A. Matsuda , S. J.
Lolait , M. J. Browstein, A. C. Young, T. I. Bonner in ``Nature'' Vol.
346 Iss. 6824 pp. 561-564. August, 1990.


(marijuana does not wear out it's receptors)


``Chronic Exposure to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Fails to
Irreversibly Alter Brain Cannabinoid Receptors'' by Tracy M. Westlake,
Allyn C. Howlett, Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paule, Andrew C. Scallet,
William Slikker Jr. in ``Brain Research'' Vol. 544 pp. 145-149. 1991.


4) Don't people die from smoking pot?


Bureau of Mortality Statistics, 1988.


``In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition: Opinion and
Recommended Ruling, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Decision
of Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young '' by Hon. Francis L.
Young September, 1988.


(allerigic reaction is rare)


``Marijuana and Immunity'' by Leo E. Hollister M.D. in ``Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs'' Vol. 24 Iss. 2 pp. 159-164. pub. Haight-Ashbury
Publications in association with the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical
Clinic San Francisco, Calif. : April,June, 1992.


5) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?


cites pending


6a) Is marijuana going to make my boyfriend go psycho?


``A Brief, Critical Look at Cannabis Psychosis'' by Amit Basu in ``The
International Journal on Drug Policy'' Vol. 3 pp. 126-127. 1992.


6b) Don't users of marijuana withdraw from society?


``Adolescent Drug Use and Psychological Health'' by Jonathan Shedler,
Jack Block in ``American Psychologist'' Vol. 45 Iss. 5 pp. 612-630.


``Substance Use and Abuse Among Teenagers'' by Michael D. Newcomb,
Peter M. Bentler in ``American Psychologist'' Vol. 44 Iss. 2 pp.
242-248. 1989.


``Cognitive Motivations for Drug Use Among Adolescents Longitudinal
Tests of Gender Differences and Predictors of Change in Drug Use '' by
Michael D. Newcomb, Chih Ping Chou, P. M. Bentler, G. J. Huba in
``Journal of Counseling Psychology'' Vol. 35 Iss. 4 pp. 426-438. pub.
American Psychological Association Washington,DC, 1988.


``Personality Characteristics of Adolescent Marijuana Users'' by John
E. Mayer, Jeffrey D. Ligman in ``Adolescence'' Vol. 24 Iss. 96 pp.
965-976. 1989.


``Cannabis Use and Sensation Seeking Orientation'' by K. Paul
Satinder, Alexander Black in ``The Journal of Psychology'' Vol. 166
pp. 101-105. pub. Journal Press Provincetown, MA, 1984.


7) Is it true that marijuana makes you lazy and unmotivated?


``Behavioral and Biological Concomitants of Chronic Marijuana Use'' by
Dr. Jack H. Mendelson 1974.  (US Army study)


(adolescent amotivational-like syndrome)


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Rhesus Monkey II Effects on
Progressive Ratio and Conditioned Position Responding '' by Merle G.
Paule, Richard R. Allen, John R. Bailey, Andrew C. Scallet, Syed F.
Ali, Roger M. Brown, William Slikker Jr. in ``The Journal of
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.'' Vol. 260 pp. 210-222.
ed. pub.


``Up in Smoke Arkansas Study Raises Doubts About Marijuana Risks '' by
Mara Leveritt in ``Arkansas Times'' pp. 11-12. September 16, 1993.


(use of marijuana and other drugs in a positive role in work)


``Working Men and Ganja Marijuana Use in Rural Jamaica Melanie Creagan
Dreher '' by Melanie Creagan Dreher pub. Institute for the Study of
Human Issues Philadelphia, 1982.


``The working addict David Caplovitz '' by David Caplovitz pub. M. E.
Sharpe, White Plains, NY, 1976.


8) Isn't marijuana a gateway drug?  Doesn't it lead to use of ...


``Who Says Marijuana Use Leads to Heroin Addiction?'' by Jerry Mandel
in ``Journal of Secondary Education'' Vol.  43 Iss.  5 pp.  211-217.
pub. California Association of Secondary School Administrators
Burlingame, CA May


``Marihuana reconsidered Lester Grinspoon. '' by Lester Grinspoon M.D.
1928- pub. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1977.


(emergency room admissions)


cites pending


9a) I don't want children (minors) to be able to smoke ...


(a good book about drugs for parents and children)


``From Chocolate To Morphine'' by Andrew Weil pub. data pending
 (a new edition will be coming out very soon!)


9b) Won't children be able to steal marijuana plants that people...


(industrial hemp has very low THC content)


``Hemp Variations as Pulp Source Researched in the Netherlands'' by E.
P. M. de Meijer in ``Pulp & Paper'' pp. 41-42. pub. July, 1993.


10a) Hey, don't you know that marijuana drops testosterone levels...


``Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of Chronic
Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate'' by William Slikker
Jr. et al. in ``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and
Neurophysiology'' pp. . Laura Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC
Press Boca Raton, FL, 1992.


10b) Doesn't heavy marijuana use lower the sperm count in males?


``Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding '' pub. U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, 1972.


10c) I heard marijuana use by teenage girls may impair hormone...


``Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding '' pub. U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, 1972.


11) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?


Go away.


12) Isn't smoking marijuana worse for you than smoking cigarettes?


(more tar in smoked marijuana, but claims exaggerated)


``Pulmonary Hazards of Smoking Marijuana as Compared with Tobacco'' by
Tzu Chin Wu, Donald P. Tashkin , Behnam Djahed , Jed E. Rose in ``New
England Journal of Medicine'' Vol. 318 Iss. 6 pp. 347-351. pub., 1988.


(low-tar cigarettes just as carcinogenic)


``The Association of Lung Cancer with Tar Content of Cigarettes'' by
Franz P. Reichsman pub., 1980. (Thesis)


(lung damage from smoking)


``Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Alterations in Primates'' by
Suzanne E. G. Fligiel, Ted F. Beals, Donald P. Tashkin, Merle G.
Paule, Andrew C. Scallet, Syed F. Ali, John R. Bailey, William Slikker
Jr. in ``Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior'' Vol. 40 Iss. 3 pp.
637-642. ed. pub., 1991.


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and
Protein Expression'' by Guy A. Cabral, Amy L. Stinnet, John Bailey,
Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paul, Andrew C. Scallet, William Slikker Jr. in
``Physiology, Biochemistry and Behavior'' Vol. 40 pp. 643-649. ed.
pub., 1991.


(Lead 210 and N Nitrosamines in tobacco)


Joseph DiFranza in NEJM Vol. 306 Iss. 6 pub. February, 1982. and
responses in Vol. 307 Iss. 5 pub. July, 1982.


13) Don't children born to pot-smoking mothers suffer from Fetal .....


``Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Cannabinoids'' by Ernest L. Abel in
``CurrentReasearch on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse''
Theodore M. Pinkert ed. NIDA Research monograph # 59


``The Effects of Early Marijuana Exposure'' by Ernest L. Abel, Gary A.
Rockwood, Edward P. Riley in ``Handbook of teratology'' pp. 267-288.


(Jamaican studies)


``Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Neonatal Outcomes in Jamaica An
Ethnographic Study '' by Melanie C. Dreher , Kevin Nugent, Rebekah
Hudgins in ``Pediatrics'' Vol. 93 Iss. 2 pp. 254-260. pub. February,
1994.


(THC fetal exposure)


``Placental Transfer and Fetal Disposition of
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) During Late Pregnancy in the Rhesus
Monkey'' by William Slikker Jr, H. C. Cunny, J. R. Bailey, M. G. Paule
in ``'' pp. 97-102.


``The Influence of Anesthesia, Pregnancy, and Sex on the Plasma
Disposition of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and
11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Rhesus Monkey''
by Merle G. Paule, John R. Bailey, William Slikker Jr. in ``'' pp.
315-320. ed. pub.


14) Doesn't marijuana cause a lot of automobile accidents?


 NHTSA statistical study pub. 1992, data pending

 NHTSA Amsterdam study pub. 1994, data pending

 Australian statistical survey pub 1993, data pending


15) Aren't you afraid everyone will get hooked?


``Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of Chronic
Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate'' by William Slikker
Jr. et al. in ``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and
Neurophysiology'' Laura Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC Press Boca
Raton, FL, 1992.


``Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding '' pub. U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, 1972.


``The Marijuana Problem in the City of New York'' (Mayor Laguardia's
Commission on Marijuana.  The text of the decision can be found in a
three volume set entitled ``The Marijuana Papers'') more pub. data
pending.


``Marihuana reconsidered Lester Grinspoon.'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D.
1928- pub. Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA, 1977.


16a) Is urine testing for marijuana use as a terms of employment...


``Applicant Testing For Drug Use A Policy and Legal Inquiry '' by
Jonathan V. Holtzman in ``William and Mary Law Review'' Vol. 33 pp.
47-93. pub., 1991.


16b) Isn't all this worth the trouble, though, in order to reduce...


``Social Behavior, Public Policy, and Non-harmful Drug Use'' by
Charles Winick in ``The Milbank Quarterly'' Vol. 69 Iss. 3 pp.
437-459. ed. published for the Milbank Memorial Fund Cambridge
University Press New York, NY, 1991.


other cites pending (mail the faq maintainor)


17) Wouldn't it be best to just lock the users all up?


``Drugs, Crime and the Justice System'' pub.  United States Government
Printing Office Washington, DC December, 1992.


``The State of Criminal Justice, an annual report'' by the American
Bar Association, 1993 pub. U.S. Government Printing office.


``Social Behavior, Public Policy, and Non-harmful Drug Use'' by
Charles Winick in ``The Milbank Quarterly'' Vol. 69 Iss. 3 pp.
437-459. pub. published for the Milbank Memorial Fund Cambridge
University Press New York, NY, 1991.


18) I heard that there are over 400 chemicals in marijuana...


(800 chemicals in coffee)


``Too Many Rodent Carcinogens Mitogenesis Increases Mutagenesis '' by
B. N. Ames, L. S. Gold in ``Science'' Vol. 149 pp. 971. ed. pub.,
1990.


(other cannabinoids)


``Marijuana Chemistry Genetics, Processing, and Potency '' by Michael
Starks pub. Ronin Inc., 1990.


``Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D. and
James B. Bakalar pub. Yale University Press New Haven, 1993.


19) Doesn't that stuff mess up your immune system...


(liver macrophages)


``Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol A Novel Treatment for Experimental
Autoimmune Encephalitis '' by W. D. Lyman , J. R. Sonett , C. F.
Brosnan , R. Elkin , M. B. Bornstein in ``Journal of Neuroimmunology''
Vol. 23 pp. 73-81. 1989.


(lung macrophages and other cells)


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and
Protein Expression'' by Guy A. Cabral, Amy L. Stinnet, John Bailey,
Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paul, Andrew C. Scallet, William Slikker Jr,
1991.


(general overview)


``Marijuana and Immunity'' by Leo E. Hollister M.D. in ``Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs'' Vol. 24 Iss. 2 pp. 159-164.  pub. Haight-Ashbury
Publications in association with the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical
Clinic San Francisco, Calif. : April,June, 1992.


(Carlton Turner)


``Official Corruption Carton Turner'' by Jack HererJack Herer in ``The
Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of the
Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save the
World'' pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.



 

                   -----------------------
                   P  A  R  T      S  I  X 
                   -----------------------

                    ABOUT THE ALT.HEMP FAQ
    
    This section is for people who want to know more about the
    FAQ itself, and for those who want to be a part of
    maintaining and distributing this document.  First we will
    start with a Version History of the alt.hemp FAQ:

                --------------------------------
    
    Versions 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 -- These are incomplete versions
    which were used to test the waters and draw discussion.
    Please replace them with a more current version if you run
    across them anywhere.
    
    Version 0.3LaTeX -- So far, this is the only typeset version
    of the FAQ.
    
    Version 1.0 -- This is the first completed version of the
    FAQ.
    
    Version 1.0m -- This is the first completed mini-FAQ for
    alt.hemp.  It is meant for small BBS's and FIDONET where 
    file sizes must be small.
    

               -----------------------------------

    Future Versions:
    
    The text of the FAQ is now pretty much stable.  New
    questions may be added and any mistakes corrected.  Work on
    the text will concentrate on fleshing out the resource and
    sources section, providing more cites, especially pointers
    to on-line textfiles and information.
    
    Work has started on a German hemp FAQ, and true patriots of
    other countries are encouraged to translate and/or rewrite
    the FAQ and to research marijuana prohibition's history in
    their own countries.  Future versions supporting various
    forms of hypertext are in the works, as well as print-ready
    and FAX-ready formats.  There is a mailing list for
    coordination of this and other activities.  Please contact
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    are looking for people with either lots of spare time, or
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    hypertext or word-processing software.

















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