Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
faqs.org - Internet FAQ Archives

rec.pets.dogs: Canine Tick Diseases FAQ


[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Counties ]
Archive-name: dogs-faq/medical-info/tick-diseases
URL: http://www.k9web.com/dog-faqs/medical/tick-diseases.html
Last-modified: 07 Nov 1997

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
=======
There are nearly 100 FAQ's available for this group.  For a complete
listing of these, get the "Complete List of RPD FAQs".  This article
is posted bimonthly in rec.pets.dogs, and is available via anonymous ftp
to rtfm.mit.edu under pub/usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/faq-list, via
the Web at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/lists/faq-list.html, or 
via email by sending your message to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
send usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/faq-list
in the body of the message.

This article is Copyright 1997 by the Author(s) listed below. 
It may be freely distributed on the Internet in its entirety without
alteration provided that this copyright notice is not removed.  
It may NOT reside at another website (use links, please) other
than the URL listed above without the permission of the Author(s).  
This article may not be sold for profit nor incorporated in other 
documents without he Author(s)'s permission and is provided "as is" 
without express or implied warranty.
==========


                             Canine Tick Diseases
                                       
Author

   Lynda Adame, adame@venice.dh.trw.com
   
   Copyright 1996 by the author.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Table of Contents

     * Babesiosis
     * Ehrlichiosis
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Babesiosis

   What Is It:
          Babesiosis is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan (blood) disease. The
          organism is called Babesia, the disease is called Babesiosis.
          
   Species:
          Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni
          
   Primary Vector:
          Brown Dog Tick (must feed a minimum of 2-3 days to transmit)
          
   Other Vectors:
          Deer Tick, blood transfusion, contaminated needles and
          instruments, transplacental.
          
   Diagnosis:
          There are two tests being used by Veterinarians to detect
          infection:
          
          1) The IFA (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay) test is used
          to detect the presence of antibodies to the disease in a dogs
          blood serum. This test will determine a titer level; less than
          1:40 is considered Negative (minimal exposure), a titer above
          1:80 is considered Positive for an active infection. The IFA is
          considered the most reliable test for detecting infection.
          
          2) The Giemsa Smear is used to locate the actual organism in
          the dogs blood. Despite appropriate staining technique and
          intensive film examination, the organisms frequently cannot be
          found.
          
   Titer info:
          Titers counts double: 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and so on.
          A high titer can be caused by repeated exposure to the disease,
          a large number of active organisms in the blood, or a better
          immune system response of a specific dog. (i.e. a dog responds
          naturally with more antibodies than another dog).
          
          Titer is an indication of exposure to a specific foreign
          protein. It does not indicate that there are active organisms
          in the blood.
          
   Comments:
          Babesiosis is a cyclical disease, similar to Malaria. Dogs that
          recover from the initial infection show variable and
          unpredictable patent periods alternating with dormant periods.
          
          The clinical signs vary greatly depending upon the stage of the
          disease, the age and immune status of the dog, and
          complications from other infections.
          
   Phases:
          _Acute_ - This phase is of short duration, and is where the dog
          is initially infected with the disease. If the dog does not die
          outright from the infection, then it moves on to the next
          phase.
          
          _Subclinical_ - This phase can last months or years. It is
          characterized by a fine equilibrium between the parasite and
          the immune system of the host. This equilibrium can be
          disturbed by a number of things: environmental stress,
          additional diseases/infections (especially Ehrlichiosis),
          immunodeficiency, spleen removal, surgery, stress, hard work,
          imunosuppressive treatment, use of corticosteroids (Prednisone
          is a no-no). The dog may exhibit few clinical symptoms during
          this phase, beyond intermittent fever and loss of appetite. If
          the equilibrium is disturbed, the parasite will begin to slowly
          grow in number and the dog will move into the next phase.
          Infected Greyhounds are often in this phase when they are
          adopted out.
          
          _Chronic_ - If the dogs system remains unable to clear the
          parasite, it enters this final phase. The most obvious initial
          signs to an owner are a cycle of: lethargy, loss of interest in
          food, and a gradual loss of body condition especially evident
          around the eyes and along the spine. Other symptoms are: upper
          respiratory problems - coughing or labored breathing, vomiting,
          constipation, diarrhea, ulcerative stomatitis (sores in the
          mouth), edema (swelling), abdominal swelling (ascites),
          bleeding under the skin or a rash (purpura), low White Blood
          Cell count (thrombocytopenia), clotting problems, joint
          swelling, back pain, seizures, weakness, increased liver
          enzyme, low Platelet count, hyper reflective eyes, enlarged
          lymph nodes, enlarged spleen, septic shock, depression.
          
   Misdiagnosed as:
          hemolytic anemia, kidney failure, vague blood disorder,
          thrombocytopenia, "doggie aids", autoimmune disease, Von
          Willebrands disease, leukemia, DIC (disseminated intravascular
          coagulation - severe clotting disorder).
          
   Treatment:
          The current drug of choice (Imidocarb Dipropionate) is not yet
          FDA approved. It is a chemo-therapeutic agent that is being
          experimentally tested on Babesia infected Greyhounds across the
          U.S.. Imidocarb is the least toxic of all of the anti-babesial
          drugs, and the success rate is stated in research papers to be
          95 - 98%. There are also un-substantia- ted claims of
          Doxicycline and/or Clindamycin being used to treat Babesia.
          
   Two Labs that perform the IFA test:
          
        Protatek Reference Lab
                574 E. Alamo St., Suite 90, Chandler, AZ 85225; (602)
                545-8499
                
                Instructions for Tick Fever Panel: Draw 3cc of blood, use
                a serum-separation tube, spin down, refrigerate until
                mailing. Try to mail early in the week, ship tube upright
                in ice and use priority mail.
                
        Corning Clinical Lab
                P.O. Box 305125, Nashville, TN 37230; No instructions
                available.
                
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Ehrlichiosis

   What Is It:
          Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial infectious blood
          disease. The organism is called Ehrlichia, the disease is
          called Ehrlichiosis.
          
   Species:
          Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia risticii
          
   Primary Vector:
          Brown Dog Tick (must feed a minimum of 2 -3 days to transmit)
          for E. canis. Horse manure and other unknown sources for E.
          risticii.
          
   Other Vectors:
          Deer tick, blood transfusion, contaminated needles and
          instruments, transplacental.
          
   Diagnosis:
          There are two tests being used by Veterinarians to detect
          infection:
          
          1) The IFA (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay) test is used
          to detect the presence of antibodies to the disease in a dogs
          blood serum. This test will determine a titer level; less than
          1:40 is considered Negative (minimal exposure), a titer above
          1:80 is considered Positive for an active infection. The IFA is
          considered the most reliable test for detecting infection.
          Ehrlichia titers can climb much higher than Babesia titers.
          
          2) The Giemsa Smear is used to locate the actual organism in
          the dogs blood. Despite appropriate staining technique and
          intensive film examination, the organisms frequently cannot be
          found.
          
   Titer info:
          Titers counts double: 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and so on.
          A high titer can be caused by repeated exposure to the disease,
          a large number of active organisms in the blood, or a better
          immune system response of a specific dog. (i.e. a dog responds
          naturally with more antibodies than another dog).
          
          Titer is an indication of exposure to a specific foreign
          protein. It does not indicate that there are active organisms
          in the blood.
          
   Comments:
          Ehrlichiosis is believed to go through patent and dormant
          periods, much like Babesiosis does. It has been the experience
          of people who have owned many Ehrlichia infected dogs, that
          this disease does not remain dormant, it slowly and steadily
          grows within the dogs system. If used soon enough, both
          Tetracycline and Doxicycline (at variable treatment lengths)
          have a 98% success rate at curing dogs of Ehrlichiosis.
          
   Phases:
          _Acute_ - This phase is of short duration, and is where the dog
          is initially infected with the disease. If the dog does not die
          outright from the infection, then it moves on to the next
          phase.
          
          _Subclinical_ - This phase can last months or years. It is
          characterized by a fine equilibrium between the parasite and
          the immune system of the host. This equilibrium can be
          disturbed by a number of things: environmental stress,
          additional diseases/infections, (especially Babesiosis),
          immunodeficiency, spleen removal, surgery, stress, hard work,
          imunosuppressive treatment, use of corticosteroids (Prednisone
          is a no-no). The dog may exhibit few clinical symptoms during
          this phase, beyond intermittent fever and loss of appetite. If
          the equilibrium is disturbed, the parasite will begin to slowly
          grow in number and the dog will move into the next phase.
          Infected Greyhounds are often in this phase when they are
          adopted out.
          
          _Chronic_ - If the dogs system remains unable to clear the
          parasite, it enters this final phase. The most obvious initial
          signs to an owner are a cycle of: lethargy, loss of interest in
          food, and a gradual loss of body condition especially evident
          around the eyes and along the spine. Other symptoms are: viral
          tumors on the face/mouth/muzzle, hemorrhaging even when blood
          count looks normal, clotting problems, low or high calcium
          level, seizures, muscle wasting, skin infections, neurological
          signs (repetitive obsessive actions, or palsy), diarrhea, low
          Platelet count, urine too alkaline, vomiting, hyper reflective
          eyes, low White Blood Cell count (thrombocytopenia), anemia,
          glomerulonephritis, bleeding from the nose or eyes, ocular
          signs, arthritis, weakness, pallor, incontinence, pneumonia,
          cough, kidney failure, increased thirst and urination,
          incoordination, neck or back pain, bleeding under the skin or a
          rash (purpura), swelling of the legs or joints, enlarged lymph
          nodes, irreversible bone marrow suppression.
          
   Misdiagnosed as:
          reticulosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, brucellosis,
          blastomycosis, thrombocytopenia, endocarditis, immune mediated
          disease, myelophthisis, cancer of spleen or liver, Valley
          Fever, plasma cell myeloma, leukemia.
          
   Treatment:
          Doxicycline at 11 mg/kg b.i.d. for 2 - 4 weeks, or longer. OR
          Tetracycline 22 - 33 mg t.i.d. (oral) for 2 - 4 weeks or
          longer.
          
   Two Labs that perform the IFA test:
          
        Protatek Reference Lab
                574 E. Alamo St., Suite 90m Chandler, AZ 85225; (602)
                545-8499
                
                Instructions for Tick Fever Panel: Draw 3cc of blood, use
                a serum-separation tube, spin down, refrigerate until
                mailing. Try to mail early in the week, ship tube upright
                in ice and use priority mail.
                
        Corning Clinical Lab
                P.O. Box 305125, Nashville, TN 37230; No instructions
                available.
                
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
   
    Canine Tick Diseases FAQ
    Lynda Adame, adame@venice.dh.trw.com
    
                                 Hosted by
                                  K9 WEB 

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA


[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer:
adame@venice.dh.trw.com (Lynda Adame)





Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM