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Archive-name: dogs-faq/kennel-clubs/AKC
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Last-modified: 29 Jan 1998

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                            American Kennel Club
                                      
   _Disclaimer:_ This is not an AKC sanctioned document. It is not meant
   to be definitive, exhaustive, nor authoritative. This information is
   provided by me as a convenient resource only. You should contact the
   AKC directly for official information from them.
   
Author

   Cindy Tittle Moore, Copyright 1995.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Table of Contents

     * Preface
     * Showing
     * Junior Showmanship
     * Conformation
     * Obedience
     * Agility
     * Field Trials
     * Hunting Tests
     * Coonhound Events
     * Tracking
     * Herding
     * Lurecoursing
     * Earth Dog Trials
     * Canine Good Citizen
     * Titles
     * AKC Member Clubs
     * Contacting the AKC
     * AKC Publications
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Preface

   Yes, the AKC is online! They have just opened up a Web page at
   http://www.akc.org/ and have an email address at info@akc.org
   
   Note that the AKC has regulations covering _every_ aspect of show
   rings, trials, field events, junior showmanship, etc. For booklets on
   these regulations, you may write to the AKC and ask for them. They
   will send you the first booklet free and charge 50 cents per booklet
   for more than one in a single request. The booklets are sized to fit
   in a #10 envelope; while the AKC doesn't require a SASE, you will
   probably get a quicker response with one. Alternatively if you attend
   a local dog show, some of these booklets will be freely available.
   
   Below is a _summary_ of the activities the AKC offers and is _not_
   comprehensive.
   
   Note that "test" generally refers to a non-competitive event and
   "trial" to one that is competitive.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Showing

   When people think of "showing," they are usually thinking of
   conformation showing. However, "showing" actually comprises showing
   your dog under any of three categories: conformation (meeting physical
   standards), field (meeting working standards), or obedience (meeting
   obedience standards). All AKC-recognized breeds are eligible to show
   under conformation and obedience. Field trials are reserved for those
   breeds bred for such work, except for the tracking trials which are
   open to all, and are tailored to the type of work bred for: e.g.,
   hunting, retrieving, pointing, herding, and coursing.
   
   To start showing requires an investment of time, money, and contacts.
   But it is a richly rewarding area, and there are hundreds of thousands
   of people throughout the world who enjoy competing with their dogs
   under Kennel Club auspices. This article summarizes the titles and
   events offered by the American Kennel Club.
   
   For showing in the AKC, the only pre-requirement is that the dog be
   registered with the AKC (either litter registration, individual
   registration, or ILP), and be at least 6 months old the day of the
   trial. Shots should be current for your own dog's health. If the
   showing is in conformation, the dog must also be sexually intact.
   
  Indefinite Listing Privilege
  
   If your dog is or appears to be (AKC-recognized) purebred but is
   unregistered or your dog is a breed currently in AKC's Miscellaneous
   Class, you can get an ILP (Indefinite Listing Privilege) number to do
   anything but conformation and field work. The procedure for getting an
   ILP is as follows:
     * Write to the AKC for a form.
     * Fill out the form -- it asks what the history of the dog is, where
       you got it, why you think it is pure-bred. Eg, a breeder's opinion
       that the dog is purebred, it was rescued through a breed rescue
       club, etc.
     * Take two pictures of your dog -- one side shot standing, one front
       shot standing.
     * Have your dog neutered. This is required for all dogs that are
       applying for ILPs except for those in the Miscellaneous class.
       Include the veterinarian's certificate of neutering in with the
       application.
     * Mail the form, pictures, and certificate of neutering along with
       your check.
       
   If your dog isn't purebred or is a breed not recognized by AKC, you
   can still get titles through breed-specific clubs, rare-breed clubs,
   alternative kennel clubs, or mixed-breed clubs. For example, AMBOR
   (American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry), at 205 First Street SW, New
   Prague, MN 56071, offers obedience and other titles to mixed breed and
   rare breed dogs with the UKC. UKC and SKC often recognize breeds that
   the AKC does not, and the UKC has a special program to allow mixed
   breed dogs to compete in performance trials.
   
  Naming and registration
  
   A dog's registered name must meet the following criteria (from "AKC
   Policies And Guidelines for Registration Matters")
     * Name length is limited to 25 characters, not including spaces,
       apostrophes and hyphens.
     * Letters in the name are restricted to the standard English
       alphabet; apostrophes, hyphens, and spaces are the only
       punctuation that appear in a dog's name. The certificate will be
       printed in all upper case.
     * Lifetime kennel names and registered name prefixes cannot be used
       without the consent of the owner of the name.
     * No arabic numbers, no Roman numerals at the end of the name.
     * A limit of 37 dogs in one breed may have the same name.
     * AKC reserves the right to append Roman numerals to the end of a
       name for identification purposes.
     * Spelled out cardinal and ordinal numbers may be used (e.g., First,
       One, Two, Third, etc).
     * The name may not contain "Champion," "Champ," "Sieger," or any
       other show term/AKC title, spelled or abbreviated.
     * Obscenities or derogatory words may not be used.
     * "Kennel," "dog," "male," "sire," "stud," "bitch," "dam," and
       "female" may not appear in the name.
     * The name may not consist of the breed name alone.
     * Names of living or recently dead persons may not be used.
     * An imported dog must be registered under the same name that it was
       registered in its country of birth.
       
   All names are subject to AKC approval. Names may not be changed unless
   the AKC has made a mistake _and_ the dog has not yet been bred or
   earned any titles. This is rare, so choose a name carefully and print
   legibly!
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Junior Showmanship

   Junior showmanship is for children under 18 and over 10 years of age.
   They are judged on their skills in handling and presenting their dogs
   in the ring -- the dogs themselves are not judged although they must
   be AKC registered and over 6 months of age. In order for a child to
   being showing in Junior Showmanship, an AKC Junior Handler number must
   be obtained from the AKC.
   
   Regular Junior Showmanship classes include Novice and Open. Novice is
   for all boys and girls who have not one three first place awards in
   this class. Open is for those that have. The classes may be further
   divided into Junior and Senior classes, the former for 10 to under 14
   year olds and the latter for those 14 to under 18 years of age.
   
   Best Junior Handler may be awarded by the host club. Those that placed
   first in their class and are undefeated in any other class, may
   compete for this award.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Conformation

   When showing a dog in conformation, either you or a professional
   hander must "show" the dog in the ring. Whether or not you choose to
   use a handler can depend on the breed of dog you are showing: it can
   be hard to break into popular breeds and a handler can help gain
   recognition; with a rare or less popular breed, the choice of handler
   is not as crucial. If you co-own a dog with the breeder, they may
   handle your dog for you. If you handle your own dogs, then like any
   "sport," as an amateur, you need to be trained, prepared, and ready to
   compete with the pros. Take the time to learn the ropes, how to
   present your dogs, and how to groom. Ideally, you should find a mentor
   to help you learn what you need to know.
   
   Keep in mind that the next new show and the next new judge may pick
   the second place dog over the first place dog under the same
   conditions that the other dog won under. Different judges have
   different preferences in conformation, It's usually better to try and
   show under a judge that likes what your dog has to offer in strong
   points. Other judges may see something else in other dogs that they
   prefer over what your dog has. A year later or the next show, that
   same judge may like your dog better. It depends on how the dog is
   "showing" each day. Dogs have good and bad days like people do.
   
   To summarize: A Champion (CH) must obtain 15 points. Of those 15
   points, two majors (a show where 3, 4, or 5 points are won) must be
   obtained under two different judges. The remaining points can come
   from 1 or 2 (or more!) point shows; at least one of these must be from
   a third judge. A dog must win at least the Winners Dog (WD) or Winners
   Bitch (WB) to win points.
   
   After the Winner's Dog and the Winner's Bitch are picked out,
   competition goes on to the "Best of Breed" (BOB) class in which the WD
   and the WB compete against dogs that already have their championship.
   From this class, the Best of Breed (BOB) and Best Opposite Sex (BOS)
   are selected; if the BOB is male, the BOS is female and vice versa.
   
   AKC groups all the breeds into seven groups (Sporting, Non-Sporting,
   Working, Herding, Terrier, Toy, and Hound). All of the BOB winners
   within each breed then compete at Group level (against all other dogs
   in their Group that won their respective BOB) for Group I (first
   place), II (second place), III (third place), and IV (fourth place).
   All seven Group I dogs then compete for Best in Show.
   
   Here's a quick chart to help you get on track:
   

                       Best of Breed (points toward CH from greater points
                             |        from either sex of class dogs including
                             |        all specials, if also WD/WB)
                             |
                   Best of Opposite Sex (points toward CH from greater points
                             |           from either sex of class dogs plus
                             |           specials of same sex, if also WD/WB)
                             |
        (WD/WB, Specials and Veterans compete for BOB/BOS)
                             |
                      Best of Winners   (points toward CH taken from WD/WB,
                        /         \      whichever had more points)
                       /           \
               Winner's dog    Winner's bitch   (points towards CH from
                 /                         \     same sex group)
                /                           \
     (first in each class advances to Winner's competition)
            Open class                Open class
            American Bred             American Bred
            Bred by Exhibitor         Bred by Exhibitor
            Novice                    Novice
            Dogs (12-18 mo.)          Bitches (12-18 mo.)
            Puppy dogs (9-12 mo.)     Puppy bitches (9-12 mo.) (split in puppy
            Puppy dogs (6-9 mo.)      Puppy bitches (6-9 mo.)  classes optional
)

   The classes are as follows:
   
   _Open_
          is for any dog, and very often winners will be chosen from this
          class. Not always, but usually, since serious contenders are
          typically placed in Open. Open classes may be broken up
          depending on how many dogs are showing that day. For example,
          Labradors sometimes have Open Yellow, Open Black, and Open
          Chocolate; Dobermans might have Open Black and Any Solid Color
          Other than Black (ASCOB).
          
   _American Bred_
          is for those dogs born in the USA. This class is often used if
          the handler has another dog in Open already.
          
   _Bred by Exhibitor_
          is often considered a prestigious class particularly at
          specialties -- breeders show their own dogs here, and winning
          WD/WB from this class is usually highly prized by breeders.
          
   _Novice_
          is for those dogs that have not yet won a class and is used for
          practice with dogs that are too old for the puppy divisions.
          
   The _puppy classes_ (6-9/9-12/12-18)
          are usually for practice for young dogs although WD/WB can
          certainly come from these classes. The puppy classes may or
          many not be split among the three age groups and the 12-18
          group may or may not be present at all; it depends on how many
          dogs are present.
          
   A _specialty_ is a dog show devoted to one particular breed. Both
   breed and obedience classes are usually offered.
   
   Now for some more obscure stuff: Reserve Winners (one for WD and one
   for WB) *may* get points if the winner of their sex is later
   disqualified. This can happen if the dog is improperly entered (into
   the wrong class, for example). So reserve wins can be important. The
   Reserve will only replace the Winner's position: if the disqualified
   Winner went on to win higher places, those are not awarded to the
   Reserve (but they are still removed from the disqualified dog).
   Reserve to a Winner is chosen from the dogs remaining from that
   Winners competition, plus the dog that received second place in the
   class the Winners Dog or Bitch came from.
   
   Specials are Champions; they do not normally compete in the classes,
   although they may. Normally, Specials compete directly for BOB/BOS
   along with the WD and WB in the Best of Breed competition that is held
   after WD/WB is selected from the classes. While they are not awarded
   points if they win, many breed clubs award national ratings to dogs
   based on the total number of dogs of the same breed that the dog has
   won over for a calendar year. Each club calculates the ratings
   slightly differently although there are some standard formulas.
   
   Best of Winners picks up the greater of the points that WD/WB has.
   This means that it's possible for a WD that got a 1 point minor to
   pick up the 3 point major that the WB got if he is awarded BOW over
   the WB (the WB retains her 3 point major). If the WD/WB goes Best of
   Breed, that dog is automatically Best of Winners and picks up the
   appropriate points.
   
   Thus, a 1 or 2 point show can turn into a major depending on how high
   your dog goes.
   
   Group winners are chosen from the BOB and BOS from each breed within
   the group (all dogs are grouped into Toy, Sporting, Working, etc.
   groups): Group I is first place, Group II second place and so on.
   
   Dogs that go on to win Best In Show will get as many points as any dog
   they defeat, if those points total more than what they have garnered
   so far (but never for more than a total of five points).
   
   But the only dogs that are actually awarded points are the dogs that
   were initially Winners Dog or Winners Bitch for their breed.
   Therefore, specials or veterans do not get points no matter how many
   dogs they won over, which makes sense as they are already Champions
   and do not need the points.
   
   The number of points obtained at a particular show is dependent on the
   number of dogs or bitches present, the breed, and the geographical
   location of the show. There is a point schedule that determines the
   ranges: rarer breeds require fewer dogs for points whereas popular
   breeds must have more dogs present for the same points. This point
   schedule can be found in the catalog available at all shows.
   
  Standards
  
   Standards are the "bluprints" for the breeds. Every kennel club has
   standards drawn up for the breeds that they recognize. A breed's
   Standard is a description of its ideal physical appearance. Serious
   breeders and exhibitors need to know the standard for their breed
   intimately. The AKC publishes all the Standards for AKC recognized
   breeds in its _The Complete Dog Book_.
   
  Finding out where shows are and entering
  
   The Events Calendar (see Publications below) is the definitive listing
   of upcoming AKC events put out by the AKC.
   
   Most show superintendents are happy to put you on their mailing lists
   and send you premiums of upcoming shows.
   
   _Dog World Magazine_ also lists both AKC and SKC events. Subscription
   Information - P.O. Box 6500, Chicago, IL 60680.
   
   Breed specific shows (specialties) are also advertised in
   breed-specific magazines; if the breed club is affiliated with the
   AKC, it will be listed in the Gazette.
   
   If you get the AKC Gazette, you'll get a show listing and some entry
   forms. You'll also get instruction in the booklet on how to fill out
   and send in forms (also where). That's all there is to entering.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Obedience

   Note that obedience trialling has its own FAQ that discusses the
   general sport of Obedience in much more detail. Below is a simple
   summary of the exercises required in the three obedience classes
   offered by the AKC. You should get a copy of the Obedience Regulations
   if you plan to participate in this sport.
   
  Novice
  
   There are two classes, Novice A and Novice B, the former for people
   who have not put a Companion Dog (CD) on a dog before, the latter for
   people who have. To get a CD, a dog must qualify in three different
   Novice shows under three different judges; qualification is at least
   170 out of 200 points and at least half the points on every exercise.
   
  Open
  
   Open A and Open B are for dogs that have obtained their CD's. Open A
   is for dogs that do not have a CDX, and handlers that have not earned
   an OTCH on a dog. Otherwise, they're in Open B. Open B is an OTCH
   competition class; dogs with CDX's, UD's, or OTCH's may compete.
   Similar to Novice, three qualifying scores (at least 170/200) under
   three different judges gets the Companion Dog Excellent (CDX).
   
  Utility
  
   Utility A and B are for dogs that have obtained their CDX's. Utility A
   is for dogs that have not obtained a UD, and handlers that have not
   earned an OTCH on a dog. Otherwise, they're in Utility B. Utility B is
   the other OTCH competition class; dogs with UD's or OTCH's appear
   there. Similar to Novice, three qualifying scores under three
   different judges gets the Utility Dog title (UD).
   
   Note that Novice, Open, and Utility are not competitive in the sense
   that any of the entered dogs may earn legs. However, it is competitive
   in the sense that the top three or four scores will get
   ribbons/prizes.
   
  OTCH
  
   Obedience Trial Champion. A competitive title earned after the UD.
   Championship points are awarded to those dogs earning a First or
   Second place ribbon in the Open B or Utility/Utility B class according
   to the schedule established by the AKC. For the OTCH, the dog must
   have 100 points, have won First place in Utility/Utility B with at
   least three other dogs in competition, have won First in Open B with
   at least six dogs in competition, another First place in Open
   B/Utility/Utility B under the same conditions. Each of the first
   places must be won from different judges. Neither of the first places
   may be earned at a specialty obedience trial.
   
  Novice exercises
  
     * Heeling on leash; this involves starts and stops, left and right
       turns, and fast and slow walking. The dog is supposed to stay with
       you at all times (head or shoulder next to your leg). Figure 8 on
       leash; there are two stops, dog has to stay with you with no
       forging (going ahead) or lagging (falling behind). 40 points.
     * Off-leash Stand for examination: your dog has to stand still while
       the judge examines the head, neck and back, approximately. You are
       standing at least 6 ft away. 30 points.
     * Repeat of first heeling exercise (not figure 8 part) but without
       leash. 40 points.
     * Recall and finish: Dog sits about 30 ft. away. You call dog and it
       comes briskly to you and sits. On command it then goes around into
       a heel pattern sit. 30 points.
     * Group exercise. About 10-12 dogs together go in and line up on one
       end. Handlers sit their dogs and go to the opposite side. This is
       the long sit, lasting for 1 minute. Then handlers down their dogs
       and do the same for 3 minutes. Long sit is 30 points, long down is
       30 points.
       
  Open exercises
  
     * Heel Free and Figure Eight. Like Novice, except no lead. 40
       points.
     * Drop on Recall. Like Novice recall, except you signal or command
       your dog to down when the judge tells you to. The dog must stay in
       the down until you tell it to come again. 30 points.
     * Retrieve on Flat. You tell the dog to stay, and throw your
       dumbbell at least 20 feet away. You then send your dog; it must go
       directly to the dumbbell, bring it back, and sit in front of you
       to deliver it. You take the dumbbell and then do a finish. 20
       points.
     * Retrieve over High Jump. Like the Retrieve on Flat, except the dog
       has to jump the high jump on the way out and on the way back. 30
       points.
     * Broad Jump. You put your dog in a stay at least eight feet behind
       the jump. You then walk to the side of the jump, face the jump,
       and send your dog over it. While it's in the air, you turn 90
       degrees so your dog can come to a sit in front of you. Then you do
       a finish. 20 points.
     * Group exercise. Same as Novice, except handlers are out of sight
       for the stays, and the sit and down stay are three minutes and
       five minutes long, respectively. 30 points each.
       
  Utility exercises
  
     * Signal Exercise. You do an off-lead heeling pattern, with signals
       only (no voice). In addition, on the judges command, you signal
       your dog to stand and stay, and then from across the ring you
       signal your dog to down, sit, come, and then finish. 40 points.
     * Scent Discrimination. You have two sets of five identical
       articles, one set of leather and one of metal. You out pick one of
       each; the rest are set out in a group, at random, about six inches
       from each other. You and your dog turn your backs on the pile, and
       you scent one of the articles and give it to the judge, who puts
       it out with the rest. You turn and send your dog to the pile, who
       has to pick out the one you scented and retrieve it as in the
       Retrieve on Flat. You then repeat the exercise with the other
       article. 30 points.
     * Directed Retrieve. You have three (mostly) white cotton work
       gloves. You stand with your back turned to a side of the ring that
       is clear of equipment, with your dog in heel position. The gloves
       are placed one in each corner and one in the center along that
       side of the ring. The gloves are numbered one, two, three from
       left to right as you face them. The judge tells you which glove to
       get, and you and your dog pivot in place to (hopefully) face that
       glove. You then give a verbal command and signal to your dog to
       retrieve the glove, as in Retrieve on Flat. 30 points.
     * Moving Stand and Examination. You heel your dog about ten feet,
       and then command the dog to stand-stay without stopping. You
       continue about ten feet and then turn to face your dog. The judge
       examines the dog with his hands as in breed judging (note this is
       more thorough than Novice) except he does not examine the dog's
       teeth or testicles. You then call your dog directly to heel
       position. 30 points.
     * Directed jumping. There are two jumps midway across the ring,
       about 20 feet apart. One is a high jump, as in Open, and one is a
       bar jump. You are about 20 feet away from the jumps, on the center
       line of the ring. You send your dog down the center line of the
       ring (between the jumps). When the dog is about 20 feet past the
       jumps, you tell it to sit. Then you command and/or signal the dog
       to take one of the jumps (the judge tells you which). The dog must
       jump the jump, come to you, and sit in front. (While it is in
       midair you turn towards it.) Then you do a finish. You then repeat
       the exercise with the other jump. 40 points.
       
  Other obedience trials
  
   There are brace classes, for a pair of dogs, that perform exercises
   out of novice. There are also veteran classes, for dogs at least eight
   years old with an obedience title, doing exercises out of novice. A
   versatility class, that takes two exercises each from the novice,
   open, and utility trials, also exists. Finally, there is a team class,
   a pair of people, each with a pair of dogs, using exercises from
   novice.
   
   There are often fun matches which are set up just like the regular
   trials, but they don't count the score towards the title, and you may
   correct in the ring. Many people use matches as a way to acclimatize
   their dog to the ring. There are also some non-scoring categories like
   Pre-Novice, again to help dogs acclimatize to the atmosphere.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Agility

   The AKC just approved and implemented AKC Agility tests effective
   August 1, 1995. There are four titles obtainable: Novice Agility (NA),
   Open Agility (OA), Agility Excellent (AX), and Master Agility
   Excellent (MX). Dogs must be AKC registered and 12 months or older to
   compete.
   
   The heights of the jumps is dependent on the dog's height at the
   withers, and there are four jump height divisions: 10 inches and
   under, 14 inches and under, 20 inches and under and over 20 inches.
   Dogs jump 2 inches under their height division except for dogs over 20
   inches, who all jump at 24 inches.
   
   There are specific requirments for the following obstacle and jumps
   that may appear in Agility classes: A-frame, Dog-Walk, Seesaw, Pause
   Table, Open Tunnel, Closed Tunnel, Weave Poles, Crawl Tunnel, Sway
   Bridge, Circle/Tire Jump, Window Jump, Broad Jump, Double Oxer Jump,
   Triple Bar Jump.
   
   To earn an Agility title, the dog must earn three qualifying scores
   awarded by at least two different judges. The Master Agility Excellent
   is acheived through ten qualifying scores in the Agility Excellent
   class. A qualifying score is at least 85 out of a maximum of 100
   points. Points are deducted for slow course time, refusing obstacles,
   improperly negotiating obstacles. Dogs that take more than double the
   time alloted to run the course, or that knock obstacles or jumps down,
   run the course out of order, foul the ring, leave the ring, etc., are
   eliminated from the competition at that show for that day.
   
  Novice Agility
  
   This class is divided into A and B classes, the former for handlers
   and dogs that have never acquired an Agility title, and the latter for
   dogs that have a Novice Agility title or whose handler has put Agility
   titles on other dogs.
   
   The Novice course can include 12 to 13 of the following elements:
   A-Frame, Pause Table, Dog Walk, Open Tunnel, Seesaw, Closed Tunnel,
   Circle/Tire/Window Jump, Broad Jump, High Jump, Double Oxer Jump, two
   additional jumps, excluding triple and single bar jumps.
   
  Open Agility
  
   This class is open to dogs that have earned the NA or OA title, but
   not the AX or MX titles.
   
   The Open course can include 15 to 17 of the following elements: 12
   Novice obstacles are mandatory; plus the Weave Poles, Crawl Tunnel,
   and any jump except the triple and single bar jumps.
   
  Agility Excellent
  
   The agility Excellent class is open to dogs that have earned the OA or
   AX title.
   
   The Excellent course can include 18 to 20 of the following elements:
   All of the Open class obstacles plus the triple bar, single bar and
   one additional jump to meet the minimum. The Sway Bridge is optional.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Field Trials

   Field Trials have been around as long as conformation trials.
   Conformation and Field Trials were originally used to evaluate both
   the conformation and performance of breeding stock. However, the
   competition in each has specialized and intensified to the extent that
   since about the '50s, there have been very few dual champions compared
   with prior to that time, and almost none in the Retriever Field
   trials. This happened to the Kennel Club of Great Britain as well, so
   the problem is not necessarily due to the AKC itself.
   
  Basset Hounds
  
  Beagles
  
  Dachshunds
  
  Pointing Breeds
  
  Pointers
  
  AKC Retriever Field Trials
  
   The dog must win a National Championship stake or a total of 10
   points. The points must be won in one of three stakes: Open All-Age,
   Limited All-Age, or Special All-Age stake. There must be at least 12
   starters. Dogs get 5 points for first place, 3 points for second
   place, 1 point for third place, and .5 point for fourth place. At
   least five of the points must come from a trial open to all retrievers
   (not a specialty trial) and the dog has to win at least one first
   place.
   
   To win a retriever Amateur Field Championship: The dog must win a
   National Championship stake handled by an amateur, win a National
   Amateur Championship stake, or a total of 10 points in Open All-Age,
   Limited All-Age, or Special All-Age Stakes (amateur handled). Or they
   can win 15 points in any All-Age stake (amateur handled). Again, dogs
   get 5 points for first place, 3 points for second place, 1 point for
   third place, and .5 point for fourth place. Again, at least five of
   the points must come from a trial open to all retrievers (not a
   specialty trial) and the dog has to win a first place.
   
  Spaniels
  
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Hunting Tests

   The difference between field trials and hunting tests is that while
   field trials compete dogs against one another in their marking,
   finding, and retrieving ability, dogs in the hunting tests are
   measured against a standard of performance. Potentially all dogs in a
   hunting test may successfully complete a leg toward their title. The
   North American Hunting Retriever Association (NAHRA) was formed and it
   put together hunting tests in response to sentiment that field trials
   had become specialized to the point where not only did the tests no
   longer resemble actual hunting situations, but only an elite few could
   really do well in it. People wanted a means of simply evaluating the
   overall hunting ability of their dogs. As it turned out, there were a
   series of hunting tests that were created in the mid 1980's: after
   NAHRA was created, both the AKC and the UKC responded with with their
   own hunting tests. The details differ for all three programs, of
   course, but the overall goal of replicating actual hunting situations
   is the same.
   
   In the AKC, there are separate hunting tests for retrieving breeds,
   pointing breeds, and spaniels. Note that many breed clubs have
   "working certificates" available for their dogs: although these are
   not official AKC titles, they are often a great way to get started.
   
  Pointing Breeds
  
   My thanks to Charlie Sorsby for the information in this section. From
   the AKC pamphlet:
   
     "The purpose of the AKC Hunting Tests is comparison of bird dogs
     against a standard, not competition against each other. A dog must
     be AKC registered in order to receive any AKC Hunting Test title.
     In the following, "Hunting Test" means an AKC licensed or member
     club hunting test. In order to be awarded the Junior Hunter title,
     a dog must have received Qualifying scores in four (4) Junior
     Hunting Tests. To be recorded as a Senior Hunter, a dog must either
     qualify in five (5) Senior Hunting Tests or must have earned a
     Junior Hunter title and qualify in four (4) Senior Hunting Tests.
     To be recorded as a Master Hunter, a dog must either qualify in six
     (6) Master Hunting Tests or must have earned a Junior Hunter title
     and qualify in five (5) Master Hunting Tests. Dogs that have
     received a Qualifying score in a Hunting Test at any level are
     ineligible to enter any Hunting Test at a lower level."
     
   Dogs taking the Junior Hunting Test must demonstrate a keen desire to
   hunt, show ability to find and point birds, be trainable. They cannot
   be gun-shy. They may be restrained to prevent interference with
   another dog.
   
   Dogs taking the Senior Hunting Test must do the same things demanded
   of a junior hunting dog, but with definite improvement. They must also
   hold their point until the bird has been shot or they are released.
   They must retrieve a shot bird but need not deliver to hand. They must
   initially honor another dog's point.
   
   And those dogs taking the Master Hunting Test must do the same things
   as Senior hunter, but show more experience. In addition must also show
   intensity and staunchness of the point, without breaking. Must deliver
   to hand. They must demonstrate absolute honoring throughout the entire
   flush, shot and retrieve.
   
  AKC Retriever Hunt Tests
  
   The _Junior Hunter_ test requires two single marks on land and two
   single marks on water. This means a bird ("single") is thrown and shot
   while the dog is watching ("marking"). The dog will promptly retrieve
   the bird upon command from handler. Two of these birds are thrown on
   land, and the other two are thrown into water. The distance the dog
   covers to get the bird should never be more than 100 yards. The dog
   has to deliver the bird to hand, meaning that he cannot drop the bird,
   and the handler must take it from his mouth. The team is penalized if
   the dog mouths or injures the bird, or does not want to give the bird
   up to the handler, etc. The handler may hold the dog steady as it
   marks the single.
   
   The _Senior Hunte_r test requires:
     * a double mark on land and a double mark on water
     * one walkup
     * one honor
     * one land blind and one water blind
     * one diversion
       
   A double mark is when one bird is thrown and then a second bird also
   thrown before the dog is sent to get a bird. Typically, the dog is
   sent first to get the second bird (the "select"), and then is sent to
   get the first bird (the "memory"). The dog is not supposed to try to
   pick both birds up at once nor should it "switch" (pick one bird up
   and then drop it for the other). Sometimes the dog may go for the
   memory bird first and then the select; this is penalized somewhat
   here, and more heavily in the Master test. At this point, the dog is
   supposed to be "steady" and not go racing off for the bird until told
   to do so by the handler. In a walkup, the bird is thrown while the
   handler and dog are walking. The dog is not supposed to bolt off to go
   get it. Honoring is when the dog watches another dog go pick up a bird
   without breaking and trying to get it himself. A blind is when the dog
   does not see the bird fall and has to take directions from the handler
   to go out and find the bird. Typically, the dog has been trained to go
   out in the direction indicated by the handler, to turn and sit, facing
   the handler upon hearing a single whistle blast, and to take
   corrections in direction from then. Two whistles tells the dog to come
   back in. A diversion is when another bird is thrown while the dog is
   in the middle of retrieving another bird.
   
   In the _Master Hunter_ test, one finds:
     * Multiple marks on land, multiple marks on water
     * One walkup
     * At least one combination mark
     * One land blind, one water blind
     * One double blind
     * One honor
     * One walkup
     * One diversion
       
   Multiple marks are three or more birds thrown before the dog is sent
   out to retrieve each in sequence. A combination mark is where the dog
   goes out on land, to water, to land again before reaching the bird. A
   double blind involves two placed birds and the handler directs the dog
   out to each of them in turn. Master Hunter tests are usually in pretty
   tough conditions -- gut sucking mud, waist high grass, etc.
   
  Spaniels
  
   _Junior Hunter:_ dog must find, flush, and have an opportunity to
   retrieve 2 birds on land. In addition, one bird must be retrieved from
   water at a distance of at least 20 yards with a shot fired. Distances
   over water should not exceed those normally encountered in hunting.
   
   _Senior Hunter_: dog must find, flush, and retrieve 2 birds to hand on
   land. In addition the dog must be line steady at water and retrieve
   one bird to hand from water at a distance of at least 25 yards with a
   shot fired. A Senior hunting dog must also exhibit ability to 'hunt
   dead' on a land blind of at least 15 yards distance.
   
   _Master Hunter_: Same as senior hunter for land retrieves, water
   retrieve is at least 30 yards. Also, required is a blind water
   retrieve of at least 30 yards, and the 'hunt dead' on land as well.
   
   Dog must qualify at least 4 times (4 different trials) in order to
   earn the title.
   
   The 2 judges score 0-10 on the following categories:
     * Hunting ability (which includes desire, courage, perseverance,
       independence and intelligence).
     * Bird Finding Ability (which includes bird sense, response to wind
       and scenting conditions, and use of nose).
     * Flushing Ability (boldness)
     * Trained Ability (which include range, pattern, gun response,
       response to commands).
     * Retrieving Ability (which includes marking, enthusiasm, and
       mouth).
       
   A qualifying score is a minimum average of not less than 5 on each of
   the categories of abilities listed, with an overall average score of
   not less than 7.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Coonhound Events

     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Tracking

   Tracking tests are actually considered an obedience test rather than a
   performance test. This is because tracking was originally part of the
   Utility exercises. Any AKC registered dog six months or older and
   having passed a qualifying test are eligible to compete. Actual entry
   into a test is determined by lottery, where the limit is drawn, plus
   several alternates. Because tracking tests are labor intensive
   (requiring two judges, several track layers, plenty of land, and a
   great deal of work), few clubs put on more than one test a year, and
   few tests accomodate more than about ten dogs at a time.
   
   For tracking tests in general, the tracking leash is between 20 and 40
   feet in length, and is visibly marked at a point 20 feet from the dog;
   the handler is to follow the dog at no less than 20 feet.
   
   Guiding (behavior by the handler which influences or determines the
   dog's direction) isi prohibited. Handlers may give verbal commands and
   encouragement to the dog. However, commands, signals or body motions
   to indicate the specific location or track direction is prohibited.
   
   Motivational items (food, balls, toys, etc) are not to be used or
   carried within 75 yards of a track.
   
  Qualifying Test
  
   Becasue there are so manymore dogs trying for the tracking titles than
   there are competitions available, dogs must first pass a qualifying
   test. This test is equivalent to a regular test track, but only one
   AKC licenced tracking judge is needed for the evaluation, which can be
   scheduled at a time convenient to the handler and the judge. If the
   dog completes the track, the handler recieves four letters of
   certification, which are good for one year. If the dog fails four
   tests in that time, or does not enter any tests in that time, they
   become invalid, and the dog must recertify.
   
  TD: Tracking Dog
  
   To enter a TD test, dogs must be at least 6 months old and be
   certified. The trail is 440 to 500 yards in length and may be between
   30 minutes to two hours old.
   
   Three to five turns are present, at least 2 of which are 90 degree
   turns. Each leg of the track is at least 50 yards in length, and the
   first turn is more than 30 yards from the second of two starting flags
   (which are themselves 30 yards apart).
   
  TDX: Tracking Dog Excellent
  
   The purpose of the TDX test is to "show that the dog unquestionably
   that the dog has the ability to discriminate scent and possesses the
   stamina, perserverance, and courage to do so under a wide variety of
   conditions. ... It [the track] can lead anywhere a person might go."
   
   A TDX test track is 800 to 1000 yards long, and three to five hours
   old. It has five to seven turns, and the first turn is open. The start
   consists of one flag (you and your dog get to figure out which way it
   goes). There are at least two obstacles (roads, streams, fences,
   changes in terrain, changes in vegetation, etc.), and there are two
   pairs of cross tracks that are approximately 1 1/2 hours fresher than
   the primary track. There are also four articles, all of which must be
   found -- one at the start, two along the way, and one at the end.
   
  VST: Variable Surface Tracking
  
   The VST Test was introduced in 1995 and is open to any dog that has
   earned its TD or TDX title.
   
   The track is between 600 and 800 yards long. There are to be a minimum
   of three different surfaces including vegetation and two non-vegetated
   areas such as asphalt, concrete, gravel, hard pan, mulch, or sand.
   There are no physical obstactles as there may be in the TDX track..
   The scent is between 3 and 6 hours old, and there weill be between 4
   and 8 turns on the track, including both right and left turns. Tracks
   may be laid along the sides of buildings and fences but may not enter
   closed buildings. Traffic may cross the traffic (pedestrians, animals,
   cars) and should be ignored by the dog and handler. Four articles are
   to be distributed along the track and found by the dog.
   
  Tracking Champion
  
   A dog that collects all three titles can be designated a Tracking
   Champion (TCH). Such a championship cannot make up part of a Dual
   Champion title, however, since the title is not earned competitively.
   But becuase so few dogs earn Tracking titles, they are highly prized.
   In addition, dogs with both a UD and tracking titles are entitled to
   special combinations of the titles. For example a UD plus TD becomes a
   UDT; a UD plus TDX becomes a UDTX and a VST plus UD is a UDVST. (No
   combinations of tracking titles and the UDX title have been
   announced.)
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Herding

   My thanks to Lily Mummert for the information in this section.
   
   In general, for herding tests:
     * Dogs have to be 9 months old to compete in AKC herding events.
     * A dog is not required to have an HT before competing in Pre-Trial,
       or to have either test title before competing in trial classes.
       Testing is recommended, however.
     * Not all herding events are listed in the Gazette currently, but an
       updated list is sent out with each issue of the Herdsman (the AKC
       herding newsletter). The reason the info isn't in the Gazette is
       because of its long lead time. The AKC is trying to modify the
       publication schedule of the events calendar so they can get
       herding event info in there in a more timely fashion.
       
  Titles
  
   HT: Herding Tested
   PT: Pre-trial Tested
   HS: Herding Started
   HI: Herding Intermediate
   HX: Herding Excellent
   
   HCH: Herding Trial Champion
   
   Test classes: herding and pre-trial. These are pass/fail. If your dog
   passes two herding tests under two different judges, it earns the HT
   (Herding Tested) title. Similarly, the dog earns the PT (Pre-Trial
   Tested) for passing two pre-trial tests under two different judges.
   For both classes, you get 10 minutes to negotiate the course.
   
   Herding test elements:
     * a sit or down stay at the start,
     * controlled movement of the stock between two pylons, located at
       opposite ends of the ring. Includes two changes in direction.
     * stop and recall at the end
       
   Pre-trial test elements:
     * a stay at the start controlled movement of stock, including a
       change of direction and passage through four gates
     * a stop at some point on the course
     * a stop before penning the stock
     * penning the stock
       
   Trial classes: herding started, intermediate, and advanced. The titles
   associated with each of these levels are HS (Herding Started), HI
   (Herding Intermediate), and HX (Herding Excellent). For each of these
   titles, the dog must earn three qualifying scores in the appropriate
   class under three different judges. There's also the HCH (Herding
   Champion), which is a competition title -- the dog must have an HX,
   and then earn 15 championship points in the Advanced class.
   
   There are three courses that may be offered for each class. The
   premium list for a trial specifies which course(s) will be offered.
   Course A is in an arena. Course B is a modified ISDS course; it's in a
   field. Course C is a modified version of what is used in Europe; it
   includes negotiating roads and such.
   
   According to my instructors, Course A is the most widely used of the
   three, so I'll describe that one. You get 10 minutes on this course,
   regardless of class. For herding started, the dog lifts the stock at
   the top of the course, and moves them through four obstacles around
   the course in a predetermined order. The obstacles are chutes or gates
   of various kinds. The dog then pens the stock. For the intermediate
   class, there's an outrun, lift, and fetch, with the handler staying at
   a handler's post until the dog has passed the post (after the outrun,
   lift and fetch). One of the obstacles is a holding pen -- the dog has
   to move the stock into the pen and hold them there for about a minute.
   Then there's the pen at the end. Advanced has the same elements as
   intermediate, except the course is longer, and the handler's movement
   is more restricted. The other courses also get vastly complicated as
   you go from started to advanced.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Lurecoursing

   From information supplied by Bonnie Dalzell, Marcia Cavan, Carol
   Mount, and edited down to AKC-only by CTM in Sept. 1995. Note that
   there is a more comprehensive Lurecoursing FAQ written by Bonnie
   Dalzell.
   
   A "lure" coursing course consists of a line strung through a series of
   wooden pulley set within a large field (many acres) with a "lure"
   (usually a white kitchen garbage bag!) attached at some point on the
   line. This line is also strung through a wheel that is attached to a
   power source usually a car starter motor as the lure needs to have
   enough power to be kept safely ahead of the fastest of the hounds. The
   hounds run within their own breed up to 3 per "heat" with each hound
   running and being scored on 2 heats. Each hound wears a blanket
   (similar to at the Greyhound track) of either yellow, pink or blue
   with the scoring being assigned to the blanket color and the
   performance it gave. The dogs are scored on the categories of speed,
   agility, endurance, follow and enthusiasm.
   
   Up until 1992 only the American Sighthound Field Association (ASFA)
   held lure coursing field trials and awarded dogs titles. In 1992 the
   AKC accepted Lure Coursing as a sport introducing Lurecouring Tests,
   at which the Junior Courser (JC) and Senior Courser (SC) titles may be
   earned and Lurecoursing Trials, at which a dog may earn it's Field
   Championship. Dogs that achieve both conformation and field titles are
   noted as a Dual Champion (DCH)
   
  Stakes
  
   Regular stakes are Open and Specials. Open is open to all hounds who
   have earned an AKC Junior Courser or other qualifying performance
   titles.
   
  Junior Courser
  
   A dog with a Junior Courser title must have run alone in two separate
   courses under two different judges on a course at least 600 yards with
   a minimum of four turns, with enthusiasm and no interruption.
   
  Senior Courser
  
   A senior courser must be eligible to enter the Open stake, must run
   with at least one other hound, and must receive qualifying scores at
   two trials under two different judges.
   
  Field Championship
  
   For a dog to earn its Lurecouring Field Championship, it must obtain
   fifteen championship points, including two first placements with three
   points or more, under two different judges. Points are earned in the
   Open stake and depend on how many of the same breed also ran.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Earth Dog Trials

   The AKC approved Earth Dog Trials ("Go-To-Ground") for Terrier breeds
   effective October 1, 1994. AKC registered Terriers (including
   Dachshunds) six months of age or older are eligible o participate in
   earth dog tests. This includes spayed or neutered dogs, dogs on
   limited registration, or ILP dogs of eligible breeds. Bitches in
   season may not participate.
   
   Titles awarded in the Earthdog classes include Junior Earthdog (JE),
   Senior Earthdog (SE), and Master Earthdog (ME).
   
   A preliminary Introduction test is available. No titles are earned,
   and it is not required of advanced tests. This test is designed for
   young and/or inexperienced dogs and is intended to introduce the dog
   to the sport as well as help evaluate the dog's enthusiasm for the
   work.
   
   All quarry is protected from the dogs by being enclosed in cages.
   Artificial quarries may also be used.
   
  Junior Earthdog Class
  
   This class is open to all eligible dogs. To earn the Junior Earthdog
   title, the dog must qualify at two separate trials under two different
   judges.
   
   The Junior Earthdog course layout is a 9x9inch 30 foot long tunnel
   with three 90 degree turns. The entry is at one end, and the quarry
   area at the other end. There are no dead ends in the tunnel.
   
   Qualifying performance: Dogs are graded on approach to the quarry and
   working the quarry. At this level, the dog must reach the quarry
   within 30 seconds of starting. Once the quarry is found, the dog must
   bark, growl, dig or otherwise indicate interest in the quary for at
   least 60 seconds.
   
  Senior Earthdog Class
  
   Open only to dogs that have earned the Junior Earthdog title. Three
   qualifying scores under at least two different judges are required for
   the Senior Earthdog title. The Senior earthdog course layout is more
   complex, more closely resembling an actual den in the wild. The tunnel
   in this class is again 9x9 inches, and approximately thirty freet from
   entry to exit. However, in addition to three 90 turns on the main
   tunnel, there is a false exit and a false den, neither of which are
   visible from the main den entry.
   
   Qualifying performance: Dogs are graded on approach to quarry, working
   the quary, and leaving the den on command. The dog has 90 seconds to
   find the quarry. Then it must work the quarry for 90 seconds. Finally,
   the handler must be able to call the dog back to the original entry.
   
  Master Earthdog Class
  
   Open only to dogs that have earned the Senior Earthdog title. To earn
   the Master Earthdog title, dogs must qualify four different times
   under at least two different judges. Dogs with the Msater Earthdog
   title may no longer enter Junior or Senior Earthdog classes. The
   Master Earthdog course layout is a modified form of the Junior/Senior
   course modified as follows: The entry is not readily visible, and is
   marked with a scent line. A false entry, with no scent, is visible.
   The tunnel contains a constriction point where it is 6 inches wide
   rather than 9 inches. An obstruction consisting of a 6 inch diameter
   pipe that can moved 2.5 inches either way is included. In adidtion,
   dogs are worked in pairs, selected at random.
   
   Qualifying performance: Dogs are released on the scent line
   approximately 100 feet from the real entrance. The dogs must reach the
   entry in about 60 seconds. Once the entrance is found, one of the dogs
   must honor the other (and then switch places when the first dog has
   worked the den). The working dog has 90 seconds to find the quarry and
   must work it for 90 seconds. The Judge may tap on the roof of the
   tunnel when it is working as a distraction. The honoring dog must
   remain quiet, but may be staked during the honor.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Canine Good Citizen

   The AKC sponsors this test. The CGC is not a title, but a certificate.
   However, many people add the initials CGC after the dog's name anyway.
   Note that ALL dogs, not just AKC registered ones, are eligible to take
   this test!
   
   From the AKC pamphlet
   
     "The purpose of the Canine Good Citizen Test is to demonstrate that
     the dog , as a companion of man, can be a respected member of the
     community, and can be trained and conditioned always to behave in
     the home, in public places, and in the presence of other dogs, in a
     manner that will reflect credit on the dog. The Canine Good Citizen
     Test is not a competitive program, but rather a program of
     certification; it seeks to identify and recognize officially those
     dogs that possess the attributes that enable them to serve
     effectively as personal companions and as members in good standing
     with the community."
     
   The tests include:
     * Accepting a Friendly Stranger
     * Sitting Politely for Petting
     * Appearance and Grooming
     * Out for a Walk (Walking on a Loose Lead)
     * Walking Through a Crowd
     * Sit and Down on Command/Staying in Place
     * Praise/Interaction
     * Reaction to Another Dog
     * Reaction to Distractions
     * Supervised Isolation
       
   Currently,
    1. AKC plans to expand and promote the test more.
    2. They do have colors for qualifying ribbons: turquoise and gold
       (but I have never seen these awarded: it's pretty much up to the
       club giving the test what they give out)
    3. AKC is thinking about dog tags and/or wallet cards for qualifying.
    4. AKC is going to advocate that dogs that have proven to be under
       control be allowed on leash in parks that don't allow dogs.
    5. They are going to ask clubs to lobby their states to have the test
       recognized as a sign of a responsible owner.
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Titles

  Title notation
  
   Certain titles go before the dog's registered name, others go after.
   Championship titles go before the name; non-championship titles go
   after the name.
   
   There are also orderings within the champion and non-champion titles.
   If a dog also has a Amateur Field Championship that title is placed in
   front of its name, in addition to the other titles (e.g., CH), but
   behind them if they exist.
   
   At an AKC event, a dog may be listed only with its AKC-recognized
   titles. Therefore, it may not have all of its titles listed in the
   catalog for the show. Outside of AKC sponsorship, all of the titles
   that a dog has earned may be listed.
   
   As a matter of interest, there has been only one triple CH in AKC
   history. Thi is a male Viszla by the name of Cariad's Kutya Kai Costa,
   who earned a Ch, FCh, and an OTCh for his Triple.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
AKC Member Clubs

  Breed Clubs
  
   Each breed recognized by the AKC has a parent club, which is
   considered to be the national breed club for that breed. These clubs'
   main responsibility is maintaining the Standard for their breed, and
   representing the interests of their breed at AKC meetings by assigning
   attending delegates. These clubs often also sponsor a national
   speciaty once a year. If the breed is a working or sporting one, often
   a national performance event is also sponsored. Different breed clubs
   operate differently: some coordinate national breed rescue programs,
   and others do not. Many have educational brochures and Public
   Education Coordinators to answer the public's questions about the
   breed. Some clubs are quite open to membership; for example the Golden
   Retriever Club of America has over 1500 members. On the other hand,
   the Labrador Retriever Club has less than 700 members (and twice the
   recorded registrations of Labradors to Goldens!). Membership
   applications generally require some background in the breed (it could
   be ownership, showing, or breeding) and the sponsorship of one or two
   members of the club. In general, you can write to the Corresponding
   Secretary of the national breed club you are interested in for the
   exact requirements of membership.
   
   There are also many regional breed clubs. These clubs put on regional
   specialties, promote their breed, coordinate educational efforts in
   their region and often have a breed rescue program. Many people start
   out with membership in these programs before gaining membership in the
   national club, although you should remember that for many people the
   regional clubs are all they need. Become involved with your regional
   club and learn more about your breed! It's also a good way to keep
   track of events in your area that you would like to attend. Many
   national and regional clubs put out newsletters for their members.
   
  Regional Kennel Clubs
  
   In addition to the breed clubs, there are also regional kennel clubs
   affiliated with the AKC. The AKC licenses member clubs to put on all
   breed shows. Depending on their size, most clubs put out one to two
   shows per year, as well as holding one to several sanctioned matches
   (practice shows) per year. Local kennel clubs are a good way to
   network with other dog fanciers and to learn more about breeds besides
   your own.
   
  Obedience Clubs
  
   Some clubs are licensed to put on just obedience shows. These clubs
   often have training classes, regular obedience matches, and other
   benefits for members.
   
   All member clubs are listed in the back of AKC's _Gazette_.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Contacting the AKC

   The AKC's address is 51 Madison, New York, New York, 10010.
   
   Online, the AKC may be reached at info@akc.org. They also have an
   extensive web page at http://www.akc.org/. Following is a list of
   telephone numbers, taken from the Gazette, January 1994 issue, page
   39: My comments in brackets. These are all the AKC telephone numbers
   available.
   
   1-800-AKC-TELL
          AKC Dog laws 24 hour hotline is designed to take calls from
          individuals and clubs on local dog legislation. Callers should
          leave their names and numbers. Those with questions will get a
          call back between 8:30 a.m. and 4:15 p.m. Eastern time, Monday
          through Friday. [The AKC is especially interested in hearing of
          anti-dog legislation. This phone number is ONLY for dog
          legislation matters.]
          
   (919)233-9767 Registration Information
          Hours--8:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. Eastern time. This office is
          responsible for handling all calls involving any type of
          registration (including Foreign Registration) question or
          problem. When you want any AKC registration forms or answers to
          registration questions this is the office to call. If you are
          calling about a registration application, keep in mind that the
          normal processing time is approximately two to three weeks. If
          you want to check the status of an application you submitted,
          you must be able to provide the customer service representative
          with the breeding information on your dog or litter. [All
          written correspondence should be directed to American Kennel
          Club, 5580 Centerview Drive, Raleigh, NC 27606.]
          
   (212)696-8208 Investigations and Inspections
          The work of this department involves inspections of
          recordkeeping and identification practices and investigations
          into registration rule violations.
          
   (212)696-8208 Event Records
          This is the department that processes and records the official
          results of all licensed Shows, Obedience, Field Trials, Hunting
          Tests and Herding Events and issues Certificates of
          Championship, Obedience, Hunting and Herding Titles. Title
          certificates are mailed approximately 4 to 6 weeks after the
          event at which the dog has finished the requirements for the
          title. If you are inquiring about a title certificate please
          have the breed, name and number of your dog available, as well
          as the complete name of the club and the date of the event at
          which your dog completed the requirements for its title.
          
   (212)696-8262 Judging Information
          If you would like the details about a dog show or obedience
          trial judge's application, this is the number to call.
          
   (212)696-8232 Event Plans
          Everything having to do with the processing of paperwork for
          sanctioned and licensed Shows. Obedience and Field Trials and
          Hunting Tests.
          
   (212)696-8276 Obedience, Tracking, Herding and Lure Coursing
          Department
          Call this number if you have questions about obedience,
          tracking, herding or lure coursing regulations and judging
          requirements. This area also handles lure coursing event
          schedules and results.
          
   (212)696-8286, -8306, -8360 AKC/ACHA Coonhound Department
          This is the department that processes registrations, pedigrees,
          hunt and bench show dates, new clubs, bench show and hunt
          results and championship titles for all Coonhounds.
          
   (212)696-8225 By-Laws Inquiries
          If your club is approved to hold licensed or member dog shows,
          obedience trials or field trials, and you have a question about
          your club's constitution or by-laws call this number.
          
   (212)696-8207 New Clubs
          Are you forming a dog club or in the process of becoming fully
          acredited by AKC? This is the number to call.
          
   (212)696-8231 Communications
          For public relations information, or other ways we can help
          your club with information or educational services, call this
          number.
          
   (212)696-8333 Gazette, Editorial
          This is the number to call for everything haveing to do with
          AKC's monthly magazine, Pure-Bred Dogs/American Kennel Gazette,
          EXCEPT subscription and advertising. (See following.)
          
   (212)696-8260 Advertising
          For information and rates to advertise in the GAZETTE, EVENTS
          CALENDAR, or AKC AWARDS, call this number.
          
   (919)233-9780 Subscriptions
          Have a question about your subscription? Want to place an order
          for an AKC magazine? This is the number to call. Magazines:
          Pure-Bred Dogs/American Kennel Gazette American Kennel Club
          Awards American Kennel Club Stud Book Register
          
   (919)233-9780 Audio/Visual Programs
          This is the number to call to order any of AKC's AV programs.
          All programs are available in VHS format.
          
   (212)696-8245 Library
          Contact AKC's library for specialized research and
          bibliographic questions. Visiting hours are 8:30 a.m. to 4:00
          p.m. daily except Saturday, Sunday and holidays.
          
   (212)696-8200 Main Switchboard
          Use this number if you are uncertain what department or who to
          call for non-registration related matters.
          
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
AKC Publications

   _The Complete Dog Book_, 18th Edition. Howell Book House, 1994.
   
   _AKC Gazette_ is a monthly magazine put out by the AKC. It includes an
   Events Calendar that lists dates, places, superintendants, judges,
   etc. for all the AKC events (including Regional and National
   Specialties), including obedience, lurecoursing, field trials, and
   herding trials. Each issue covers the next three months for the US.
   
   _AKC Coursing News_
   Larry Flynn, editor
   R.D. 1 Box 1733
   Stewartstown, PA 17363
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
   
    American Kennel Club FAQ
    Cindy Tittle Moore, rpd-info@netcom.com

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